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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2020 at 02:01 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: asbestos AND mesothelioma NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2020-09-16

Fisher SA, Peddle-McIntyre CJ, Burton K, et al (2020)

Voluntary exercise in mesothelioma: effects on tumour growth and treatment response in a murine model.

BMC research notes, 13(1):435 pii:10.1186/s13104-020-05284-y.

OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence that exercise can safely reduce the risk of cancer and improve survival in different human cancer populations. Long latency periods associated with carcinogen-induced cancers like asbestos induced mesothelioma provide an opportunity to implement exercise as an intervention to delay or prevent disease development. However, there are limited studies investigating the ability of exercise to prevent or delay cancer, and exercise as a preventive strategy has never been assessed in models with a known carcinogen. We investigated the potential of voluntary exercise (VE) to delay development of asbestos related disease (ARD) in our well-characterised, asbestos induced MexTAg model of mesothelioma.

RESULTS: Asbestos exposed MexTAg mice were given continuous or delayed access to VE and ARD assessed over time. We found that the addition of VE did not affect ARD development in asbestos exposed MexTAg mice. However, non-asbestos exposed, aged matched control mice participated in significantly more VE behaviours, suggesting subclinical development of ARD after asbestos exposure had a greater impact on VE participation than age alone. These data highlight the importance of model choice and the potential limitation that some pre-clinical studies may not accurately represent the clinical paradigm, particularly in the context of prevention studies.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Costa C, Indovina P, Mattioli E, et al (2020)

P53-regulated miR-320a targets PDL1 and is downregulated in malignant mesothelioma.

Cell death & disease, 11(9):748 pii:10.1038/s41419-020-02940-w.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer, related to asbestos exposure, which has a dismal prognosis. MPM diagnosis is late and often challenging, suggesting the need to identify more reliable molecular biomarkers. Here, we set out to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid MPMs versus normal mesothelium and explored specific miRNA contribution to mesothelial tumorigenesis. We screened an LNA™-based miRNA-microrray with 14 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) MPMs and 6 normal controls. Through real-time qRT-PCR we extended the analysis of a miRNA subset and further investigated miR-320a role through state-of-the-art techniques. We identified 16 upregulated and 32 downregulated miRNAs in MPMs versus normal tissue, including the previously identified potential biomarkers miR-21, miR-126, miR-143, miR-145. We showed in an extended series that miR-145, miR-10b, and miR-320a levels can discriminate tumor versus controls with high specificity and sensitivity. We focused on miR-320a because other family members were found downregulated in MPMs. However, stable miR-320a ectopic expression induced higher proliferation and migration ability, whereas miR-320a silencing reduced these processes, not supporting a classic tumor-suppressor role in MPM cell lines. Among putative targets, we found that miR-320a binds the 3'-UTR of the immune inhibitory receptor ligand PDL1 and, consistently, miR-320a modulation affects PDL1 levels in MPM cells. Finally, we showed that p53 over-expression induces the upregulation of miR-320a, along with miR-200a and miR-34a, both known to target PDL1, and reduces PDL1 levels in MPM cells. Our data suggest that PDL1 expression might be due to a defective p53-regulated miRNA response, which could contribute to MPM immune evasion or tumorigenesis through tumor-intrinsic roles.

RevDate: 2020-09-14

Reardon ES, Shukla V, Xi S, et al (2020)

UHRF1 is a Novel Druggable Epigenetic Target in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(20)30716-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Ubiquitin-like with plant homeodomain and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) encodes a master regulator of DNA methylation that has emerged as an epigenetic driver in human cancers. To date, no studies have examined UHRF1 in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The present study was undertaken to explore the therapeutic potential of targeting UHRF1 in MPM.

METHODS: Micro-array, qRT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry techniques were used to evaluate UHRF1 expression in normal mesothelial cells (NMC) cultured with or without asbestos, MPM lines, normal pleura, and primary MPM specimens. Impact of UHRF1 expression on MPM patient survival was evaluated using two independent databases. RNA-seq, proliferation, invasion and colony formation assays, as well as murine xenograft experiments were performed to examine gene expression and growth of MPM cells following biochemical or pharmacologic inhibition of UHRF1 expression.

RESULTS: UHRF1 expression was significantly higher in MPM lines/specimens relative to NMC/ normal pleura. Asbestos induced UHRF1 expression in NMC. Over-expression of UHRF1 was associated with decreased overall survival in MPM patients. UHRF1 knockdown reversed genome-wide DNA hypomethylation, and inhibited proliferation, invasion, and clonogenicity of MPM cells, as well as growth of MPM xenografts. These effects were phenocopied by the repurposed chemotherapeutic agent, mithramycin. Biochemical or pharmacologic up-regulation of p53 significantly reduced UHRF1 expression in MPM cells. RNA-seq experiments demonstrated pleiotropic effects of UHRF1 down-regulation, and identified novel, clinically relevant biomarkers of UHRF1 expression in MPM.

CONCLUSIONS: UHRF1 is an epigenetic driver in MPM. These findings support efforts to target UHRF1 expression/activity for mesothelioma therapy.

RevDate: 2020-09-14

Tada Y, Tagawa M, Yusa T, et al (2020)

Diffuse pleural thickening and thoracic contraction: An indistinguishable case from malignant pleural mesothelioma.

SAGE open medical case reports, 8:2050313X20948716 pii:10.1177_2050313X20948716.

The differential diagnosis of reactive mesothelial hyperplasia and mesothelioma is difficult. We present a rare case of diffuse pleural thickening with thoracic contraction that was indistinguishable from mesothelioma. A 66-year-old woman with no history of asbestos exposure visited our hospital with a complaint of dyspnea. The clinical findings included circumferential pleural thickening on chest computed tomography image and a high concentration of hyaluronic acid in the pleural fluid. Pleural biopsies obtained by thoracoscopy under local anesthesia were pathologically consistent with mesothelioma, but the patient refused to take any kind of mesothelioma treatments. Four months later, she consented to a surgical pleural biopsy under general anesthesia to obtain larger tissue samples, which included typical proliferating polygonal cells positive for CAM5.2, calretinin, WT-1, D2-40, CK5/6, epithelial membrane antigen, and glucose transporter-1 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, BerEP4, and MOC31. The analysis was consistent with diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, showed the presence of p16 gene, and the expression of BRCA1-associated protein-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our final diagnosis was diffuse pleural thickening unrelated to asbestos exposure. Differential diagnosis of diffuse pleural thickening and malignant mesothelioma is thus difficult and routine immunohistochemical examinations are often insufficient for accurate diagnosis. Multiple diagnostic methods are required for correct diagnosis in a clinically marginal case.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Lam SK, Yan S, Xu S, et al (2020)

Targeting polyamine as a novel therapy in xenograft models of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 148:138-148 pii:S0169-5002(20)30590-0 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Inhalation of asbestos fibers is the key culprit in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Although the import and use of asbestos have been restricted, the incidence of MPM continues to increase globally due to the prolonged lag time in malignant transformation. The development of a novel adjuvant therapy for the minority of individuals with resectable early-stage disease and effective treatment for those with unresectable MPM are urgently needed. Our preliminary data revealed that ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is highly expressed in MPM xenografts. This study aimed to determine the treatment effects of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific ODC inhibitor, in MPM xenografts.

RESULTS: In an "extended adjuvant DFMO treatment" setting, nude mice were fed with DFMO for 7 days prior to inoculation of 200,000 cells. DFMO suppressed tumor growth and increased median survival in both xenografts. In H226 xenograft, 43 % of treated mice had not reached the humane endpoint by day 132, mimicking long-term survival. DFMO decreased spermidine, increased nitrotyrosine and activated apoptosis in both xenografts. Furthermore, increase in nitrosocysteine, intratumoral IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant and TNFα, DNA lesion and inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway were induced by DFMO in H226 xenograft. In "DFMO treatment" setting, 107 cells were inoculated into nude mice and DFMO treatment commenced when tumor size reached ∼50-100 mm3. DFMO also suppressed tumor growth by similar mechanisms. Supplementation with spermidine reversed the therapeutic effect of DFMO. DFMO increased actin nitration at tyrosine 53 and inhibited actin polymerization.

CONCLUSION: DFMO is preclinically effective in treating MPM.

RevDate: 2020-09-06

Fuso Nerini I, Roca E, Mannarino L, et al (2020)

Is DNA repair a potential target for effective therapies against malignant mesothelioma?.

Cancer treatment reviews, 90:102101 pii:S0305-7372(20)30139-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy mainly caused by asbestos exposure. Germinal and acquired mutations in genes of DNA repair pathways, in particular of homologous recombination repair, are frequent in MPM. Here we overview the available experimental data suggesting that an impaired DNA repair system affects MPM pathogenesis by leaving lesions through the genome unresolved. DNA repair defects represent a vulnerability of MPM, and it seems plausible to propose that leveraging these deficiencies could have therapeutic potential for patients with MPM, for whom there is an urgent need of more effective therapies.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Mori D, Kido S, Hiraki M, et al (2020)

Peritoneal adenomatoid (microcystic) mesothelioma.

There are several reports of pleural adenomatoid (microcystic) mesothelioma, but peritoneal adenomatoid mesothelioma is extremely rare. A 64-year-old Japanese woman presented with no symptoms and no asbestos exposure history. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed multiple hypervascular masses on the liver surface, pelvic cavity and anterior peritoneum. Over 10 pieces of the multiple resected tumors showed numerous microcysts composed of a bland mesothelial cell background with rich capillary vessels. Focally, atypical cells with bizarre nuclei with prominent nucleoli were observed. Adenomatoid mesothelioma was suspected based on histochemical, immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization findings. The tumors relapsed 4 years later and metastasized to the lung, but the patient remains alive 7 years after the first tumor resection surgery. Although the prognosis of adenomatoid mesothelioma of pleural origin is poor, the progression of this peritoneal case is slow.

RevDate: 2020-09-05

Prabhakaran S, Hocking A, Kim C, et al (2020)

The potential utility of GATA3 for diagnosis of malignant pleural mesotheliomas.

Human pathology pii:S0046-8177(20)30167-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is associated with asbestos exposure and poor outcomes. The usefulness of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma, especially the desmoplastic type, is limited and more effective markers are required. GATA3 has been suggested as a diagnostic marker for sarcomatoid mesothelioma. The potential usefulness of GATA3 for prognostication and its clinical and pathological correlations in different subtypes of mesothelioma have not been evaluated. We investigated the immunohistochemical labelling and associations for GATA3, BAP1 and Ki67 labelling in three major histological types of pleural malignant mesotheliomas. We examined149 clinically annotated malignant mesotheliomas and assessed associations of GATA3 expression with clinical variables and prognosis. In addition, we labelled 10 cases of fibrous pleuritis with GATA3, all of which were negative. GATA3 was positive in 75/149 (50%) mesotheliomas with the highest incidence of labelling seen in the sarcomatoid subtype (73%), compared to the biphasic (50%) and epithelioid (40%), mesotheliomas. A total of eight desmoplastic mesotheliomas showed labelling with GATA3. Patients with sarcomatoid histology showed poorer survival compared to the other subtypes. (p<0.001), but overall GATA3 labelling did not have a statistically significant association with survival (p=0.602). There was no association of GATA3 labelling and BAP1 status or Ki67 index. Conclusion: Our study includes the largest cohort of mesotheliomas that has been labelled for GATA3 to date. GATA3 is a useful marker for sarcomatoid mesothelioma, including the desmoplastic subtype. Discordance in GATA3 and BAP1 labelling of epithelioid and sarcomatoid components in the biphasic subtype is not uncommon.

RevDate: 2020-09-05

Nowak AK, Lesterhuis WJ, Kok PS, et al (2020)

Durvalumab with first-line chemotherapy in previously untreated malignant pleural mesothelioma (DREAM): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial with a safety run-in.

The Lancet. Oncology, 21(9):1213-1223.

BACKGROUND: There is a strong unmet need to improve systemic therapy in mesothelioma. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed improves survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma, and immune checkpoint inhibitors are an emerging treatment in this disease. We aimed to evaluate the activity of durvalumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, given during and after first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma.

METHODS: DREAM was a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial done in nine hospitals in Australia. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had histologically confirmed malignant pleural mesothelioma considered unsuitable for cancer-directed surgery, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and measurable disease as per the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0 (mRECIST) for mesothelioma that was previously untreated with systemic therapy. All histological subtypes were eligible. The first six participants were treated for two cycles in a safety run-in. All participants received cisplatin 75 mg/m2, pemetrexed 500 mg/m2, and durvalumab 1125 mg intravenously on day 1 of a 3-weekly schedule for a maximum of six cycles. Change from cisplatin to carboplatin with an area under the curve of 5 was permitted. Durvalumab was continued for a maximum of 12 months. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 6 months, measured according to mRECIST for malignant pleural mesothelioma and analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses included all participants who receive at least one dose of any study drug. This study is registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001170415.

FINDINGS: Between Dec 28, 2016, and Sept 27, 2017, 55 participants were enrolled. 54 patients were eligible and were followed up for a median of 28·2 months (IQR 26·5-30·2). 31 (57%; 95% CI 44-70) of 54 patients were alive and progression-free at 6 months. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (seven [13%] patients), nausea (six [11%]), and anaemia (four [7%]). A total of 60 serious adverse events occurred in 29 participants, five of which were considered possibly related to durvalumab. Five patients died during the study treatment; none of these five deaths were attributed to study treatment.

INTERPRETATION: The combination of durvalumab, cisplatin, and pemetrexed has promising activity and an acceptable safety profile that warrants further investigation in a randomised phase 3 trial.

FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

RevDate: 2020-09-05

Dell'Anno I, Barone E, Mutti L, et al (2020)

Tissue expression of lactate transporters (MCT1 and MCT4) and prognosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (brief report).

Journal of translational medicine, 18(1):341 pii:10.1186/s12967-020-02487-6.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm of the pleura, mainly related to asbestos exposure. As in other solid tumors, malignant cells exhibit high glucose uptake and glycolytic rates with increased lactic acid efflux into the interstitial space. Lactate transport into and out of cells, crucial to maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and glycolysis, is carried out by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and the chaperone basigin (CD147). We set out to examine the clinical significance of basigin, MCT1 and MCT4 in the context of MPM and to evaluate their expression in relation to the evolution of the disease.

METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to measure the expression of basigin, MCT1 and MCT4 in a cohort of 135 individuals with MPM compared to a series of 15 non-MPM pleura specimens. Moreover, by Kaplan-Meier and Cox analyses we evaluated whether an expression over the average of these markers could be associated with the patients' overall survival (OS).

RESULTS: We detected positive staining of basigin, MCT1, and MCT4 in most MPM specimens. In particular, MCT4 was always positive in malignant tissues but undetectable in the 4 normal pleural specimens incorporated within the tissue microarray. This was confirmed in the additional series of 15 normal pleural samples. Moreover, MCT4 expression was significantly associated with reduced OS.

CONCLUSION: In this study, the tissue expression of basigin did not prove to be exploitable as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for MPM patients. The expression of MCT1 was not informative either, being tightly correlated with that of basigin. However, the expression of MCT4 showed promise as a diagnostic/therapeutic and prognostic biomarker.

RevDate: 2020-09-04

Cakiroglu E, S Senturk (2020)

Genomics and Functional Genomics of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(17): pii:ijms21176342.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive cancer of the mesothelial cells lining the pleural surface of the chest wall and lung. The etiology of MPM is strongly associated with prior exposure to asbestos fibers, and the median survival rate of the diagnosed patients is approximately one year. Despite the latest advancements in surgical techniques and systemic therapies, currently available treatment modalities of MPM fail to provide long-term survival. The increasing incidence of MPM highlights the need for finding effective treatments. Targeted therapies offer personalized treatments in many cancers. However, targeted therapy in MPM is not recommended by clinical guidelines mainly because of poor target definition. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms and the predictors of poor clinical outcomes of MPM is required to identify novel targets and develop precise and effective treatments. Recent advances in the genomics and functional genomics fields have provided groundbreaking insights into the genomic and molecular profiles of MPM and enabled the functional characterization of the genetic alterations. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the relevant literature and highlights the potential of state-of-the-art genomics and functional genomics research to facilitate the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutic modalities in MPM.

RevDate: 2020-09-02

Petrof O, Neyens T, Nuyts V, et al (2020)

On the impact of residential history in the spatial analysis of diseases with a long latency period: A study of mesothelioma in Belgium.

Statistics in medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Mesothelioma is a rare cancer caused by exposure to asbestos. Belgium has a known long history of asbestos production, resulting in one of the highest mesothelioma mortality rates worldwide. While the production of asbestos has stopped completely, the long latency period of mesothelioma, which can fluctuate between 20 and 40 years after exposure, causes incidences still to be frequent. Mesothelioma's long incubation time affects our assessment of its geographical distribution as well. Since patients' residential locations are likely to change a number of times throughout their lives, the location where the patients develop the disease is often far from the location where they were exposed to asbestos. Using the residential history of patients, we propose the use of a convolution multiple membership model (MMM), which includes both a spatial conditional autoregressive and an unstructured random effect. Pancreatic cancer patients are used as a control population, reflecting the population at risk for mesothelioma. Results show the impact of the residential mobility on the geographical risk estimation, as well as the importance of acknowledging the latency period of a disease. A simulation study was conducted to investigate the properties of the convolution MMM. The robustness of the results for the convolution MMM is assessed via a sensitivity analysis.

RevDate: 2020-09-01

Sayan M, Mamidanna S, Fuat Eren M, et al (2020)

New horizons from novel therapies in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Advances in respiratory medicine, 88(4):343-351.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a relatively rare, but highly lethal cancer of the pleural mesothelial cells. Its pathoge-nesis is integrally linked to asbestos exposure. In spite of recent developments providing a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis, the outcomes continue to be poor. To date, trimodality therapy involving surgery coupled with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy remains the standard of therapy. The development of resistance of the tumor cells to radiation and several che-motherapeutic agents poses even greater challenges in the management of this cancer. Ionizing radiation damages cancer cell DNA and aids in therapeutic response, but it also activates cell survival signaling pathways that helps the tumor cells to overcome radiation-induced cytotoxicity. A careful evaluation of the biology involved in mesothelioma with an emphasis on the workings of pro-survival signaling pathways might offer some guidance for treatment options. This review focuses on the existing treatment options for MPM, novel treatment approaches based on recent studies combining the use of inhibitors which target different pro-survival pathways, and radiotherapy to optimize treatment.

RevDate: 2020-08-31

Ito F, Yanatori I, Maeda Y, et al (2020)

Asbestos conceives Fe(II)-dependent mutagenic stromal milieu through ceaseless macrophage ferroptosis and β-catenin induction in mesothelium.

Redox biology, 36:101616 pii:S2213-2317(20)30821-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos is still a social burden worldwide as a carcinogen causing malignant mesothelioma. Whereas recent studies suggest that local iron reduction is a preventive strategy against carcinogenesis, little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms surrounding excess iron. Here by differentially using high-risk and low-risk asbestos fibers (crocidolite and anthophyllite, respectively), we identified asbestos-induced mutagenic milieu for mesothelial cells. Rat and cell experiments revealed that phagocytosis of asbestos by macrophages results in their distinctive necrotic death; initially lysosome-depenent cell death and later ferroptosis, which increase intra- and extra-cellular catalytic Fe(II). DNA damage in mesothelial cells, as assessed by 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and γ-H2AX, increased after crocidolite exposure during regeneration accompanied by β-catenin activation. Conversely, β-catenin overexpression in mesothelial cells induced higher intracellular catalytic Fe(II) with increased G2/M cell-cycle fraction, when p16INK4A genomic loci localized more peripherally in the nucleus. Mesothelial cells after challenge of H2O2 under β-catenin overexpression presented low p16INK4A expression with a high incidence of deletion in p16INK4A locus. Thus, crocidolite generated catalytic Fe(II)-rich mutagenic environment for mesothelial cells by necrotizing macrophages with lysosomal cell death and ferroptosis. These results suggest novel molecular strategies to prevent mesothelial carcinogenesis after asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Bai Y, Wang X, Hou J, et al (2020)

Identification of a Five-Gene Signature for Predicting Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Patients.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:899.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), predominantly caused by asbestos exposure, is a highly aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. The staging systems currently used in clinics is inadequate in evaluating the prognosis of MPM. In this study, a five-gene signature was developed and enrolled into a prognostic risk score model by LASSO Cox regression analysis based on two expression profiling datasets (GSE2549 and GSE51024) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The five-gene signature was further validated using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) MPM dataset. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses proved that the five-gene signature was an independent prognostic factor for MPM. The signature remained statistically significant upon stratification by Brigham stage, AJCC stage, gender, tumor size, and lymph node status. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated good performance of our model in predicting 1- and 2-years overall survival in MPM patients. The C-index was 0.784 for GSE2549 and 0.753 for the TCGA dataset showing moderate predictive accuracy of our model. Furthermore, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis suggested that the five-gene signature was related to pathways resulting in MPM tumor progression. Together, we have established a five-gene signature significantly associated with prognosis in MPM patients. Hence, the five-genes signature may serve as a potentially useful prognostic tool for MPM patients.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Airoldi C, Ferrante D, Mirabelli D, et al (2020)

Evaluation of Nonresponse Bias in a Case-Control Study of Pleural Mesothelioma.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(17): pii:ijerph17176146.

Nonparticipation limits the power of epidemiological studies, and can cause bias. In a case-control study on pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM), we found low participation in interviews (63%) among controls. Our goal was to characterize nonresponder controls and assess nonresponse bias in our study. We selected all nonresponder controls (204) and a random sample of responder controls (174). Data were obtained linking hospital admissions and town registrars, and concordance between sources was assessed. Nonresponse bias was evaluated using a logistic regression model applying the inverse probability weighting approach. The odds ratio (OR) for the status of the respondents was 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-1.16) for controls aged 61-70, 0.37 (CI: 0.20-0.66) for those aged 71-80, and 0.40 (CI: 0.20-0.80) for those aged above 80 (reference group: ≤60 years). Controls with low education level had lower OR (0.47; CI: 0.26-0.84). After adjustment, the ORs for MM by categories of cumulative exposure to asbestos were similar to the unadjusted results, ranging from 4.6 (CI: 1.8-11.7) for cumulative exposures between 0.1 and 1 f/mL-y to 57.5 (CI: 20.2-163.9) above 10 f/mL-y. Responder controls were younger and had higher education level. Nevertheless, there was little evidence of bias from nonresponse in the risk estimates of MM.

RevDate: 2020-08-22

Mujahed T, Tazelaar HD, Sukov WR, et al (2020)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Arising in Young Adults With Long-standing Indwelling Intra-abdominal Shunt Catheters.

The American journal of surgical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Only 50% to 70% of patients with mesothelioma report asbestos exposure. Other exposures (eg, radiation) play a role in some cases, but some patients have no obvious cause. We describe a series of patients with long-standing indwelling intra-abdominal shunt catheters who developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, suggesting a novel association. We identified 7 patients who had shunts and subsequently developed mesothelioma (5 women; median age: 31 y, range: 18 to 45 y). Clinical history and pathology materials were reviewed, and RNA sequencing was performed. Clinical presentations varied; 6 patients had hydrocephalus and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and 1 patient had portal hypertension and a portoatrial shunt. The median duration of shunt therapy in 5 cases was 29 years (range: 12 to 35 y); the remaining 2 patients also had shunts for many years, but specific details were unavailable. Two patients had radiotherapy for malignancies in childhood. One had an alleged exposure to asbestos and 1 had prior exposure to talc. The rest had no known risk factors. Histologically, all tumors were purely epithelioid. Treatments included surgical debulking, chemotherapy, and palliative care. All 7 died of disease (median survival: 7 mo, range: 1 to 18 mo). Molecular testing showed loss of NF2 and CDKN2A/B and a BAP1 mutation in 1 case, and no genomic alterations associated with mesothelioma in 2 cases. Peritoneal mesothelioma may represent a complication of long-standing indwelling shunt catheters. The mechanism is unknown, but chronic peritoneal irritation may play a role. Albeit rare, mesothelioma should be considered in patients with a shunt who present with new ascites.

RevDate: 2020-08-22

Johnson TG, Schelch K, Lai K, et al (2020)

YB-1 Knockdown Inhibits the Proliferation of Mesothelioma Cells through Multiple Mechanisms.

Cancers, 12(8): pii:cancers12082285.

Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a multifunctional oncoprotein that has been shown to regulate proliferation, invasion and metastasis in a variety of cancer types. We previously demonstrated that YB-1 is overexpressed in mesothelioma cells and its knockdown significantly reduces tumour cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. However, the mechanisms driving these effects are unclear. Here, we utilised an unbiased RNA-seq approach to characterise the changes to gene expression caused by loss of YB-1 knockdown in three mesothelioma cell lines (MSTO-211H, VMC23 and REN cells). Bioinformatic analysis showed that YB-1 knockdown regulated 150 common genes that were enriched for regulators of mitosis, integrins and extracellular matrix organisation. However, each cell line also displayed unique gene expression signatures, that were differentially enriched for cell death or cell cycle control. Interestingly, deregulation of STAT3 and p53-pathways were a key differential between each cell line. Using flow cytometry, apoptosis assays and single-cell time-lapse imaging, we confirmed that MSTO-211H, VMC23 and REN cells underwent either increased cell death, G1 arrest or aberrant mitotic division, respectively. In conclusion, this data indicates that YB-1 knockdown affects a core set of genes in mesothelioma cells. Loss of YB-1 causes a cascade of events that leads to reduced mesothelioma proliferation, dependent on the underlying functionality of the STAT3/p53-pathways and the genetic landscape of the cell.

RevDate: 2020-08-21

Torres-Roman JS, Gomez-Rubio V, Sanchez-Trujillo L, et al (2020)

Geographic study of mortality due to mesothelioma in Peru and its evolution.

Cancer epidemiology, 68:101791 pii:S1877-7821(20)30125-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Peru has a public health problem because of asbestos imports. We analyzed the mortality trends for mesothelioma in Peru and its provinces from 2005 to 2014 and estimated their relationship with the amount of asbestos imported previously.

METHODS: We computed age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100,000 population (direct method and SEGI world standard population reference), and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). The relationship between the amount of asbestos imported annually along the period 1965-2010 and the number of mesothelioma deaths per year from 2005 to 2014 was estimated by log-linear Poisson regression models and Pearson correlation calculations.

RESULTS: After correcting the number of deaths, Peru registered 428 cases (or 430 when corrected cases are rounded by sex) between 2005 and 2014. The highest ASMRs were in Arequipa and Callao (range: 0.40-0.41/100,000 population), followed by Huancavelica (0.36/100,000 population). This translates into approximately one death per each 68-111 of asbestos tons imported. The latency period for the higher level of positive correlation found was 8 years (r = 0.8). Male female sex ratio was lower in provinces such as Junin and Hunacavelica with geological asbestos risk.

CONCLUSIONS: Two patterns of mesothelioma risk have been detected, occupational and environmental. During the 2002-2006 years, Peru increased the asbestos use. If crocidolite imports were also increased, this could be behind the 8 years latency period detected. Peru should boost strategies towards the total ban of all forms of asbestos.

RevDate: 2020-08-20

Johnson NF (2020)

Inhalation Toxicity of Talc.

Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery [Epub ahead of print].

Respirable talc powder (RTP) is a complex mineral mixture of talc along with accessory minerals, including tremolite, anthophyllite, quartz, magnesite, dolomite, antigorite, lizardite, and chlorite. The industrial mining, milling, and processing of talc ore is associated with elevated incidences of fibrotic and neoplastic diseases, which are also seen among workers exposed to RTP in secondary industries and individuals using processed cosmetic talc for personal use. There is controversial evidence of a link between the talc-induced lung diseases and a potential contamination with asbestos fibers. This controversy is fueled by inadequate exposure data and the complex mineralogy and terminology of the accessory minerals. Talc aerosols exhibit a wide range of mineral habits, including particulates and fibrous structures that have dimensional and compositional characteristics related to the development of asbestos-related lung disease. The inhalation toxicology of RTP is based on the analysis of occupational hygiene and animal inhalation studies conducted between the 1940s and the 1990s and more recent mechanistic studies conducted both in vivo and in vitro. The review of talc toxicity studies reveals that the occupational studies provide only equivocal links between any of the components of the aerosols and the development of pulmonary cancer; however, there is substantial evidence of an association between the aerosols and pleural and pulmonary fibrosis and the development of nonmalignant respiratory disease. The animal inhalation and implantation studies appear to be less than optimal, which also appears to be true for the in vivo and in vitro studies. The mechanistic studies have identified the key pathogenic characteristics of asbestos to be long and thin fibers that are durable in lung tissues and fluids. Talc toxicity studies show that talc particles and fibers are durable and can remain in the lung for up to 40 years after the end of exposure. This extended tissue residence is considered to constitute a continuing tissue exposure that is capable of inducing the documented inflammatory and proliferative response. There is less consensus as to whether there is a threshold fiber length effect, as long, thin fibers (>5 μm) form only a small fraction of talc aerosols and the possible role of fibers >5 μm in the translocation from the lung to the pleura and their association with pleural fibrotic and carcinogenic lesions. Long, thin fibers are preferentially deposited in hot spots in the lung, such as airway bifurcations, areas typically associated with the development of lung cancer. The platy structures typical of talc can form oblate structures behaving more as fibers in the air stream, and these have also been shown to deposit preferentially in such locations. The review of the inhalation toxicity of talc provides a plausible explanation for the carcinogenic potential of RTP.

RevDate: 2020-08-20

Alpert N, van Gerwen M, Flores R, et al (2020)

Gender Differences in Outcomes of Patients With Mesothelioma.

American journal of clinical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is a rare and deadly form of cancer, linked to asbestos exposure. Although the United Kingdom has banned asbestos, the incidence rate remains high. Previous research has indicated that female individuals have better survival than male individuals, but this has never been examined in the United Kingdom.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pleural mesothelioma cases from 2005 to 2014 were extracted from the United Kingdom Lung Cancer Dataset. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the clinical and demographic factors associated with gender. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and propensity matching methods were used to assess gender differences in overall survival while accounting for potential confounders.

RESULTS: There were 8479 (87.8%) male and 1765 (17.2%) female individuals included in the analysis. Female individuals were significantly younger, with more epithelial histology than male individuals. Female individuals had significantly better overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.90). Results remained similar when stratifying by age and performance status, and when limiting to patients with epithelial histology.

CONCLUSIONS: The study increases knowledge about gender differences in mesothelioma survival and is the first to directly examine this in the United Kingdom. It further disentangles the effects of age, histology, and health status. Increased estrogen may improve survival and could provide a potential target for future therapies.

RevDate: 2020-08-19

Barbieri PG, D Mirabelli (2020)

Diagnosis of lung cancer: a necropsy-based study of 128 cases (1997-2016).

Tumori [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of lung cancer (LC) may be difficult to make in the elderly. We report on the diagnostic elements available in life in an LC necropsy case series of asbestos-exposed workers and describe the frequency of non-neoplastic asbestos-related diseases as biological exposure indices.

METHODS: We reviewed pathologic and clinical records of an unselected series of autopsies (1997-2016) in patients with LC employed in the Monfalcone shipyards. We assessed the consistency with autopsy results of diagnoses based on, respectively, radiologic, cytologic, and histologic findings.

RESULTS: Data on 128 autopsy-confirmed LC cases were available; in life, 119 had been diagnosed as LC. Among these, 49 had histologic confirmation of diagnosis (17 with immunophenotyping); histology had been negative in 4. Cytology had been the main positive finding and the basis for diagnosis in 24 cases, but had been negative in 13. Chest computed tomography had been the basis for diagnosis in 45; in 18 cases, it had been negative. Nine patients had received a diagnosis different from LC, among whom 4 had been suspected to have malignant pleural mesothelioma by chest computed tomography. Pleural plaques were found in 124 and histologic asbestosis in 46 cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Autopsies confirmed all LC diagnoses received in life, including 46 that would have been considered only possible LC based on clinical workup. The overall survival in this case series was poor. The high prevalence of pleural plaques and asbestosis suggest severity of asbestos exposures.

RevDate: 2020-08-13

Uhlenhopp DJ, Saliares A, Gaduputi V, et al (2020)

An Unpleasant Surprise: Abdominal Presentation of Malignant Mesothelioma.

Journal of investigative medicine high impact case reports, 8:2324709620950121.

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer associated with asbestos exposure with median survival time of 8 to 14 months following diagnosis. Given that mesothelial cells also line the peritoneum and pericardium, malignant mesothelioma can present in unusual sites and in patients with nonrespiratory complaints. A 73-year-old male presented to the emergency department for worsening intermittent diffuse abdominal pain for the past 3 months with associated unintentional 40-pound weight loss, early satiety, and diarrhea. He denied exposure to asbestos. Computed tomography imaging revealed multiple masses concerning for malignancy including the primary retroperitoneal mass, a mass involving the terminal ileum, and a mass in the right upper lung. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated significant mass effect within the stomach without signs of endoluminal infiltration. Computed tomography-guided biopsy of the retroperitoneal abdominal and intramuscular paraspinal masses was performed. Stage IV epithelioid mesothelioma was confirmed when hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed pleomorphic malignancy nuclei containing a vesicular chromatin pattern and prominent nucleoli and immunohistochemical staining was positive for CK Oscar, cytokeratin 7, GATA3, calretinin, EMA, and CK5/6. He was started on cisplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab but developed severe abdominal pain with pneumoperitoneum and bowel perforation 1 month later and expired shortly thereafter. To our knowledge, this represents a highly atypical presentation of malignant mesothelioma considering the involvement of the retroperitoneum with diffuse lesions in the abdominopelvic cavity and thorax (sparing the lung pleurae). This case also calls attention to the occurrence of malignant mesothelioma in patients without known asbestos exposure and the crucial role of pathology in diagnosing atypical presentations.

RevDate: 2020-08-09

Malpica A, Euscher ED, Marques-Piubelli ML, et al (2020)

Malignant Mesothelioma of the Peritoneum in Women: A Clinicopathologic Study of 164 Cases.

The American journal of surgical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum in women is an uncommon tumor. In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features of 164 such cases seen in our institution over a period of 42 years (1974-2016). Clinical information, pathologic findings, immunohistochemical results, and follow-up were recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed in all cases. Patients ranged in age from 3 to 85 years, median: 49 years. Most patients presented with abdominal/pelvic pain, although some were asymptomatic, presented with paraneoplastic syndromes or cervical lymphadenopathy. Overall, 9% of patients had a history of direct or indirect exposure to asbestos. In total, 31% and 69% of patients had either a personal or family history of other tumors; most of these tumors are currently recognized as part of a syndrome. Genetic testing information was available in 5 patients: BAP-1 germline mutation (1), type 2 neurofibromatosis (1), Lynch syndrome (1), McCune-Albright syndrome (1), no BAP-1 or TP53 mutation (1). Most cases had gross and microscopic features typical of malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum in women; however, some had confounding features such as gelatinous appearance, signet ring or clear cells, and well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma-like areas. Calretinin and WT-1 were the markers more frequently expressed, and up to 23% of the cases showed PAX-8 expression. Patients' treatments predominantly included: chemotherapy, cytoreductive surgery, and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, the predominance of deciduoid cells, nuclear grade 3, and the absence of surgical treatment were associated with worse overall survival (OS). For all patients, the 3- and 5-year OS were 74.3% and 57.4%, respectively. The 3- and 5-year OS for patients treated with cytoreductive surgery, and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy were 88.9% and 77.8%, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-08-09

Kazaz IO, Teoman AS, S Mungan (2020)

Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: A case report.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 63(3):475-477.

Primary mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis are very rare malignant tumors. They are generally associated with exposure to asbestos. They may manifest as hydrocele, testis tumor, inguinal hernia, or epididymitis. After differential diagnosis, treatment is primarily surgical. Adjuvant therapeutic methods for mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis, with their high mortality, are controversial. Here, we present a mesothelioma case derived from tunica vaginalis testis acting as long-term pyocele with no known asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2020-08-08

Wang Q, Wang Q, Zhao Z, et al (2020)

Pleural translocation and lesions by pulmonary exposed multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Journal of toxicologic pathology, 33(3):145-151.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are recently developed tubular nanomaterials, with diameters ranging from a few nanometers to tens of nanometers, and the length reaching up to several micrometers. They can be either single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Due to their nano-scaled structure, CNTs have a unique set of mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties that make them useful in information technologies, optoelectronics, energy technologies, material sciences, medical technologies, and other fields. However, with the wide application and increasing production of CNTs, their potential risks have led to concerns regarding their impact on environment and health. The shape of some types of CNTs is similar to asbestos fibers, which suggests that these CNTs may cause characteristic pleural diseases similar to those found in asbestos-exposed humans, such as pleural plaques and malignant mesothelioma. Experimental data indicate that CNTs can induce lung and pleural lesions, inflammation, pleural fibrosis, lung tumors, and malignant mesothelioma upon inhalation in the experimental animals. In this review, we focus on the potential of MWCNTs to induce diseases similar to those by asbestos, molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with these diseases, and we discuss a method for evaluating the pleural toxicity of MWCNTs.

RevDate: 2020-08-07

Plesker R, Köhler K, von Gerlach S, et al (2020)

Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia mimicking mesothelioma in an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops).

Primate biology, 7(1):5-12 pii:01021829.

A spontaneous reactive mesothelial hyperplasia occurred in a female, 15.7-year-old African green monkey (grivet; Chlorocebus aethiops). At necropsy, massive effusions were found in the abdomen, the thorax, and the pericardium. Additionally, multiple small, beige-gray nodules were detected on the serosal surfaces of the abdominal organs. Histopathologically, the mesothelial cells resembled the epithelioid subtype of a mesothelioma, but no infiltrative or invasive growth could be demonstrated. The mesothelial cells on the thoracis, liver, and intestinal serosa were accompanied by chronic serositis. Mesothelial cells expressed cytokeratin, vimentin, calretinin, desmin, Wilms Tumor 1 (WT-1) protein, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Cells were negative for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cluster of differentiation 15 (CD15), and podoplanin. Ultrastructurally, cells revealed a moderate amount of microvilli of medium length, perinuclear tonofilament bundles, and long desmosomes. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of characteristic gene loss (p16; CDKN2A), NF2, and MTAP, no deletions were detected. No asbestos fibers and no presence of Simian virus 40 antigen (SV40) could be demonstrated.

RevDate: 2020-08-07

Marzullo A, Serio G, Pezzuto F, et al (2020)

A Single Liver Metastasis from Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(8): pii:diagnostics10080555.

Virtually any malignancy can metastasize to the liver. Large solitary metastases are rare and can be difficult to distinguish from primary tumors. Malignant mesothelioma is often considered as a locally invasive cancer but tumor dissemination to extra-thoracic sites is possible, and the liver can be involved. Herein, we present a rare case of pleural mesothelioma with a solitary large liver metastasis diagnosed postmortem in a ninety-two-year-old man with 35 years of exposure to asbestos. Results of immunohistochemical staining of the pleural and liver tumor were similar, both positive for low-molecular weight keratins, calretinin, vimentin, and podoplanin, and negative for Claudin-4, TTF1, CEA, BerEP4, CK7, CK19, CK20, BAP1, Hep Par1, p40, and WT1. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) for p16/CDKN2A was also performed and a homozygous deletion was detected in both tumors, supporting the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Reporting this case, we would like to point out that extra-thoracic dissemination from pleural mesothelioma, even if exceptional, can occur. In cases where differential diagnoses are challenging, the value of ancillary techniques and a practical approach to diagnostic work-up is of primary importance.

RevDate: 2020-08-06

Luo Y, Deng J, Cui Y, et al (2020)

Long-term instillation to four natural representative chrysotile of China induce the inactivation of P53 and P16 and the activation of C-JUN and C-FOS in the lung tissues of Wistar rats.

Toxicology letters pii:S0378-4274(20)30351-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Chrysotile is the only type of asbestos still widely exploited, and all kinds of asbestos including chrysotile was classified as a group I carcinogen by the IARC. There is a wealth of evidence that chrysotile can cause a range of cancers, including cancer of the lung, larynx, ovary, and mesothelioma. As the second largest chrysotile producer, China is at great risk of occupational exposure. Moreover, our previous experiment and some other studies have shown that the toxicity of mineral fibre from various mining areas may be different. To explore the oncogenic potential of chrysotile from different mining areas of China, Wistar rats were administered 0.5 mL chrysotile asbestos suspension of 2.0 mg/mL (from Akesai, Gansu; Mangnai, Qinghai; XinKang, Sichuan; and Shannan, Shaanxi) dissolved in saline by intratracheal instillation once-monthly and were sacrificed at 1 mo, 6 mo, and 12 mo. Our results found that chrysotile caused lung inflammation and lung tissue damage. Moreover, prolonged exposure of chrysotile can induce inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene P53 and P16 and activation of the protooncogene C-JUN and C-FOS both in the messenger RNA and protein level. In addition, chrysotile from Shannan and XinKang has a stronger effect which may link to cancer than that from Akesai and Mangnai.

RevDate: 2020-07-31

Cerciello F, Choi M, Sinicropi-Yao SL, et al (2020)

Verification of a blood based targeted proteomics signature for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology pii:1055-9965.EPI-20-0543 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: We have verified a mass spectrometry (MS) based targeted proteomics signature for the detection of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from the blood.

METHODS: A seven-peptide biomarker MPM signature by targeted proteomics in serum was identified in a previous independent study. Here, we have verified the predictive accuracy of a reduced version of that signature, now composed of six-peptide biomarkers. We have applied liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring (LC-SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), for the investigation of 402 serum samples from 213 MPM patients and 189 cancer-free asbestos exposed donors from the USA, Australia and Europe.

RESULTS: Each of the biomarkers composing the signature was independently informative with no apparent functional or physical relation to each other. The multiplexing possibility offered by MS proteomics allowed their integration into a single signature with a higher discriminating capacity than that of the single biomarkers alone. The strategy allowed in this way to increase their potential utility for clinical decisions. The signature discriminated MPM patients and asbestos exposed donors with AUC of 0.738. For early stage MPM AUC was 0.765. This signature also was prognostic and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference between high and low risk groups with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.659 (95% CI [1.075, 2.562], P = 0.021).

CONCLUSIONS: Targeted proteomics allowed the development of a multi-analyte signature with diagnostic and prognostic potential for MPM from the blood.

IMPACT: The proteomic signature represents an additional diagnostic approach for informing clinical decisions for patients at risk for MPM.

RevDate: 2020-07-31

Javadi J, Dobra K, A Hjerpe (2020)

Multiplex Soluble Biomarker Analysis from Pleural Effusion.

Biomolecules, 10(8): pii:biom10081113.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive and therapy resistant pleural malignancy that is caused by asbestos exposure. MPM is associated with poor prognosis and a short patient survival. The survival time is strongly influenced by the subtype of the tumor. Dyspnea and accumulation of pleural effusion in the pleural cavity are common symptoms of MPM. The diagnostic distinction from other malignancies and reactive conditions is done using histopathology or cytopathology, always supported by immunohistochemistry, and sometimes also by analyses of soluble biomarkers in effusion supernatant. We evaluated the soluble angiogenesis related molecules as possible prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for MPM by Luminex multiplex assay. Pleural effusion from 42 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), 36 patients with adenocarcinoma (AD) and 40 benign (BE) effusions were analyzed for 10 different analytes that, in previous studies, were associated with angiogenesis, consisting of Angiopoietin-1, HGF, MMP-7, Osteopontin, TIMP-1, Galectin, Mesothelin, NRG1-b1, Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) and VEGF by a Human Premixed Multi-Analyte Luminex kit. We found that shed SDC-1 and MMP-7 levels were significantly lower, whereas Mesothelin and Galectin-1 levels were significantly higher in malignant mesothelioma effusions, compared to adenocarcinoma. Galectin-1, HGF, Mesothelin, MMP-7, Osteopontin, shed SDC-1, NRG1-β1, VEGF and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in malignant pleural mesothelioma effusions compared to benign samples. Moreover, there is a negative correlation between Mesothelin and shed SDC-1 and positive correlation between VEGF, Angiopoietin-1 and shed SDC-1 level in the pleural effusion from malignant cases. Shed SDC-1 and VEGF have a prognostic value in malignant mesothelioma patients. Collectively, our data suggest that MMP-7, shed SDC-1, Mesothelin and Galectin-1 can be diagnostic and VEGF and SDC-1 prognostic markers in MPM patients. Additionally, Galectin-1, HGF, Mesothelin, MMP-7, Osteopontin, shed SDC-1 and TIMP-1 can be diagnostic for malignant cases.

RevDate: 2020-07-30

Lehnert M, Weber DG, Taeger D, et al (2020)

Determinants of plasma calretinin in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

BMC research notes, 13(1):359 pii:10.1186/s13104-020-05187-y.

OBJECTIVE: Calretinin is a well-known immunohistochemical tissue marker in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Promising results also indicate the use in early detection. In the present cross-sectional survey, correlations of calretinin plasma levels with clinical features were investigated. Plasma samples of 60 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and 111 cancer-free controls formerly exposed to asbestos were compared. Calretinin concentrations were determined in plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: The median concentration was higher in MPM patients than in controls (0.79 vs. 0.23 ng/ml; p < 0.0001). Patients with epithelioid MPM or biphasic MPM had higher calretinin plasma levels than patients with sarcomatoid MPM. Strong expression of calretinin in the tumor tissue was associated with higher plasma levels. Preoperative patients showed higher levels of calretinin than patients after thoracic surgery (1.20 vs. 0.67 ng/ml; p = 0.096). The suitability of plasma calretinin has been confirmed as a tumor marker in the differential diagnosis of epithelioid MPM. The value of plasma calretinin for therapy monitoring or as a prognostic marker should be further investigated.

RevDate: 2020-07-29

Schüz J, Bukhtiyarov I, Olsson A, et al (2020)

Occupational cohort study of current and former workers exposed to chrysotile in mine and processing facilities in Asbest, the Russian Federation: Cohort profile of the Asbest Chrysotile Cohort study.

PloS one, 15(7):e0236475 pii:PONE-D-20-10832.

A historical cohort study in workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile was set up in the town of Asbest, the Russian Federation, to study their cause-specific mortality, with a focus on cancer. Chrysotile has different chemical and physical properties compared with other asbestos fibres; therefore it is important to conduct studies specifically of chrysotile and in different geographical regions to improve the knowledge about its carcinogenicity. Setting was the town of Asbest, Sverdlovsk oblast, the Russian Federation. Participants were all current and former employees with at least one year of employment between 1/1/1975 and 31/12/2010 in the mine, enrichment factories, auto-transport and external rail transportation departments, the central laboratory, and the explosives unit of the company. Of the 35,837 cohort members, 12,729 (35.5%) had died (2,373 of them of cancer, including 10 of mesothelioma), 18,799 (52.5%) were known to be alive at the end of the observation period (2015), and 4,309 (12.0%) were censored before the end of 2015. Mean follow-up duration was 21.7 years in men and 25.9 years in women. The mean age at death was 59.4 years in men and 66.5 years in women. This is the largest occupational cohort of chrysotile workers to date, and the only one with a large proportion of exposed female workers.

RevDate: 2020-07-25

Gandhi M, S Nair (2020)

New vistas in malignant mesothelioma: MicroRNA architecture and NRF2/MAPK signal transduction.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(20)30874-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a cancer of the mesothelial lining of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium and testes. The most common form is asbestos-linked MM that is etiologically linked to repeated asbestos exposure with a long latency period, although non-asbestos MM has also been reported. Late diagnosis, poor survival rates, lack of diagnostic and prognostic markers act as major impediments in the clinical management of MM. Despite advances in immune checkpoint inhibition and CAR T-cell-based therapies, MM which is of different histologic subtypes remains challenging to treat. We review microRNAs (miRNAs) and the miRNA interactome implicated in MM which can be useful as circulating miRNA biomarkers for early diagnosis of MM and as biomarkers for prognostication in MM. Further, we underscore the relevance of the NRF2/MAPK signal transduction pathway that has been implicated in MM which may be useful as druggable targets or as biomarkers of predictive response. In addition, since MM is driven partly by inflammation, we elucidate chemopreventive phytochemicals that are beneficial in MM either via crosstalk with the NRF2/MAPK pathway or via concerted anticancer mechanisms and may be of benefit as adjuvants in chemotherapy. Taken together, a multifactorial approach comprising identification of miRNA target hubs and NRF2/MAPK biomarkers along with appropriately designed clinical trials may enable early detection and faster intervention in MM translating into better patient outcomes for this aggressive cancer.

RevDate: 2020-07-27

Bonelli M, Terenziani R, Zoppi S, et al (2020)

Dual Inhibition of CDK4/6 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Impairs Energy Metabolism in MPM Cancer Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(14): pii:ijms21145165.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy associated to asbestos exposure. One of the most frequent genetic alteration in MPM patients is CDKN2A/ARF loss, leading to aberrant activation of the Rb pathway. In MPM cells, we previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of targeting this signaling with the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in combination with PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. Here, we investigated whether such combination may have an impact on cell energy metabolism. Methods: The study was performed in MPM cells of different histotypes; metabolic analyses were conducted by measuring GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake/consumption, and by SeaHorse technologies. Results: MPM cell models differed for their ability to adapt to metabolic stress conditions, such as glucose starvation and hypoxia. Independently of these differences, combined treatments with palbociclib and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors inhibited cell proliferation more efficaciously than single agents. The drugs alone reduced glucose uptake/consumption as well as glycolysis, and their combination further enhanced these effects under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Moreover, the drug combinations significantly impaired mitochondrial respiration as compared with individual treatments. These metabolic effects were mediated by the concomitant inhibition of Rb/E2F/c-myc and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Conclusions: Dual blockade of glycolysis and respiration contributes to the anti-tumor efficacy of palbociclib-PI3K/mTOR inhibitors combination.

RevDate: 2020-07-26

Berry D, Januch J, Woodbury L, et al (2019)

Detection of Erionite and Other Zeolite Fibers in Soil by the Fluidized Bed Preparation Methodology.

Microscope (Carshalton Beeches (Surrey)), 67(4):147-158.

Erionite is a zeolite mineral that can occur as fibrous particles in soil. Inhalation exposure to erionite fibers may result in increased risk of diseases, such as mesothelioma. Low level detection of mineral fibers in soils has traditionally been accomplished using polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods to analyze bulk samples providing detection limits of around 0.25% by weight. This detection level may not be sufficiently low enough for protection of human health and is subject to large variability between laboratories. The fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS) soil preparation method uses air elutriation to separate mineral fibers, such as erionite, from soil particles with higher aerodynamic diameter and deposits those mineral fibers onto filters that can be quantitatively analyzed by microscopic techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, performance evaluation (PE) standards of erionite in soil with nominal concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 0.0001% by weight were prepared using the FBAS soil preparation method and the resulting filters were analyzed by TEM. The analytical results of this study illustrate a linear relationship between the nominal concentration of erionite (as % by weight) in the PE standard and the concentration estimated by TEM analysis expressed as erionite structures per gram of test material (s/g). A method detection limit of 0.003% by weight was achieved, which is approximately 100 times lower than typical detection limits for soils by PLM. The FBAS soil preparation method was also used to evaluate authentic field soil samples to better estimate the concentrations of erionite in soils on a weight percent basis. This study demonstrates the FBAS preparation method, which has already been shown to reliably detect low levels of asbestos in soil, can also be used to quantify low levels of erionite in soil.

RevDate: 2020-07-23

Voloaca OM, Greenhalgh CJ, Cole LM, et al (2020)

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a Novel Clinical Imaging Tool to Detect Asbestos Fibres in Malignant Mesothelioma.

Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an extremely aggressive and incurable malignancy associated with prior exposure to asbestos fibres. Difficulties remain in relation to early diagnosis, notably due to impeded identification of asbestos in lung tissue. This study describes a novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging approach to identify asbestos within mesothelioma models with clinical significance.

METHODS: Human mesothelioma cells were exposed to different types of asbestos fibres and prepared on plastic slides for LA-ICP-MS analysis. No further sample preparation was required prior to analysis, which was performed using an NWR Image 266nm laser ablation system coupled to an Element XR sector-field ICP mass spectrometer, with a lateral resolution of 2 μm. Data was processed using LA-ICP-MS ImageTool v1.7 with the final graphic production made using DPlot Software.

RESULTS: Four different mineral fibres were successfully identified within the mesothelioma samples based on some of the most abundant elements that make up these fibres (Si, Mg and Fe). Using LA-ICP-MS as an imaging tool provided information on the spatial distribution of the fibres at cellular level, which is essential in asbestos detection within tissue samples. Based on the metal counts generated by the different types of asbestos, different fibres can be identified based on shape, size, and elemental composition. Detection of Ca was attempted but requires further optimisation.

CONCLUSION: Asbestos fibres detection in the lung tissues is very useful, if not necessary, to complete the pathological diagnosis of asbestos-related malignancies in medicolegal field. For the first time, this study demonstrates the successful application of LA-ICP-MS imaging to identify asbestos fibres and other mineral fibres within mesothelioma samples. Ultimately, high-resolution, fast-speed LA-ICP-MS analysis has the potential to be integrated into clinical workflow to aid earlier detection and stratification of mesothelioma patient samples.

RevDate: 2020-07-23

Pass HI, Alimi M, Carbone M, et al (2020)

Mesothelioma Biomarkers: A Review Highlighting Contributions from the Early Detection Research Network.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology pii:1055-9965.EPI-20-0083 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos related neoplasm which can only be treated successfully when correctly diagnosed and treated in early stages. The asbestos exposed population serves as a high risk group which could benefit from sensitive and specific blood based or tissue based biomarkers. This review details the recent work with biomarker development in MPM and the contributions of the NCI Early Detection Research Network Biomarker Developmental Laboratory of NYU Langone Medical Center.

METHODS: The literature of the last 20 years was reviewed in order to comment on the most promising of the blood and tissue based biomarkers. Proteomic, genomic and epigenomic platforms as well as novel studies such as "breath testing" are covered.

RESULTS: Soluble Mesothelin-Related Proteins (SMRP) have been characterized extensively and constitute an FDA-approved biomarker in plasmawith diagnostic, monitoring and prognostic value in MPM. Osteopontin is found to be a valuable prognostic biomarker for MPM, while its utility in diagnosis is slightly lower. Other biomarkers such as calretinin, fibulin 3, and High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) remain under study and need international validation trials with large cohorts of cases and controls to demonstrate any utility.

CONCLUSIONS: The EDRN has played a key role in the development and testing of MPM biomarkers by enlisting collaborations all over the world.

IMPACT: A comprehensive understanding of previously investigated biomarkers and their utility in screening and early diagnosis of MPM will provide guidance for further future research.

RevDate: 2020-07-21

Loreto C, Ledda C, Tumino R, et al (2020)

Activation of caspase-3 in malignant mesothelioma induced by asbestiform fiber: an in vivo study.

Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents, 34(3):1163-1166.

RevDate: 2020-07-19

Brook MS, Black PM, Salmond J, et al (2020)

Erionite in Auckland bedrock and malignant mesothelioma: an emerging public and occupational health hazard?.

The New Zealand medical journal, 133(1518):73-78.

Overseas, emerging research has shown that where erionite is present in bedrock as a zeolite, and then subsequently disturbed and blown into the atmosphere, resulting exposure is associated with health effects similar to those caused by asbestos, including malignant mesothelioma (MM). Erionite-induced MM is thought to be particularly prevalent in the construction and quarrying industries, in regions where rock containing erionite is disturbed. In 2015, the then Government Chief Scientist, Sir Peter Gluckman, reported that erionite was a more potent carcinogen than asbestos, and more recent studies have established its presence in the Auckland Region. However, globally at present, there are no established occupational exposure limits for erionite, standard sampling and analytical methods or exposure mitigation guidelines. Given the many major construction projects being carried out in Auckland at the present time, which involve the removal of large quantities of bedrock containing erionite, an assessment of the health risks such activities pose to the public is needed.

RevDate: 2020-07-19

Cheng L, Na L, Xu XL, et al (2020)

Progress in the understanding of the immune microenvironment and immunotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Current drug targets pii:CDT-EPUB-108263 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a remarkably aggressive thoracic malignancy with a limited survival of only 5-12 months. However, MPM still remains unresponsive to conventional standards of treatment, including pleurectomy and decortication, extrapleural pneumonectomy for resectable disease with or without chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. The mechanism of carcinogenesis has not been fully elucidated, although approximately 80% of cases can still be linked to asbestos exposure. The tumor immune microenvironment (TME) has been proven to play an important role in MPM pathogenesis and treatment outcome. Several molecular pathways have been implicated in the MPM tumor microenvironment, such as angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and stromal processes. Immunotherapy has already shown promising results in other thoracic solid tumors, such as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, immunotherapy has shown less convincing results in MPM than in melanoma and NSCLC. A multicenter, randomized trial (DETERMINE) proved that immune checkpoint inhibition using tremelimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) antibody, failed to improve median overall survival. Therefore, it is important to explore the relationship between the characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy. Here, we review the heterogeneity of the TME and the progress in the understanding of the immune microenvironment and immunotherapy in MPM to explore the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-07-18

Remon J, Nadal E, Dómine M, et al (2020)

Malignant pleural mesothelioma: Treatment patterns and outcomes from the Spanish Lung Cancer Group.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 147:83-90 pii:S0169-5002(20)30508-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is a rare but aggressive tumor arising from the pleura, typically associated with exposure to asbestos. The purpose of this investigation was to describe mesothelioma patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes in Spain.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma of the pleura were recorded in an anonymous online database (BEMME, Epidemiologic Spanish Malignant Mesothelioma Database) from June 2008 through May 2013. Patient and tumor characteristics at time of diagnosis, as well as subsequent treatments (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy), were collected. Among patients treated with chemotherapy, we explored type of chemotherapy regimen and outcomes by treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 560 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients were recorded. The median age at diagnosis was 68 years, mainly with epithelioid histology (62 %), and any asbestos exposure was noted in 45 % of patients. Nearly two-thirds of patients (71 %) received chemotherapy, mainly platinum-pemetrexed combination, as part of their treatment. Surgery and radiotherapy were given in 36 % and 17 % of patients, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) in the whole cohort was 13.0 months (95 % confidence interval (CI), 11.1-14.8 months) with 1-year OS of 53.2 % (95 % CI, 48.7-57.7 %). In patients receiving first-line chemotherapy (N = 315), the median OS was 13.4 months (95 % CI, 10.8-16.0 months), reaching 20.2 months (95 % CI, 17.2-23.2 months) for those 68 patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy. Results of multivariate analyses showed significant association of ECOG-performance status, histology and treatment response with improved OS in MPM patients treated with palliative chemotherapy.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite multimodal therapeutic intervention, survival of patients with mesothelioma in Spain remains poor. Although it did not reach significance in the multivariate analysis, a meaningful additional survival benefit was observed among those patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-07-17

Hjerpe A, Abd Own S, K Dobra (2020)

Integrative approach to cytologic and molecular diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Translational lung cancer research, 9(3):934-943.

The global incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes considerable disease burden, suffering and health care costs. Beside preventive measures and ban the use of asbestos, early diagnosis would largely improve the chance of curative treatment. Current histologic criteria, however, requiring presence of invasion in the surrounding fatty tissue fail to identify MM in sufficiently early stage. Unilateral accumulation of pleural effusion is one of the earliest clinical manifestations of MM that occurs in approximately 90% of the patients. Therapeutic thoracocenthesis is necessary to remove the fluid and to relieve patients' symptoms. This effusion is easily accessible and offers early and minimally invasive diagnosis by combining cytology with immunologic, molecular- and biomarker analyses. Typically, the fluid is rich in malignant cells and cell groups, but incipient stages of the disease may be difficult to recognize as the malignant cells can be masked by presence of inflammatory or reactive mesothelial cells. Recurrent, hemorrhagic and cell rich effusion should always be suspicious for MM and adequately prepared and analyzed to provide necessary information for subsequent therapy. Importantly, early detection of MM by integrating cytology and molecular approaches has high sensitivity and positive predictive value and has a major impact on patient survival. Thus, a conclusive positive MM cytology should lead to treatment without delay. This review summarizes molecular and diagnostic criteria of MM diagnosis.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Świątkowska B (2020)

[The Amiantus Program in Poland - 20 years of implementation].

Medycyna pracy pii:122664 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Despite the ban on the production of asbestos-containing materials, introduced in Poland over 20 years ago, new cases of asbestos-related diseases are still being recorded. Systematic control of respiratory function in people exposed to asbestos dust is, therefore, extremely important due to the biological properties of this mineral.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Amiantus preventive medical examination program was undertaken in 2000 to implement the legal rights of former employees of asbestos processing plants for this type of examinations. People who have ever been employed in such factories have been authorized to use preventive medical examinations for the rest of their lives. The research is continuous, spread over time and focused, in particular, on the assessment of the respiratory system.

RESULTS: Since the beginning of the program, throughout 20 years of its implementation, 8329 people have been examined, including 5199 (62.4%) men for whom a total of 34 454 medical examinations have been carried out. During the program period, the percentage of diagnosed pathologies increased from 8% in 2000 to 25% in 2019. Overall, 2078 asbestos-related diseases were diagnosed among former employees of asbestos processing plants under the Amiantus Program, which accounted for 25% of this group. Among all diseases caused by exposure to asbestos, the most common were: asbestosis (1880 cases - 90.5%), lung cancer (121 cases - 5.8%) and pleural mesothelioma (77 cases - 3.7%). Diseases of pleura in the form of plaques and diffuse pleural thickening were diagnosed in 40% of the examined patients, while radiological pulmonary shadows affected over 65% of former employees of asbestos processing plants.

CONCLUSIONS: The Amiantus Program, thanks to the long observation period, enabled monitoring the health of former employees exposed to asbestos, and created a unique opportunity to carry out epidemiological analyzes. These studies allowed the authors to expand their knowledge of the natural history of asbestos-related diseases. Med Pr. 2020;71(5).

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Indovina P, Forte IM, Pentimalli F, et al (2020)

Targeting SRC Family Kinases in Mesothelioma: Time to Upgrade.

Cancers, 12(7): pii:cancers12071866.

Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a deadly tumor mainly caused by exposure to asbestos. Unfortunately, no current treatment is able to change significantly the natural history of the disease, which has a poor prognosis in the majority of patients. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC and other SRC family kinase (SFK) members are frequently hyperactivated in many cancer types, including MM. Several works have indeed suggested that SFKs underlie MM cell proliferation, survival, motility, and invasion, overall affecting multiple oncogenic pathways. Consistently, SFK inhibitors effectively counteracted MM cancerous features at the preclinical level. Dasatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting SFKs, was also assessed in clinical trials either as second-line treatment for patients with unresectable MM or, more recently, as a neoadjuvant agent in patients with resectable MM. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms implicating SFKs in MM progression and discuss possible strategies for a more successful clinical application of SFK inhibitors. Our aim is to stimulate discussion and further consideration of these agents in better designed preclinical and clinical studies to make the most of another class of powerful antitumoral drugs, which too often are lost in translation when applied to MM.

RevDate: 2020-07-10

Louw A, Creaney J, Thomas A, et al (2020)

Histologically Diverse BAP1-Deficient Melanocytic Tumors in a Patient With BAP1 Tumor Predisposition Syndrome.

The American Journal of dermatopathology [Epub ahead of print].

BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1)-deficient cutaneous tumors are common in patients with BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome, frequently presenting before other associated neoplasms, and can serve as an early marker to identify individuals with this disease. The typical lesions are dermal based and composed of a combination of larger epithelioid melanocytes with abundant glassy cytoplasm and smaller cells resembling those of a conventional nevus. There is often a component of interspersed lymphocytes. However, BAP1-deficient melanocytic tumors can show a spectrum of histologic appearances, ranging from lesions with pure epithelioid, pure conventional nevus, or rhabdoid cells and tumors with an intraepidermal component. To demonstrate such morphologic variation, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman with multiple histologically diverse BAP1-deficient melanocytic tumors and germline BAP1 mutation, identified after a diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma. We also discuss the pathogenesis and potential histopathological and clinical indications of germline versus sporadic etiology in the assessment of BAP1-deficient melanocytic tumors.

RevDate: 2020-07-10

Schüz J, H Kromhout (2020)

Re Ferrante et al (2020). Mortality and mesothelioma incidence among chrysotile asbestos miners in Balangero, Italy: A cohort study.

RevDate: 2020-07-07

Maat A, Abdullah S, Schouten G, et al (2020)

Video-assisted biopsy and talc pleurodesis for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Multimedia manual of cardiothoracic surgery : MMCTS, 2020:.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a disease of the pleural cavity that is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. In most cases it carries a poor prognosis. Patients often present with respiratory symptoms, caused by pleural effusion. Treatment, preferably in a multimodal setting, cannot provide cure, but can prolong survival and improve quality of life in selected cases. Prior to eventual cytoreductive surgery, surgical intervention can provide histopathological proof of disease, and symptoms can be controlled with talc pleurodesis. We present the case of a 67-year-old patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy and talc pleurodesis, and demonstrate our technique with a video tutorial showing how we performed the procedure.

RevDate: 2020-07-07

Fazzo L, Cernigliaro A, De Santis M, et al (2020)

Occupational cohort study of asbestos-cement workers in a contaminated site in Sicily (Italy).

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 44(2-3):137-144.

OBJECTIVES: to analyse the asbestos-related diseases risk among the former workers of Sacelit asbestos-cement plant, operating in San Filippo del Mela (Sicily: 1958- 1993).

DESIGN: cohort study.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 228 subjects were employed in Sacelit from 1958 to 1993. Due to the available observation periods, the analyses of the different outcomes were performed for the subjects alive at the beginning of the respective follow up periods: mortality (1986-2018) was analysed for 204 subjects (177 men, 27 women), hospitalization (2001-2016) for 164 workers (139 men, 25 women) and the incidence of mesothelioma (1998-2016) was estimated for 178 subjects (153 men, 25 women).

MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: mortality (Standardized Mortality Ratio: SMR) and hospitalization (Standardized Hospitalization Ratio: SHR) from specific diseases were analysed. Incidence (Standardized Incidence Ratio: SIR) of mesothelioma cases was detected, also. SMR (1986-2014), SHR (2001-2016) and SIR (1998-2016), with 95% Confidence Intervals, were computed with respect to the regional rates, with STATA11.

RESULTS: in the men cohort, mortality from lung (17 cases, SMR 2.83) and pleural cancers (5 cases, SMR 30) and from asbestosis (15 cases, SMR 1,930) was in excess. The risk of hospitalization was in excess, in both genders, from lung cancer (men: 6 cases, SHR 4.1; women: 2 cases, SHR 8.6) and asbestosis (men: 17 cases, SHR 1,304; women: 6 cases, SHR 2,455). The incidence of mesothelioma was in excess in men (5 cases, SIR 23.9); no female cases of mesothelioma were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: a high occurrence of asbestos-related diseases in the cohort, particularly among men, was observed. The excess of hospitalization from asbestosis and lung cancer was highlighted also in women. The prosecution of the on-going health surveillance plan is particularly appropriated.

RevDate: 2020-07-06

Mezei G, Chang ET, Mowat FS, et al (2020)

Comments on a recent case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis testis.

As the first case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis testis (mTVT), the paper by Marinaccio et al (1) is potentially an important epidemiologic contribution. A careful review of the paper, however, raises a number of methodological issues. Any case-control study can be viewed as being nested within a conceptual cohort, with controls being sampled from the at-risk cohort as cases arise over time. This view of case-control studies leads to the concept of incidence-density sampling of controls (eg, 2, 3). For Marinaccio et al (1) this would mean that, as cases were registered over the study period, each would be matched to an individual control or set of controls of the same gender, age, and region of the country (since asbestos exposure varies by time and region [4]). For example, if a case were 50 years old in 1995, then any matched control should be close to age 50 in 1995 and of the same gender and from the same region as the case. Matching for age in this fashion automatically results in matching for year of birth, which is essential in this context because birth-cohort effects are determinants of asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence (eg, 5-8). If Marinaccio et al (1) used this scheme for age-matching, one would expect to see similar distributions of cases (table 1) and controls (table S3 in the supplemental material) by period of birth. Among males, however, the distributions of mesothelioma cases (whether pericardial or mTVT) and controls by period of birth are clearly different (P<0.001). Among females, the distributions of cases of pericardial mesothelioma and controls by birth year are less dissimilar (P≈0.05). Thus, the female cases of pericardial mesothelioma are better matched to controls on year of birth than are male cases of either mTVT or pericardial mesothelioma. We note also that the distributions of male and female controls by year of birth are distinctly different (P<0.002), whereas the birth-year distributions of cases of mesothelioma by site and gender are not (P≈0.8). In the Marinaccio et al (1) sensitivity analysis restricted to subjects born before 1950, the distributions of cases and controls by period of birth remain significantly different. Therefore, based on the reported evidence, cases and controls were not matched on birth cohort, thereby possibly biasing the results. Similarly, bias may result from the lack of matching on geographic region; while cases were registered from across Italy, controls were selected from only six regions. Although a sensitivity analysis restricted cases and controls to those from only the six regions, a comparison of tables S1 and S3 indicates that the regional distribution of controls is different from that of person-time observed; that is, the controls do not appear to be representative of the underlying population at risk by region. The second major issue of concern has to do with ascertainment of asbestos exposure. Information on exposure for the cases was presumably obtained at the time of registration. The two sets of controls, obtained from previously unpublished case-control studies, were interviewed during 2014-2015 and 2014-2016; that is, many years after the exposure for most cases was ascertained (1993-2015). Few other details of the control groups are provided, except that participation by one set of controls was <50%, raising additional concerns about selection bias. For details on the second set of controls, Marinaccio et al (1) reference a paper by Brandi et al (9). On review of that paper, however, we found no description of the control group, only references to three earlier papers. Marinaccio et al (1) present analyses only with both sets of controls combined; to evaluate potential sources of bias from the use of different sets of controls, they should also report results using each set of controls separately. The authors also did not detail their methods of exposure classification. For example, what does probable or possible exposure mean? The authors should at least present separate analyses of definite occupational exposure. Eighty cases of mTVT were registered, but only 68 were included in the analyses. Information on the 12 omitted cases (eg, age, year of birth, and region) would be helpful. Marinaccio et al (1) did not provide clear information on what occupations and/or industries they considered as exposed to asbestos. In an earlier study, Marinaccio et al (10) remarked on the absence of pericardial mesothelioma and mTVT in industries with the highest exposures to asbestos, saying, "[t]he absence of exposures in the shipbuilding, railway and asbestos-cement industries … for all the 67 pericardial and testicular cases is noteworthy but not easy to interpret." By contrast, Marinaccio et al (1) stated, "[t]he economic sectors more frequently associated with asbestos exposure were construction, steel mills, metal-working industry, textile industry and agriculture." The possibility of exposure in the "agriculture economic sector" was not mentioned in Marinaccio et al (10) and appears not to have been considered in previous epidemiologic studies in Italy. In general, epidemiologic studies indicate that farmers and agricultural workers are not at increased risk of developing mesothelioma (eg, 11-17). The fact that few, if any, cases of mTVT and pericardial mesothelioma occurred in industries traditionally associated with high asbestos exposure raises the possibility that the results of Marinaccio et al (1) are attributable to deficiencies in study design, very possibly bias in the selection of controls, and deficiencies in exposure assessment and classification as described above, leading to a spurious association of occupational exposure with mTVT and male pericardial mesothelioma. Conflict of interest This research has received no outside funding. All authors are employees of Exponent, Inc., an international scientific and consulting company. All authors have worked as both consulting and testifying experts in litigation matters related to asbestos exposure and asbestos-related disease. References 1. Marinaccio A, Consonni D, Mensi C, Mirabelli D, Migliore E, Magnani C et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis malignant mesothelioma: a case-control study and epidemiological remarks. Scand J Work Environ Health - online first. 2. Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL. Modern Epidemiology. 2008; Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 3. Richardson DB. An incidence density sampling program for nested case-control analyses. Occup Environ Med 2004 Dec;61(12):e59. 4. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Marzio DD, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Pleural malignant mesothelioma epidemic: incidence, modalities of asbestos exposure and occupations involved from the Italian National Register. Int J Cancer 2012 May;130(9):2146-54. 5. La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Peto J, Levi F, Tomei F, Negri E. An age, period and cohort analysis of pleural cancer mortality in Europe. Eur J Cancer Prev 2000 Jun;9(3):179-84. 6. Price B, Ware A. Mesothelioma trends in the United States: an update based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data for 1973 through 2003. Am J Epidemiol 2004 Jan;159(2):107-12. 7. Moolgavkar SH, Meza R, Turim J. Pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas in SEER: age effects and temporal trends, 1973-2005. Cancer Causes Control 2009 Aug;20(6):935-44. 8. Moolgavkar SH, Chang ET, Mezei G, Mowat FS. Chapter 3. Epidemiology of mesothelioma. In Testa JR. Asbestos and mesothelioma; 2017. pp. 43-72. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. 9. Brandi G, Di Girolamo S, Farioli A, de Rosa F, Curti S, Pinna AD et al. Asbestos: a hidden player behind the cholangiocarcinoma increase? Findings from a case-control analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2013 May;24(5):911-8. 10. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Di Marzio D, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al. Incidence of extrapleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, from the Italian national register. Occup Environ Med 2010 Nov;67(11):760-5. 11. Teschke K, Morgan MS, Checkoway H, Franklin G, Spinelli JJ, van Belle G et al. Mesothelioma surveillance to locate sources of exposure to asbestos. Can J Public Health 1997 May-Jun;88(3):163-8. 12. Bouchardy C, Schüler G, Minder C, Hotz P, Bousquet A, Levi F et al. Cancer risk by occupation and socioeconomic group among men--a study by the Association of Swiss Cancer Registries. Scand J Work Environ Health 2002;28(1 Suppl 1):1-88. 13. Hemminki K, Li X. Time trends and occupational risk factors for pleural mesothelioma in Sweden. J Occup Environ Med 2003a Apr;45(4):456-61. 14. Hemminki K, Li X. Time trends and occupational risk factors for peritoneal mesothelioma in Sweden. J Occup Environ Med 2003b Apr;45(4):451-5. 15. Pukkala E, Martinsen JI, Lynge E, Gunnarsdottir HK, Sparén P, Tryggvadottir L et al. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries. Acta Oncol 2009;48(5):646-790. 16. Rolland P, Gramond C, Berron H, Ducamp S, Imbernon E, Goldberg M et al. Mesotheliome pleural: Professions et secteurs d'activite a risque chez les hommes [Pleural mesothelioma: Professions and occupational areas at risk among humans]. 2005; Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Travai, Saint-Maurice, France. 17. Rolland P, Gramond C, Lacourt A, Astoul P, Chamming's S, Ducamp S et al. PNSM Study Group. Occupations and industries in France at high risk for pleural mesothelioma: A population-based case-control study (1998-2002). Am J Ind Med 2010 Dec;53(12):1207-19.

RevDate: 2020-07-06

Paajanen J, Laaksonen S, Ilonen I, et al (2020)

Clinical Features in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma With 5-Year Survival and Evaluation of Original Diagnoses.

Clinical lung cancer pii:S1525-7304(20)30160-1 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a fatal malignancy strongly associated with previous asbestos exposure. Overall survival remains dismal, partly owing to poor response to available treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate diagnostic accuracy in a group of patients with MPM with an unusually long survival time and to assess the factors related to this prolonged survival.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with overall survival exceeding 5 years were accepted to the long-term survivor (LTS) group, and these patients were compared with 84 patients with epithelial MPM. Data were collected from various national registries and electronic medical records. In addition, all available histopathologic diagnostic samples and computed tomography studies were re-evaluated by experienced specialists.

RESULTS: Our study showed a good diagnostic accuracy, with only 1 (0.5%) patient having an incorrect MPM diagnosis. Two (0.9%) localized malignant mesotheliomas and 2 (0.9%) well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas were also found. LTS patients were younger, more frequently female, had a better performance status at time of diagnosis, and had less evidence of prior asbestos exposure. In multivariate analysis, we showed tumor size, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and first-line treatment (both surgery and chemotherapy) to be associated with survival time.

CONCLUSION: We confirmed the diagnosis of MPM in an overwhelming majority of patients in the LTS group. An epithelial subtype of MPM behaving clinically more indolently seems to exist, but further tumor and genetic characterization is needed. The prolonged survival time is most likely explained by a combination of tumor-, patient-, and treatment-related factors.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Xu T, Hu J, Zhang X, et al (2020)

A Case of Localized Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

Clinical nuclear medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Localized malignant mesothelioma is rare. The prognosis is generally more favorable for this condition than for diffuse malignant mesothelioma. An elderly woman recently complained of abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. She had no history of asbestos exposure. Her serum CEA level was elevated. Plain CT revealed a mass under the left diaphragm, with liquefaction and necrosis. A contrast-enhanced scan showed circular enhancement of the mass. A subsequent biopsy of the mass revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma. PET/CT showed a significant FDG-avid subphrenic mass without any indications of metastasis. Postoperative pathological and immunohistochemical examination confirmed a case of malignant mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Boice JD, Cohen SS, Mumma MT, et al (2020)

Mortality among US military participants at eight aboveground nuclear weapons test series.

International journal of radiation biology [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Approximately 235,000 military personnel participated at one of 230 U.S. atmospheric nuclear weapons tests from 1945 through 1962. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS) the atomic veterans participated in military maneuvers, observed nuclear weapons tests, or provided technical support. At the Pacific Proving Ground (PPG) they served aboard ships or were stationed on islands during or after nuclear weapons tests.Methods and Material: Participants at seven test series, previously studied with high-quality dosimetry and personnel records, and the first test at TRINITY formed the cohort of 114,270 male military participants traced for vital status from 1945 through 2010. Dose reconstructions were based on Nuclear Test Personnel Review records, Department of Defense. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) and Cox and Poisson regression models were used in the analysis.Results: Most atomic veterans were enlisted men, served in the Navy at the PPG, and were born before 1930. Vital status was determined for 96.8% of the veterans; 60% had died. Enlisted men had significantly high all causes-mortality SMR (1.06); officers had significantly low all cause-mortality SMR (0.71). The pattern of risk over time showed a diminution of the "healthy soldier effect": the all-cause mortality SMR after 50 y of follow-up was 1.00. The healthy soldier effect for all cancers also diminished over time. The all-cancer SMR was significantly high after 50 y (SMR 1.10) primarily from smoking-related cancers, attributed in part to the availability of cigarettes in military rations. The highest SMR was for mesothelioma (SMR 1.56) which was correlated with asbestos exposure in naval ships. Prostate cancer was significantly high (SMR 1.13). Ischemic heart disease was significantly low (SMR 0.84). Estimated mean doses varied by organ and were low; e.g., the mean red bone marrow dose was 6 mGy (maximum 108 mGy). Internal cohort dose-response analyses provided no evidence for increasing trends with radiation dose for leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)) [ERR (95% CI) per 100 mGy -0.37 (-1.08, 0.33); n = 710], CLL, myelodysplastic syndrome, multiple myeloma, ischemic heart disease, or cancers of the lung, prostate, breast and brain.Conclusion: No statistically significant radiation associations were observed among 114,270 nuclear weapons test participants followed for up to 65 y. The 95% confidence limits were narrow and exclude mortality risks per unit dose that are two to four times those reported in other investigations. Significantly elevated SMRs were seen for mesothelioma and asbestosis, attributed to asbestos exposure aboard ships.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Marinaccio A, Gariazzo C, Di Marzio D, et al (2020)

Predictors of filing claims and receiving compensation in malignant mesothelioma patients.

Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands) pii:S0168-8510(20)30159-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Although the predominant occupation origin of mesothelioma is well known, determinant factors involved in filing compensation are scarcely investigated. A linkage between incident mesothelioma cases collected by Italian mesothelioma register (ReNaM) and compensation claims and assignment by Italian national insurance Institute (INAIL) has been conducted for cases diagnosed in the period 2010-2015 and occupational exposure to asbestos. Logistic regression models and decision tree models have been used to identify demographic, diagnostic and anamnestic factors significant for filing and receiving compensation. We have included in the analyses 5019 mesothelioma cases, and among them, 3321 (66.2 %) were found in INAIL archives as mesothelioma cases who fil claims for compensation. The modalities of asbestos exposure, sector of working activities and job type are crucial factors. Furthermore, gender, age at diagnosis, area of residence have been found to be significant predictors of probability to fil claims. Relative risks to fil claims were obtained for the above determinants and conditions to maximize the probability to obtain compensation identified. Our findings demonstrate that there is a need to enforce policies for improving awareness of the occupational origin for mesothelioma cases. Stakeholders, occupational health and safety institutions can play an important role for improving the sensitization regarding the rights of compensation benefits, ensuring the equity and the effectiveness of insurance, welfare and public health systems.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Sherborne V, Seymour J, Taylor B, et al (2020)

What are the psychological effects of mesothelioma on patients and their carers? A scoping review.

Psycho-oncology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Despite recent advances in research, malignant mesothelioma remains an incurable and devastating disease, typically bringing shock and emotional distress to patients and carers. Little research has addressed the psychological impact on either group. This scoping review examines the current state of evidence on the psychological effects of mesothelioma on patients and carers, and identifies areas for further research.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for English-language peer-reviewed research articles published 1981-2019 reporting studies focussing on the psychological effects of mesothelioma on patients and carers. Following data extraction and quality appraisal, reflexive thematic analysis was used to identify themes.

RESULTS: 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Carers' experiences were generally amalgamated with patients'. Three themes were developed. The Passing of Time included the importance of timing of interventions; delays in the medical journey; awareness of different time-phases in mesothelioma; and uncertainty/certainty. Dealing with Difficult Feelings reflected ubiquitous negative emotions, feelings about identity and states of being, and associated coping strategies. Craving Good Communication covered issues related to sharing of information and to positive/negative aspects of communication.

CONCLUSIONS: Though limited, the evidence indicates that mesothelioma, with its high symptom-burden, incurability, rarity and asbestos-related causation, leads to complex and inter-relating psychological effects on patients and carers. These effects are both negative and positive. The sparse literature gives a partial picture and demonstrates an urgent need for more nuanced research. Studies exploring the experiences of specific groups are recommended, with particular attention required to carers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Shinozaki-Ushiku A, Kohsaka S, Kage H, et al (2020)

Genomic profiling of multiple primary cancers including synchronous lung adenocarcinoma and bilateral malignant mesotheliomas: Identification of a novel BAP1 germline variant.

We report a case with a rare combination of synchronous lung adenocarcinoma and bilateral malignant pleural mesotheliomas in a 70-year-old male without asbestos exposure. He metachronously developed peritoneal malignant mesothelioma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed complete loss of BAP1 expression in all seven lesions. Targeted next generation sequencing using Todai OncoPanel identified a novel germline variant (c.1565_1566del, p.P522Rfs*14) of BAP1. Additionally, different nonsynonymous somatic mutations of BAP1 were identified in four lesions including lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas, and bladder cancer. The remaining two lesions had different somatic mutations in genes other than BAP1. Multiple BAP1-deficient cancers that developed in a single patient suggest the newly identified germline variant of BAP1 gene to be pathogenic and this case expands the clinical spectrum of BAP1-tumor predisposition syndrome. Screening for BAP1 status is highly recommended in cases with a similar combination of cancers.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Ide Y, Yuki T, Taooka Y, et al (2020)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Presenting with Polymyalgia Rheumatica-like Syndrome.

Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) [Epub ahead of print].

A 30-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of pain in his proximal extremities. The pain mimicked polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and it temporarily improved by a low dose of glucocorticoids, but his symptoms relapsed many times. After six years of glucocorticoid treatment, he developed abdominal pain and ascites, for which he was diagnosed with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM). His PMR-like symptoms improved with cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy for MPM. Finally, we diagnosed this PMR-like syndrome to be paraneoplastic syndrome with MPM. Although cases of MPM complicated by PMR-like syndrome are rare, MPM should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Blondy T, d'Almeida SM, Briolay T, et al (2020)

Involvement of the M-CSF/IL-34/CSF-1R pathway in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Journal for immunotherapy of cancer, 8(1):.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer related to asbestos exposure. The tumor microenvironment content, particularly the presence of macrophages, was described as crucial for the development of the disease. This work aimed at studying the involvement of the M-CSF (CSF-1)/IL-34/CSF-1R pathway in the formation of macrophages in MPM, using samples from patients.

METHODS: Pleural effusions (PEs), frozen tumors, primary MPM cells and MPM cell lines used in this study belong to biocollections associated with clinical databases. Cytokine expressions were studied using real-time PCR and ELISA. The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to confirm our results on an independent cohort. An original three-dimensional (3D) coculture model including MPM cells, monocytes from healthy donors and a tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cell clone was used.

RESULTS: We observed that high interleukin (IL)-34 levels in PE were significantly associated with a shorter survival of patients. In tumors, expression of CSF1 was correlated with 'M2-like macrophages' markers, whereas this was not the case with IL34 expression, suggesting two distinct modes of action of these cytokines. Expression of IL34 was higher in MPM cells compared with primary mesothelial cells. Particularly, high expression of IL34 was observed in MPM cells with an alteration of CDKN2A. Finally, using 3D coculture model, we demonstrated the direct involvement of MPM cells in the formation of immunosuppressive macrophages, through activation of the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1-R) pathway, causing the inhibition of cytotoxicity of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.

CONCLUSIONS: The M-CSF/IL-34/CSF-1R pathway seems strongly implicated in MPM and could constitute a therapeutic target to act on immunosuppression and to support immunotherapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Ierardi AM, GM Marsh (2020)

Absence of mesothelioma risk maintained in an expanded international cohort of cosmetic talc miners and millers.

Inhalation toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Objectives: Based on novel information for the Vermont cosmetic talc miner/miller cohort, including a reported case of mesothelioma, we sought to update our prior pooled statistical power analyses of mesothelioma incidence among European cosmetic talc miners/millers. With the inclusion of the Vermont cohort, we expanded our pooled analysis by 17,170 person-years of observation.Methods: Cosmetic talc miner/miller cohort studies conducted in Italy, Norway, France, Austria, and Vermont were pooled. The expected numbers of mesothelioma cases for each cohort as reported in these studies were used. Our statistical power analysis was based on an a priori one-sided significance level of 0.05 and Poisson distribution probabilities.Results: A total of 130,514 person-years of observation was generated across the five cohorts. One case of mesothelioma was observed (in the Vermont cohort), while approximately 3.34 cases (a mid-value estimate) were expected overall. Thus, we found that the pooled cohorts had 59% and 78% power to detect a 2.5-fold or greater and a 3.0-fold or greater increase in mesothelioma, respectively. The work history characteristics of the one mesothelioma case, which included mention of prior asbestos exposure on the case's death certificate, do not support a causal link with cosmetic talc exposure.Conclusions: Despite the recent finding of one case of mesothelioma in the Vermont cohort (a case unlikely related to talc exposure), we continue to conclude that the epidemiological evidence from the cosmetic talc miner/miller cohort studies does not support the hypothesis that cosmetic talc exposures are associated with an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Panou V, OD Røe (2020)

Inherited Genetic Mutations and Polymorphisms in Malignant Mesothelioma: A Comprehensive Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(12): pii:ijms21124327.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is mainly caused by air-born asbestos but genetic susceptibility is also suspected to be a risk factor. Recent studies suggest an increasing number of candidate genes that may predispose to MM besides the well-characterized BRCA1-associated protein-1 gene. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important studies on germline mutations for MM. A total of 860 publications were retrieved from Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science, of which 81 met the inclusion criteria and were consider for this review. More than 50% of the genes that are reported to predispose to MM are involved in DNA repair mechanisms, and the majority of them have a role in the homologous recombination pathway. Genetic alterations in tumor suppressor genes involved in chromatin, transcription and hypoxia regulation have also been described. Furthermore, we identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may promote MM tumorigenesis as a result of an asbestos-gene interaction, including SNPs in DNA repair, carcinogen detoxification and other genes previously associated with other malignancies. The identification of inherited mutations for MM and an understanding of the underlying pathways may allow early detection and prevention of malignancies in high-risk individuals and pave the way for targeted therapies.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Musk AW, de Klerk N, Reid A, et al (2020)

Asbestos-related diseases.

The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 24(6):562-567.

Knowledge of asbestos-related diseases has been accumulating for over one hundred years as the industrial value of asbestos was recognised for the strength of its fibres and their resistance to destruction, resulting in increasing production and use until the multiple health effects have become apparent. Deposition in the lung parenchyma results in an inflammatory/progressively fibrotic response, with impaired gas exchange and reduced lung compliance ('asbestosis'), causing progressive dyspnoea and respiratory failure for which only palliation is indicated, although anti-fibrotic agents used for idiopathic usual interstitial pneumonitis remain to be evaluated. Benign pleural effusion, diffuse pleural fibrosis (occasionally with associated rolled atelectasis) and pleural plaques are the non-malignant pleural diseases that result from fibres reaching the pleura. But the main issues that led to the ban on asbestos in industry are those of malignancy: lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma (MM) of the pleura and MM of the peritoneum. Bronchogenic carcinoma risk from asbestos exposure is dose-dependent and multiplies the risk attributable to tobacco smoking. The principles of treatment are as for all cases of lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography screening of exposed people can detect early-stage, non-small cell cancers, with improved survival. The amphibole varieties of asbestos are much more potent causes of MM than chrysotile, and the risk increases exponentially for 40-50 years following first exposure. As MM is non-resectable and poorly responsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, curative treatment is not possible and screening not justified.

RevDate: 2020-06-19
CmpDate: 2020-06-19

The Lancet Oncology (2019)

Asbestos exposure: the dust cloud lingers.

The Lancet. Oncology, 20(8):1035.

RevDate: 2020-06-18

Frank AL (2020)

Global use of asbestos - legitimate and illegitimate issues.

Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 15:16 pii:267.

Background: Exposure to asbestos causes non-malignant and malignant diseases including asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. The modern history of such diseases goes back more than a century.

Main text: While much is known about the ability of asbestos to cause disease, the carcinogenic mechanism is not yet understood. Continuing legitimate scientific questions include such issues as potential differential toxicity and carcinogenicity of different fiber types. Illegitimate issues include the supposed "safe" use of asbestos, and the chrysotile hypothesis.

Conclusion: Asbestos disease issues are highly politicized and vested economic interests perpetuate false issues regarding the hazards of asbestos.

RevDate: 2020-06-18

Franko A, Goricar K, Kovac V, et al (2020)

NLRP3 and CARD8 polymorphisms influence risk for asbestos-related diseases.

Journal of medical biochemistry, 39(1):91-99.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the association between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and the risk of developing pleural plaques, asbestosis, and malignant mesothelioma (MM), and to study the influence of the interactions between polymorphisms and asbestos exposure on the risk of developing these diseases.

Methods: The case-control study included 416 subjects with pleural plaques, 160 patients with asbestosis, 154 subjects with MM and 149 subjects with no asbestos disease. The NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms were determined using real-time PCR-based methods. In the statistical analysis, standard descriptive statistics was followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression modelling.

Results: Asbestos exposure (medium and high vs low) was associated with the risk for each studied asbestos-related disease. An increased risk of pleural plaques was found for CARD8 rs2043211 at + TT genotypes (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.16, p = 0.042). When the analysis was performed for MM patients as cases, and pleural plaques patients as controls, a decreased MM risk was observed for carriers of CARD8 rs2043211 TT genotype (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.27-1.00, p = 0.049). The interactions between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotypes did not influence the risk of any asbestos-related disease. However, when testing interactions with asbestos exposure, a decreased risk of asbestosis was found for NLRP3 CA+AA genotypes (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.60, p = 0.014).

Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that NLRP3 and CARD8 polymorphisms could affect the risk of asbestos-related diseases.

RevDate: 2020-06-14

Shibata R, Ozaki T, Tada K, et al (2020)

Secondary renal amyloidosis associated with asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases.

CEN case reports pii:10.1007/s13730-020-00493-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we present a 67-year-old Japanese man who developed insidious-onset nephrotic syndrome. He had a history of occupational asbestos exposure for about 8 years during his 30s, and was found to have pleural effusion 3 years before his present illness. At that time, repeated cytology testing of his pleural effusion found no malignant cells, and pleural biopsy found fibrous pleuritis without evidence of malignant mesothelioma. Percutaneous kidney biopsy found massive deposits of AA-type amyloid in the glomeruli, small arteries, and medulla. Computed tomography showed a calcified mass in the right lower lung that was positive for 67Ga uptake, but transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage found no evidence of malignancy. He was diagnosed with rounded atelectasis and diffuse pleural thickening. As these benign asbestos-related diseases have no standard treatment, we administered low-dose angiotensin II receptor blocker to preserve kidney function. Unfortunately, his nephrotic syndrome persists, with progressive chronic kidney failure. Kidney involvement in patients with asbestos-related disease is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case to present with secondary amyloidosis. Kidney biopsy should be considered for patients with existing asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases who have urinary abnormalities or renal dysfunction, to clarify the incidence and pathophysiology of renal manifestations.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Horio D, Minami T, Kitai H, et al (2020)

Tumor-associated macrophage-derived inflammatory cytokine enhances malignant potential of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related aggressive malignant neoplasm. Due to the difficulty of achieving curative surgical resection in most patients with MPM, a combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and pemetrexed has been the only approved regimen proven to improve the prognosis of MPM. However, the median overall survival time is at most 12 months even with this regimen. There has been therefore a pressing need to develop a novel chemotherapeutic strategy to bring about a better outcome for MPM. We found that expression of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) was upregulated in MPM cells compared to normal mesothelial cells. We also investigated the biological significance of the interaction between pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and IL-1R in MPM cells. Stimulation by IL-1β promoted MPM cells to form spheroids along with upregulating a cancer stem cell marker CD26. We also identified tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as the major source of IL-1β in MPM microenvironment. Both high mobility group box 1 derived from MPM cells and asbestos-activated inflammasome in TAMs induced the production of IL-1β, which resulted in enhancing the malignant potential of MPM. We further performed immunohistochemical analysis using clinical MPM samples obtained from patients who were treated with the combination of platinum plus pemetrexed, and found that the overexpression of IL-1R tended to correlate with poor overall survival. In conclusion, interaction between MPM cells and TAMs through IL-1β/IL-1R signal could be a promising candidate as target for novel treatment of MPM (Hyogo College of Medicine clinical trial registration number: 2973).

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Amore D, Massa S, Caterino U, et al (2020)

Mediastinal malignant mesothelioma discovered in a patient with dysphagia.

Respirology case reports, 8(6):e00592 pii:RCR2592.

A mediastinal mass in patients with a history of asbestos exposure should raise the suspicion of malignant mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Catelan D, Consonni D, Biggeri A, et al (2020)

Estimate of environmental and occupational components in the spatial distribution of malignant mesothelioma incidence in Lombardy (Italy).

Environmental research, 188:109691 pii:S0013-9351(20)30584-3 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Measuring and mapping the occurrence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a useful means to monitor the impact of past asbestos exposure and possibly identify previously unknown sources of asbestos exposure.

OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to decompose the observed spatial pattern of incidence of MM in the Lombardy region (Italy) in gender-specific components linked to occupational exposure and a shared component linked to environmental exposure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected from the Lombardy Region Mesothelioma Registry (RML) all incident cases of MM (pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and tunica vaginalis testis) with first diagnosis in the period 2000-2016. We mapped at municipality level crude incidence rates and smoothed rates using the Besag York and Mollié model separately for men and women. We then decomposed the spatial pattern of MM in gender-specific occupational components and a shared environmental component using a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model.

RESULTS: We globally analyzed 6226 MM cases, 4048 (2897 classified as occupational asbestos exposure at interview) in men and 2178 (780 classified as occupational asbestos exposure at interview) in women. The geographical analysis showed a strong spatial pattern in the distribution of incidence rates in both genders. The multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model decomposed the spatial pattern in occupational and environmental components and consistently identified some known occupational and environmental hot spots. Other areas at high risk for MM occurrence were highlighted, contributing to better characterize environmental exposures from industrial sources and suggesting a role of natural sources in the Alpine region.

CONCLUSION: The spatial pattern highlights areas at higher risk which are characterized by the presence of industrial sources - asbestos-cement, metallurgic, engineering, textile industries - and of natural sources in the Alpine region. The multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model was able to disentangle the geographical distribution of MM cases in two components interpreted as occupational and environmental.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Staumont B, Jamakhani M, Costa C, et al (2020)

TGFα Promotes Chemoresistance of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 12(6): pii:cancers12061484.

Background: There is no standard chemotherapy for refractory or relapsing malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Our previous reports nevertheless indicated that a combination of an anthracycline (doxorubicin) and a lysine deacetylase inhibitor (valproic acid, VPA) synergize to induce the apoptosis of MPM cells and reduce tumor growth in mouse models. A Phase I/II clinical trial indicated that this regimen is a promising therapeutic option for a proportion of MPM patients. Methods: The transcriptomes of mesothelioma cells were compared after Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing. The expression of differentially expressed genes was inhibited by RNA interference. Apoptosis was determined by cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/7-AAD labeling. Protein expression was assessed by immunoblotting. Preclinical efficacy was evaluated in BALB/c and NOD-SCID mice. Results: To understand the mechanisms involved in chemoresistance, the transcriptomes of two MPM cell lines displaying different responses to VPA-doxorubicin were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes, transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) was associated with resistance to this regimen. The silencing of TGFα by RNA interference correlated with a significant increase in apoptosis, whereas the overexpression of TGFα desensitized MPM cells to the apoptosis induced by VPA and doxorubicin. The multi-targeted inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC), HER2 and TGFα receptor (epidermal growth factor receptor/EGFR) improved treatment efficacy in vitro and reduced tumor growth in two MPM mouse models. Finally, TGFα expression but not EGFR correlated with patient survival. Conclusions: Our data show that TGFα but not its receptor EGFR is a key factor in resistance to MPM chemotherapy. This observation may contribute to casting light on the promising but still controversial role of EGFR signaling in MPM therapy.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Orriols R, Tarrés J, Albertí-Casas C, et al (2020)

Malignant asbestos-related disease in a population exposed to asbestos.

American journal of industrial medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The first asbestos fiber cement plant in Spain operated in Cerdanyola, in the Barcelona metropolitan area, between 1907 and 1997. We describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with the malignant asbestos-related disease (ARD) in the area of the plant between 2007 and 2016.

METHODS: A prospective, descriptive study was undertaken in the 12 municipalities of the county of Barcelona most proximate to the plant. We describe malignant ARD cases by time of diagnosis, source of exposure, periods of exposure and latency, and distribution by sex. Cumulative incidence and age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR) are calculated.

RESULTS: Of 477 patients diagnosed with ARD between 2007 and 2016, 128 (26%) presented with asbestos-associated malignancy. Pleural mesothelioma was noted in 105 patients (82.0%) with a linear trend Z-score of -0.2 (NS) in men and 2.7 (P < .01) in women. The highest ASIRs for malignant ARD (6.1/100 000 residents/year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-13.3) and pleural mesothelioma (4.8/100 000 residents/year; 95% CI, 1.5-11.6) occurred in municipalities closest to the focal point of contamination. The origin of malignant ARD was nonoccupational in 32.2% of men and 81.6% of women (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: More than 20 years after the closure of the fiber cement plant, the grave consequences of exposure to asbestos remain. The detection of cases of pleural mesothelioma in men seems to have plateaued whereas in women an ascending trend continues, which principally has its origin in nonoccupational exposures.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Marques de Sousa S, Pereira F, Duarte M, et al (2020)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma as a Rare Cause of Dyspeptic Complaints and Ascites: A Diagnostic Challenge.

GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology, 27(3):197-202.

Introduction: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy of the mesothelial cells in the peritoneum. The best-defined risk factor is asbestos exposure, but germline mutations in BAP1 also increase susceptibility to this tumor. The diagnosis of MPM is challenging since clinical manifestations are often nonspecific.

Case Presentation: We describe a case of MPM in a 53-year-old former construction worker with prior asbestos exposure. The clinical presentation was a 3-month history of dyspeptic complaints. As initial workup, abdominal ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were performed. Chronic gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori was detected, which was promptly treated but without symptom relief. Abdominal ultrasound showed small volume ascites with hyperechogenic foci, which was later confirmed on computed tomography scan showing the presence of peritoneal nodules in the greater omentum and mesentery. A thorough investigation was conducted based on the suspicion of peritoneal carcinomatosis. A non-peritoneal primary tumor was not found. Ascitic cytology and immunocytochemical studies were suggestive of mesothelioma. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and inoperable peritoneal disease was observed. Peritoneal biopsy confirmed epithelioid-type MPM. Systemic therapy was initiated with platinum plus pemetrexed with good response. The last follow-up was 38 months after the diagnosis.

Discussion/Conclusion: The diagnosis of MPM is challenging since it requires a high degree of suspicion. MPM has a poor prognosis. The standard of treatment recommended is cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. For those who are inoperable, systemic therapy with pemetrexed-cisplatin combination is the alternative. Given the infrequency of disease, it is imperative to ensure patient participation in clinical trials with the purpose of treatment standardization.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Marsh GM, AM Ierardi (2020)

Confidence interval function analysis to evaluate the risk of mesothelioma among an expanded international cohort of cosmetic talc miners and millers.

Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP pii:S0273-2300(20)30122-7 [Epub ahead of print].

We used pooled data from international cosmetic talc miner/miller cohorts to determine whether hypothesized increased mesothelioma risks are consistent with the observed data. We evaluated the confidence interval function for the observed pooled mesothelioma SMRs (observed = 1; expected = 3.17, 3.34, or 3.60), and calculated the value of α for the upper 100(1 - 2α)% confidence limit that equals various SMRs of interest (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0). Using the mid-value estimate of expected number of cases (3.34) the probability (α) that the true mesothelioma SMR is at or above 2.0, or at or above 3.0 is 0.0096 and 0.0005, respectively. Thus, a mesothelioma SMR ≥2.0 is not compatible with the observed pooled data, providing further support for our conclusion that cosmetic talc exposure is not associated with an elevated risk of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Alghamdi ZM, Othman SA, Al-Yousef MJ, et al (2020)

Intrapulmonary location of benign solitary fibrous tumor.

Annals of thoracic medicine, 15(2):98-101.

Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are sporadic mesenchymal neoplasms that typically arise from visceral or parietal pleura. While accounting for <5% of all pleural tumors, SFTs are known to occur in nearly all bodily organs, including nasopharynx, bladder, prostate, soft tissue of neck, buttocks, extremities, and abdominal wall. Such tumors have been previously designated localized fibrous mesothelioma or pleural fibroma. SFTs have no genetic basis and are unrelated to environmental factors such as tobacco smoking or asbestos exposure. Herein, we describe a 24-year-old woman whose clinical presentation mimicked atypical carcinoid tumor. A diagnosis of intrapulmonary SFT was achieved by surgical resection.

RevDate: 2020-05-31

Korša L, Lukač A, Kovačević L, et al (2020)

Breast metastasis as the initial presentation of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

The breast journal [Epub ahead of print].

Metastatic involvement of the breast is far less common than primary breast carcinoma, comprising 0.5%-6.6% of all breast malignancies. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumor with higher incidence among men, particularly smokers, strongly associated with asbestos exposure. The epithelioid type of MPM can represent a diagnostic pitfall in this setting, as it shows similar histologic features to primary breast carcinoma as well as other metastatic epithelioid malignancies. We report a rare case of breast metastasis of malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 61-year-old female.

RevDate: 2020-05-30

Greimelmaier K, Wohlschläger J, Probst A, et al (2020)

[Mesothelial proliferation of the tunica vaginalis testis].

Der Pathologe pii:10.1007/s00292-020-00797-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Proliferative changes seen in reactive mesothelial hyperplasia of a hydrocele sac may mimic malignant mesothelioma. There is no immunohistochemical staining that reliably separates benign from malignant mesothelial proliferations. However, the combined analysis of BAP1 by immunohistochemistry and CDKN2A by FISH has been reported to yield both a high specificity and sensitivity in this differential diagnosis. In addition, the evaluation of risk factors such as asbestos exposure or prior traumata may be helpful for the correct diagnosis. Exclusion of stromal invasion, which is diagnostic for malign mesothelioma, is of utmost importance. Therefore, extended histological workup is essential.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Weber DG, Casjens S, Brik A, et al (2020)

Circulating long non-coding RNA GAS5 (growth arrest-specific transcript 5) as a complement marker for the detection of malignant mesothelioma using liquid biopsies.

Biomarker research, 8:15.

Background: For the detection of malignant mesothelioma additional markers are needed besides the established panel consisting of calretinin and mesothelin. The aim of this study was the identification and verification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as complementing circulating markers.

Methods: Candidate lncRNAs were identified in silico using previously published RNA expression profiles and verified using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in mesothelioma cell lines as well as human plasma samples from mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed controls.

Results: GAS5 (growth arrest-specific transcript 5) as a single marker is marked by a low sensitivity of 14%, but the combination of GAS5 with calretinin and mesothelin increased the panel's sensitivity from 64 to 73% at a predefined specificity of 97%. Circulating GAS5 is not affected by pleurectomy before blood collection, age, or smoking status.

Conclusions: GAS5 is verified as an appropriate circulating marker for the supplement of calretinin and mesothelin to detect malignant mesothelioma. Although the sensitivity of GAS5 is too low for the use as a single marker, the addition of GAS5 as a third marker improves the performance of the established marker panel. The benefit of GAS5 for the detection of malignant mesothelioma at early stages needs to be validated in a prospective study.

RevDate: 2020-05-20

Di Gilio A, Catino A, Lombardi A, et al (2020)

Breath Analysis for Early Detection of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Determination and Possible Biochemical Pathways.

Cancers, 12(5): pii:cancers12051262.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm, mainly caused by asbestos exposure, with a high mortality rate. The management of patients with MPM is controversial due to a long latency period between exposure and diagnosis and because of non-specific symptoms generally appearing at advanced stage of the disease. Breath analysis, aimed at the identification of diagnostic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) pattern in exhaled breath, is believed to improve early detection of MPM. Therefore, in this study, breath samples from 14 MPM patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Nonparametric test allowed to identify the most weighting variables to discriminate between MPM and HC breath samples and multivariate statistics were applied. Considering that MPM is an aggressive neoplasm leading to a late diagnosis and thus the recruitment of patients is very difficult, a promising data mining approach was developed and validated in order to discriminate between MPM patients and healthy controls, even if no large population data are available. Three different machine learning algorithms were applied to perform the classification task with a leave-one-out cross-validation approach, leading to remarkable results (Area Under Curve AUC = 93%). Ten VOCs, such as ketones, alkanes and methylate derivates, as well as hydrocarbons, were able to discriminate between MPM patients and healthy controls and for each compound which resulted diagnostic for MPM, the metabolic pathway was studied in order to identify the link between VOC and the neoplasm. Moreover, five breath samples from asymptomatic asbestos-exposed persons (AEx) were exploratively analyzed, processed and tested by the validated statistical method as blinded samples in order to evaluate the performance for the early recognition of patients affected by MPM among asbestos-exposed persons. Good agreement was found between the information obtained by gold-standard diagnostic methods such as computed tomography CT and model output.

RevDate: 2020-05-12

Abbott DM, Bortolotto C, Benvenuti S, et al (2020)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Genetic and Microenviromental Heterogeneity as an Unexpected Reading Frame and Therapeutic Challenge.

Cancers, 12(5): pii:cancers12051186.

Mesothelioma is a malignancy of serosal membranes including the peritoneum, pleura, pericardium and the tunica vaginalis of the testes. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare disease with a global incidence in countries like Italy of about 1.15 per 100,000 inhabitants. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common form of mesothelioma, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Although rare in the global population, mesothelioma is linked to industrial pollutants and mineral fiber exposure, with approximately 80% of cases linked to asbestos. Due to the persistent asbestos exposure in many countries, a worldwide progressive increase in MPM incidence is expected for the current and coming years. The tumor grows in a loco-regional pattern, spreading from the parietal to the visceral pleura and invading the surrounding structures that induce the clinical picture of pleural effusion, pain and dyspnea. Distant spreading and metastasis are rarely observed, and most patients die from the burden of the primary tumor. Currently, there are no effective treatments for MPM, and the prognosis is invariably poor. Some studies average the prognosis to be roughly one-year after diagnosis. The uniquely poor mutational landscape which characterizes MPM appears to derive from a selective pressure operated by the environment; thus, inflammation and immune response emerge as key players in driving MPM progression and represent promising therapeutic targets. Here we recapitulate current knowledge on MPM with focus on the emerging network between genetic asset and inflammatory microenvironment which characterize the disease as amenable target for novel therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Kilitci A, Uygun N, ML Emir (2020)

Sarcomatoid Type of Paratesticular Malignant Mesothelioma in a Dry-Cleaning Worker Exposed to Asbestos and Diagnostic Value of WT-1.

Puerto Rico health sciences journal, 39(1):39-44.

Of the 3 major histologic types of malignant paratesticular mesothelioma (MPM) (epithelial, sarcomatoid, and biphasic), many cases of epithelial and biphasic mesothelioma have been reported in the literature. Pure sarcomatoid MPM is the least common but the most aggressive of the 3 major histologic types of mesothelioma cells. It is limited to only 2 cases in the literature The sarcomatoid type of MPM can be confused clinically and histologically with true sarcomas because it is rarely seen. We present a case who had been exposed to asbestos for years due to his involvement in the dry-cleaning industry and who was diagnosed with the sarcomatoid type of MPM but had a relatively prolonged survival not usually seen with this tumor. This report also emphasizes the significance of an immunohistochemical examination, focusing especially on the diagnostic role of WT-1.

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Zhang G, Yang DL, Zheng G, et al (2020)

Survivin expression as an independent predictor of overall survival in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

Oncology letters, 19(6):3871-3880.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is an incurable cancer strongly associated with asbestos exposure and characterised by poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the prognostic and predictive value of CD146 and survivin expression in MPeM. Diagnostic biopsies from 60 patients with MPeM were collected and analysed for CD146, survivin and Ki-67 expression using immunohistochemistry. Complete clinical and follow-up information was obtained from patients' records. CD146 was expressed in 31/60 MPeM specimens and survivin in 34/60 specimens, with both expression levels being significantly associated with the Ki-67 labelling index (Ki-67LI). Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox regression analyses revealed that a lower peritoneal cancer index (PCI), tumour-directed treatment, stage I, lower Ki-67LI and lower CD146 and survivin expression had a statistically positive effect on overall survival (OS). Cox regression analysis revealed that PCI [hazard ratio (HR)=1.99; 95% CI, 1.04-3.83; P=0.038], survivin (HR=1.47; 95% CI, 1.03-2.10; P=0.034) and treatment protocol including intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HR=0.28; 95% CI, 0.14-0.57; P=0.013) and systemic chemotherapy (HR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.42; P=0.013) retained independent prognostic significance for OS. All of these were included in the nomogram. Calibration curves showed good agreement between nomogram-predicted and observed survival. The C-index of the nomogram for predicting OS was 0.77. A lower PCI, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, systemic chemotherapy and a lower level of survivin were powerful prognostic markers in patients with MPeM. The proposed nomogram provides individual survival prediction for patients with MPeM.

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Barbieri PG, Calisti R, Silvestri S, et al (2020)

[About the asbestos and the Position Paper on asbestos of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine].

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 44(1):73-83.

The SIML Position Paper dedicated to asbestos (PPA) is addressed (mainly) to competent practitioners (CP) for the purposes to provide a guidance about a set of items classified as markedly interesting: the actuality of asbestos exposure and the evaluation of the related risk; the diagnosis of the asbestos related diseases; the shape of the risk functions (namely about mesotheliomas); the causal relationship between exposure and disease; the medical surveillance of the workers currently and previously exposed. The scientific literature doesn't acknowledge the idea that nowadays in Italy the frequency of pleural mesotheliomas deriving from environmental asbestos from outdoor sources exposures is really a relevant item. Inside the SIML PPA the chapter concerning industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring themes shows inaccuracies and deficiencies, so resulting of scarce utility for the CPs that should be called for a more cooperative role in front of the employers. The arguments of the diagnosis of the asbestos related diseases is developed with an undue emphasis upon the differential histological diagnosis of asbestosis and, especially, of pleural mesothelioma: nosographic aspects that hardly are posed to the attention of the CP. A similar emphasis is posed towards the shape of the risk function for pleural mesothelioma, a theme absent from the current practice of the CP such as of other occupational practitioners. In conclusion, next to themes of undoubted interest for the PC, the SIML PPA dwells on the scrutiny of some topics representing critical elements of the current contrast between consultants and valuers in the context of criminal prosecutions: subjects having forensic relevance but far from the "application actuality" for the CP invoked in the PPA. A greater transparency, last but not least, was to have been posed, inside the SIML PPA, in the disclosure of the conflict of interests (COIs) of some Authors, declaring their consultancy in favour of companies.

RevDate: 2020-05-07

Marinaccio A, Corfiati M, Binazzi A, et al (2020)

The epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma in Italy (1993-2015): methods, findings, and research perspectives.

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 44(1):23-30.

BACKGROUND: as a legacy of the large asbestos consumption until the definitive ban in 1992, Italy had to tackle a real epidemic of asbestos related diseases. The Italian National Registry of Malignant Mesotheliomas (ReNaM) is a permanent surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, with a regional structure. Aims, assignments and territorial network of ReNaM are described, as well as data collection, recording and coding procedures.

OBJECTIVES: to describe the Italian epidemiological surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, to provide updated data about occurrence of malignant mesothelioma in Italy, and to discuss goals, attainments, and expectations of registering occupational cancer.

DESIGN: analysis of data by malignant mesothelioma incident cases surveillance system.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Italy, network of regional surveillance system, all Italian regions.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: a Regional Operating Centre (COR) is currently established in all the Italian regions, actively searching incident malignant mesothelioma cases from health care institutions. Occupational history, lifestyle habits, and residential history are obtained using a standardized questionnaire, administered to the subject or to the next of kin by a trained interviewer. The extent of dataset, epidemiological parameters, and occupations involved are reported updated at 31.12.2016, and standardized incidence rates are calculated.

RESULTS: at December 2016, ReNaM has collected 27,356 malignant mesothelioma cases, referring to the period of incidence between 1993 and 2015. The modalities of exposure to asbestos have been investigated for 21,387 (78%) and an occupational exposure has been defined for around 70% of defined cases (14,818).

CONCLUSIONS: the Italian experience shows that epidemiological systematic surveillance of asbestos related diseases incidence has a key importance for assessing and monitoring the public health impact of occupational and/or environmental hazards, programming preventive interventions, including remediation plans and information campaigns, and supporting the efficiency of insurance and welfare system. Monitoring the incidence of malignant mesothelioma through a specialized cancer registry is essential to follow-up the health effects of changing modalities and extent of occupational exposures over years and of environmental contamination. Such consolidated surveillance system is recommended also for occupational cancers with low aetiological fraction.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Campanella NC, Silva EC, Dix G, et al (2020)

Mutational Profiling of Driver Tumor Suppressor and Oncogenic Genes in Brazilian Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas.

Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology, 87(3):208-216.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly lethal disease comprising a heterogeneous group of tumors with challenging to predict biological behavior. The diagnosis is complex, and the histologic classification includes 2 major subtypes of MPM: epithelioid (∼60% of cases) and sarcomatous (∼20%). Its identification depends upon pathological investigation supported by clinical and radiological evidence and more recently ancillary molecular testing. Treatment options are currently limited, with no known targeted therapies available.

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the mutation profile of driver tumor suppressor and oncogenic genes in a cohort of Brazilian patients.

METHODS: We sequenced 16 driver genes in a series of 43 Brazilian malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients from 3 distinct Brazilian centers. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue blocks, and the TERT promoter region was amplified by PCR followed by direct capillary sequencing. The Illumina TruSight Tumor 15 was used to evaluate 250 amplicons from 15 genes associated with solid tumors (AKT1, GNA11, NRAS, BRAF, GNAQ, PDGFRA, EGFR, KIT, PIK3CA, ERBB2, KRAS, RET, FOXL2, MET,and TP53). Library preparation with the TruSight Tumor 15 was performed before sequencing at the MiSeq platform. Data analysis was performed using Sophia DDM software.

RESULTS: Out of 43 MPM patients, 38 (88.4%) were epithelioid subtype and 5 (11.6%) were sarcomatoid histotype. Asbestos exposure was present in 15 (39.5%) patients with epithelioid MPM and 3 (60%) patients with sarcomatoid MPM. We found a TERT promoter mutation in 11.6% of MM, and the c.-146C>T mutation was the most common event. The next-generation sequencing was successful in 33 cases. A total of 18 samples showed at least 1 pathogenic, with a median of 1.8 variants, ranging from 1 to 6. The most mutated genes were TP53 and ERBB2 with 7 variants each, followed by NRAS BRAF, PI3KCA, EGFR and PDGFRA with 2 variants each. KIT, AKT1, and FOXL2 genes exhibited 1 variant each. Interestingly, 2 variants observed in the PDGFRA gene are classic imatinib-sensitive therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that Brazilian MPM harbor mutation in classic tumor suppressor and oncogenic genes, which might help in the guidance of personalized treatment of MPM.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Fadel M, Evanoff BA, Andersen JH, et al (2020)

Not just a research method: If used with caution, can job-exposure matrices be a useful tool in the practice of occupational medicine and public health?.

The recent editorial by Dr Susan Peters "Although a valuable method in occupational epidemiology, job-exposure matrices are no magic fix" ably describes the strengths and limitations of job- exposure matrix (JEM) approaches in occupational epidemiology research (1). In addition to their use in research, we would like to add that JEM may also be of use in compensation and surveillance efforts in occupational health. JEM could assist the compensation process by supporting the assessment of relevant exposures related to specific health conditions (2). The potential usefulness of a JEM as a decision tool for compensation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders has been examined (3). Because occupational diseases are often under-recognized, another practical application is using a JEM to screen for occupational exposures as part of health surveillance. Use of JEM to screen for asbestos and wood dust exposure in the clinical setting has shown promising results (4-6). By summarizing multiple exposures at a job level (7), JEM may also assist policy-makers in setting priorities for hazards and controls at work, as well as occupational practitioners to target prevention efforts and direct the conduct of more precise exposure measures to particular jobs. Sharing JEM across different countries may be useful in providing estimates of exposures across larger populations to calculate global burden of disease related to occupational exposure. The JEMINI (JEM InterNatIonal) initiative was launched to explore the possibility of developing international JEM that could be used across countries (8). Beginning with physical (biomechanical) exposures, this open group has started homogenizing job coding systems and comparing some available JEM. Estimating differences in the level of exposure between countries will require much more work, without guaranteed success. As Peters mentioned, many limitations exist in the use of JEM. Users of JEM must consider the source of exposure data - expert assessments, data collected from individual workers, or environmental sampling. The coding of occupations is time consuming and can introduce error (9), and more testing of and comparison with automated job coding systems is needed (10). JEM reflect an "average" level of exposure within a job at the expense of individual variation. At population level, JEM can offer a useful estimate of exposures. If used at an individual level in a clinical or compensation setting, JEM cannot replace the professionals involved in exposure assessment but may help them focus their action more effectively on complex situations that require their expertise. In conclusion, these JEM developed for research might also be used as a public health tool, provided that their limitations are properly taken into account. References 1. Peters S. Although a valuable method in occupational epidemiology, job-exposure matrices are no magic fix. Scand J Work Environ Health 2020;46:2314. 2. Kerbrat J, Descatha A. (The recognition of health consequences of difficult working conditions in France and its evaluation with the use of a job-exposure matrix). Arch Mal Prof Environ. 2018;79:493500. 3. Fadel M, Valter R, Quignette A, Descatha A. Usefulness of a job-exposure matrix « MADE » as a decision tool for compensation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Eur J Public Health 2019;29:86870. 4. Lorentz E, Despreaux T, Quignette A, Chinet T, Descatha A. (Screening of occupational exposure to asbestos and silica by job-exposure matrix among patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma). Rev Mal Respir. 2019;36:108895. 5. Imbernon E, Goldberg M, Spyckerell Y, Steinmetz J, Bonenfant S, Fournier B. (Use of a job-exposure matrix for the screening of occupational exposure to asbestos). Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2004;52:717. 6. Carton M, Bonnaud S, Nachtigal M, Serrano A, Carole C, Bonenfant S, et al. Post-retirement surveillance of workers exposed to asbestos or wood dust: first results of the French national SPIRALE Program. Epidemiol Prev. 2011;35:31523. 7. Guéguen A, Goldberg M, Bonenfant S, Martin JC. Using a representative sample of workers for constructing the SUMEX French general population based job-exposure matrix. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:58693. 8. Descatha A, Evanoff BA, Andersen JH, Fadel M, Ngabirano L, Leclerc A, et al. JEMINI (Job Exposure Matrix InterNatIonal) Initiative: a Utopian Possibility for Helping Occupational Exposure Assessment All Around the World? J Occup Environ Med. 2019;61:e3201. 9. Petersen SB, Flachs EM, Svendsen SW, Marott JL, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Hansen J, et al. Influence of errors in job codes on job exposure matrix-based exposure assessment in the register-based occupational cohort DOC*X. Scand J Work Environ Health 2020;46:25967. 10. Buckner-Petty S, Dale AM, Evanoff BA. Efficiency of autocoding programs for converting job descriptors into standard occupational classification (SOC) codes. Am J Ind Med. 2019;62:5968.

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Trama A, Proto C, Signorelli D, et al (2020)

Treatment patterns among patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: An Italian, population-based nationwide study.

Thoracic cancer, 11(6):1661-1669.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. Centralization of rare cancer in dedicated centers is recommended to ensure expertise, multidisciplinarity and access to innovation. In Italy, expert centers for MPM have not been identified in all regions. We aimed to describe the treatment patterns among MPM patients across different Italian regions and to identify factors associated with the treatment patterns across the regions.

METHODS: We performed an observational study on a random sample of 2026 MPM patients diagnosed in 2003-2008. We included 26 population-based registries covering 70% of the Italian population. To identify factors associated with treatment patterns, across the different regions, we fitted a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted by age, sex, stage, histology and hospital with thoracic surgical department.

RESULTS: MPM patients mostly received chemotherapy alone (41%) or no cancer-directed therapy (36%) especially the older patients. The first course of treatment for MPM patients differed across regions. Patients from Piedmont, Liguria and Campania were more likely to receive no cancer-directed therapy; those living in Tuscany and Sicily were more likely to get surgery; patients from Marche and Lazio were more likely to receive chemotherapy. These differences were not explained by age, sex, stage, histology and availability of a thoracic surgery department.

CONCLUSIONS: There is limited expertise available and lack of a network able to maximize the expertise available may contribute to explaining the results of our study. Our findings support the need to ensure the appropriate care of all MPM patients in reorganizing the health care services.

KEY POINTS: Significant findings of the study: MPM patients mostly received chemotherapy alone or no cancer-directed therapy especially the older patients. The first course of treatment for MPM patients differed across Italian regions.

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Differences in MPM clinical management are not explained by the age, stage, histology nor by the availability of a thoracic surgery department. Limited expertise for MPM contribute to explaining the unequal access to appropriate care for MPM patients in Italy.

RevDate: 2020-05-04

Dyer C (2020)

Doctor with mesothelioma wins settlement for asbestos exposure in late 1990s.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 369:m1783.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Angelini A, Chellini E, Parducci D, et al (2020)


La Medicina del lavoro, 111(2):126-132.

BACKGROUND: The Tuscan Regional Operating Center (ROC) of Malignant Mesotheliomas has identified a cluster of 11 cases of malignant mesothelioma occurred in a textile plant manufacturing sewing thread. Using the common research method, the ROC had not previously been able to identify the specific sources of asbestos exposure causing such a large cluster.

OBJECTIVES: The ROC's objective was to review all cases of the cluster and to better identify their occupational asbestos exposures.

METHODS: The cases' occupational histories of asbestos exposure have been reviewed, using information deriving from the annual reports sent to the Tuscany Region since 1988 by all the asbestos removal companies according to the Law no. 257/1992, article 9, and from interviews to former employees of the plant.

RESULTS: The work cycle has been reconstructed and enriched with the new information about the asbestos presence and its uses in the plant. The eleven cases were all reclassified as "certainly occupational exposed" given that the new collected information depicted a widespread asbestos pollution of the workplace during the period of employment of all cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Using different sources of information, in addition to those traditionally collected through questionnaires, to reconstruct past asbestos exposuresallowed us to clarify the existence of the cluster of mesothelioma cases and the highest level of occupational asbestos exposure was attributed to all cases with consequent activation of the medico-legal procedure.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Lacerenza S, Ciregia F, Giusti L, et al (2020)

Putative Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Suggested by Proteomic Analysis of Cell Secretome.

Cancer genomics & proteomics, 17(3):225-236.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) a rare neoplasm linked to asbestos exposure is characterized by a poor prognosis. Soluble mesothelin is currently considered the most specific diagnostic biomarker. The aim of the study was to identify novel biomarkers by proteomic analysis of two MPM cell lines secretome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein patterns of MPM cells secretome were examined and compared to a non-malignant mesothelial cell line using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. Serum levels of candidate biomarkers were determined in MPM patients and control subjects.

RESULTS: Two up-regulated proteins involved in cancer biology, prosaposin and quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1, were considered candidate biomarkers. Serum levels of both proteins were significantly higher in MPM patients than control subjects. Combining the data of each receiver-operating characteristic analysis predicted a good diagnostic accuracy.

CONCLUSION: A panel of the putative biomarkers represents a promising tool for MPM diagnosis.

RevDate: 2020-05-27

Ahmadzada T, Kao S, Reid G, et al (2020)

Extracellular vesicles as biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma: A review.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 150:102949.

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted by all cells, including cancer cells, as a mode of intercellular transport and communication. The main types of EV known to date include exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, as well as oncosomes and large oncosomes, which are specific to cancer cells. These different EV populations carry specific cargo from one cell to another to stimulate a specific response. They can be found in all body fluids and can be detected in liquid biopsies. EV released from mesothelioma cells can reveal important information about the molecules and signalling pathways involved in the development and progression of the tumour. The presence of tumour-derived EV in circulating body fluids makes them potential novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognostication and surveillance of cancer. In this review, we explore the characteristics and functional roles of EV reported in the literature, with a focus on their role in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Filetti V, Falzone L, Rapisarda V, et al (2020)

Modulation of microRNA expression levels after naturally occurring asbestiform fibers exposure as a diagnostic biomarker of mesothelial neoplastic transformation.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 198:110640 pii:S0147-6513(20)30479-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a silicate mineral identified in the lava products of Monte Calvario from stone quarries located in the southeast of Biancavilla, a small city of the Etnean volcanic complex (Sicily, Italy). Inhalation of FE fibers has been associated with a higher incidence of Malignant Mesothelioma (MM), a highly aggressive neoplasm of the serosal membranes lining the pleural cavity. Only 5% of MM patients are diagnosed at an early stage and the median survival is approximate 6-12 months. Many diagnostic biomarkers have been proposed for MM. Several studies demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may be used as good non-invasive diagnostics, as well as prognostic biomarkers for various human diseases, including cancer. On these bases, the aim of the present study was to identify a set of miRNAs involved in the development and progression of MM and potentially used as diagnostic biomarkers. For these purposes, in silico analyses were performed on healthy/exposed to asbestos fibers subjects vs. patients with MM. These analyses revealed a set of miRNAs strictly involved in MM by merging the lists of miRNAs found differentially expressed in the three miRNA expression datasets analyzed. The result of these computational evaluations allowed the execution of functional in vitro experiments performed on normal pleural mesothelial cell line (MeT-5A) and MM cell line (JU77) in order to test the carcinogenetic effects and epigenetic modulation induced by FE exposure. The in vitro results showed that the expression levels of hsa-miR-323a-3p vary significantly in both supernatant- and cell-derived miRNAs derived from treated and untreated cells. Secreted and cellular hsa-miR-101-3p in MeT-5A treated with FE fibers and JU77 cells showed different trends of expression. As regard hsa-miR-20b-5p, there was no differential expression between secreted and cellular hsa-miR-20b-5p. This miRNA has been shown a significant up-regulation in JU77 cells vs. control and treated MeT-5A. As a future plan, translational analyses will be performed on a subset of patients chronically exposed to FE fibers to further verify the clinical role of such miRNAs in high-risk individuals and their possible use as biomarkers of FE exposure or MM early onset.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Girardi P, Merler E, Ferrante D, et al (2020)

Factors Affecting Asbestosis Mortality Among Asbestos-Cement Workers in Italy.

Annals of work exposures and health pii:5824475 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed with the aim of investigating the temporal patterns and determinants associated with mortality from asbestosis among 21 cohorts of Asbestos-Cement (AC) workers who were heavily exposed to asbestos fibres.

METHODS: Mortality for asbestosis was analysed for a cohort of 13 076 Italian AC workers (18.1% women). Individual cumulative asbestos exposure index was calculated by factory and period of work weighting by the different composition of asbestos used (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile). Two different approaches to analysis, based on Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Age-Period-Cohort (APC) models were applied.

RESULTS: Among the considered AC facilities, asbestos exposure was extremely high until the end of the 1970s and, due to the long latency, a peak of asbestosis mortality was observed after the 1990s. Mortality for asbestosis reached extremely high SMR values [SMR: males 508, 95% confidence interval (CI): 446-563; females 1027, 95% CI: 771-1336]. SMR increased steeply with the increasing values of cumulative asbestos exposure and with Time Since the First Exposure. APC analysis reported a clear age effect with a mortality peak at 75-80 years; the mortality for asbestosis increased in the last three quintiles of the cumulative exposure; calendar period did not have a significant temporal component while the cohort effect disappeared if we included in the model the cumulative exposure to asbestos.

CONCLUSIONS: Among heaviest exposed workers, mortality risk for asbestosis began to increase before 50 years of age. Mortality for asbestosis was mainly determined by cumulative exposure to asbestos.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Cellai F, Bonassi S, Cristaudo A, et al (2020)

Chromatographic Detection of 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine in Leukocytes of Asbestos Exposed Workers for Assessing Past and Recent Carcinogen Exposures.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(4):.

Asbestos fibers include a group of silicate minerals that occur in the environment and are widely employed in occupational settings. Asbestos exposure has been associated to various chronic diseases; such as pulmonary fibrosis; mesothelioma; and lung cancer; often characterized by a long period of latency. Underlying mechanisms that are behind the carcinogenic effect of asbestos have not been fully clarified. Therefore; we have conducted an epidemiological study to evaluate the relationship between 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), one of the most reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage; and asbestos exposure in the peripheral blood of residents in Tuscany and Liguria regions; Italy; stratified by occupational exposure to this carcinogen. Levels of 8-oxodG were expressed such as relative adduct labeling (RAL); the frequency of 8-oxodG per 105 deoxyguanosine was significantly higher among exposed workers with respect to the controls; i.e., 3.0 ± 0.2 Standard Error (SE) in asbestos workers versus a value of 1.3 ± 0.1 (SE) in unexposed controls (p < 0.001). When the relationship with occupational history was investigated; significant higher levels of 8-oxodG were measured in current and former asbestos workers vs. healthy controls; 3.1 ± 0.3 (SE) and 2.9 ± 0.2 (SE), respectively. After stratification for occupational history; a significant 194% excess of adducts was found in workers with 10 or more years of past asbestos exposure (p < 0.001). 8-oxodG can be used for medical surveillance programs of cohorts of workers with past and recent exposures to carcinogens for the identification of subjects requiring a more intense clinical surveillance.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Ferrari L, Carugno M, Mensi C, et al (2020)

Circulating Epigenetic Biomarkers in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: State of the Art and critical Evaluation.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:445.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer, which originates from the mesothelial cells of the pleura and is associated with asbestos exposure. In light of its aggressive nature, late diagnosis and dismal prognosis, there is an urgent need for identification of biomarkers in easily accessible samples (such as blood) for early diagnosis of MPM. In the last 10 years, epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs), have gained popularity as possible early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer research. The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the current evidences on circulating epigenetic biomarkers for MPM and on their translational potential to the clinical practice for early diagnosis and for prognosis.

RevDate: 2020-04-20

Sturchio E, Berardinelli MG, Boccia P, et al (2020)

MicroRNAs diagnostic and prognostic value as predictive markers for malignant mesothelioma.

Archives of environmental & occupational health [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor resistant to current therapies with a latency period ranging between 20 and 60 years, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, that continues to represent a social and healthcare issue. The high percentage of people exposed to asbestos for professional or environmental reasons is associated with the high biopersistence of its fibers and with its widespread use in the last century. Approximately 20-40% of men report an occupational history that might have caused the workplace exposure (criteria Helsinki, 1997). Some authors are evaluating the possible use of bioindicators as a screening and early diagnosis tool. In this regard, the use of microRNAs has been proposed as powerful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for many tumors and human diseases. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on the key role of microRNAs expression as new malignant mesothelioma biomarkers, in early clinical diagnostic applications.

RevDate: 2020-05-15

Barbarino M, Cesari D, Bottaro M, et al (2020)

PRMT5 silencing selectively affects MTAP-deleted mesothelioma: In vitro evidence of a novel promising approach.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 24(10):5565-5577.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive asbestos-related cancer of the serous membranes. Despite intensive treatment regimens, MM is still a fatal disease, mainly due to the intrinsic resistance to current therapies and the lack of predictive markers and new valuable molecular targets. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) inhibition has recently emerged as a potential therapy against methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP)-deficient cancers, in which the accumulation of the substrate 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) inhibits PRMT5 activity, thus sensitizing the cells to further PRMT5 inhibition. Considering that the MTAP gene is frequently codeleted with the adjacent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) locus in MM, we assessed whether PRMT5 could represent a therapeutic target also for this cancer type. We evaluated PRMT5 expression, the MTAP status and MTA content in normal mesothelial and MM cell lines. We found that both administration of exogenous MTA and stable PRMT5 knock-down, by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), selectively reduced the growth of MTAP-deleted MM cells. We also observed that PRMT5 knock-down in MTAP-deficient MM cells reduced the expression of E2F1 target genes involved in cell cycle progression and of factors implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Therefore, PRMT5 targeting could represent a promising new therapeutic strategy against MTAP-deleted MMs.

RevDate: 2020-05-23

Vimercati L, Cavone D, Delfino MC, et al (2020)

Asbestos Air Pollution: Description of a Mesothelioma Cluster Due to Residential Exposure from an Asbestos Cement Factory.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(8):.

The study describes a cluster of 71 malignant mesothelioma cases among Bari residents without asbestos exposure other than residential exposure. This small cohort, as expected, was composed of a majority of females (56.34%) with a M/F ratio of 0.8, ages ≤ 65 years old (52.11%) and the epithelioid morphological type (78.87%). Sixty-four subjects (90.14%) lived between 10 m and 1000 m from the asbestos cement factory (Fibronit), and the latency length was longer than 55 years for 25 subjects (35.21%). The adjusted risk (adjusted OR) of observing the epithelial form of mesothelioma among subjects living at small distances from Fibronit was high (OR = 1.870 (0.353-9.905)) for people living 550-1000 m from the site and for those living less than 550 m from the site (OR = 1.470 (0.262-8.248)). Additionally, the subjects with a high length of exposure showed a relevant risk of epithelioid mesothelioma both for 21-40 years of exposure (OR = 2.027 (0.521-7.890)) and more than 40 years of exposure (OR = 2.879 (0.651-12.736)). All of the estimates were high but not significant because this transitional study has a typically low power. The adjustment for latency showed the same trend. Using detailed information collected by the regional mesothelioma registry, this study provided evidence of a continuing health impact of the Fibronit asbestos cement factory in Bari on the resident population.

RevDate: 2020-04-13

Metintas S, Ak G, M Metintas (2020)

Potential years of life and productivity loss due to malignant mesothelioma in Turkey.

Archives of environmental & occupational health [Epub ahead of print].

The study aimed to calculate years of life lost (YLL) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to malignant mesothelioma (MM) in Turkey. YLL was computed by estimating the difference between age at death due to MM and the expected death age. To calculate YPLL, all deaths above 65 years (retirement age) were disregarded. Of the 5,617 deaths due to MM in the study period, 3,241 (57.70%) were male and 2,376 (42.30%) were female. The median YLL and YPLL were 16.58 and 25.13 for males and 19.83 and 28.50 years for females. YLL and YPLL were shorter in males than females (p < 0.001). Premature mortality cost per death was $ 45,963.57 (2.23 times higher for males). MM is associated with high YLL, YPLL and economic burden in a country with environmental asbestos exposure in the rural areas.

RevDate: 2020-04-07

Marinaccio A, Consonni D, Mensi C, et al (2020)

Association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis malignant mesothelioma: a case-control study and epidemiological remarks.

Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health pii:3895 [Epub ahead of print].

Objectives The purposes of this study are to describe the epidemiology of pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma and assess the role of asbestos exposure for these rare diseases. Methods Based on incident pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma cases collected from the Italian national mesothelioma registry (ReNaM) in the period 1993-2015, incidence rates, survival median period and prognostic factors have been evaluated. A case-control study has been performed to analyze the association with asbestos exposure (occupational and non-occupational) for these diseases. Results Between 1993 and 2015, 58 pericardial (20 women and 38 men) and 80 tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma cases have been registered with a mean annual standardized (world standard population as reference) incidence rates of 0.049 (per million) in men and 0.023 in women for the pericardial site, and 0.095 for tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma. Occupational exposure to asbestos was significantly associated with the risk of the diseases [odds ratio (OR) 3.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-7.31 and OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.93-6.04 in pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma, respectively]. The median survival was 2.5 months for pericardial and 33.0 months for tunica vaginalis testis mesotheliomas. Age was the main predictive factor for survival for both anatomical sites. Conclusions For the first time in an analytical study, asbestos exposure was associated with pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma risk, supporting the causal role of asbestos for all anatomical sites. The extreme rarity of the diseases, the poor survival and the prognostic role of age have been confirmed based on population and nationwide mesothelioma registry data.

RevDate: 2020-04-06

Lau B, Boyer M, Lee JH, et al (2020)

Clinical Trials Eligibility of Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Use of Novel Therapies and Outcomes.

Clinical lung cancer pii:S1525-7304(20)30007-3 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Studies of bevacizumab and pembrolizumab in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma suggest anticancer efficacy; clinical trial populations are not reflective of real-world patients. We aimed to determine the proportion of real-world patients who would be eligible for trials, identify patients who participated in clinical trials, and examine treatment and outcome data.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma seen at our center from January 2012 to July 2018 were assessed with regards to their eligibility for Mesothelioma Avastin Cisplatin Study (MAPS) and KEYNOTE-028 clinical trials. Prognostic information, treatment use, and overall survival (OS) data were also collected.

RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were included: 50% and 37%, respectively, did not meet trial eligibility for MAPS or KEYNOTE-028, most commonly owing to age ≥75 (23%), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≥2 (21%), concomitant medication (21%), or comorbidity (12%). MAPS eligibility did not correlate with use of bevacizumab (P = .30) or improved OS (P = .87). Eligibility for KEYNOTE-028 correlated with pembrolizumab use (P < .001), but not improved OS (P = .21). Patients who received an investigational anticancer therapy on any clinical trial had improved OS: 32.4 (95% CI, 23.9-40.9) months versus 20.5 (95% CI, 15.8-25.3) months (P = .01).

CONCLUSION: Only ≤63% of our patients were eligible for these trials, highlighting the differences between real-world patients and the highly select trial population. Our patients who participated in clinical trials had superior OS, further emphasizing the selection bias in the trial population.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Okazaki Y, Chew SH, Nagai H, et al (2020)

Overexpression of miR-199/214 is a distinctive feature of iron-induced and asbestos-induced sarcomatoid mesothelioma in rats.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is one of the most lethal tumors in humans. The onset of MM is linked to exposure to asbestos, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are believed to be derived from the frustrated phagocytosis and the iron in asbestos. To explore the pathogenesis of MM, peritoneal MM was induced in rats by the repeated intraperitoneal injection of iron saccharate and nitrilotriacetate. In the present study, we used microarray techniques to screen the microRNA (miR) expression profiles of these MM. We observed that the histological subtype impacted the hierarchical clustering of miR expression profiles and determined that miR-199/214 is a distinctive feature of iron saccharate-induced sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM). Twist1, a transcriptional regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, has been shown to activate miR-199/214 transcription; thus, the expression level of Twist1 was examined in iron-induced and asbestos-induced mesotheliomas in rats. Twist1 was exclusively expressed in iron saccharate-induced SM but not in the epithelioid subtype. The Twist1-miR-199/214 axis is activated in iron saccharate-induced and asbestos-induced SM. The expression levels of miR-214 and Twist1 were correlated in an asbestos-induced MM cell line, suggesting that the Twist1-miR-199/214 axis is preserved. MeT5A, an immortalized human mesothelial cell line, was used for the functional analysis of miR. The overexpression of miR-199/214 promoted cellular proliferation, mobility and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in MeT5A cells. These results indicate that miR-199/214 may affect the aggressive biological behavior of SM.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )