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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 Sep 2022 at 02:14 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: asbestos AND mesothelioma NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-09-23

Tedesco J, Jaradeh M, WT Vigneswaran (2022)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Current Understanding of the Immune Microenvironment and Treatments of a Rare Disease.

Cancers, 14(18): pii:cancers14184415.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare disease with an annual incidence of around 3000 cases a year in the United States. Most cases are caused by asbestos exposure, with a latency period of up to 40 years. Pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive disease process with overall survival of roughly 6-12 months after the time of diagnosis. It is divided into three subtypes: epithelioid, mixed type, and sarcomatoid type, with the epithelioid subtype having the best overall survival. Often, the treatment is multimodality with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. The survival benefit is improved but remains marginal. New treatment options involving targeted immune therapies appear to offer some promise. The tumor microenvironment is the ecosystem within the tumor that interacts and influences the host immune system. Understanding this complex interaction and how the host immune system is involved in the progression of the disease process is important to define and guide potential treatment options for this devastating and rare disease.

RevDate: 2022-09-19
CmpDate: 2022-09-19

Hoang NTD, Hassan G, Suehiro T, et al (2022)

BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor regulate connective tissue growth factor controlling mesothelioma cell proliferation.

BMC cancer, 22(1):984.

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive mesothelial cell cancer type linked mainly to asbestos inhalation. MM characterizes by rapid progression and resistance to standard therapeutic modalities such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Our previous studies have suggested that tumor cell-derived connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) regulates the proliferation of MM cells as well as the tumor growth in mouse xenograft models.

METHODS: In this study, we knock downed the bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) and CTGF in MM cells and investigated the relationship between both and their impact on the cell cycle and cell proliferation.

RESULTS: The knockdown of CTGF or BAMBI reduced MM cell proliferation. In contrast to CTGF knockdown which decreased BAMBI, knockdown of BAMBI increased CTGF levels. Knockdown of either BAMBI or CTGF reduced expression of the cell cycle regulators; cyclin D3, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, and CDK4. Further, in silico analysis revealed that higher BAMBI expression was associated with shorter overall survival rates among MM patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that BAMBI is regulated by CTGF promoting mesothelioma growth by driving cell cycle progression. Therefore, the crosstalk between BAMBI and CTGF may be an effective therapeutic target for MM treatment.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Vidican P, Perol O, Fevotte J, et al (2022)

Frequency of Asbestos Exposure and Histological Subtype of Ovarian Carcinoma.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(9):.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer established a causal link between asbestos exposure and ovarian cancer. However, the exposure frequency and histological characteristics of asbestos-associated ovarian cancers remain to be investigated in detail. This multicenter case-case study assessed the asbestos exposure in ovarian carcinoma (OC) patients, alongside its association with histological subtype. Women were recruited in four hospitals in Lyon, France. Histological reports were reviewed by a pathologist. Patient and family members' data were collected by phone-based questionnaires. Asbestos exposure was defined as direct (occupational and environmental) and indirect (via parents, partners, and children). An industrial hygienist assessed the probability and level of exposure. The 254 enrolled patients (mean age 60 years) reported having an average of 2.3 different jobs (mean working duration 29 years). The prevalence of direct and indirect asbestos exposure was 13% (mean exposure duration 11 years) and 46%, respectively. High-grade serous carcinoma accounted for 73% of all OCs and 82% of histological subtypes in women with direct exposure. After adjustment on a familial history of OC, no significant associations between asbestos exposure (direct and/or indirect) and high-grade serous carcinoma were found. Women with OC had a high prevalence of asbestos exposure. Establishing risk profiles, as reported here, is important in facilitating compensation for asbestos-related OCs and for the surveillance of women at risk.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Shi H, Rath EM, Lin RCY, et al (2022)

3-Dimensional mesothelioma spheroids provide closer to natural pathophysiological tumor microenvironment for drug response studies.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:973576.

Traditional studies using cancer cell lines are often performed on a two-dimensional (2D) cell culture model with a low success rate of translating to Phase I or Phase II clinical studies. In comparison, with the advent of developments three-dimensional (3D) cell culture has been championed as the latest cellular model system that better mimics in vivo conditions and pathological conditions such as cancer. In comparison to biospecimens taken from in vivo tissue, the details of gene expression of 3D culture models are largely undefined, especially in mesothelioma - an aggressive cancer with very limited effective treatment options. In this study, we examined the veracity of the 3D mesothelioma cell culture model to study cell-to-cell interaction, gene expression and drug response from 3D cell culture, and compared them to 2D cell and tumor samples. We confirmed via SEM analysis that 3D cells grown using the spheroid methods expressed highly interconnected cell-to-cell junctions. The 3D spheroids were revealed to be an improved mini-tumor model as indicated by the TEM visualization of cell junctions and microvilli, features not seen in the 2D models. Growing 3D cell models using decellularized lung scaffold provided a platform for cell growth and infiltration for all cell types including primary cell lines. The most time-effective method was growing cells in spheroids using low-adhesive U-bottom plates. However, not every cell type grew into a 3D model using the the other methods of hanging drop or poly-HEMA. Cells grown in 3D showed more resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, exhibiting reduced apoptosis. 3D cells stained with H&E showed cell-to-cell interactions and internal architecture that better represent that of in vivo patient tumors when compared to 2D cells. IHC staining revealed increased protein expression in 3D spheroids compared to 2D culture. Lastly, cells grown in 3D showed very different microRNA expression when compared to that of 2D counterparts. In conclusion, 3D cell models, regardless of which method is used. Showed a more realistic tumor microenvironment for architecture, gene expression and drug response, when compared to 2D cell models, and thus are superior preclinical cancer models.

RevDate: 2022-09-09

Trassl L, GT Stathopoulos (2022)

KRAS Pathway Alterations in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: An Underestimated Player.

Cancers, 14(17): pii:cancers14174303.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, incurable cancer of the mesothelial cells lining the lungs and the chest wall that is mainly caused by asbestos inhalation. The molecular mechanisms of mesothelial carcinogenesis are still unclear despite comprehensive studies of the mutational landscape of MPM, and the most frequently mutated genes BAP1, NF2, CDKN2A, TP53, and TSC1 cannot cause MPM in mice in a standalone fashion. Although KRAS pathway alterations were sporadically detected in older studies employing targeted sequencing, they have been largely undetected by next generation sequencing. We recently identified KRAS mutations and copy number alterations in a significant proportion of MPM patients. Here, we review and analyze multiple human datasets and the published literature to show that, in addition to KRAS, multiple other genes of the KRAS pathway are perturbed in a significant proportion of patients with MPM.

RevDate: 2022-09-09

Ranzato E, Bonsignore G, S Martinotti (2022)

ER Stress Response and Induction of Apoptosis in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: The Achilles Heel Targeted by the Anticancer Ruthenium Drug BOLD-100.

Cancers, 14(17): pii:cancers14174126.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare cancer arising from the serosal surfaces of the body, mainly from the pleural layer. This cancer is strongly related to asbestos exposure and shows a very inauspicious prognosis, because there are scarce therapeutic options for this rare disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic approaches to treat this form of cancer. To explore the biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), we previously observed that MPM cell lines show high expression of the GRP78 protein, which is a chaperone protein and the master regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on our previous studies showing the importance of GRP78 in MPM, we observed that BOLD-100, a specific modulator of GRP78 and the UPR, shows cytotoxicity against MPM cells. Our studies demonstrated that BOLD-100 increases ROS production and Ca2+ release from the ER, leading to ER stress activation and, ultimately, to cell death. Our in vitro data strongly suggest that BOLD-100 inhibits the growth of MPM cell lines, proposing the application as a single agent, or in combination with other standard-of-care drugs, to treat MPM.

RevDate: 2022-09-12
CmpDate: 2022-09-12

Pietrofesa RA, Chatterjee S, Kadariya Y, et al (2022)

Synthetic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605) Prevents Asbestos-Induced Inflammation and Genotoxic Cell Damage in Human Mesothelial Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(17): pii:ijms231710085.

Although alveolar macrophages play a critical role in malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure, inflammatory and oxidative processes continue to occur in the mesothelial cells lining the pleura that may contribute to the carcinogenic process. Malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure occurs over several decades; however, amelioration of DNA damage, inflammation, and cell injury may impede the carcinogenic process. We have shown in an in vitro model of asbestos-induced macrophage activation that synthetic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (LGM2605), given preventively, reduced inflammatory cascades and oxidative/nitrosative cell damage. Therefore, it was hypothesized that LGM2605 could also be effective in reducing asbestos-induced activation and the damage of pleural mesothelial cells. LGM2605 treatment (50 µM) of huma n pleural mesothelial cells was initiated 4 h prior to exposure to asbestos (crocidolite, 20 µg/cm2). Supernatant and cells were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h post asbestos exposure for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage (oxidized guanine), inflammasome activation (caspase-1 activity) and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine release (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα, and HMGB1), and markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (8-iso-PGF2α). Asbestos induced a time-dependent ROS increase that was significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced (29.4%) by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 pretreatment also reduced levels of asbestos-induced DNA damage by 73.6% ± 1.0%. Although levels of inflammasome-activated cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, reached 29.2 pg/mL ± 0.7 pg/mL and 43.9 pg/mL ± 0.8 pg/mL, respectively, LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced cytokine levels comparable to baseline (non-asbestos exposed) values (3.8 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL and 5.4 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, levels of IL-6 and TNFα in asbestos-exposed mesothelial cells were high (289.1 pg/mL ± 2.9 pg/mL and 511.3 pg/mL ± 10.2 pg/mL, respectively), while remaining undetectable with LGM2605 pretreatment. HMGB1 (a key inflammatory mediator and initiator of malignant transformation) release was reduced 75.3% ± 0.4% by LGM2605. Levels of MDA and 8-iso-PGF2α, markers of oxidative cell injury, were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by 80.5% ± 0.1% and 76.6% ± 0.3%, respectively. LGM2605, given preventively, reduced ROS generation, DNA damage, and inflammasome-activated cytokine release and key inflammatory mediators implicated in asbestos-induced malignant transformation of normal mesothelial cells.

RevDate: 2022-09-02

Mai HL, Deshayes S, Nguyen TV, et al (2022)

IL-7 is expressed in malignant mesothelioma and has a prognostic value.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer mainly related to asbestos exposure. Despite recent therapeutic advances, notably immunotherapies, the benefit remains limited and restricted to a small percentage of patients. Thus, a better understanding of the disease is needed to identify new therapeutic strategies. Recently, interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) has been described as being expressed by MPM cells and associated with poorer patient survival. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the IL-7R/IL-7 pathway in MPM using patient samples. We found that, although more than 40% of MPM cells expressed IL-7R, IL-7 had no effect on their intracellular signalling. Accordingly, the addition of IL-7 to the culture medium did not affect MPM cell growth. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we showed that high IL7 gene expression in MPM tumours was associated with a higher overall patient survival and an induction of genes involved in the immune response. In pleural effusions (PEs), we found that IL-7 concentration was not a good diagnostic biomarker. However, we observed that high IL-7 levels in PEs were associated with shorter survival of MPM patients, but not of lung cancer patients. The prognostic value of IL-7 was also conserved when only patients with epithelioid mesothelioma, the most common histological type of MPM, were analyzed. Taken together, our study suggests that, although the IL-7R/IL-7 signalling pathway is not functional in MPM cells, IL-7 expression in PEs may have prognostic value in MPM patients.

RevDate: 2022-09-01

Viscardi G, Di Natale D, Fasano M, et al (2020)

Circulating biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Exploration of targeted anti-tumor therapy, 1(6):434-451.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor strictly connected to asbestos exposure. Prognosis is dismal as diagnosis commonly occurs in advanced stage. Radiological screenings have not proven to be effective and also pathological diagnosis may be challenging. In the era of precision oncology, validation of robust non-invasive biomarkers for screening of asbestos-exposed individuals, assessment of prognosis and prediction of response to treatments remains an important unmet clinical need. This review provides an overview on current understanding and possible applications of liquid biopsy in MPM, mostly focused on the utility as diagnostic and prognostic test.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Kenchetty PK, Balasundaram S, K Rao (2022)

An uncommon aetiology for a common clinical problem: Primary pericardial mesothelioma.

The National medical journal of India, 35(1):14-16.

Mesothelioma is a tumour arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, or the tunica vaginalis of testes. Primary pericardial mesothelioma is a rare tumour that can have varied manifestations and survival in patients with malignant pericardial tumours is generally dismal. The role of asbestos in pericardial mesotheliomas is less well established compared to that in pleural or peritoneal mesotheliomas. The prognosis is generally poor with the treatment options available. We present a middle-aged man with large pericardial effusion secondary to primary pericardial mesothelioma with no previous exposure to asbestos.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Kerosky ZP, Powell CR, PC Lindholm (2022)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Presenting with High Protein, High Serum-Ascites Albumin Gradient.

Cureus, 14(7):e27286.

Mesothelioma is a difficult-to-detect neoplasm that rarely develops in the peritoneum. In patients with unexplained ascites, pleural fluid analysis and ultrasonography is often the first step to achieving a diagnosis. This case report shares a unique presentation in which a patient who presented with unexplained ascites, was initially thought to have cirrhosis but was later found to have malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after cross-sectional imaging and tissue acquisition. This case illustrates the importance of a high clinical index of suspicion for mesothelioma given its variety of clinical presentations, as well as the utility of early cross-sectional imaging in such cases.

RevDate: 2022-08-29

Noda R, Yanagisawa S, Inoue M, et al (2021)

A case of brain metastasis with pathological transformation of long-surviving malignant pleural mesothelioma: illustrative case.

Journal of neurosurgery. Case lessons, 1(3):CASE2099 pii:CASE2099.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer, and in 80% of cases the cause is asbestos exposure. In 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared asbestos is a carcinogenic substance. Since then, every developed country has restricted and banned the product. Because of its high heat resistance, asbestos had been widely used as building material for decades. The WHO estimated that approximately 125 million people are exposed to asbestos, and more than 107,000 die from asbestos-related diseases annually. Because of its long incubation period, the number of patients is estimated to keep increasing in the near future.

OBSERVATIONS: The authors report a case of long-surviving MPM with a rushed clinical course after brain metastasis. A 69-year-old woman diagnosed with MPM (epithelial type) 6 years earlier presented with a brain metastasis. The pathological result of the brain metastasis was the sarcomatoid type. This case showed the possibility of subtype transition after long survival.

LESSONS: This article aids in understanding the long-term natural history of MPM and the possibility of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Neurosurgeons have to be aware of its the natural history and the possibility of brain metastasis.

RevDate: 2022-08-26

Setlai BP, Mkhize-Kwitshana ZL, Mehrotra R, et al (2022)

Microbiomes, Epigenomics, Immune Response, and Splicing Signatures Interplay: Potential Use of Combination of Regulatory Pathways as Targets for Malignant Mesothelioma.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(16): pii:ijms23168991.

Malignant mesotheliomas (MM) are hard to treat malignancies with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This cancer is highly misdiagnosed in Sub-Saharan African countries. According to literature, the incidence of MM is likely to increase particularly in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). The burden of asbestos-induced diseases was estimated to be about 231,000 per annum. Lack of awareness and implementation of regulatory frameworks to control exposure to asbestos fibers contributes to the expected increase. Exposure to asbestos fibers can lead to cancer initiation by several mechanisms. Asbestos-induced epigenetic modifications of gene expression machinery and non-coding RNAs promote cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, microbiome-epigenetic interactions control the innate and adaptive immunity causing exacerbation of cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. This review discusses epigenetic mechanisms with more focus on miRNAs and their interaction with the microbiome. The potential use of epigenetic alterations and microbiota as specific biomarkers to aid in the early detection and/or development of therapeutic targets is explored. The advancement of combinatorial therapies to prolong overall patient survival or possible eradication of MM especially if it is detected early is discussed.

RevDate: 2022-08-24

Gregório PHP, Terra RM, Lima LP, et al (2022)

Mesothelioma in a developing country: a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic process.

Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia, 48(5):e20220064 pii:S1806-37132022000500200.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) at a tertiary care hospital.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving patients referred to a tertiary-care cancer center in Brazil between 2009 and 2020. The diagnostic process was divided into four steps: onset of symptoms, referral to a specialist visit, histopathological diagnosis, and beginning of treatment. The intervals between each phase and the factors for delays were evaluated. Data including clinical status, radiological examinations, staging, treatment modalities, and survival outcomes were collected.

RESULTS: During the study period, 66 patients (mean age = 64 years) were diagnosed with MPM and underwent treatment. Only 27 (41%) of the patients had knowledge of prior exposure to asbestos. The median number of months (IQR) between the onset of symptoms and the first specialist visit, between the specialist visit and histopathological characterization, and between definite diagnosis and beginning of treatment was, respectively, 6.5 (2.0-11.4), 1.5 (0.6-2.1), and 1.7 (1.2-3.4). The knowledge of prior asbestos exposure was associated with a shorter time to referral to a specialist (median: 214 vs. 120 days; p = 0.04). A substantial number of nondiagnostic procedures and false-negative biopsy results (the majority of which involved the use of Cope needle biopsy) were found to be decisive factors for the length of waiting time. The mean overall survival was 11.9 months.

CONCLUSIONS: The unfamiliarity of health professionals with MPM and the patient's lack of knowledge of prior asbestos exposure were the major factors to cause a long time interval between the onset of symptoms and beginning of treatment. An overall survival shorter than 1 year is likely to have been due to the aforementioned delays.

RevDate: 2022-08-22

Muti P, Sacconi A, Pulito C, et al (2022)

Artichoke phytocomplex modulates serum microRNAs in patients exposed to asbestos: a first step of a phase II clinical trial.

Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR, 41(1):255.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor associated with asbestos exposure. There are few effective treatment options for mesothelioma, and patients have a very poor prognosis. Mesothelioma has the potential to represent an appropriate disease to prevent because of its strong association with asbestos exposure and the long latency from exposure to the disease on-set.

METHODS: In the present study, we tested biological activity and toxicity of an artichoke freeze-dried extract (AWPC) as potential complementary preventive/early stage treatment agent for mesothelioma. This phase II clinical study then was conducted in 18 male-patients with evidence of radiographic characteristics related to asbestos exposure such as asbestosis or benign pleural disease as surrogate disease for mesothelioma clinical model.

RESULTS: We investigate AWPC biological activity assessing its effect on mesothelin serum level, a glycoprotein with low expression in normal mesothelial cells and high expression in mesothelioma and asbestos related diseases. We also assess the AWPC effect on circulating miRNAs, as novel biomarkers of both cancer risk and response to therapeutic targets. While we found a small and not significant effect of AWPC on mesothelin serum levels, we observed that AWPC intake modulated 11 serum miRNAs related to gene-pathways connected to mesothelioma etiology and development. In terms of toxicity, we also did not observe any severe adverse effects associated to AWPC treatment, only gastro-intestinal symptoms were reported by five study participants.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed an interesting AWPC effect on miRNAs which targets modulate mesothelioma development. New and much larger clinical studies based on follow-up of workers exposed to asbestos are needed to corroborate the role of AWPC in prevention and early treatment of mesothelioma.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02076672 . Registered 03/03/2014.

RevDate: 2022-08-18

Jiang Z, Chen J, Chen J, et al (2022)

Mortality due to respiratory system disease and lung cancer among female workers exposed to chrysotile in Eastern China: A cross-sectional study.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:928839.

Female workers in the asbestos processing industry of Eastern China are at high risk of developing multiple types of cancer, and more data are urgently needed to better understand and address this issue. Death certificate data were selected from an asbestos processing city in China from 2005 to 2006. Information was investigated using the relatives of those individuals who had died as sources of information. Individuals were classified into one of three asbestos exposure levels. Standardized mortality ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. A total of 2,964 individual deaths were identified from 2005 to 2006; of these, 21.4% were occupationally exposed to asbestos. The main cause of death was circulatory system diseases (21.2%). The proportion of individuals with respiratory system diseases increased by age among each exposure subgroup (P trend < 0.01). Among females, a significant trend was observed between increased asbestos exposure and mortality due to respiratory system diseases and lung cancer. Our study indicated that asbestos exposure was associated with excess mortality from lung cancer and respiratory diseases, particularly among female workers in an asbestos processing area in Eastern China.

RevDate: 2022-08-09
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Yang H, Gaudino G, Bardelli F, et al (2022)

Does the Amount of Asbestos Exposure Influence Prognosis?.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 17(8):949-952.

RevDate: 2022-08-08

Chun CP, Song LX, Zhang HP, et al (2022)

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

The American journal of the medical sciences pii:S0002-9629(22)00332-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, life-threatening malignant tumor. We present a report of a rare case of a 67-year-old male patient with MPM and severe abdominal pain, bloating, and bloody ascites as manifestations. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology of ascites aspiration fluid and further verified by laparoscopic exploratory biopsy. The characteristics of signs and clinical manifestations in this case are less common. As everyone knows, asbestos exposure is usually associated with pleural mesothelioma, but only 6%-10% of malignant mesothelioma cases originate from the peritoneum, which is far less than pleural mesothelioma. Generally, its non-specificity provides a huge challenge to medical professionals in its diagnosis, and this is also the main reason for delayed diagnosis. Patients should be vigilant, even though no clear risk factor is observed.

RevDate: 2022-08-08

Shobana M, Balasraswathi VR, Radhika R, et al (2022)

Classification and Detection of Mesothelioma Cancer Using Feature Selection-Enabled Machine Learning Technique.

BioMed research international, 2022:9900668.

Cancer of the mesothelium, sometimes referred to as malignant mesothelioma (MM), is an extremely uncommon form of the illness that almost always results in death. Chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy are all potential treatments for multiple myeloma; however, the majority of patients are identified with the disease at an advanced stage, at which time it is resistant to these therapies. After obtaining a diagnosis of advanced multiple myeloma, the average length of time that a person lives is one year after hearing this news. There is a substantial link between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma (MM). Using an approach that enables feature selection and machine learning, this article proposes a classification and detection method for mesothelioma cancer. The CFS correlation-based feature selection approach is first used in the feature selection process. It acts as a filter, selecting just the traits that are relevant to the categorization. The accuracy of the categorization model is improved as a direct consequence of this. After that, classification is carried out with the help of naive Bayes, fuzzy SVM, and the ID3 algorithm. Various metrics have been utilized during the process of measuring the effectiveness of machine learning strategies. It has been discovered that the choice of features has a substantial influence on the accuracy of the categorization.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Røe OD, Creaney J, BAP1 Study Group (2022)

Response to "Revisiting 'BAP1ness' in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma".

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 17(8):e69-e70.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Tachibana M, Nozawa M, Kamimura K, et al (2022)

Synchronous Jejunal Sarcomatoid Carcinoma and Incidentally Associated Localized Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma.

Cureus, 14(6):e26270.

Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SCA) of the small bowel is a rare aggressive variant of small intestinal cancer accompanying a poor prognosis. The tumor primarily affects middle-aged and elderly patients. We report herein a 67-year-old Japanese male who manifested anemia. He had a history of asbestos exposure 30 years earlier. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 6.5-cm aneurysmal, dilated mass of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy revealed a large circumferential hemorrhagic ulcerative lesion in the jejunum. Biopsy indicated sarcomatoid carcinoma, and partial resection of the small bowel and adjacent transverse colon and omentum was performed. In addition to the T3N0M0 jejunal giant sarcomatoid carcinoma (SCA), a 3-mm small localized peritoneal (omental) malignant mesothelioma (LMM) was also incidentally included. Synchronous presentation of small intestinal and mesothelial malignancies is extremely rare, and the avoidance of incorrect clinical staging is critically important. Surgical resection is still considered the best first-line therapy, because of a poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Dual-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for p16/CDKN2A and chromosome 9 indicated homologous deletion of p16/CDKN2A in SCA and a normal pattern in LMM. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) was negative in SCA but positive in LMM. Both tumors consistently expressed BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1). Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7) was suppressed, and neural cell adhesion molecule L1 precursor (NCAML1/L1CAM) was agitated in both tumors. Diffuse and strong expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and the association of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in SCA may indicate a potential for PD-L1-targeted immunotherapy for treating this type of aggressive cancer. PD-L1 was focally expressed in LMM. The postoperative course was uneventful for two years.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Parvathaneni V, Chilamakuri R, Kulkarni NS, et al (2022)

Repurposing clofazimine for malignant pleural mesothelioma treatment - In-vitro assessment of efficacy and mechanism of action.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(22)00543-4 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer of lungs' pleural cavity, with minimally effective therapies available. Thus, there exists a necessity for drug repurposing which is an attractive strategy for drug development in MPM. Repurposing of an old FDA-approved anti-leprotic drug, Clofazimine (CFZ), presents an outstanding opportunity to explore its efficacy in treating MPM.

MAIN METHODS: Cytotoxicity, scratch assay, and clonogenic assays were employed to determine CFZ's ability to inhibit cell viability, cell migration, and colony growth. 3D Spheroid cell culture studies were performed to identify tumor growth inhibition potential of CFZ in MSTO-211H cell line. Gene expression analysis was performed using RT-qPCR assays to determine the CFZ's effect of key genes. Western blot studies were performed to determine CFZ's ability to induce apoptosis its effect to induce autophagy marker.

KEY FINDINGS: CFZ showed significant cytotoxicity against both immortalized and primary patient-derived cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 3.4 μM (MSTO-211H) to 7.1 μM (HAY). CFZ significantly impaired MPM cell cloning efficiency, migration, and tumor spheroid formation. 3D Spheroid model showed that CFZ resulted in reduction in spheroid volume. RT-qPCR data showed downregulation of genes β-catenin, BCL-9, and PRDX1; and upregulation of apoptosis markers such as PARP, Cleaved caspase 3, and AXIN2. Additionally, immunoblot analysis showed that CFZ down-regulates the expression of β-catenin (apoptosis induction) and up-regulates p62, LC3B protein II (autophagy inhibition).

SIGNIFICANCE: It can be concluded that CFZ could be a promising molecule to repurpose for MPM treatment which needs numerous efforts from further studies.

RevDate: 2022-07-19

Price B (2022)

Projection of future numbers of mesothelioma cases in the US and the increasing prevalence of background cases: an update based on SEER data for 1975 through 2018.

Critical reviews in toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Historically, mesothelioma, which is almost exclusively a cancer of the pleura or peritoneum, has been referred to as a sentinel disease for asbestos exposure meaning that the disease is an epidemiologic marker for asbestos. This description of mesothelioma often has been misinterpreted to mean that the only risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos. In addition to a few risk factors other than asbestos, in the US, background mesotheliomas, i.e. mesothelioma cases that are a consequence of spontaneous tumor formation, are the most prevalent number of cases after asbestos-associated cases.1 My analysis of SEER data for 1973 through 2005 published in 2009 projected that around 2040 virtually all mesothelioma cases in the US will be background cases. The update here, which is based on the most current SEER data, 1975 through 2018, and the same methods used in 2009 shows that the pattern of mesothelioma incidence is unchanged. Further, in general agreement with the analysis published in 2009, after 2040 virtually all mesothelioma cases, currently estimated to be approximately 1600 per year, will be background cases.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Dubois F, Bazille C, Levallet J, et al (2022)

Molecular Alterations in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Hope for Effective Treatment by Targeting YAP.

Targeted oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, which has primarily been attributed to the exposure to asbestos fibers (83% of cases); yet, despite a ban of using asbestos in many countries, the incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma failed to decline worldwide. While little progress has been made in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis, bevacizumab at first, then followed by double immunotherapy (nivolumab plus ipilumumab), were all shown to improve survival in large phase III randomized trials. The morphological analysis of the histological subtyping remains the primary indicator for therapeutic decision making at an advanced disease stage, while a platinum-based chemotherapy regimen combined with pemetrexed, either with or without bevacizumab, is still the main treatment option. Consequently, malignant pleural mesothelioma still represents a significant health concern owing to poor median survival (12-18 months). Given this context, both diagnosis and therapy improvements require better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant pleural mesothelioma's carcinogenesis and progression. Hence, the Hippo pathway in malignant pleural mesothelioma initiation and progression has recently received increasing attention, as the aberrant expression of its core components may be closely related to patient prognosis. The purpose of this review was to provide a critical analysis of our current knowledge on these topics, the main focus being on the available evidence concerning the role of each Hippo pathway's member as a promising biomarker, enabling detection of the disease at earlier stages and thus improving prognosis.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Sculco M, La Vecchia M, Aspesi A, et al (2022)

Diagnostics of BAP1-Tumor Predisposition Syndrome by a Multitesting Approach: A Ten-Year-Long Experience.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(7): pii:diagnostics12071710.

Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) lead to BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS), characterized by high susceptibility to several tumor types, chiefly melanoma, mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Here, we present the results of our ten-year experience in the molecular diagnosis of BAP1-TPDS, along with a clinical update and cascade genetic testing of previously reported BAP1-TPDS patients and their relatives. Specifically, we sequenced germline DNA samples from 101 individuals with suspected BAP1-TPDS and validated pathogenic variants (PVs) by assessing BAP1 somatic loss in matching tumor specimens. Overall, we identified seven patients (7/101, 6.9%) carrying six different germline BAP1 PVs, including one novel variant. Consistently, cascade testing revealed a total of seven BAP1 PV carriers. In addition, we explored the mutational burden of BAP1-TPDS tumors by targeted next-generation sequencing. Lastly, we found that certain tumors present in PV carriers retain a wild-type BAP1 allele, suggesting a sporadic origin of these tumors or a functional role of heterozygous BAP1 in neoplastic development. Altogether, our findings have important clinical implications for therapeutic response of BAP1-TPDS patients.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Pandey SK, Machlof-Cohen R, Santhanam M, et al (2022)

Silencing VDAC1 to Treat Mesothelioma Cancer: Tumor Reprograming and Altering Tumor Hallmarks.

Biomolecules, 12(7): pii:biom12070895.

Mesothelioma, an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis, is linked to asbestos exposure. However, carbon nanotubes found in materials we are exposed to daily can cause mesothelioma cancer. Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to support increased biosynthetic and energy demands required for their growth and motility. Here, we examined the effects of silencing the expression of the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), controlling the metabolic and energetic crosstalk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. We demonstrate that VDAC1 is overexpressed in mesothelioma patients; its levels increase with disease stage and are associated with low survival rates. Silencing VDAC1 expression using a specific siRNA identifying both mouse and human VDAC1 (si-m/hVDAC1-B) inhibits cell proliferation of mesothelioma cancer cells. Treatment of xenografts of human-derived H226 cells or mouse-derived AB1 cells with si-m/hVDAC1-B inhibited tumor growth and caused metabolism reprogramming, as reflected in the decreased expression of metabolism-related proteins, including glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (-)cycle enzymes and the ATP-synthesizing enzyme. In addition, tumors depleted of VDAC1 showed altered microenvironments and inflammation, both associated with cancer progression. Finally, tumor VDAC1 silencing also eliminated cancer stem cells and induced cell differentiation to normal-like cells. The results show that silencing VDAC1 expression leads to reprogrammed metabolism and to multiple effects from tumor growth inhibition to modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inflammation, inducing differentiation of malignant cells. Thus, silencing VDAC1 is a potential therapeutic approach to treating mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Di Marzio N, Ananthanarayanan P, Guex AG, et al (2022)

Sound-based assembly of a microcapillary network in a saturn-like tumor model for drug testing.

Materials today. Bio, 16:100357 pii:S2590-0064(22)00155-7.

The tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of extracellular matrix, proteins, stromal cells, and a vascular system, is reported to have a key role in cancer progression and prognosis. Thereby, the interaction between the vascular network and tumor mass is an important feature of the TME since the anticancer agents which are delivered to the TME can trigger the vascular response and influence the therapeutic outcome of the treatment. To identify and develop new therapeutic strategies, 3D in vitro models that recapitulate the complexity of the TME are urgently needed. Among them, vascularized tumor models are a promising approach, allowing to target tumor angiogenesis and reduce tumor growth. By using sound patterning, cells can be condensed locally into highly reproducible patterns through the action of mild hydrodynamic forces. Here, we use a soundwave-driven cell assembly approach to create a ring-shaped microcapillary network in fibrin hydrogel. Then, we generate a 3D vascularized tumor model by combining a tumor heterotypic spheroid, consisting of fibroblasts and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) cells, with the surrounding vascular ring. Based on its shape, we name it Saturn-like vascularized Tumor Model (STM). The growth of the microcapillary network is monitored over time by fluorescence imaging. The area covered by the microcapillary network, and its continuous increase in presence of the heterotypic tumor spheroid was monitored. Interestingly, this effect is enhanced when treating the STM with the anticancer agent Cisplatin. Overall, we show the use of sound patterning as a fast and cell-friendly approach to spatially organize and condense cells, to generate a 3D in vitro platform from which simple readouts of drug tests can be extracted by image analysis, with the potential to provide a model system for tailored tumor therapy.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Urban M, Pelclová D, Urban P, et al (2022)

Asbestos danger in central Europe is not yet over - the situation in the Czech Republic.

Central European journal of public health, 30(2):67-73.

OBJECTIVES: In the Czech Republic, asbestos has been classified as a known human carcinogen since 1984. The use of asbestos-containing products was limited to scenarios where the use of other materials was not possible. Since 1997, the manufacture of asbestos materials has been forbidden, and in 1999, the import, manufacture and distribution of all types of asbestos fibres was legally banned by Act No. 157/1998 Coll. Although the use of asbestos is forbidden, the risk of exposure still exists given the ongoing demolition and reconstruction of buildings in which asbestos has been used. In addition, a novel risk has arisen through the quarrying of asbestos-containing aggregates and their subsequent use. The aim of this paper was to describe and evaluate asbestos in terms of history, legislation, current risk of occupational exposure and its health consequences in the Czech Republic over the last three decades.

METHODS: This retrospective descriptive study used the collected data on occupational exposure and occupational diseases. The counts of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were obtained from the Registry of Work Categorization; the numbers and structure of occupational diseases caused by asbestos were taken from the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases. Data on the total number of mesothelioma cases recorded in the Czech National Cancer Registry was provided by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic.

RESULTS: A total of 13,112 subjects were registered as occupationally exposed to asbestos during the period 2001-2020. A total of 687 cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases were reported in the period 1991-2020 in the Czech Republic, comprising 178 cases of asbestosis, 250 cases of pleural hyalinosis, 168 cases of pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma, 90 cases of lung cancer, and one case of laryngeal cancer. The data from the Czech National Cancer Registry, available for a shorter period (1991-2018), reveal 1,389 cases of mesothelioma, of which only ~11% were recognised as occupational, despite the fact that the occupational causality of mesotheliomas is estimated to be up to 90% of mesotheliomas. Moreover, the latency of mesotheliomas since the last occupational exposure reached up to 50 years and this trend is still slightly increasing, unlike asbestosis, where a high cumulative dose of inhaled asbestos is needed. The real proportion of occupational lung cancers may obviously be even higher, especially in smokers, where occupational causes including asbestos are not suspected by most physicians.

CONCLUSION: Czech data on asbestos-related occupational diseases, especially cancers, are grossly underestimated, which is most apparent through the low proportion of mesotheliomas diagnosed as occupational. Asbestos materials in older buildings remained in situ and may represent a danger during reconstruction works. The current source of exposure appears to be quarrying of asbestos-containing aggregate and its subsequent use. Awareness of the professional community is therefore crucial, not only for the possibility of compensating those affected, but also for the early detection of the diseases through the dispensary of exposed persons.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Mazzoni E, Bononi I, Rotondo JC, et al (2022)

Sera from Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Tested Positive for IgG Antibodies against SV40 Large T Antigen: The Viral Oncoprotein.

Journal of oncology, 2022:7249912.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a fatal tumor, is mainly linked to the asbestos exposure. It has been reported that together with the inhalation of asbestos fibers, other factors are involved in the MPM onset, including simian virus 40 (SV40). SV40, a polyomavirus with oncogenic potential, induces (i) in vitro the mesenchymal cell transformation, whereas (ii) in vivo the MPM onset in experimental animals. The association between MPM and SV40 in humans remains to be elucidated. Sera (n = 415) from MPM-affected patients (MPM cohort 1; n = 152) and healthy subjects (HSs, n = 263) were investigated for their immunoglobulin G (IgG) against simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (Tag), which is the transforming protein. Sera were investigated with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two synthetic peptides from SV40 Tag protein. SV40 Tag protein was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining on MPM samples (MPM cohort 2; n = 20). Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples were obtained from MPM patients unrelated to MPM serum donors. The proportion of sera, from MPM patients, showing antibodies against SV40 Tag (34%) was significantly higher compared to HSs (20%) (odds ratio 2.049, CI 95% 1.32-3.224; p=0.0026). Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) assays showed SV40 Tag expression in 8/20, 40% of MPM specimens. These results indicate that SV40 is linked to a large fraction of MPM. It is worth noting that the prevalence of SV40 Tag antibodies detected in sera from cohort 1 of MPM patients is similar to the prevalence of SV40 Tag found to be expressed in FFPE tissues from MPM cohort 2.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Thives LP, Ghisi E, Thives Júnior JJ, et al (2022)

Is asbestos still a problem in the world? A current review.

Journal of environmental management, 319:115716 pii:S0301-4797(22)01289-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos has been used by automobile, construction, manufacturing, power, and chemical industries for many years due to its particular properties, i.e. high tensile strength, non-flammable, thermal and electrical resistance and stability, and chemical resistance. However, such a mineral causes harmful effects to human health, including different types of cancer (e.g., mesothelioma). As a result, the use of asbestos has been banned since the 1980s in many countries. Nonetheless, asbestos is still part of the daily life of the population as asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) are still present in many buildings constructed and renovated before the 1990s. This work aims to present a current literature review about asbestos. The literature review was composed mainly of research articles published in international journals from the medical and engineering disciplines to provide an overview of asbestos use effects reported in interdisciplinary areas. The literature review comprised asbestos characteristics and its relationship to the risks of human exposure, countries where asbestos use is permitted or banned, reducing asbestos in the built environment, and environmental impact due to use and disposal of asbestos. The main findings were that ACMs are still responsible for severe human diseases, particularly in areas where there is a lack of coordinated asbestos management plans, reduced awareness about asbestos health risks, or even a delay in the implementation of asbestos-ban. Such issues may be more prevailing in developing countries. The current research in many countries contemplates several methodologies and techniques to process ACMs into inert and recyclable materials. The identification and coordinated management of ACM hazardous waste is a significant challenge to be faced by countries, and its inadequate disposal causes severe risk of exposure to asbestos fibres. Based on this work, it was concluded that banning asbestos is indicated in all countries in the world.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Kumar N, Natrayan L, Kasirajan G, et al (2022)

Development of Novel Bio-mulberry-Reinforced Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Fibre Organic Brake Friction Composite Materials.

Bioinorganic chemistry and applications, 2022:6426763.

Natural fibre reinforcement is used in important sectors such as medical, aerospace, automobile, and many other fields. Many articles have reported that natural fibre has the potential to replace synthetic fibres. Natural fibre reinforcement has given good results as a brake friction material. It has already been proven that asbestos causes lung cancer and mesothelioma in brakes. Many people died from the effects of asbestos. According to the World Health Organization's trending brake report, this material leads to serious health issues. This work is going on for the replacement of these materials. Mulberry fibre is a unique material, and PAN fibre is combined with mulberry fibre and used as a brake reinforcement material to replace Kevlar fibre. The brake pads were fabricated with the various wt% of mulberry fibres and PAN fibre [3-12%] with an equal ratio and aramid fibre [3-6%] in the hydraulic hind brake moulding machine. The mechanical, chemical, physical, tribological, and thermal properties were evaluated. MF-2 [6 wt%] mulberry-PAN-fibre-based brake pad composites have shown better results for ultimate shear strength and proof stress, tensile strength, compressive strength, and impact energy.

RevDate: 2022-07-15

Henshall C, Dawson P, Rahman N, et al (2022)

Understanding clinical decision-making in mesothelioma care: a mixed methods study.

BMJ open respiratory research, 9(1):.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare, incurable cancer arising from previous asbestos exposure; patients have a poor prognosis, with a median survival rate of 8-14 months. Variation in mesothelioma clinical decision-making remains common with a lack of multidisciplinary knowledge sharing, leading to inconsistencies in treatment decisions. The study aimed to explore which factors impacted on clinicians' decision-making in mesothelioma care, with a view to optimising the mesothelioma care pathway.

METHODS: This mixed methods study consisted of documentary analysis of local and national guidelines, policies or documents pertaining to mesothelioma care pathways, secondary analysis of mesothelioma patient data, and interviews with clinicians attending lung cancer and/or mesothelioma-specific multidisciplinary team meetings. The study took place at three National Health Service trusts in England. Documentations relating to patients' treatment pathways were collated and reviewed qualitatively. Records of patients with mesothelioma were extracted from hospital patient records and data collected on diagnosis date, treatment, mortality rates, survival postdiagnosis, age and clinical care team. Data were statistically analysed. Interviews with clinicians explored influences on clinical decision-making, including challenges or barriers involved. Data were thematically analysed. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology reporting checklist was used.

RESULTS: There were differences in the structure and delivery of mesothelioma treatment and care between trusts. Four main themes were identified: 'collaboration and communication', 'evidence base and knowledge', 'role of the clinician' and 'role of the patient'. Two cross-cutting themes relating to the role of the mesothelioma nurse specialist and the impact of COVID-19 were identified.

DISCUSSION: There is a need to review the structure of mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meetings to ensure patients are reviewed by clinicians with appropriate knowledge, expertise and understanding of how, why and when decisions should be made. There is a need for expert clinicians in mesothelioma care to promote an up-to-date evidence and knowledge base within the wider multidisciplinary team.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Ma GY, Shi S, Wang P, et al (2022)

Clinical significance of 9P21 gene combined with BAP1 and MTAP protein expression in diagnosis and prognosis of mesothelioma serous effusion.

Biomedical reports, 17(2):66 pii:BR-17-2-01549.

The diagnostic value of the 9P21 gene determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) expression detection by immunohistochemistry, was investigated in serous effusion samples of malignant mesothelioma. A total of 70 serous disease samples with serous effusion were collected from June 2017 to June 2020. Following biopsy specimen pathological diagnosis, samples were divided into malignant mesothelioma and benign mesothelioma. Differential expression of BAP1 and MTAP genes were identified in mesothelioma and mesenchymal hyperplasia. The 9P21 gene fragment was lost in mesothelioma. The positive rates of FISH, BAP1 and MTAP in biopsy specimens were 98.00, 94.00 and 90.00%. The specificity of the three were 96.00, 85.71 and 77.27%, the sensitivity were 90.00, 95.92 and 93.75%, and the positive rate of the combined detection of the three was 93.33%. The positive rate of serous fluid samples detected by the three methods (9P21 FISH probe combined with BAP1 and MTAP expression detected immunohistochemically) was 96.00, 92.00 and 88.00%, the specificity were 90.00, 77.27 and 71.43%, the sensitivity was 96.00, 93.75 and 89.80%, and the positive rate of the three combined detections was 91.33%. It was demonstrated that there was a high consistency between serous fluid samples and biopsy samples. According to clinicopathological analysis, sex, age, lesion site, Ki67 had little association with the occurrence and development of malignant mesothelioma, while asbestos exposure history was closely associated to the occurrence of mesothelioma. A high level of BAP1 gene was positively associated with the prognosis of mesothelioma, while a high level of MTAP gene was negatively associated with the prognosis of mesothelioma (P<0.05). Therefore, 9P21 FISH probe combined with BAP1 and MTAP can be used as a new method for the detection of malignant mesothelioma, and provide an important basis for the early diagnosis of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Janssens E, Schillebeeckx E, Zwijsen K, et al (2022)

External Validation of a Breath-Based Prediction Model for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 14(13): pii:cancers14133182.

During the past decade, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath have emerged as promising biomarkers for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, as these biomarkers lack external validation, no breath test for MPM has been implemented in clinical practice. To address this issue, we performed the first external validation of a VOC-based prediction model for MPM. The external validation cohort was prospectively recruited, consisting of 47 MPM patients and 76 asbestos-exposed (AEx) controls. The predictive performance of the previously developed model was assessed by determining the degree of agreement between the predicted and actual outcome of the participants (patient/control). Additionally, to optimise the performance, the model was updated by refitting it to the validation cohort. External validation revealed a poor performance of the original model as the accuracy was estimated at only 41%, indicating poor generalisability. However, subsequent updating of the model improved the differentiation between MPM patients and AEx controls significantly (73% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 92% negative predictive value), substantiating the validity of the original predictors. This updated model will be more generalisable to the target population and exhibits key characteristics of a potential screening test for MPM, which could significantly impact MPM management.

RevDate: 2022-07-09

Song Y, Baxter SS, Dai L, et al (2022)

Mesothelioma Mouse Models with Mixed Genomic States of Chromosome and Microsatellite Instability.

Cancers, 14(13): pii:cancers14133108.

Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a rare malignancy originating from the linings of the pleural, peritoneal and pericardial cavities. The best-defined risk factor is exposure to carcinogenic mineral fibers (e.g., asbestos). Genomic studies have revealed that the most frequent genetic lesions in human MMe are mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Several genetically engineered mouse models have been generated by introducing the same genetic lesions found in human MMe. However, most of these models require specialized breeding facilities and long-term exposure of mice to asbestos for MMe development. Thus, an alternative model with high tumor penetrance without asbestos is urgently needed. We characterized an orthotopic model using MMe cells derived from Cdkn2a+/-;Nf2+/- mice chronically injected with asbestos. These MMe cells were tumorigenic upon intraperitoneal injection. Moreover, MMe cells showed mixed chromosome and microsatellite instability, supporting the notion that genomic instability is relevant in MMe pathogenesis. In addition, microsatellite markers were detectable in the plasma of tumor-bearing mice, indicating a potential use for early cancer detection and monitoring the effects of interventions. This orthotopic model with rapid development of MMe without asbestos exposure represents genomic instability and specific molecular targets for therapeutic or preventive interventions to enable preclinical proof of concept for the intervention in an immunocompetent setting.

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Tanaka T, Asakura S, Hisamatsu K, et al (2022)

Thrombocytopenia as an Immune-Related Adverse Event in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Case Report.

JTO clinical and research reports, 3(7):100351 pii:S2666-3643(22)00075-3.

A 69-year-old man presented with a pulmonary opacity at a regular medical check-up. He had been exposed to asbestos in a chemical fiber manufacturing setting. Result of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (CT) revealed fluorodeoxyglucose accumulations along the right pleura in areas with multiple nodules and irregular pleural thickening. On the basis of analysis of a CT-guided needle biopsy result, he had been diagnosed with having epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. He received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and subsequently, a pleurectomy and decortication. After 6 months, malignant pleural mesothelioma recurred with multiple tumors in the pleural cavity. Nivolumab was administered as salvage immunotherapy. A CT scan result revealed marked tumor reduction; however, his platelet count was low (8000/μL), and he was diagnosed with having nivolumab-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Oral prednisone and thrombopoietin receptor agonist were delivered, and the platelet count improved; therefore, a sustained cycle of nivolumab was resumed. This case revealed that nivolumab could be readministered for continued antitumor effects, with careful management of immune-related adverse events.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

Kuryk L, Rodella G, Staniszewska M, et al (2022)

Novel Insights Into Mesothelioma Therapy: Emerging Avenues and Future Prospects.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:916839.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer that develops in the thin layer surrounding the mesothelium and is mainly caused by asbestos exposure. Despite improvements in patient prognosis with conventional cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, there are still no curative treatment modalities for advanced disease. In recent years, new therapeutic avenues have been explored. Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying the dynamic tumor interaction with the immune system has led to the development of immunotherapeutic approaches. Numerous recent clinical trials have shown a desire to develop more effective treatments that can be used to fight against the disease. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, oncolytic adenoviruses, and their combination represent a promising strategy that can be used to synergistically overcome immunosuppression in the mesothelioma tumor microenvironment. This review provides a synthesized overview of the current state of knowledge on new therapeutic options for mesothelioma with a focus on the results of clinical trials conducted in the field.

RevDate: 2022-07-01

Fennell DA, Dulloo S, J Harber (2022)

Immunotherapy approaches for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Nature reviews. Clinical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past decade, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer. In mesothelioma, a rare cancer with a dismal prognosis generally caused by exposure to asbestos, treatment with single or dual ICIs results in robust improvements in overall survival over previous standard-of-care therapies, both in the first-line and relapsed disease settings. Predictive biological features that underpin response to ICIs remain poorly understood; however, insights into the immune microenvironment and genomic landscape of mesothelioma as well as into their association with response or acquired resistance to ICIs are emerging. Several studies of rational combinations involving ICIs with either another ICI or a different agent are ongoing, with emerging evidence of synergistic antitumour activity. Non-ICI-based immunotherapies, such as peptide-based vaccines and mesothelin-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells, have demonstrated promising efficacy. Moreover, results from pivotal trials of dendritic cell vaccines and viral cytokine delivery, among others, are eagerly awaited. In this Review, we comprehensively summarize the key steps in the development of immunotherapies for mesothelioma, focusing on strategies that have led to randomized clinical evaluation and emerging predictors of response. We then forecast the future treatment opportunities that could arise from ongoing research.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Locher BN, Barresi F, Kuhn BK, et al (2022)

Occupations and geographical distribution of mesothelioma in Switzerland 1989-2018 - record linkage of an asbestos-exposed population with the Swiss National Cohort.

Swiss medical weekly, 152:w30164 pii:Swiss Med Wkly. 2022;152:w30164.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the possibility of linking the data of the Swiss Laboratory for Particle Analysis (Silag), a valuable but incomplete data source in the field of asbestos-related diseases, to the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). With the resulting comprehensive dataset, we intended to provide a source for further research in the field. We also conducted preliminary analyses of data focusing on occupations and regional distribution of malignant pleural mesothelioma cases.

METHODS: Data of asbestos-exposed individuals available from the Silag were anonymously linked with the SNC by means of deterministic record linkage. From this linkage, data on occupation classified according to the international standard classification of occupations (ISCO) as well as the canton of residence in Switzerland could be retrieved.

RESULTS: Of 838 eligible individuals from the Silag data, 788 (94.0%) could be linked to the SNC database, including 476 mesothelioma cases. In 340 cases of the latter, data on occupation and industries were available. Although the majority of them were blue-collar workers, a significant proportion (n = 44, 12.9%) had executive professions. The Canton of residence in 1990 was established in 430 of subjects with mesothelioma. A cluster could be identified in eastern Switzerland, especially in the canton of Glarus.

CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to link the datasets to a large extent thereby creating a data source for further research. Of note, the linkage provided data on occupation of a selection of mesothelioma cases in Switzerland.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Nagamatsu Y, Sakyo Y, Barroga E, et al (2022)

Depression and Complicated Grief, and Associated Factors, of Bereaved Family Members of Patients Who Died of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Japan.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(12): pii:jcm11123380.

OBJECTIVES: we investigated the prevalence and associated factors of depression and complicated grief (CG) among bereaved family members of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients in Japan.

METHODS: Bereaved family members of MPM patients (n = 72) were surveyed. The Japanese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Japanese version of the Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ) were used to assess depression and complicated grief (CG), respectively. Socio-economic factors, anger toward asbestos, care satisfaction, achievement of good death, and quality of end-of-life care were assessed in relation to depression and CG.

RESULTS: In the family members of MPM patients, the frequencies of depression and CG were 19.4% and 15.3%, respectively. The bereaved family members who were not compensated by the asbestos-related health-damage relief system (p = 0.018) and who felt the financial impacts of the patient's MPM on the family (p = 0.006) had a higher likelihood of depression. The bereaved family members who were not satisfied with the care given when the patient became critical (p = 0.034), who were not compensated by the asbestos-related health-damage relief system (p = 0.020), who felt the financial impact of the patient's MPM on the family (p = 0.016), and whose deceased relative underwent surgery (p = 0.030) had a higher likelihood of CG.

CONCLUSIONS: For bereaved family members of MPM patients, routine screening for depression and CG and the provision of grief care are suggested. In addition, for family members of MPM patients, financial support, including the promotion of the asbestos-related health-damage relief system, and improved care for patients who undergo surgery and when patients become critical, are recommended.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Bellini A, Mazzarra S, Sterrantino S, et al (2022)

Second Surgery for Recurrent Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Multimodality Treatment: A Systematic Review.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(12): pii:jcm11123340.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive asbestos-related tumour with poor prognosis. To date, a multimodality treatment, including chemotherapy and surgery, with or without radiotherapy, is the gold standard therapy for selected patients with epithelioid and early-stage MPM. In this setting, the goal of surgery is to achieve the macroscopic complete resection, obtained by either extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication. Failure, in local and/or distant sites, is one of the major concerns; in fact, there has been no established treatment for the recurrence of MPM after the multimodal approach, and the role of surgery in this context is still controversial. By using electronic databases, studies that included recurrent MPM patients who underwent a second surgery were identified. The endpoints included were: a pattern of recurrence, post-recurrence survival (PRS), and the type of second surgery. When available, factors predicting better PRS and perioperative mortality and morbidity were collected. This systematic review offers an overview of the results that are currently obtained in patients undergoing a second surgery for relapsed MPM, with the aim to provide a comprehensive view on this subject that explores if a second surgery leads to an improvement in survival.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Pellavio G, Martinotti S, Patrone M, et al (2022)

Aquaporin-6 May Increase the Resistance to Oxidative Stress of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cells.

Cells, 11(12): pii:cells11121892.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer of the pleural surface and is associated with previous asbestos exposure. The chemotherapy drug is one of the main treatments, but the median survival ranges from 8 to 14 months from diagnosis. The redox homeostasis of tumor cells should be carefully considered since elevated levels of ROS favor cancer cell progression (proliferation and migration), while a further elevation leads to ferroptosis. This study aims to analyze the functioning/role of aquaporins (AQPs) as a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) channel in epithelial and biphasic MPM cell lines, as well as their possible involvement in chemotherapy drug resistance. Results show that AQP-3, -5, -6, -9, and -11 were expressed at mRNA and protein levels. AQP-6 was localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular structures. Compared to normal mesothelial cells, the water permeability of mesothelioma cells is not reduced by exogenous oxidative stress, but it is considerably increased by heat stress, making these cells resistant to ferroptosis. Functional experiments performed in mesothelioma cells silenced for aquaporin-6 revealed that it is responsible, at least in part, for the increase in H2O2 efflux caused by heat stress. Moreover, mesothelioma cells knocked down for AQP-6 showed a reduced proliferation compared to mock cells. Current findings suggest the major role of AQP-6 in providing mesothelioma cells with the ability to resist oxidative stress that underlies their resistance to chemotherapy drugs.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Lee JT, Mittal DL, Warby A, et al (2022)

Dying of mesothelioma: A qualitative exploration of caregiver experiences.

European journal of cancer care [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of family caregivers of people with mesothelioma with focus on end-of-life issues.

METHODS: A qualitative sub-study using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis.

RESULTS: Fourteen caregivers were interviewed; 11 were bereaved. The overarching theme was the impact of patients' diagnosis, treatment and death on caregivers and families. Three main themes were identified: (i) information provision and decision-making; (ii) grief and bereavement; and (iii) involvement and timing of palliative care. Caregivers initially had minimal knowledge of mesothelioma and wanted more information. Prognostic uncertainty caused distress. Grief and bereavement sub-themes were (i) coping and personal priorities; (ii) reflections on dying; and (iii) reflections on care. Caregivers highlighted the importance of creating meaningful events, having hope, 'doing something' and support from family and external sources. Reflections on dying contrasted regret after a 'bad', often unexpected death, with 'good' deaths. Care was made difficult by challenges navigating the health system and perceived gaps. Caregivers reported late referral to palliative care.

CONCLUSION: Lack of information caused challenges for caregivers. Grief and bereavement outcomes varied and may have been adversely impacted by lack of engagement with palliative care. Integrated care with lung cancer coordinators and improved palliative care access may reduce caregiver burden.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Migliore E, Consonni D, Peters S, et al (2022)

Pleural mesothelioma risk by industry and occupation: results from the Multicentre Italian Study on the Etiology of Mesothelioma (MISEM).

Environmental health : a global access science source, 21(1):60.

BACKGROUND: The Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM) estimates mesothelioma incidence and addresses its etiology by assessing cases' exposures but cannot provide relative risk estimates.

OBJECTIVES: i) To estimate pleural mesothelioma relative risk by industry and occupation and by ReNaM categories of asbestos exposure; and ii) to provide quantitative estimates of the exposure-response relationship.

METHODS: A population-based mesothelioma case-control study was conducted in 2012-2014 in five Italian regions. Cases and age and gender frequency-matched controls were interviewed using a standard ReNaM questionnaire. Experts coded work histories according to international standard classifications of industries/occupations and assigned asbestos exposure according to ReNaM categories. Job codes were further linked to SYN-JEM, a quantitative job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE, f/mL-years) was computed by summing individual exposures over lifetime work history. Unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusted by gender, centre and age were fitted to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: Among men we observed increased risks of mesothelioma in many industries and associated occupations, including: asbestos-cement (OR = 3.43), manufacture of railroad equipment (OR = 8.07), shipbuilding and repairing (OR = 2.34), iron and steel mills (OR = 2.15), and construction (OR = 1.94). ORs by ReNaM exposure categories were as follows: definite/probable occupational exposure (OR = 15.8, men; OR = 8.80, women), possible occupational (OR = 2.82, men; OR = 3.70, women), sharing home with an exposed worker (OR = 2.55, men; OR = 10.3, women), residential (OR = 2.14, men; OR = 3.24, women). Based on SYN-JEM, mesothelioma risk increased by almost 30% per f/mL-year (OR = 1.28, CI 1.16-1.42).

CONCLUSIONS: Out study involved five regions with historically different types and levels of industrial development, encompassing one third of the Italian population and half of Italian mesothelioma cases. As expected, we found increased pleural mesothelioma risk in the asbestos industry and in trades with large consumption of asbestos materials. Clear associations were found using both qualitative (ReNaM classifications) and quantitative estimates (using SYN-JEM) of past asbestos exposure, with clear evidence of an exposure-response relationship.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Malpica A, Euscher ED, Marques-Piubelli ML, et al (2022)

Localized Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma (LMPeM) in Women: A Clinicopathologic Study of 18 Cases.

The American journal of surgical pathology pii:00000478-990000000-00036 [Epub ahead of print].

Localized malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor with limited information in the literature. In this study, we present our experience with 18 cases seen in our hospital over a period of 43 years (1978 to 2021). Patients' median age was 55 years (y) (range: 33 to 79 y) and most of them were Caucasians. Patients presented with abdominal pain (11), ascites and right leg swelling (1), abdominal mass (1), and as incidental finding (1). Thirty percent of patients reported asbestos exposure, and all patients with available information had family history of tumors; a third had personal history of tumors. Seventy-seven percent had some form of abdominopelvic surgery and/or inflammatory process. Most cases had microscopic features typically seen in malignant mesothelioma; however, some cases had confounding features such as signet-ring cells, spindle cells, clear cell changes, and adenomatoid tumor-like appearance. BAP-1 by immunohistochemistry was lost in 1/3 cases. Only 1 patient underwent genetic testing and had an MSH2 germline mutation. Homozygous deletion of CDKN2A by FISH was not found in 1 tested case, although next-generation sequencing identified a CDKN2A pathogenic mutation. 16/18 (88%) had surgical treatment, and some also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean overall survival (OS) of our patients was 80.4 months (95% confidence interval: 54.3-106.52); the 3-year OS was 79%, while the 5-year OS was 52.6%. Fifty-three percent of patients had recurrences and 20% had tumor progression. Although the limited sample precludes definitive conclusions, small tumor size, low-grade cytology, and low mitotic index appeared to be associated with an indolent behavior.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Bernstein DM (2022)

The health effects of short fiber chrysotile and amphibole asbestos.

Critical reviews in toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

The potential toxic effects of short chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers with lengths <5 to ∼10 µm have been debated over the years. This stems from the large database of epidemiology, toxicology, and in-vitro studies, each of which often provides different information in understanding and differentiating the effects of short fibers. The epidemiology studies in which the cancer potency estimates were based upon relatively high exposure concentrations provide a conservative assessment that shorter fibers would have little if any effect, especially under controlled exposure or environmental conditions that may occur today. The QSAR models have shown that fiber aspect ratio and Mg content are excellent predictors of cancer potency and that short fibers/particles of amphibole would have no effect. The studies of motor vehicle mechanics and in particular workers who serviced chrysotile containing brakes with the majority of the fibers being short provides evidence that motor vehicle mechanics, including workers who were engaged in brake repair, are not at an increased risk of mesothelioma. Several inhalation toxicology studies clearly differentiated that short chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers did not produce a significant carcinogenic effect in the lung or pleural cavity. Because of dosing and lack of sensitivity to biosolubility, in vitro studies can be difficult to interpret; however, a number have differentiated short chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers from long fibers. Integral to understanding the importance of fiber length in determining possible health effects is an understanding of the biological and physiological function of the respiratory system. Short asbestos fibers, like innocuous dust, can be cleared through the tracheobronchial ciliated mucous transport, phagocytized by macrophages and cleared via the bronchial tree, and can also be removed through the lymphatic system. While the first two methods can remove them from the lung, with lymphatic transport through one-way valves, fibers are removed from the active area of the lung where the fiber-related disease has been shown to develop and can accumulate in lymphatic sumps and lymph nodes. While short asbestos fibers are present in most occupational or environmental exposures, the large body of studies strongly supports that they do not contribute to the health effects of asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Napoli F, Rapa I, Izzo S, et al (2022)

Correction to: Micro-RNA-215 and -375 regulate thymidylate synthase protein expression in pleural mesothelioma and mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Dermawan JK, Torrence D, Lee CH, et al (2022)

EWSR1::YY1 fusion positive peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma harbors mesothelioma epigenetic signature: report of 3 cases in support of an emerging entity.

Genes, chromosomes & cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive malignant neoplasm of mesothelial origin. A small subset of peritoneal mesothelioma is driven by recurrent gene fusions, mostly EWSR1/FUS::ATF1 fusions, with predilection for young adults. To date, only two cases of mesothelioma harboring EWSR1::YY1 fusions have been described. We present three additional cases of EWSR1::YY1-fused peritoneal mesotheliomas, two localized and one diffuse, all occurring in the peritoneum of middle-aged adults (2 females and 1 male), and discovered incidentally by imaging or during surgery performed for unrelated reasons. None presented with symptoms or had a known history of asbestos exposure. All three cases were cellular epithelioid neoplasms with heterogeneous architectural patterns comprising mostly solid nests and sheets with variably papillary and trabecular areas against collagenous stroma. Cytologically, the cells were monomorphic, polygonal, epithelioid cells with dense eosinophilic cytoplasm and centrally located nuclei. Overt mitotic activity or tumor necrosis was absent. All cases showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for pancytokeratin, CK7, and nuclear WT1, patchy to negative calretinin, retained BAP1 expression, and were negative for Ber-EP4 and MOC31. RNA-sequencing confirmed in-frame gene fusion transcripts involving EWSR1 exon 7/8 and YY1 exon 2/3. By unsupervised clustering analysis, the methylation profiles of EWSR1::YY1-fused mesotheliomas clustered similarly with EWSR1/FUS::ATF1-fused mesotheliomas and conventional mesotheliomas, suggesting a mesothelioma epigenetic signature. All three patients underwent surgical resection or cytoreductive surgery of the masses. On follow-up imaging, no recurrence or progression of disease was identified. Our findings suggest that EWSR1::YY1-fusion defines a small subset of peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma in middle-aged adults without history of asbestos exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Usuda K, Niida Y, Ishikawa M, et al (2022)

Genomics of Tumor Origin and Characteristics for Adenocarcinoma and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Case Report.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:858094.

A female underwent a right middle lobectomy for a pulmonary adenocarcinoma (AD). She eventually died of a right malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM; sarcomatoid type) 4 years and 7 months after the removal of the AD even though she did not have any history of asbestos exposure, smoking, or radiation exposure. Her chest CT revealed multiple pulmonary nodules and bilateral pleural effusion with a right pleural tumor directly invading into the abdominal cavity. The genomics of tumor origin and characteristics were examined for the AD and the MPM. As a result, 50 somatic variants were detected in the AD, and 29 somatic variants were detected in the MPM. The variants which were common in both the AD and the MPM were not present, which suggested that the AD and the MPM had occurred independently in different origins. The MPM had two driver oncogenes of TP53 and EP300, but the AD did not. Two driver oncogenes of TP53 and EP300 were hypothesized to make the MPM aggressive. The speed at which the MPM progressed without the patient having a history of asbestos exposure, smoking, or radiation exposure was alarming.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Barbieri PG, Consonni D, A Somigliana (2022)

Asbestos lung burden does not predicts survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma. A necropsy-based study of 185 cases.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(22)00270-2 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related disease with poor survival. The prognostic role of histological subtype is well established. Some studies (without a biological hypothesis) suggested that higher asbestos lung burden is associated with reduced survival.

OBJECTIVES: We performed a necropsy-based study of MPM patients to analyze the relationship between asbestos lung burden and survival.

METHODS: We selected subjects from two series of necropsies: residents in Brescia province (North-West Italy) and workers (or persons living with them) employed in the Monfalcone shipyards (North-East Italy). Asbestos fibers (AF) and bodies (AB) in lung samples were counted using a scanning electron and an optical microscope respectively. Separately in the two series, we analyzed median survival time and fitted multivariable Cox regression models (adjusted for gender, period and age at diagnosis, and morphology) to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three levels of AF counts (reference: <1 million fibers per gram of dry lung tissue).

RESULTS: We analyzed 185 necropsies, 83 in Brescia and 102 in Monfalcone. Despite a much higher lung burden in Monfalcone patients, median survival was slightly shorter in Brescia (8.3 months) than in Monfalcone (10.2 months). In Brescia, for medium (1-9.9) and high (10+) fiber burden HRs were 0.91 (95% CI 0.54-1.53) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.41-3.70). In Monfalcone, the corresponding HRs were 1.18 (95% CI 0.59-2.35) and 1.63 (95% CI 0.77-3.45).

CONCLUSION: No relationship between asbestos lung burden and survival was found. Histological subtype was the strongest prognostic determinant.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Tomita R, Nishijo N, Hayama T, et al (2022)

Discrimination of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cell Lines Using Amino Acid Metabolomics with HPLC.

Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, 45(6):724-729.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a malignancy closely associated with asbestos exposure. Although early diagnosis provides a chance of effective treatment and better prognosis, invasive biopsy and cytological procedure are required for definitive diagnosis. In this study, we developed a method to differentiate between MPM and control cell lines, named "amino acid metabolomics," consisting in the assessment of the balance of their amino acid levels in the cell culture medium. Culture media of MESO-1 (MPM cell line) and Met-5A (control) cells were used in this study to evaluate amino acid levels using HPLC, following the fluorescence derivatization method. The time-dependent changes in amino acid levels were visualized on the score plot following principal component analysis, and the results revealed differential changes in amino acid levels between the two cell culture supernatants. A discriminative model based on linear discriminant analysis could distinguish MPM and control cells.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Johnson M, Allmark P, A Tod (2022)

Living beyond expectations: a qualitative study into the experience of long-term survivors with pleural mesothelioma and their carers.

BMJ open respiratory research, 9(1):.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is characterised by poor prognosis and limited treatment options. However, a minority of patients can survive well beyond these bleak estimates. Little is known about the specific experiences and needs of long-term survivors and families.

STUDY PURPOSE: The study aimed to gain in-depth understanding of the experiences of patients diagnosed with MPM 3 or more years, along with their main carer, and to determine the care and support needs of this group.

PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: People diagnosed with MPM 3 or more years were recruited via asbestos and mesothelioma social media and support groups. Potential participants were asked to identify someone who acted as their main carer.

METHOD: The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative interview design. A topic guide aided a conversational interview style, conducted remotely and recorded. Patient and carer pairs were interviewed jointly when possible, but were given an option for separate interviews if preferred. Fifteen patients, with 14 identifying a main carer, consented to participation.

ANALYSIS: Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and then anonymised by the interviewer. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data iteratively and to develop final themes.

FINDINGS: Three themes were developed. Participants 'Living beyond expectations' remained acutely aware that MPM was incurable, but developed a range of coping strategies. Periods of disease stability were punctuated with crises of progression or treatment ending, straining coping. 'Accessing treatment' was important for patients and carers, despite the associated challenges. They were aware options were limited, and actively sought new treatments and clinical trials. 'Support needs' were met by healthcare professionals, voluntary groups and social media networks.

CONCLUSIONS: Managing patients via regional MPM multidisciplinary teams, facilitating equal access to treatment and trials, could reduce patient and carer burden. Greater awareness and support around crisis points for this group could improve care.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Taeger D, Wichert K, Lehnert M, et al (2022)

Lung cancer and mesothelioma risks in a prospective cohort of workers with asbestos-related lung or pleural diseases.

American journal of industrial medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Asbestos causes mesothelioma and lung cancer. In the European Union, asbestos was banned in 2005, but it is still in use in many other countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the lung cancer and mesothelioma incidence risk of men with benign asbestos-related lung or pleural diseases.

METHODS: Between 2008 and 2018, 2439 male participants of a German surveillance program for asbestos workers were included in the cohort. All participants had a recognized occupational asbestos-related disease of the pleura or lung. We estimated the mesothelioma and lung cancer risks by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

RESULTS: We observed 64 incident lung cancer and 40 mesothelioma cases in the cohort. An SIR of 17.60 (95% CI: 12.57-23.96) was estimated for mesothelioma and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.98-1.62) for lung cancer. The presence of pleural plaques was associated with a strongly increased risk (SIR: 13.14; 95% CI: 8.51-19.40) for mesothelioma, but not for lung cancer (SIR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.76-1.41). The highest lung-cancer risk (SIR: 2.56; 95% CI 1.10-5.04) was revealed for cohort members with less than 40 years since first asbestos exposure. Lung cancer risks by duration of asbestos exposure did not show a consistent time trend, but for time since last exposure a trend for mesothelioma was seen.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, we demonstrated an association between benign asbestos-related lung or pleural disease and mesothelioma risk in workers with a history of occupational asbestos exposure. Because lung-cancer risk is dominated by smoking habits, a possible effect of asbestos exposure may have been masked. Efforts should be made to ban production and use of asbestos worldwide and to establish safe handling rules of legacy asbestos.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Rhazari M, Moueqqit O, Gartini S, et al (2022)

Unexplained Pleural Effusion Leads to the Revelation of a Malignant Mesothelioma: A Case Report.

Cureus, 14(4):e24478.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer that usually affects subjects with prior asbestos exposure, a major risk factor that has been widely known as carcinogenic, and its use is now controlled if not banned in many areas of the world. Malignant mesothelioma originates from mesothelial surface cells covering the serous cavities, and the pleura is its most common site. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) typically presents with pleural effusion and chest wall pain with wide pleural thickening at radiological investigation. Although the histological examination along with immunohistochemistry helps yield the diagnosis, clinicians and experts face many challenges in diagnosing malignant mesothelioma not only due to the rarity of the disease but also due to the similarities that the disease share with other malignancies. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old male patient with a history of chronic asbestos work exposure for 12 years who initially presented with unexplained pleural effusion and chest wall pain and was lost to follow-up but came back later with a worsening clinical state. This case is specially presented to raise awareness against cases of unexplained pleural effusion and chest pain.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Creaney J, Patch AM, Addala V, et al (2022)

Comprehensive genomic and tumour immune profiling reveals potential therapeutic targets in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Genome medicine, 14(1):58.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a poor overall survival with few treatment options. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) combined with the immune features of MPM offers the prospect of identifying changes that could inform future clinical trials.

METHODS: We analysed somatic mutations from 229 MPM samples, including previously published data and 58 samples that had undergone WGS within this study. This was combined with RNA-seq analysis to characterize the tumour immune environment.

RESULTS: The comprehensive genome analysis identified 12 driver genes, including new candidate genes. Whole genome doubling was a frequent event that correlated with shorter survival. Mutational signature analysis revealed SBS5/40 were dominant in 93% of samples, and defects in homologous recombination repair were infrequent in our cohort. The tumour immune environment contained high M2 macrophage infiltrate linked with MMP2, MMP14, TGFB1 and CCL2 expression, representing an immune suppressive environment. The expression of TGFB1 was associated with overall survival. A small subset of samples (less than 10%) had a higher proportion of CD8 T cells and a high cytolytic score, suggesting a 'hot' immune environment independent of the somatic mutations.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose accounting for genomic and immune microenvironment status may influence therapeutic planning in the future.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Porcel JM (2022)

Pleural mesothelioma.

Medicina clinica pii:S0025-7753(22)00177-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The diagnosis of diffuse pleural mesothelioma requires in most cases a pleural biopsy, performed either under imaging guidance (ultrasound or computed tomography) or thoracoscopy. Loss of BAP1 or MTAP expression (immunohistochemistry) and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (fluorescence in situ hybridization) are the basic molecular markers for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. The histologic type and patient's performance status are the most important prognostic factors. Pleural effusion can be managed by the insertion of tunneled pleural catheters, either as a stand-alone measure (e.g., patients not amenable to multimodality therapy who have been diagnosed by pleural fluid cytology or image-guided biopsy) or combined with the administration of aerosolized talc during a diagnostic thoracoscopy. Immunotherapy is one of the front-line approaches in inoperable patients, particularly in biphasic or sarcomatous histologic varieties.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Principe N, Aston WJ, Hope DE, et al (2022)

Comprehensive Testing of Chemotherapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Preclinical Cancer Models Identifies Additive Combinations.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:872295.

Antibodies that target immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) are now a treatment option for multiple cancer types. However, as a monotherapy, objective responses only occur in a minority of patients. Chemotherapy is widely used in combination with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Although a variety of isolated immunostimulatory effects have been reported for several classes of chemotherapeutics, it is unclear which chemotherapeutics provide the most benefit when combined with ICB. We investigated 10 chemotherapies from the main canonical classes dosed at the clinically relevant maximum tolerated dose in combination with anti-CTLA-4/anti-PD-L1 ICB. We screened these chemo-immunotherapy combinations in two murine mesothelioma models from two different genetic backgrounds, and identified chemotherapies that produced additive, neutral or antagonistic effects when combined with ICB. Using flow cytometry and bulk RNAseq, we characterized the tumor immune milieu in additive chemo-immunotherapy combinations. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or cisplatin were additive when combined with ICB while vinorelbine and etoposide provided no additional benefit when combined with ICB. The combination of 5-FU with ICB augmented an inflammatory tumor microenvironment with markedly increased CD8+ T cell activation and upregulation of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-1β signaling. The effective anti-tumor immune response of 5-FU chemo-immunotherapy was dependent on CD8+ T cells but was unaffected when TNFα or IL-1β cytokine signaling pathways were blocked. Our study identified additive and non-additive chemotherapy/ICB combinations and suggests a possible role for increased inflammation in the tumor microenvironment as a basis for effective combination therapy.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Shrestha B, Handa R, Poudel B, et al (2022)

Pericardial Mesothelioma Presenting as Constrictive Pericarditis.

Cureus, 14(4):e24270.

This case report presents a 60-year-old gentleman with a significant smoking history and possible asbestos exposure who was referred to the emergency department for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular rate and symptoms of heart failure. Labs showed normal brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I. His echocardiography finding suggested constrictive pericarditis with an ejection fraction of 60%. A computed tomography scan was concerning for a pericardial mass. Left and right heart catheterization hinted more toward constrictive physiology; however, some findings were concerning for restrictive physiology. Hence, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was done, which established the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy was planned with a maze procedure for atrial fibrillation. However, a malignant neoplasm was seen on a frozen biopsy. Hence, surgery was limited to partial pericardiectomy, as the patient had advanced infiltrative neoplasm that had resulted in constrictive pericarditis. The final pathology report confirmed the diagnosis of malignant pericardial mesothelioma mixed type. Malignancy is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage, like in our case, due to nonspecific initial presentation. A literature review suggests that there is a lack of established consensus on treatment. The response to therapy also seems to be poor and results only in palliation of symptoms, with a median survival of six months from diagnosis despite optimum medical management.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Williams M, Cheng YY, Phimmachanh M, et al (2019)

Tumour suppressor microRNAs contribute to drug resistance in malignant pleural mesothelioma by targeting anti-apoptotic pathways.

Cancer drug resistance (Alhambra, Calif.), 2(4):1193-1206.

Aim: Aberrant microRNA expression is a common event in cancer drug resistance, however its involvement in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) drug resistance is largely unexplored. We aimed to investigate the contribution of microRNAs to the resistance to drugs commonly used in the treatment of MPM. Methods: Drug resistant MPM cell lines were generated by treatment with cisplatin, gemcitabine or vinorelbine. Expression of microRNAs was quantified using RT-qPCR. Apoptosis and drug sensitivity assays were carried out following transfection with microRNA mimics or BCL2 siRNAs combined with drugs. Results: Expression of miR-15a, miR-16 and miR-34a was downregulated in MPM cells with acquired drug resistance. Transfection with miR-15a or miR-16 mimics reversed the resistance to cisplatin, gemcitabine or vinorelbine, whereas miR-34a reversed cisplatin and vinorelbine resistance only. Similarly, in parental cell lines, miR-15a or miR-16 mimics sensitised cells to all drugs, whereas miR-34a increased response to cisplatin and vinorelbine. Increased microRNA expression increased drug-induced apoptosis and caused BCL2 mRNA and protein reduction. RNAi-mediated knockdown of BCL2 partly recapitulated the increase in drug sensitivity in cisplatin and vinorelbine treated cells. Conclusion: Drug-resistant MPM cell lines exhibited reduced expression of tumour suppressor microRNAs. Increasing tumour suppressor of microRNA expression sensitised both drug resistant and parental cell lines to chemotherapeutic agents, in part through targeting of BCL2. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-15a, miR-16 and miR-34a are involved in the acquired and intrinsic drug resistance phenotype of MPM cells.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Mielgo-Rubio X, Cardeña Gutiérrez A, Sotelo Peña V, et al (2022)

Tsunami of immunotherapy reaches mesothelioma.

World journal of clinical oncology, 13(4):267-275.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common type of malignant mesothelioma. It is a rare tumor linked to asbestos exposure and is associated with a poor prognosis. Until very recently, patients with advanced or unresectable disease had limited treatment options, primarily based on doublet chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed. In 2020 and 2021, after more than a decade with no major advances or new drugs, two phase III clinical trials published results positioning immunotherapy as a promising option for the first- and second-line treatment of MPM. Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many cancers and is also showing encouraging results in malignant mesothelioma. Both immune checkpoint inhibition and dual cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death-ligand 1 pathway blockade resulted in significantly improved overall survival in randomized phase III trials. In the CheckMate 743 trial, first-line therapy with nivolumab plus ipilimumab outperformed standard chemotherapy, while in the CONFIRM trial, nivolumab outperformed placebo in patients previously treated with chemotherapy. These two trials represent a major milestone in the treatment of MPM and are set to position immunotherapy as a viable alternative for treatment-naïve patients and patients with progressive disease after chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2022-05-14

Nagamatsu Y, Sakyo Y, Barroga E, et al (2022)

Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Good Death and Quality of End-of-Life Care for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(9): pii:jcm11092541.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients achieved good deaths and good quality of end-of-life care compared with other cancer patients from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger study on the achievement of good deaths of MPM patients and the bereavement of their family members. Bereaved family members of MPM patients in Japan (n = 72) were surveyed. The Good Death Inventory (GDI) was used to assess the achievement of good death. The short version of the Care Evaluation Scale (CES) version 2 was used to assess the quality of end-of-life care. The GDI and CES scores of MPM patients were compared with those of a Japanese cancer population from a previous study.

RESULTS: MPM patients failed to achieve good deaths. Only 12.5% of the MPM patients were free from physical pain. The GDI scores of most of the MPM patients were significantly lower than those of the Japanese cancer population. The CES scores indicated a significantly poorer quality of end-of-life care for the MPM patients than the Japanese cancer population. The total GDI and CES scores were correlated (r = 0.55).

CONCLUSIONS: The quality of end-of-life care for MPM patients remains poor. Moreover, MPM patients do not achieve good deaths from the perspective of their bereaved family members.

RevDate: 2022-05-14

Holzknecht A, Illini O, Hochmair MJ, et al (2022)

Multimodal Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Real-World Experience with 112 Patients.

Cancers, 14(9): pii:cancers14092245.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare pleural cancer associated with asbestos exposure. According to current evidence, the combination of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy improves patients' survival. However, the optimal sequence and weighting of the respective treatment modalities is unclear. In anticipation of the upcoming results of the MARS-2 trial, we sought to determine the relative impact of the respective treatment modalities on complications and overall survival in our own consecutive institutional series of 112 patients. Fifty-seven patients (51%) underwent multimodality therapy with curative intent, while 55 patients (49%) were treated with palliative intent. The median overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort was 16.9 months (95% CI: 13.4-20.4) after diagnosis; 5-year survival was 29% for patients who underwent lung-preserving surgery. In univariate analysis, surgical treatment (p < 0.001), multimodality therapy (p < 0.001), epithelioid subtype (p < 0.001), early tumor stage (p = 0.02) and the absence of arterial hypertension (p = 0.034) were found to be prognostic factors for OS. In multivariate analysis, epithelioid subtype was associated with a survival benefit, whereas the occurrence of complications was associated with worse OS. Multimodality therapy including surgery significantly prolonged the OS of MPM patients compared with multimodal therapy without surgery.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Murphy F, Dekkers S, Braakhuis H, et al (2021)

An integrated approach to testing and assessment of high aspect ratio nanomaterials and its application for grouping based on a common mesothelioma hazard.

NanoImpact, 22:100314.

Here we describe the development of an Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment (IATA) to support the grouping of different types (nanoforms; NFs) of High Aspect Ratio Nanomaterials (HARNs), based on their potential to cause mesothelioma. Hazards posed by the inhalation of HARNs are of particular concern as they exhibit physical characteristics similar to pathogenic asbestos fibres. The approach for grouping HARNs presented here is part of a framework to provide guidance and tools to group similar NFs and aims to reduce the need to assess toxicity on a case-by-case basis. The approach to grouping is hypothesis-driven, in which the hypothesis is based on scientific evidence linking critical physicochemical descriptors for NFs to defined fate/toxicokinetic and hazard outcomes. The HARN IATA prompts users to address relevant questions (at decision nodes; DNs) regarding the morphology, biopersistence and inflammatory potential of the HARNs under investigation to provide the necessary evidence to accept or reject the grouping hypothesis. Each DN in the IATA is addressed in a tiered manner, using data from simple in vitro or in silico methods in the lowest tier or from in vivo approaches in the highest tier. For these proposed methods we provide justification for the critical descriptors and thresholds that allow grouping decisions to be made. Application of the IATA allows the user to selectively identify HARNs which may pose a mesothelioma hazard, as demonstrated through a literature-based case study. By promoting the use of alternative, non-rodent approaches such as in silico modelling, in vitro and cell-free tests in the initial tiers, the IATA testing strategy streamlines information gathering at all stages of innovation through to regulatory risk assessment while reducing the ethical, time and economic burden of testing.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Martens M, Kreidl F, Ehrhart F, et al (2022)

A Community-Driven, Openly Accessible Molecular Pathway Integrating Knowledge on Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:849640.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive malignancy mainly triggered by exposure to asbestos and characterized by complex biology. A significant body of knowledge has been generated over the decades by the research community which has improved our understanding of the disease toward prevention, diagnostic opportunities and new treatments. Omics technologies are opening for additional levels of information and hypotheses. Given the growing complexity and technological spread of biological knowledge in MPM, there is an increasing need for an integrating tool that may allow scientists to access the information and analyze data in a simple and interactive way. We envisioned that a platform to capture this widespread and fast-growing body of knowledge in a machine-readable and simple visual format together with tools for automated large-scale data analysis could be an important support for the work of the general scientist in MPM and for the community to share, critically discuss, distribute and eventually advance scientific results. Toward this goal, with the support of experts in the field and informed by existing literature, we have developed the first version of a molecular pathway model of MPM in the biological pathway database WikiPathways. This provides a visual and interactive overview of interactions and connections between the most central genes, proteins and molecular pathways known to be involved or altered in MPM. Currently, 455 unique genes and 247 interactions are included, derived after stringent manual curation of an initial 39 literature references. The pathway model provides a directly employable research tool with links to common databases and repositories for the exploration and the analysis of omics data. The resource is publicly available in the WikiPathways database (Wikipathways : WP5087) and continues to be under development and curation by the community, enabling the scientists in MPM to actively participate in the prioritization of shared biological knowledge.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Costa A, Forte IM, Ventura E, et al (2022)

Pharmacological reactivation of RBL2/p130 could be an effective antitumoral strategy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 36 Suppl 1:.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor developing from the mesothelium covering the body cavities. The most common MM type affects the pleura surrounding the lungs. MM is mainly associated with asbestos exposure. At present, no curative modalities are effective against MM exist. The molecular mechanisms underlying MM development seem to depend mostly on the inactivation of tumor suppressors, among which also the dysfunction of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein pathway that is a hallmark of cancers. We previously demonstrated that RBL2/p130 is a direct AKT target and its reactivation following AKT inhibition mediates apoptosis in MM. So, we hypothesize that concomitant inhibition of CDK and AKT activity, both converging on the reactivation of RBL2/p130 tumor suppressor role, synergize in counteracting MM. We first assessed, through an MTS assay, the effect of three new generation CDK inhibitors (CDKi), palbociclib, ribociclib, abemaciclib, on the cell viability of MM (NCI-H28, IST-MES TWO, NCI-H2452, MMB, MSTO-211H, NCI-H2052) and immortalized human normal mesothelial (MET-5A) cells at 72h. Then, to verify whether CDKi exerted long-term cell growth inhibition, we performed clonogenic assays upon treatment of all the MM All the MM and mesothelial cell lines. Finally, we also examined, by MTS, the possible synergistic effects of abemaciclib in combination with an AKT inhibitor (AKT1/2 VIII). Our preliminary data show that ribociclib and palbociclib only moderately reduce viability of the MPM cells, whereas abemaciclib shows cytotoxic effects at very low doses in all MM cell lines. Abemaciclib treatment induces a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect in all the MM cell lines without meaningfully affecting the normal mesothelial cells. Interestingly, abemaciclib also induced a cytotoxic effect in the most aggressive histotype, the sarcomatoid NCI-H2052 cells. To verify whether abemaciclib exerted long-term cell growth inhibition, we performed clonogenic assays upon treatment with IC50 of abemaciclib and found that the CDKi dramatically reduced colony formation in all the MM cell lines. We also examined, by MTS, the possible synergistic effects of abemaciclib in combination with a kinase AKT inhibitor (iAKT1/2 VIII), so we treated the MM cell lines for 72 h with the two agents, both alone and in combination, at five different concentrations, in a constant ratio. The cell viability data were evaluated through the Chou-Talalay method and showed a strong synergism revealing a combination index (CI) values < 1 for all cell. Although reactivating oncosoppressor genes is difficult to achieve because they are hardly 'druggable', our preliminary findings will provide the rationale for pharmacological strategies able to unleash RBL2/p130 tumor suppressor potential. The pharmacological reactivation of RBL2/p130 could be an effective strategy against MM, which can be rapidly implemented in the clinical practice.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Mazurek JM, Blackley DJ, DN Weissman (2022)

Malignant Mesothelioma Mortality in Women - United States, 1999-2020.

MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 71(19):645-649.

Inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause malignant mesothelioma, a rapidly progressing and lethal cancer of the mesothelium, the thin layer of tissues surrounding internal organs in the chest and abdomen. Patients with malignant mesothelioma have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 1 year from diagnosis. The estimated median interval from initial occupational asbestos exposure to death is 32 years (range = 13-70 years) (1). Occupational asbestos exposure is most often reported in men working in industries such as construction and manufacturing; however, women are also at risk for exposure to asbestos fibers, and limited data exist on longer-term trends in mesothelioma deaths among women. To characterize deaths associated with mesothelioma and temporal trends in mesothelioma mortality among women in the United States, CDC analyzed annual Multiple Cause of Death records from the National Vital Statistics System for 1999-2020, the most recent years for which complete data are available. The annual number of mesothelioma deaths among women increased significantly, from 489 in 1999 to 614 in 2020; however, the age-adjusted death rate per 1 million women declined significantly, from 4.83 in 1999 to 4.15 in 2020. The largest number of deaths was associated with the health care and social assistance industry (89; 15.7%) and homemaker occupation (129; 22.8%). Efforts to limit exposure to asbestos fibers, including among women, need to be maintained.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Li X, Wang D, Liu A, et al (2022)

Epidemiological Characteristics of Occupational Cancers Reported - China, 2006-2020.

China CDC weekly, 4(17):370-373.

Introduction: Occupational cancers are a major threat to workers' health in China. The latest version of the Classification and Catalogue of the Occupational Diseases includes 11 occupational cancers. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of occupational cancers in China reported to the National Occupational Disease Reporting System during 2006-2020.

Methods: Occupational cancers reported during 2016-2020 were obtained from the National Occupational Disease Reporting System. Epidemiological characteristics were analyzed by year, region, industry, gender, age at diagnosis, and exposure duration to occupational hazards.

Results: Overall, a total of 1,116 cases of occupational cancers were reported between 2006 and 2020. The main types reported were leukemia caused by benzene exposure (511, 45.79%), lung cancer caused by coke oven exhaust exposure (266, 23.84%), and lung cancer and mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure (226, 20.25%). There were 6 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs) that had reported over 50 new cases in the last 15 years. Most cases (913, 81.18%) were distributed in the manufacturing industry. There were 870 (77.96%) male cases and 246 (22.04%) female cases. The average age at diagnosis of all reported cases was 51.91±15.85 years, and the median exposure duration to occupational hazards was 12 (5.29-23.25) years.

Conclusions: There is a large discrepancy between the high morbidity of occupational cancers and a low number of cases diagnosed and reported cases. Occupational cancers in China may be underestimated, and comprehensive measures should be taken to improve the diagnosis and reporting of occupational cancers.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Anobile DP, Montenovo G, Pecoraro C, et al (2022)

Splicing deregulation, microRNA and Notch aberrations: fighting the three-headed dog to overcome drug resistance in malignant mesothelioma.

Expert review of clinical pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is an aggressive rare cancer of the mesothelium, associated with asbestos exposure. MMe is currently an incurable disease at all stages mainly due to resistance to treatments. It is therefore necessary to elucidate key mechanisms underlying chemoresistance, in an effort to exploit them as novel therapeutic targets.

AREAS COVERED: Chemoresistance is frequently elicited by microRNA (miRNA) alterations and splicing deregulations. Indeed, several miRNAs, such as miR-29c, have been shown to exert oncogenic or oncosuppressive activity. Alterations in the splicing machinery might also be involved in chemoresistance. Moreover, the Notch signaling pathway, often deregulated in MMe, plays a key role in cancer stem cells formation and self-renewal, leading to drug resistance and relapses.

EXPERT OPINION: The prognosis of MMe in patients varies among different tumors and patient characteristics, and novel biomarkers and therapies are warranted. This work aims at giving an overview of MMe, with a special focus on state-of-the-art treatments and new therapeutic strategies against vulnerabilities emerging from studies on epigenetics factors. Besides, this review is also the first to discuss the interplay between miRNAs and alternative splicing as well as the role of Notch as new promising frontiers to overcome drug resistance in MMe.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Almeida GC, Santos UP, Parente YDM, et al (2022)

Mesothelioma in situ with regressive malignant pleural effusion and an unexpected evolution: A case report.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm that originates from hyperplasia and metaplasia of the mesothelial cells that cover the pleural cavity. Previous exposure to asbestos is the main risk factor. Since MPM is often diagnosed at an advanced stage with rapid evolution and resistance to treatment, it is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Mesothelioma in situ (MIS) has been postulated as a preinvasive phase of MPM; however, its diagnostic criteria have been defined only recently. Diagnosis of MIS may represent an opportunity for early therapies with better results, but the optimal approach has not been defined thus far. Here, we report on a case of a 74-year-old man with right-sided pleural effusion and a previous history of occupational exposure to asbestos for 9 years who was diagnosed with MIS after a latency of 36 years. During follow-up, spontaneous disease regression was observed 5 months after the initial diagnosis; however, it recurred in the form of invasive epithelioid MPM. There is a paucity of literature on MIS and its evolution; however, our case provides relevant knowledge of this unusual behavior, which is important to define follow-up and therapeutic strategies for future cases.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Korchevskiy AA, AG Wylie (2022)

Dimensional characteristics of the major types of amphibole mineral particles and the implications for carcinogenic risk assessment.

Inhalation toxicology, 34(1-2):24-38.

Context: Though some significant advances have been made in recent decades to evaluate the importance of size and morphology (habit) of elongate mineral particles (EMPs), further research is needed to better understand the role of each dimensional metric in determining the levels of cancer potency.Objective: To determine dimensional parameters most relevant for predicting cancer potency of durable elongate particles, specifically amphibole and durable silicate minerals generally.Methods: A database on dimensional and other relevant characteristics of elongate amphibole mineral particles was created, containing particle-by-particle information for 128 099 particles. Integral statistical characteristics on dimensionality of various amphibole types and morphological habits of EMPs were calculated, compared, and correlated with published mesothelioma and lung cancer potency factors.Results: The highest absolute Pearson correlation (r = 0.97, r2 = 0.94, p < 0.05) was achieved between mesothelioma potency (RM) and specific surface area. The highest correlation with adjusted lung cancer potency was found with particle aspect ratio (AR) (r = 0.80, r2 = 0.64, p < 0.05). Cluster analysis demonstrates that fractions of thin fibers (width less than 0.15 and 0.25 µm) also closely relate both to lung cancer and RM. Asbestiform and non-asbestiform populations of amphiboles significantly differ by dimensionality and carcinogenic potency.Conclusions: Dimensional parameters and morphological habits of EMPs are the main drivers for the observable difference in cancer potency among amphibole populations.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Malakoti F, Targhazeh N, Abadifard E, et al (2022)

DNA repair and damage pathways in mesothelioma development and therapy.

Cancer cell international, 22(1):176.

Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is an aggressive neoplasm that occurs through the transformation of mesothelial cells. Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for MMe carcinogenesis. Other important etiologies for MMe development include DNA damage, over-activation of survival signaling pathways, and failure of DNA damage response (DDR). In this review article, first, we will describe the most important signaling pathways that contribute to MMe development and their interaction with DDR. Then, the contribution of DDR failure in MMe progression will be discussed. Finally, we will review the latest MMe therapeutic strategies that target the DDR pathway.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Kambara T, Amatya VJ, Kushitani K, et al (2022)

Downregulation of FTL decreases proliferation of malignant mesothelioma cells by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest.

Oncology letters, 23(6):174.

Pleural malignant mesothelioma is a malignant tumor with a poor prognosis that is strongly associated with asbestos exposure during its development. Because there is no adequate treatment for malignant mesothelioma, investigation of its molecular mechanism is important. The ferritin light chain (FTL) is a subunit of ferritin, and its high expression in malignant tumors, including malignant mesothelioma, has recently been reported; however, its role in malignant mesothelioma is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the function of FTL in malignant mesothelioma. The expression levels of FTL in malignant mesothelioma were examined using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database and our previous data. The short interfering (si)RNA against FTL was transfected into two mesothelioma cell lines, ACC-MESO-1 and CRL-5915, and functional analysis was performed. Expression of p21, p27, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) associated with the cell cycle were examined as candidate genes associated with FTL. The expression levels of the FTL mRNA were higher in malignant mesothelioma compared with other tumors in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database, and among other genes in our previous study. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting demonstrated suppression of FTL expression in two cell lines transfected with FTL siRNA compared with cells transfected with negative control (NC) siRNA. In the two cell lines transfected with FTL siRNA, proliferation was significantly suppressed, and cell cycle arrest was observed in the G1 phase. The levels of p21 and p27 were increased, while those of CDK2 and pRb were decreased compared with NC. However, no significant differences in invasion and migration ability were revealed between FTL siRNA-transfected cells and NC. In conclusion, FTL may increase the proliferative capacity of malignant mesothelioma cells by affecting p21, p27, CDK2 and pRb, and promoting the cell cycle at the G1 phase.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Louw A, Panou V, Szejniuk WM, et al (2022)

BAP1 loss by immunohistochemistry predicts improved survival to first line platinum/pemetrexed chemotherapy for pleural mesothelioma patients: A validation study.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(22)00210-6 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive malignancy with no identified predictive biomarkers. We assessed whether tumour BRCA associated protein 1 (BAP1) status is a predictive biomarker for survival in patients receiving first-line combination platinum/pemetrexed therapy.introduction METHODS: PM cases (n=114) from Aalborg, Denmark were stained for BAP1 on tissue microarrays. Demographic, clinical and survival data were extracted from registries and medical records. Surgical cases were excluded. BAP1 status was associated with overall survival (OS) by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods. Results were validated in an independent cohort from Perth, Australia (n=234).

RESULTS: BAP1 loss was demonstrated in 62% and 60.3% of all Danish and Australian samples respectively. BAP1 loss was an independent predictor of OS in multivariate analyses corrected for histology, performance status, age, sex and treatment (HR = 2.49, p < 0.001 and 1.48, p = 0.01, respectively). First-line platinum/pemetrexed treated patients with BAP1 loss had significantly longer median survival than those with retained BAP1 in both the Danish (20.1 vs 7.3 months, p < 0.001) and Australian cohorts (19.6 vs 11.1 months, p < 0.01). Survival in patients with BAP1 retained and treated with platinum/pemetrexed was similar as in those with best supportive care (BSC). There was a higher OS in BSC patients with BAP1 loss, but significant only in the Australian cohort (16.8 vs 8.3 months, p < 0.01).results CONCLUSION: BAP1 is a predictive biomarker for survival following first-line combination platinum/pemetrexed chemotherapy and a potential prognostic marker in PM. BAP1 in tumour is a promising clinical tool for treatment stratification.

RevDate: 2022-04-26

Maghin F, Antonietti A, Cerri N, et al (2022)

Assessment protocol of mesothelioma and relevance of SEM-EDS analysis through a case studies of legal medicine of Brescia (Italy).

Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 57:102076 pii:S1344-6223(22)00064-5 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates the assessment protocol that allows the correlation between the development of mesothelioma to a specific exposure, with particular focus on investigations with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy.

METHODS: This retrospective study includes 80 subjects who died from mesothelioma in the period 2001-2019. A judicial autopsy was performed for each case to confirm cause of death and correlate the disease with specific asbestos exposure. In 28 cases investigations were carried out to determine the pulmonary load of the asbestos fibres and corpuscles in the lung tissue through microscopic investigations, in order to confirm the suspicion of occupational exposure.

RESULTS: Our data agree with the scientific literature reported, but it is interesting to underline how the present study uses a different systematic approach than others, which are mainly based on epidemiological and environmental studies without considering the lung content of fibres and corpuscles.

CONCLUSION: It would be desirable that the use of the microscopic analysis was introduced in the evaluation protocol: it should always be carried out if the suspicion of asbestos-related disease is raised and not only as a possible integration to the less expensive anamnestic evaluation, even more so if the work or personal history should be suggestive of exposure to asbestos fibres.

RevDate: 2022-04-24

Carbone M, Pass HI, Ak G, et al (2022)

Medical and surgical care of mesothelioma patients and their relatives carrying germline BAP1 mutations.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(22)00192-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The most common malignancies that develop in carriers of BAP1 germline mutations include diffuse malignant mesothelioma, uveal and cutaneous melanoma, renal cell carcinoma; less frequently breast cancer, several types of skin carcinomas and other tumor types. Mesotheliomas in these patients are significantly less aggressive and patients require a multidisciplinary approach that involves genetic counseling, medical genetics, pathology, surgical, medical and radiation oncology expertise. Some BAP1 carriers have asymptomatic mesothelioma that can be followed by close clinical observation without apparent adverse outcomes: they may survive many years without therapy. Others may grow aggressively but very often respond to therapy. Detecting BAP1 germline mutations has, therefore, significant medical, social and economic impact. Close monitoring of these patients and their relatives is expected to result in prolonged life expectancy, improved quality of life and is also cost-effective. The co-authors of this paper are those who have published the vast majority of cases of mesothelioma occurring in patients carrying inactivating germline BAP1 mutations and who have studied the families affected by the BAP1 cancer syndrome for many years. This paper reports our experience. It is intended to be a source of information for all physicians who care for patients carrying germline BAP1 mutations. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic and treatment challenges and our recommendations of how to best care for these patients and their family members, as well as the potential economic and psychosocial impact.

RevDate: 2022-04-24

Napoli F, Rapa I, Izzo S, et al (2022)

Micro-RNA-215 and -375 regulate thymidylate synthase protein expression in pleural mesothelioma and mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology [Epub ahead of print].

The standard front-line treatment for pleural mesothelioma (PM) is pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, whose major target is thymidylate synthase (TS). In several cancer models, miR-215 and miR-375 have been shown to target TS, while information on these miRNAs in PM are still limited although suggest their role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Seventy-one consecutive PM tissues (4 biphasic, 7 sarcomatoid, and 60 epithelioid types) and 16 commercial and patient-derived PM cell lines were screened for TS, miR-215, and miR-375 expression. REN and 570B cells were selected for miR-215 and miR-375 transient transfections to test TS modulation. ZEB1 protein expression in tumor samples was also tested. Moreover, genetic profile was investigated by means of BAP1 and p53 immunohistochemistry. Expression of both miR-215 and miR-375 was significantly higher in epithelioid histotype. Furthermore, inverse correlation between TS protein and both miR-215 and miR-375 expression was found. Efficiently transfected REN and 570B cell lines overexpressing miR-215 and miR-375 showed decreased TS protein levels. Epithelioid PM with a mesenchymal component highlighted by reticulin stain showed significantly higher TS and ZEB1 protein and lower miRNA expression. A better survival was recorded for BAP1 lost/TS low cases. Our data indicate that miR-215 and miR-375 are involved in TS regulation as well as in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in PM.

RevDate: 2022-04-21

Ziółkowska B, Cybulska-Stopa B, Papantoniou D, et al (2022)

Systemic treatment in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma - real life experience.

BMC cancer, 22(1):432.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive malignancy of the pleural cavity linked to asbestos exposure. The combination of pemetrexed and platinum is a standard first-line therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Despite some progress, almost all MPM patients experience progression after first-line therapy. The second-line treatment is still being under discussion and there are very limited data available on the second-line and subsequent treatments.

METHODS: The retrospective analysis included 57 patients (16 females and 41 males) from two Polish oncological institutions treated for advanced mesothelioma between 2013 and 2019. We analysed the efficacy of first-line and second-line therapy: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR).

RESULTS: In the first-line treatment, 55 patients received pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (PBC) and two cisplatin in monotherapy. Patients' characteristics at baseline: median age was 64.2 years, ECOG PS ≤ 1 (86.2%), epithelial histology (85.7%). Median PFS and OS were 7.6 months and 14 months, respectively. Patients with ECOG PS ≤ 1 vs > 1 had a longer median OS (14.8 months vs 9.7 months, p = 0.057). One-year OS and PFS were 60.9% and 32.0%, respectively. Disease control rate (DCR) was 82.5%. Response to first-line therapy: PFS ≥ 6 months and PFS ≥ 12 months had a significant impact on median OS. Twelve patients received second-line therapy (seven PBC and five other cytotoxic single agents: navelbine, gemcitabine, or adriamycin/vincristine/methotrexate triplet). Median PFS and OS were 3.7 months and 7.2 months, respectively. DCR was 83%. One-year OS and PFS were 37% and 16.7%, respectively. In the group receiving PBC, OS was prolonged by 4.5 months compared to the non-PBC group (6.0 months vs 10.5 months, p = 0.47).

CONCLUSION: Patients who benefited from first-line therapy and had prolonged PFS at first-line and achieve PFS longer than 6 months at first-line should be offered second-line treatment. Consideration of retreatment with the same cytotoxic agent could to be a viable option when no other treatment are available.

RevDate: 2022-04-19

Jin MY, ZQ Jiang (2022)

[Research progress on the role of lncRNA in the occurrence and development of malignant mesothelioma].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 40(3):231-235.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a long latency, poor prognosis and asbestos exposure related malignant disease. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of RNA with a length of more than 200 nucleotides that does not encode protein. It plays an important role in epigenetic regulation, cell cycle regulation and cell differentiation regulation. Recent studies have shown that the abnormal expression or function of lncRNA is closely related to the diagnosis and prognosis of MM. In this paper, the lncRNA research on MM is reviewed to better understand the role of lncRNA in MM.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Robinson BWS, Redwood AJ, J Creaney (2022)

How Our Continuing Studies of the Pre-clinical Inbred Mouse Models of Mesothelioma Have Influenced the Development of New Therapies.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:858557 pii:858557.

Asbestos-induced preclinical mouse models of mesothelioma produce tumors that are very similar to those that develop in humans and thus represent an ideal platform to study this rare, universally fatal tumor type. Our team and a number of other research groups have established such models as a stepping stone to new treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and other approaches that have been/are being translated into clinical trials. In some cases this work has led to changes in mesothelioma treatment practice and over the last 30 years these models and studies have led to trials which have improved the response rate in mesothelioma from less than 10% to over 50%. Mouse models have had a vital role in that improvement and will continue to play a key role in the future success of mesothelioma immunotherapy. In this review we focus only on these original inbred mouse models, the large number of preclinical studies conducted using them and their contribution to current and future clinical therapy for mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-04-15
CmpDate: 2022-04-15

Tran T, Egilman D, M Rigler (2020)

Response to Roggli et al. (2020) "Talc and mesothelioma: mineral fiber analysis of 65 cases with clinicopathological correlation".

Ultrastructural pathology, 44(3):314-315.

RevDate: 2022-04-12

Dawson AG, Kutywayo K, Mohammed SB, et al (2022)

Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review.

Thorax pii:thoraxjnl-2021-218214 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Cytoreductive surgery has been used a part of multimodality treatment in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The residual microscopic disease that remains will lead to disease progression in the majority of patients. Delivery of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy at the time of surgery has been used to address this microscopic disease, however it's effect and place in the multimodality treatment sphere is unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of surgery and hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy in patients with MPM on overall survival and disease-free interval.

METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from database inception through to June 2021. Studies reporting overall survival and/or disease-free interval in patients with MPM undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy were considered. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A narrative review was performed.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion comprising 598 patients. Surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy was associated with a median overall survival and disease-free interval ranging from 11 to 75 months and 7.2 to 57 months, respectively. These appeared to be superior to patients not receiving hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (overall survival: 5-36 months and disease-free interval: 12.1-21 months). A higher dose of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy was associated with an improvement in overall survival compared with a lower dose: 18-31 months versus 6-18 months, respectively. The most common morbidity was atrial fibrillation followed by renal complications.

CONCLUSION: Surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy offers a safe and effective therapy with an improvement in disease-free interval and overall survival, particularly when hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy is administered at a higher dose.

PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019129002.

RevDate: 2022-04-12

Berry TA, Belluso E, Vigliaturo R, et al (2022)

Asbestos and Other Hazardous Fibrous Minerals: Potential Exposure Pathways and Associated Health Risks.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(7): pii:ijerph19074031.

There are six elongate mineral particles (EMPs) corresponding to specific dimensional and morphological criteria, known as asbestos. Responsible for health issues including asbestosis, and malignant mesothelioma, asbestos has been well researched. Despite this, significant exposure continues to occur throughout the world, potentially affecting 125 million people in the workplace and causing thousands of deaths annually from exposure in homes. However, there are other EMPS, such as fibrous/asbestiform erionite, that are classified as carcinogens and have been linked to cancers in areas where it has been incorporated into local building materials or released into the environment through earthmoving activities. Erionite is a more potent carcinogen than asbestos but as it is seldom used for commercial purposes, exposure pathways have been less well studied. Despite the apparent similarities between asbestos and fibrous erionite, their health risks and exposure pathways are quite different. This article examines the hazards presented by EMPs with a particular focus on fibrous erionite. It includes a discussion of the global locations of erionite and similar hazardous minerals, a comparison of the multiple exposure pathways for asbestos and fibrous erionite, a brief discussion of the confusing nomenclature associated with EMPs, and considerations of increasing global mesothelioma cases.

RevDate: 2022-04-12

Henzi T, Diep KL, Oberson A, et al (2022)

Forchlorfenuron and Novel Analogs Cause Cytotoxic Effects in Untreated and Cisplatin-Resistant Malignant Mesothelioma-Derived Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(7): pii:ijms23073963.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a currently incurable, aggressive cancer derived from mesothelial cells, most often resulting from asbestos exposure. The current first-line treatment in unresectable MM is cisplatin/pemetrexed, which shows very little long-term effectiveness, necessitating research for novel therapeutic interventions. The existing chemotherapies often act on the cytoskeleton, including actin filaments and microtubules, but recent advances indicate the 'fourth' form consisting of the family of septins, representing a novel target. The septin inhibitor forchlorfenuron (FCF) and FCF analogs inhibit MM cell growth in vitro, but at concentrations which are too high for clinical applications. Based on the reported requirement of the chloride group in the 2-position of the pyridine ring of FCF for MM cell growth inhibition and cytotoxicity, we systematically investigated the importance (cell growth-inhibiting capacity) of the halogen atoms fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine in the 2- or 3-position of the pyridine ring. The MM cell lines ZL55, MSTO-211H, and SPC212, and-as a control-immortalized Met-5A mesothelial cells were used. The potency of the various halogen substitutions in FCF was mostly correlated with the atom size (covalent radius); the small fluoride analogs showed the least effect, while the largest one (iodide) most strongly decreased the MTT signals, in particular in MM cells derived from epithelioid MM. In the latter, the strongest effects in vitro were exerted by the 2-iodo and, unexpectedly, the 2-trifluoromethyl (2-CF3) FCF analogs, which were further tested in vivo in mice. However, FCF-2-I and, more strongly, FCF-2-CF3 caused rapidly occurring strong symptoms of systemic toxicity at doses lower than those previously obtained with FCF. Thus, we investigated the effectiveness of FCF (and selected analogs) in vitro in MM cells which were first exposed to cisplatin. The slowly appearing population of cisplatin-resistant cells was still susceptible to the growth-inhibiting/cytotoxic effect of FCF and its analogs, indicating that cisplatin and FCF target non-converging pathways in MM cells. Thus, a combination therapy of cisplatin and FCF (analogs) might represent a new avenue for the treatment of repopulating chemo-resistant MM cells in this currently untreatable cancer.

RevDate: 2022-04-11

Tilsed CM, Casey TH, de Jong E, et al (2022)

Retinoic Acid Induces an IFN-Driven Inflammatory Tumour Microenvironment, Sensitizing to Immune Checkpoint Therapy.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:849793.

With immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) having reshaped the treatment of many cancers, the next frontier is to identify and develop novel combination therapies to improve efficacy. Previously, we and others identified beneficial immunological effects of the vitamin A derivative tretinoin on anti-tumour immunity. Although it is known that tretinoin preferentially depletes myeloid derived suppressor cells in blood, little is known about the effects of tretinoin on the tumour microenvironment, hampering the rational design of clinical trials using tretinoin in combination with ICT. Here, we aimed to identify how tretinoin changed the tumour microenvironment in mouse tumour models, using flow cytometry and RNAseq, and we sought to use that information to establish optimal dosing and scheduling of tretinoin in combination with several ICT antibodies in multiple cancer models. We found that tretinoin rapidly induced an interferon dominated inflammatory tumour microenvironment, characterised by increased CD8+ T cell infiltration. This phenotype completely overlapped with the phenotype that was induced by ICT itself, and we confirmed that the combination further amplified this inflammatory milieu. The addition of tretinoin significantly improved the efficacy of anti-CTLA4/anti-PD-L1 combination therapy, and staggered scheduling was more efficacious than concomitant scheduling, in a dose-dependent manner. The positive effects of tretinoin could be extended to ICT antibodies targeting OX40, GITR and CTLA4 monotherapy in multiple cancer models. These data show that tretinoin induces an interferon driven, CD8+ T cell tumour microenvironment that is responsive to ICT.

RevDate: 2022-04-08

Nakashima K, Sakai Y, Hoshino H, et al (2022)

Sulfated Glycans Recognized by S1 Monoclonal Antibody can Serve as a Diagnostic Marker for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Lung [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a malignant neoplasm of the pleura caused by asbestos exposure. For diagnosis of MPM, immunohistochemistry using multiple markers is recommended to rule out differential diagnoses, such as pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, the specificity of currently used markers is not fully satisfactory. We previously developed a monoclonal antibody named S1, which recognizes 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis x, an L-selectin ligand expressed on high endothelial venules. During the screening process, we discovered that this antibody stained normal pleural mesothelium. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that the epitope recognized by S1 might serve as a new diagnostic marker for MPM.

METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we immunostained human MPM (n = 22) and lung adenocarcinoma (n = 25) tissues using S1 antibody.

RESULTS: 77.3% of MPM were S1 positive, and if limited to epithelioid type, the positivity rate was 100%, while that of lung adenocarcinoma was only 36.0%. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the S1 positivity rate between each disease. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry using a series of anti-carbohydrate antibodies combined with glycosidase digestion revealed the structure of sulfated glycans expressed in MPM to be 6-sulfo sialyl N-acetyllactosamine attached to core 2-branched O-glycans.

CONCLUSION: We propose that the S1 glycoepitope could serve as a new diagnostic marker for MPM.

RevDate: 2022-04-04

Cameron JK, Aitken J, Reid A, et al (2022)

Geographic distribution of malignant mesothelioma incidence and survival in Australia.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 167:17-24 pii:S0169-5002(22)00386-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To understand the geographic distribution of and area-level factors associated with malignant mesothelioma incidence and survival in Australia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Generalised linear models and Bayesian spatial models were fitted using population registry data. Area-level covariates were socioeconomic quintile, remoteness category and state or territory. The maximised excess events test was used to test for spatial heterogeneity.

RESULTS: There was strong evidence of spatial differences in standardised incidence rates for malignant mesothelioma but survival was uniformly poor. Incidence rates varied by state or territory and were lower in remote areas. Patterns in the geographic distribution of modelled incidence counts for malignant mesothelioma differed substantially from patterns of standardised incidence rates.

CONCLUSIONS: Geographic variation in the modelled incidence counts of malignant mesothelioma demonstrates varying demand for diagnostic and management services. The long latency period for this cancer coupled with migration complicates any associations with patterns of exposure, however some of the geographic distribution of diagnoses can be explained by the location of historical mines and asbestos-related industries.

RevDate: 2022-04-03

Laaksonen S, Kettunen E, Sutinen E, et al (2022)

Pulmonary Asbestos Fiber Burden is Related to Patient Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(22)00167-8 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with poor prognosis and is strongly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Given the importance of asbestos exposure in MPM pathogenesis, we retrospectively analyzed the types and concentrations of asbestos fibers within the lung tissues of patients with MPM and investigated their effects on all-cause mortality.

METHODS: We formed a national dataset of patients with MPM identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry and Statistics Finland. These data were merged with pulmonary asbestos fiber analysis results received from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

RESULTS: We identified 590 patients with MPM that underwent pulmonary asbestos fiber analysis. The median asbestos concentration within dry lung tissue was 3.20 million fibers/gram (f/g) (range: 0-1700 million f/g). Crocidolite and anthophyllite were the most prevalent asbestos fiber types detected in lung tissue. The multivariable risk of death analyses, where changes over time were accounted for, revealed that total asbestos fiber concentration was associated with increased mortality. However, no difference in mortality was noted between different fiber types.

CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that pulmonary fiber concentrations correlated with the manner of asbestos usage. Anthophyllite was identified as the sole fiber in a sizable proportion of cases, supporting its independent role in the pathogenesis of MPM. Our findings suggest that asbestos fiber burden, but not fiber type, may have an impact on the prognosis of MPM.

RevDate: 2022-04-01

Idkedek M, Tahayneh KS, Abu-Akar F, et al (2022)

Case Report and Review of Literature: Familial Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in a 39 Years Old Patient With an Inconclusive 18F-FDG PET/CT Result.

Frontiers in surgery, 9:819596.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare yet aggressive neoplasm that was linked only to asbestos exposure for decades, although familial clusters were diagnosed with MPM without a known history of asbestos exposure most likely due to genetic susceptibility. Here, we describe a case of familial malignant mesothelioma in a 39 years old patient with a confirmed BAP1 mutation in addition to a known family history with the same mutation. The patient presented with progressive shortness of breath and recurrent pleural effusions and diagnosis was made through biopsies taken during uniportal Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery. After the inconclusive result of 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, subxiphoid uniportal Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery left pleural and laparoscopic peritoneal biopsies were obtained for staging and evaluating contralateral lung and peritoneal cavity. Finally, two important educational values should be acquired from this case: genetic predisposition and BAP1 tumor suppressor gene mutation might affect the age of presentation and overall prognosis of the disease. Also, 18F-FDG PET/CT scan may not be the best modality for staging and confirming the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-03-31

Kindler HL, Novello S, Bearz A, et al (2022)

Anetumab ravtansine versus vinorelbine in patients with relapsed, mesothelin-positive malignant pleural mesothelioma (ARCS-M): a randomised, open-label phase 2 trial.

The Lancet. Oncology, 23(4):540-552.

BACKGROUND: Few treatment options exist for second-line treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the antibody-drug conjugate anetumab ravtansine versus vinorelbine in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease overexpressing mesothelin who had progressed on first-line platinum-pemetrexed chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab.

METHODS: In this phase 2, randomised, open-label study, done at 76 hospitals in 14 countries, we enrolled adults (aged ≥18 years) with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic malignant pleural mesothelioma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and who had progressed on first-line platinum-pemetrexed chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. Participants were prospectively screened for mesothelin overexpression (defined as 2+ or 3+ mesothelin membrane staining intensity on at least 30% of viable tumour cells by immunohistochemistry) and were randomly assigned (2:1), using an interactive voice and web response system provided by the sponsor, to receive intravenous anetumab ravtansine (6·5 mg/kg on day 1 of each 21-day cycle) or intravenous vinorelbine (30 mg/m2 once every week) until progression, toxicity, or death. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival according to blinded central radiology review, assessed in the intention-to-treat population, with safety assessed in all participants who received any study treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02610140, and is now completed.

FINDINGS: Between Dec 3, 2015, and May 31, 2017, 589 patients were enrolled and 248 mesothelin-overexpressing patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups (166 patients were randomly assigned to receive anetumab ravtansine and 82 patients were randomly assigned to receive vinorelbine). 105 (63%) of 166 patients treated with anetumab ravtansine (median follow-up 4·0 months [IQR 1·4-5·5]) versus 43 (52%) of 82 patients treated with vinorelbine (3·9 months [1·4-5·4]) had disease progression or died (median progression-free survival 4·3 months [95% CI 4·1-5·2] vs 4·5 months [4·1-5·8]; hazard ratio 1·22 [0·85-1·74]; log-rank p=0·86). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (one [1%] of 163 patients for anetumab ravtansine vs 28 [39%] of 72 patients for vinorelbine), pneumonia (seven [4%] vs five [7%]), neutrophil count decrease (two [1%] vs 12 [17%]), and dyspnoea (nine [6%] vs three [4%]). Serious drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 12 (7%) patients treated with anetumab ravtansine and 11 (15%) patients treated with vinorelbine. Ten (6%) treatment-emergent deaths occurred with anetumab ravtansine: pneumonia (three [2%]), dyspnoea (two [1%]), sepsis (two [1%]), atrial fibrillation (one [1%]), physical deterioration (one [1%]), hepatic failure (one [1%]), mesothelioma (one [1%]), and renal failure (one [1%]; one patient had 3 events). One (1%) treatment-emergent death occurred in the vinorelbine group (pneumonia).

INTERPRETATION: Anetumab ravtansine showed a manageable safety profile and was not superior to vinorelbine. Further studies are needed to define active treatments in relapsed mesothelin-expressing malignant pleural mesothelioma.

FUNDING: Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals.

RevDate: 2022-03-28

Ierardi AM, Best EA, GM Marsh (2022)

Updated Italian cohort data continues to confirm lack of mesothelioma risk in pooled cohort of international cosmetic talc miners and millers.

Inhalation toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To assess potential mesothelioma risk following inhalation of cosmetic talc, we updated previous iterations of a pooled cohort analysis, post-study statistical power analysis, and confidence interval function analysis for a pooled cohort of international cosmetic talc miners/millers given new Italian cohort data.

METHODS: Five cohorts of cosmetic talc miners/millers were pooled. Expected numbers of mesotheliomas for each cohort were reported by the original authors. We based our post-study statistical power analysis on an a priori one-sided significance level of 0.05, and exact Poisson and approximate distribution probabilities. To evaluate the confidence interval function for the observed pooled mesothelioma standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), we calculated the probability for the upper 100(1-2α)% confidence limit that equals various SMRs of interest.

RESULTS: The pooled cohorts generated a total observation time of 135,524.38 person-years. Overall, 4.14 mesotheliomas were expected (mid-value estimate), though only one case of mesothelioma has been confirmed in the pooled cohort to date. We calculated 71% and 87% post-study power to detect a 2.5-fold or greater and a 3.0-fold or greater increase in mesothelioma, respectively. Our complimentary confidence interval function analysis demonstrated that the probability that the true mesothelioma SMR for the pooled cohort was at or above 2.0 or at or above 3.0 was 0.00235 and 0.00005, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the updated results of our various analyses, the current epidemiological evidence from cosmetic talc miner/miller cohort studies continues to not support the hypothesis that the inhalation of cosmetic talc is associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-03-27

Ejegi-Memeh S, Sherborne V, Harrison M, et al (2022)

Patients' and informal carers' experience of living with mesothelioma: A systematic rapid review and synthesis of the literature.

European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society, 58:102122 pii:S1462-3889(22)00030-8 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Mesothelioma is a rare and incurable cancer linked to asbestos exposure. It primarily affects the pleura. This systematic rapid review aimed to identify what is known about the experience of living with mesothelioma, from the perspective of patients and their informal carers.

METHODS: Medline, PsycInfo, Scopus and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for empirical studies published between December 2008 and October 2020. Google Scholar was searched. The inclusion criteria stated that studies were peer-reviewed, reported the experience of living with mesothelioma from the perspective of patients and carers and written in English. The Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool was used to assess quality. The review protocol is registered on PROSPERO: CRD42020204726.

RESULTS: Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Following data extraction, a narrative synthesis identified three themes: the impact on the individual; the impact on informal carers and relationships; and interactions with professionals and systems. The physical and psychological symptom burden of mesothelioma on patients' lives was reported as high. Both the qualitative and quantitative literature highlighted that patients and carers may have different needs throughout the mesothelioma journey. Differences included psychological experiences and preferences regarding the timing of information and support provision. Patients and carers expected their health care professionals to be knowledgeable about mesothelioma or refer to those who were. Health care professionals that were compassionate, honest and supportive also positively influenced the experience of patients and carers living with mesothelioma. A lack of communication or misinformation was damaging to the patient-healthcare professional relationship. Continuity of care, coordinated care and good communication between treatment centres were widely reported as important in the literature. Fragmented care was identified as detrimental to the patient experience, increasing anxiety in patients. However, relationships with professionals were not only important in terms of co-ordinating care. There was also evidence that good relationships with healthcare professionals were beneficial to coping with the mesothelioma diagnosis.

CONCLUSION: The volume of mesothelioma experience research has grown over the past decade. This has led to our growing understanding of the complex needs and experiences of mesothelioma patients and carers. However, this review identified several evidence gaps.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Saito CA, Bussacos MA, Salvi L, et al (2022)

Sex-Specific Mortality from Asbestos-Related Diseases, Lung and Ovarian Cancer in Municipalities with High Asbestos Consumption, Brazil, 2000-2017.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(6): pii:ijerph19063656.

The aim of this study is to compare the mortality rates for typical asbestos-related diseases (ARD-T: mesothelioma, asbestosis, and pleural plaques) and for lung and ovarian cancer in Brazilian municipalities where asbestos mines and asbestos-cement plants had been operating (areas with high asbestos consumption, H-ASB) compared with in other municipalities. The death records for adults aged 30+ years were retrieved from multiple health information systems. In the 2000-2017 time period, age-standardized mortality rates (standard: Brazil 2010) and standardized rate ratios (SRR; H-ASB vs. others) were estimated. The SRRs for ARD-T were 2.56 for men (257 deaths in H-ASB municipalities) and 1.19 for women (136 deaths). For lung cancer, the SRRs were 1.33 for men (32,604 deaths) and 1.19 for women (20,735 deaths). The SRR for ovarian cancer was 1.34 (8446 deaths). Except for ARD-T and lung cancer in women, the SRRs were higher in municipalities that began using asbestos before 1970 than in municipalities that began utilizing asbestos from 1970 onwards. In conclusion, the mortality rates for ARD-T, and lung and ovarian cancer in municipalities with a history of asbestos mining and asbestos-cement production exceed those of the whole country. Caution is needed when interpreting the results of this ecological study. Analytical studies are necessary to document the impact of asbestos exposure on health, particularly in the future given the long latency of asbestos-related cancers.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Stoppa G, Mensi C, Fazzo L, et al (2022)

Spatial Analysis of Shared Risk Factors between Pleural and Ovarian Cancer Mortality in Lombardy (Italy).

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(6): pii:ijerph19063467.

BACKGROUND: Asbestos exposure is a recognized risk factor for ovarian cancer and malignant mesothelioma. There are reports in the literature of geographical ecological associations between the occurrence of these two diseases. Our aim was to further explore this association by applying advanced Bayesian techniques to a large population (10 million people).

METHODS: We specified a series of Bayesian hierarchical shared models to the bivariate spatial distribution of ovarian and pleural cancer mortality by municipality in the Lombardy Region (Italy) in 2000-2018.

RESULTS: Pleural cancer showed a strongly clustered spatial distribution, while ovarian cancer showed a less structured spatial pattern. The most supported Bayesian models by predictive accuracy (widely applicable or Watanabe-Akaike information criterion, WAIC) provided evidence of a shared component between the two diseases. Among five municipalities with significant high standardized mortality ratios of ovarian cancer, three also had high pleural cancer rates. Wide uncertainty was present when addressing the risk of ovarian cancer associated with pleural cancer in areas at low background risk of ovarian cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of a shared risk factor between ovarian and pleural cancer at the small geographical level. The impact of the shared risk factor can be relevant and can go unnoticed when the prevalence of other risk factors for ovarian cancer is low. Bayesian modelling provides useful information to tailor epidemiological surveillance.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Spinazzè A, Consonni D, Borghi F, et al (2022)

Asbestos Exposure in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma included in the PRIMATE Study, Lombardy, Italy.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(6): pii:ijerph19063390.

The PRIMATE study is an Italian translational research project, which aims to identify personalized biomarkers associated with clinical characteristics of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). For this purpose, characteristics of MPM patients with different degrees of asbestos exposure will be compared to identify somatic mutations, germline polymorphism, and blood inflammatory biomarkers. In this framework, we assessed exposure to asbestos for 562 cases of MPM extracted from the Lombardy region Mesothelioma Registry (RML), for which a complete interview based on a standardized national questionnaire and histopathological specimens were available. Exposure assessment was performed: (1) through experts' evaluation (considered as the gold standard for the purpose of this study), according to the guidelines of the Italian National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) and (2) using a job-exposure matrix (SYN-JEM) to obtain qualitative (ever/never) and quantitative estimates of occupational asbestos exposure (cumulative exposure expressed in fibers per mL (f/mL)). The performance of SYN-JEM was evaluated against the experts' evaluation. According to experts' evaluation, occupational asbestos exposure was recognized in 73.6% of men and 23.6% of women; furthermore, 29 men (7.8%) and 70 women (36.9%) had non-occupational exposure to asbestos. When applying SYN-JEM, 225 men (60.5%) and 25 women (13.2%) were classified as occupationally exposed, with a median cumulative exposure higher for men (1.7 f/mL-years) than for women (1.2 f/mL-years). The concordance between the two methods (Cohen's kappa) for occupational exposure assessment was 0.46 overall (0.41 in men, and 0.07 in women). Sensitivity was higher in men (0.73) than in women (0.18), while specificity was higher in women (0.88) than in men (0.74). Overall, both methods can be used to reconstruct past occupational exposure to asbestos, each with its own advantages and limitations.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Anaya-Aguilar C, Bravo M, Magan-Fernandez A, et al (2022)

Prevention of Occupational Hazards Due to Asbestos Exposure in Dentistry. A Proposal from a Panel of Experts.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(6): pii:ijerph19063153.

Asbestos in all its forms is a Group 1 material agent with proven carcinogenic effects in the human being since 1977. Exposure to asbestos can be considered unsafe. The use of asbestos in the field of dentistry had a common use in the manufacture of dental prostheses in the 1960s and 1970s. Taking into account the long induction period of this agent and the plausibility for being a risk factor in dentistry, the objective of this study is to propose a plan for the prevention of occupational risks due to asbestos exposure in dentistry by means of the contribution of a panel of experts. An Expert Panel (EP) approach was used in which a group of nine experts identified and documented the use of asbestos in the dental profession. EP was created and followed the protocol in accordance with the EuropeAid Assessment Guidelines. As a result of this study, EP documented the common use and sources of asbestos in dentistry in prosthetic materials, dental dressings, and in the coating of casting cylinders. EP also created a consensus document on the priority measures for the Plan for the Prevention of Risks from Asbestos in Dentistry, based on previous reports from the European Commission Senior Labour Inspectors' Committee. The document concluded that obtainment of information, receiving specific training on the subject and performing epidemiological studies, and the proper risk assessments were the priority measures to adopt.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Rovers S, Janssens A, Raskin J, et al (2022)

Recent Advances of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition and Potential for (Combined) TIGIT Blockade as a New Strategy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Biomedicines, 10(3): pii:biomedicines10030673.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a fatal cancer type that affects the membranes lining the lungs, and is causally associated with asbestos exposure. Until recently, the first-line treatment consisted of a combination of chemotherapeutics that only had a limited impact on survival, and had not been improved in decades. With the recent approval of combined immune checkpoint inhibition for MPM, promising new immunotherapeutic strategies are now emerging for this disease. In this review, we describe the current preclinical and clinical evidence of various immune checkpoint inhibitors in MPM. We will consider the advantages of combined immune checkpoint blockade in comparison with single agent checkpoint inhibitor drugs. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests a role for T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), an inhibitory immunoreceptor, as a novel target for immunotherapy. As this novel immune checkpoint remains largely unexplored in mesothelioma, we will discuss the potential of TIGIT blockade as an alternative therapeutic approach for MPM. This review will emphasize the necessity for new and improved treatments for MPM, while highlighting the recent advances and future perspectives of combined immune checkpoint blockade, particularly aimed at PD-L1 and TIGIT.

RevDate: 2022-03-10

Nishida C, K Yatera (2022)

The Impact of Ambient Environmental and Occupational Pollution on Respiratory Diseases.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(5): pii:ijerph19052788.

Ambient pollutants and occupational pollutants may cause and exacerbate various lung and respiratory diseases. This review describes lung and respiratory diseases in relation to ambient pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM2.5), and occupational air pollutants, excluding communicable diseases and indoor pollutants, including tobacco smoke exposure. PM2.5 produced by combustion is an important ambient pollutant. PM2.5 can cause asthma attacks and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the short term. Further, it not only carries a risk of lung cancer and death, but also hinders the development of lung function in children in the long term. It has recently been suggested that air pollution, such as PM2.5, is a risk factor for severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Asbestos, which causes asbestosis, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma, and crystalline silica, which cause silicosis, are well-known traditional occupational pollutants leading to pneumoconiosis. While work-related asthma (WRA) is the most common occupational lung disease in recent years, many different agents cause WRA, including natural and synthetic chemicals and irritant gases. Primary preventive interventions that increase awareness of pollutants and reduce the development and exacerbation of diseases caused by air pollutants are paramount to addressing ambient and occupational pollution.

RevDate: 2022-03-10

Serio G, Pezzuto F, Fortarezza F, et al (2022)

Mesothelioma and Colorectal Cancer: Report of Four Cases with Synchronous and Metachronous Presentation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(5): pii:ijms23052630.

There is evidence that asbestos could play a role in the carcinogenesis of digestive cancers. The presence of asbestos fibres in histological samples from gastric, biliary, colon cancers has been reported, but the mechanism is still controversial. It has been hypothesised that asbestos reaches these sites, especially through contaminated water; however, some experimental studies have shown that the inhaled fibres are mobile, so they can migrate to many organs, directly or via blood and lymph flow. We report four unusual cases of colorectal cancers in patients with a long history of asbestos exposure who also developed synchronous or metachronous mesothelioma. We evaluated the roles of BRCA associated protein-1 (BAP1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) in colon cancer and mesothelioma to support the hypothesis that BAP-1 and CDKN2A are tumour suppressor genes involved in disease progression, recurrence, or death in both digestive cancers and mesothelioma. Potentially, these markers may be used as predictors of worse prognosis, but we also stress the importance of clinical surveillance of exposed patients because asbestos could induce cancer in any organ.

RevDate: 2022-03-10

Davis A, Ke H, Kao S, et al (2022)

An Update on Emerging Therapeutic Options for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Lung Cancer (Auckland, N.Z.), 13:1-12 pii:288535.

The treatment paradigm for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has changed little in the last 18 years. Radical intent treatment, consisting of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, has been offered to a highly select few; however, there is little randomised evidence to validate this approach. Prior to 2020 chemotherapy with platinum and an anti-folate was the only intervention with randomised evidence to demonstrate improved overall survival (OS) in MPM. No systemic therapy had been demonstrated to improve OS in the second line setting until 2020. The publication of the Checkmate 743 trial in 2021 demonstrated a survival benefit of combination immunotherapy over standard chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients with MPM. This finding was shortly followed by the CONFIRM trial which demonstrates a modest but significant survival benefit of second line nivolumab versus placebo in patients having previously received standard chemotherapy. The results of these trials, recent biomarker directed therapy and chemotherapy adjuncts are discussed within this review. The integration of immunotherapy for the few patients in whom radical surgical therapy is intended is currently the subject of clinical trials and offers the prospect of improving outcomes in this rare but devastating disease.

RevDate: 2022-03-07

Rijavec E, Biello F, Barletta G, et al (2022)

Novel approaches for the treatment of unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma: A focus on immunotherapy and target therapy (Review).

Molecular and clinical oncology, 16(4):89.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is considered a relatively uncommon disease but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Patients affected by MPM have a very severe prognosis and have been often occupationally and environmentally exposed to asbestos. In recent years, checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically revolutionized the paradigm for the treatment of several malignancies. Several efforts have also been made to improve the survival outcomes of patients with MPM and after decades, the standard-of-care systemic treatment for unresectable MPM, based on first-line combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed, has changed. In addition to checkpoint inhibitors, other types of treatments, such as molecularly targeted therapy have been evaluated. However, to date, the results of these investigations are not very encouraging. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most relevant data of clinical trials regarding recent treatment strategies of MPM with a particular focus on immunotherapeutic and targeted approaches.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )