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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Jan 2019 at 01:46 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: asbestos AND mesothelioma NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-01-15

Wu L, Dell'Anno I, Lapidot M, et al (2019)

Progress of malignant mesothelioma research in basic science: A review of the 14th international conference of the international mesothelioma interest group (iMig2018).

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 127:138-145.

Here we summarize the most recent update of mesothelioma research in basic science presented at the 14th iMig2018 international conference. The symposium of basic science track mainly focused on the drivers of mesothelioma initiation and progression, molecular pathogenesis, and perspectives on potential therapeutic approaches. This review covers several promising fields including strategies efficiently inhibiting YAP/TAZ functions or their critical downstream targets, heparanase inhibitors, RAN depletion, and MIF/CD74 inhibitors that may be developed as novel therapeutic approaches. In addition, targeting mesothelioma stem cells by depleting M2-polarized macrophages in tumor microenvironment or blocking Tnfsf18 (GITRL)-GITR signalling might be translated into therapeutic modalities in mesothelioma treatment.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Chicco D, C Rovelli (2019)

Computational prediction of diagnosis and feature selection on mesothelioma patient health records.

PloS one, 14(1):e0208737 pii:PONE-D-18-17601.

BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is a lung cancer that kills thousands of people worldwide annually, especially those with exposure to asbestos. Diagnosis of mesothelioma in patients often requires time-consuming imaging techniques and biopsies. Machine learning can provide for a more effective, cheaper, and faster patient diagnosis and feature selection from clinical data in patient records.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a dataset of health records of 324 patients having mesothelioma symptoms from Turkey. The patients had prior asbestos exposure and displayed symptoms consistent with mesothelioma. We compared probabilistic neural network, perceptron-based neural network, random forest, one rule, and decision tree classifiers to predict diagnosis of the patient records. We measured classifiers' performance through standard confusion matrix scores such as Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). Random forest outperformed all models tried, obtaining MCC = +0.37 on the complete imbalanced dataset and MCC = +0.64 on the under-sampled balanced dataset. We then employed random forest feature selection to identify the two most relevant dataset traits associated with mesothelioma: lung side and platelet count. These two risk factors resulted so predictive, that decision tree focusing on them achieved the second top accuracy on the complete dataset diagnosis prediction (MCC = +0.28), outperforming all other methods and even decision tree itself applied to all features.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that machine learning can predict diagnoses of patients having mesothelioma symptoms with high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, in few minutes. Additionally, random forest can efficiently select the most important features of this clinical dataset (lung side and platelet count) in few seconds. The importance of pleural plaques in lung sides and blood platelets in mesothelioma diagnosis indicates that physicians should focus on these two features when reading records of patients with mesothelioma symptoms. Moreover, doctors can exploit our machinery to predict patient diagnosis when only lung side and platelet data are available.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

Taghizadeh F, Jafari AJ, Gholami M, et al (2019)

Monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers in an urban ambient air of Shahryar City, Iran: levels, spatial distribution, seasonal variations, and health risk assessment.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-018-4029-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos, as with other pollutants in the air, has adverse effects on the health of human beings and animals. Today, the relationship between presence of asbestos fibers in the air breathed by humans and developing serious diseases such as lung cancer (asbestosis) and mesothelioma has been proven. This study was designed and conducted within the time period of August 2017 and June 2018 to determine the concentration of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City and to evaluate their health effects for the general population of the city. For this purpose, samples were taken from four points, and overall 32 air samples were taken along the year. The samples were then analyzed by the phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method. Also, to investigate the type of asbestos and for more accurate counting of fibers, SEM analysis was utilized. Finally, based on the EPA IRIS method, the health effects resulting from asbestos risks were also evaluated. The results of this study indicated that the mean annual concentration of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City was obtained as 0.0019 f/ml PCM and 0.0072 f/ml SEM. Furthermore, the most polluted point was S1 point (0.0119 -0.0026 f/ml, PCM), while the lowest concentration was related to S4 point (0.001 f/ml PCM-0.0021 f/ml SEM). The mean annual risk resulting from airborne asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City for all samples was obtained as 1.72 × 10-6 to 2.2 × 10-4, which was higher than the recommended risk range in some points.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

Lo Russo G, Tessari A, Capece M, et al (2018)

MicroRNAs for the Diagnosis and Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Literature Review.

Frontiers in oncology, 8:650.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumor with a variable incidence among different countries. Occupational asbestos exposure is the most important etiological factor and a very long latency period is widely reported. In the early phase of the disease, clinical signs are absent or not specific. For this reason, the diagnosis is frequently achieved only in the advanced stages. The histopathological diagnosis per se is also very complex, and no known factor can predict the prognosis with certainty. Nonetheless, current survival rates remain very low, despite the use of standard treatments, which include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The identification of new prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarkers, and the discovery of therapeutic targets is a priority and could lead to a real significant impact on the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma. In this scenario, the role of microRNAs is becoming increasingly relevant, with the promise of a quick translation in the current clinical practice. Despite the relative novelty of this field, the number of works and candidate microRNAs that are present in literature is striking. Unfortunately, to date the microRNAs with the most clinical relevance for MPM are still matter of debate, probably due to the variety of approaches, techniques, and collected samples. Although specific microRNAs (e.g., let-7, miR-15 and miR-16, miR-21, miR-34a, and the miR-200 family) have been reported several times from different groups, the heterogeneity of published data reinforces the need of more comprehensive and unified studies on this topic. In this review we collect and discuss the studies focused on the involvement of microRNAs in different aspects of MPM, from their biological role in tumorigenesis and progression, to their possible application as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Lastly, we examine their potential value as for the design of therapeutic approaches that could benefit MPM patients.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Zha L, Kitamura Y, Kitamura T, et al (2019)

Population-Based Cohort Study on Health Effects of Asbestos Exposure in Japan.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

Occupational asbestos exposure occurs in many workplaces and is a well-known cause of mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the association between non-occupational asbestos exposure and those diseases is not clearly described. The aim of this study was to investigate cause-specific mortality among the residents of Amagasaki, a city in Japan with many asbestos factories, and evaluate the potential excess mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. The study population consisted of 143,929 residents in Amagasaki City before 1975 until 2002, aged ≥40 years on January 1, 2002. Follow-up was conducted from 2002 to 2015. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by sex, using the mortality rate of the Japanese population as reference. A total of 38,546 deaths (including 303 from mesothelioma and 2,683 from lung cancer) were observed. The SMRs in long-term residents' cohort were as follows: death due to all causes, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.10-1.13) in men and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.06-1.09) in women; lung cancer, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.23-1.34) in men and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.14-1.32) in women; mesothelioma, 6.75 (95% CI, 5.83-7.78) in men and 14.99 (95% CI, 12.34-18.06) in women. These SMRs were significantly higher than expected. The increased SMR of mesothelioma suggests the impact of occupational asbestos exposure among men and non-occupational asbestos exposure among women in long-term residents' cohort. Besides, high level of excess mortality from mesothelioma persists for a while, despite the mixture of crocidolite and chrysotile no longer being used for three or four decades. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-01-05

Turini S, Bergandi L, Gazzano E, et al (2019)

Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Mesothelial Cells Exposed to Asbestos Fibers: Role of TGF-β as Mediator of Malignant Mesothelioma Development or Metastasis via EMT Event.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(1): pii:ijms20010150.

Asbestos exposure increases the risk of asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma (MM). Both fibrosis and cancer have been correlated with the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-an event involved in fibrotic development and cancer progression. During EMT, epithelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype by modulating some proteins. Different factors can induce EMT, but Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) plays a crucial role in promoting EMT. In this work, we verified if EMT could be associated with MM development. We explored EMT in human mesothelial cells (MeT-5A) exposed to chrysotile asbestos: we demonstrated that asbestos induces EMT in MeT-5A cells by downregulating epithelial markers E-cadherin, β-catenin, and occludin, and contemporarily, by upregulating mesenchymal markers fibronectin, α-SMA, and vimentin, thus promoting EMT. In these cells, this mechanism is mediated by increased TGF-β secretion, which in turn downregulates E-cadherin and increases fibronectin. These events are reverted in the presence of TGF-β antibody, via a Small Mother Against Decapentaplegic (SMAD)-dependent pathway and its downstream effectors, such as Zinc finger protein SNAI1 (SNAIL-1), Twist-related protein (Twist), and Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox 1 (ZEB-1), which downregulate the E-cadherin gene. Since SNAIL-1, Twist, and ZEB-1 have been shown to be overexpressed in MM, these genes could be considered possible predictive or diagnostic markers of MM development.

RevDate: 2019-01-03

Shehata M, Zaid F, Ottaviano P, et al (2019)

Case report: Steroid responsive mesothelioma-related pleural effusion.

Respiratory medicine case reports, 26:131-135 pii:S2213-0071(18)30324-1.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related tumor arising in the pleural cavity. Symptoms reflect extension of disease and include shortness of breath and chest pain. Unexplained pleural effusion and pleural pain in patients exposed to asbestos should raise the suspicion of MPM. The most common radiologic presentation is ipsilateral pleural effusion with or without pleural thickening or a mass. Thoracoscopic biopsy remains the most appropriate procedure for definitive diagnosis of mesothelioma. Despite advancement in diagnostic procedures and biomolecular research, this tumor nevertheless has poor prognosis. Mesothelioma remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is likely to remain one in the years to come. Here we present the first reported case of steroid treatment responsive pleural effusion in a 72 year-old-male that initially was misdiagnosed as rheumatoid related effusion. However, Pleuroscopy with biopsy revealed mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-12-31

Ye L, Ma S, Robinson BW, et al (2018)

Immunotherapy strategies for mesothelioma - the role of tumor specific neoantigens in a new era of precision medicine.

Expert review of respiratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has long been considered a potential therapy for malignant mesothelioma and is currently being pursued as such. Some of the early phase clinical trials involving immunomodulators have demonstrated encouraging results and numerous clinical trials are underway to further investigate this treatment approach in various treatment settings and larger patient cohorts. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current and emerging clinical evidence for checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapeutic strategies in mesothelioma. The mesothelioma tumor immune microenvironment and mutational landscape are also discussed, including their impact on treatment strategies. We also provide an evaluation of the current evidence for neoantigen targeted personalized immunotherapy. Expert opinion: Immune checkpoint inhibitors work by unleashing the host immune response against probable neoantigens. Despite impressive activity in a small subset of patients and the potential for prolonged responses, most patients experience treatment failure. Neoantigen vaccines provide a potential complementary therapeutic strategy by increasing the immunogenic antigen load, which can lead to an increased tumor specific immune response. Further research is needed explore this treatment option in mesothelioma and technological advances are required to translate this concept into clinical practice.

RevDate: 2018-12-30

McGehee E, Gerber DE, Reisch J, et al (2018)

Treatment and Outcomes of Primary Pericardial Mesothelioma: A Contemporary Review of 103 Published Cases.

Clinical lung cancer pii:S1525-7304(18)30304-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Primary pericardial mesothelioma (PPM) is a rare cancer for which there is no consensus on treatment. We evaluated and summarized a large contemporary population of published PPM cases to characterize risk factors, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes. Using Ovid and PubMed, literature published from 2000 through 2016 was searched using the terms "primary pericardial mesothelioma," "pericardial mesothelioma," and "malignant pericardial mesothelioma." We identified 6 case series and 84 case reports for a total of 103 PPM cases published from 2000 through 2016. The median age at diagnosis was 55 years, and the median overall survival was 6 months. In univariate analyses of clinical characteristics including gender, asbestos exposure, tobacco use, prior radiation exposure, histologic subtype, and metastasis and/or mediastinal spread, only the presence of metastasis and/or mediastinal spread was a significant predictor of decreased survival (P = .015). Surgery did not provide a statistically significant survival benefit (P = .12). A survival benefit was noted in those who received chemotherapy (median survival, 13 months vs. 0.5 months, P = .002), specifically chemotherapy with a platinum agent with or without pemetrexed. In multivariate analysis, only the receipt of chemotherapy was associated with improved survival. PPM remains a rare and poorly understood malignancy with unclear etiology and a poor prognosis. In this retrospective systematic review, a survival benefit was seen in patients who received chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2018-12-30

Merlo DF, Bruzzone M, Bruzzi P, et al (2018)

Mortality among workers exposed to asbestos at the shipyard of Genoa, Italy: a 55 years follow-up.

Environmental health : a global access science source, 17(1):94 pii:10.1186/s12940-018-0439-1.

BACKGROUND: Exposure to asbestos remains a global issue due to its massive use in the twentieth century and its long environmental persistence. Exposure to asbestos still occurs during dismantling of ships and vessels, buildings renovation, mining operations, and is reported in developing countries. Current estimate report exposure of hundreds of million people in occupational settings in countries where its use remains unregulated.

METHODS: We conducted a historical prospective cohort mortality study aimed at estimating mortality from specific causes, the temporal changes of pleural and lung cancer mortality, and the attributable fraction (AF) of lung cancer deaths following asbestos exposure. The study included 3984 shipyard workers employed at the shipyard of Genoa, Italy, between 1960 and 1981 and followed up to December 2014. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed.

RESULTS: Overall deaths recorded were 3331 (83.6%). Excess mortality was observed for all cancers (SMR = 127, 95%CI:120-134), pleural mesothelioma (575, 469-697), cancers of the larynx (183, 134-244) and of the lung (154, 139-170), and for respiratory tract diseases (127, 114-141), including asbestosis (2277, 1525-3270). Ninety out of 399 deaths (22.6%) from lung cancer were attributed to asbestos exposure. The estimated lung cancer AF was 49.3% in workers with the highest SMR for pleural cancer. Median latency times for pleural and lung cancer were 42.8 years (minimum latency: 9.3 years) and 38.7 years (minimum latency: 6 years). The peak of mesothelioma incidence, expected in Italy in the period 2015-2024, was confirmed.

CONCLUSIONS: The long follow-up period of our study allowed the detection of a substantial disease burden following asbestos exposure. These findings support the urgent need for the prevention of asbestos related diseases through the implementation of asbestos ban worldwide, including those countries where asbestos is still mined, manufactured and used.

RevDate: 2018-12-20

Xu R, Barg FK, Emmett EA, et al (2018)

Association between mesothelioma and non-occupational asbestos exposure: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environmental health : a global access science source, 17(1):90 pii:10.1186/s12940-018-0431-9.

BACKGROUND: The risk of mesothelioma has been shown to be associated with exposure to asbestos fibers. Most of the existing literature focuses on occupational exposure; however, non-occupational asbestos exposure has also been identified as an important risk factor.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between mesothelioma and non-occupational asbestos exposure, and evaluate control recruitment and exposure measurement methods.

METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify case-control (CC) and cohort studies that examined the association between mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos, including neighborhood, domestic, and household exposure. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) and 95% confidence interval using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by exposure type, gender, region, and fiber type.

RESULTS: Twenty CC and 7 cohort studies were selected. Controls in CC studies were selected from the general population (55%), hospital records (18%), cancer registry (23%) and a combination of population and hospital records (5%). Multiple methods were used to measure neighborhood exposure (e.g., linear distance and direction of residence from an asbestos factory), domestic (e.g., whether living with an asbestos worker) and household exposure (e.g., whether involved in asbestos-containing home improvement projects). Primary meta-analyses suggested a SRRE of mesothelioma of 5.33 (95%CI: 2.53, 11.23) from neighborhood exposure, 4.31 (95%CI, 2.58, 7.20) from domestic exposure, and 2.41 (95%CI, 1.30, 4.48) from household exposure with large I2 statistics ranging from 83-99%.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-occupational asbestos exposure is significantly associated with an elevated risk of mesothelioma. Funnel plots indicated a potential of publication bias. Some SRREs should be interpreted with cautions because of high between-studies heterogeneity.

RevDate: 2018-12-18

Oddone E, Terracini B, Mirabelli D, et al (2018)

Comment on: Malignant mesothelioma diagnosed at a younger age is associated with heavier asbestos exposure.

Carcinogenesis pii:5250919 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-12-18

Kai Y, Tsutani Y, Ito M, et al (2019)

Metachronous Lung Cancer After Pleurectomy/Decortication.

The Annals of thoracic surgery, 107(1):e1-e3.

Pleurectomy/decortication is a surgical procedure for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and has been proposed as an alternative to extrapleural pneumonectomy. We report a second primary lung cancer developing after pleurectomy/decortication for MPM. A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with MPM on the right side and underwent pleurectomy/decortication. Follow-up computed tomography detected a nodule in the right upper lobe that was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by wedge resection. Lung cancer and MPM are associated with asbestos exposure. However, predicting lung cancer after treatment for MPM is difficult. Careful follow-up of the spared lung is necessary for detecting second primary lung cancer or MPM recurrence.

RevDate: 2018-12-17

Schnatter AR, Wojcik NC, G Jorgensen (2018)

Mortality Update of a Cohort of Canadian Petroleum Workers.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study updates the mortality experience of over 25,000 workers in a large Canadian petroleum company through December 31, 2006.

METHODS: Standardized Mortality Ratios were generated for all cause and specific cause mortality.

RESULTS: All cause and all cancer mortality were favorable compared to the general Canadian population. Cancers of previous interest were largely consistent with expectation. There is a continuing excess of mesothelioma, which is of similar magnitude as the previous update, although based on larger numbers. This excess is mostly attributable to men who died in their 50's and 60's and who worked in the refining sector.

CONCLUSIONS: Most causes of death show mortality rates lower than the Canadian general population. Given the excess of mesothelioma observed, this study supports ongoing vigilance in asbestos exposure control programs as refineries continue to remove asbestos from their facilities.

RevDate: 2018-12-14

Wörthmüller J, Oberson A, Salicio V, et al (2018)

Calretinin Functions in Malignant Mesothelioma Cells Cannot Be Replaced by the Closely Related Ca2+-Binding Proteins Calbindin-D28k and Parvalbumin.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(12): pii:ijms19124015.

Calretinin (CR; CALB2) belonging to the family of EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBP) is widely used as a positive marker for the identification of human malignant mesothelioma (MM) and functionally was suggested to play a critical role during carcinogenesis of this highly aggressive asbestos-associated neoplasm. Increasing evidence suggests that CR not only acts as a prototypical Ca2+ buffer protein, i.e., limiting the amplitude of Ca2+ signals but also as a Ca2+ sensor. No studies have yet investigated whether other closely related CaBPs might serve as substitutes for CR's functions(s) in MM cells. Genetically modified MM cell lines with medium (MSTO-211H and ZL5) or low (SPC111) endogenous CR expression levels were generated that overexpress either CR's closest homologue calbindin-D28k (CB) or parvalbumin (PV), the latter considered as a "pure" Ca2+ buffer protein. After lentiviral shCALB2-mediated CR downregulation, in both MSTO-211H and ZL5 cells expressing CB or PV, the CR deficiency-mediated increase in cell death was not prevented by CB or PV. With respect to proliferation and cell morphology of SPC111 cells, CB was able to substitute for CR, but not for CR's other functions to promote cell migration or invasion. In conclusion, CR has a likely unique role in MM that cannot be substituted by "similar" CaBPs.

RevDate: 2018-12-13
CmpDate: 2018-12-13

Furuya S, Chimed-Ochir O, Takahashi K, et al (2018)

Global Asbestos Disaster.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(5):.

Introduction: Asbestos has been used for thousands of years but only at a large industrial scale for about 100⁻150 years. The first identified disease was asbestosis, a type of incurable pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos dust and fibres. The latest estimate of global number of asbestosis deaths from the Global Burden of Disease estimate 2016 is 3495. Asbestos-caused cancer was identified in the late 1930's but despite today's overwhelming evidence of the strong carcinogenicity of all asbestos types, including chrysotile, it is still widely used globally. Various estimates have been made over time including those of World Health Organization and International Labour Organization: 107,000⁻112,000 deaths. Present estimates are much higher. Objective: This article summarizes the special edition of this Journal related to asbestos and key aspects of the past and present of the asbestos problem globally. The objective is to collect and provide the latest evidence of the magnitude of asbestos-related diseases and to provide the present best data for revitalizing the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program on Asbestos-related Diseases. Methods: Documentation on asbestos-related diseases, their recognition, reporting, compensation and prevention efforts were examined, in particular from the regulatory and prevention point of view. Estimated global numbers of incidence and mortality of asbestos-related diseases were examined. Results: Asbestos causes an estimated 255,000 deaths (243,223⁻260,029) annually according to latest knowledge, of which work-related exposures are responsible for 233,000 deaths (222,322⁻242,802). In the European Union, United States of America and in other high income economies (World Health Organization regional classification) the direct costs for sickness, early retirement and death, including production losses, have been estimated to be very high; in the Western European countries and European Union, and equivalent of 0.70% of the Gross Domestic Product or 114 × 10⁸ United States Dollars. Intangible costs could be much higher. When applying the Value of Statistical Life of 4 million EUR per cancer death used by the European Commission, we arrived at 410 × 10⁸ United States Dollars loss related to occupational cancer and 340 × 10⁸ related to asbestos exposure at work, while the human suffering and loss of life is impossible to quantify. The numbers and costs are increasing practically in every country and region in the world. Asbestos has been banned in 55 countries but is used widely today; some 2,030,000 tons consumed annually according to the latest available consumption data. Every 20 tons of asbestos produced and consumed kills a person somewhere in the world. Buying 1 kg of asbestos powder, e.g., in Asia, costs 0.38 United States Dollars, and 20 tons would cost in such retail market 7600 United States Dollars. Conclusions: Present efforts to eliminate this man-made problem, in fact an epidemiological disaster, and preventing exposures leading to it are insufficient in most countries in the world. Applying programs and policies, such as those for the elimination of all kind of asbestos use-that is banning of new asbestos use and tight control and management of existing structures containing asbestos-need revision and resources. The International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program for the Elimination of Asbestos-Related Diseases needs to be revitalized. Exposure limits do not protect properly against cancer but for asbestos removal and equivalent exposure elimination work, we propose a limit value of 1000 fibres/m³.

RevDate: 2018-12-11

Yamazoe M, Tomioka H, Kamada T, et al (2019)

Simultaneous presence of lung adenocarcinoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report.

Respiratory medicine case reports, 26:45-49 pii:S2213-0071(18)30309-5.

The co-presence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and lung cancer is rare. We report a 70-year-old male with exposure to asbestos. Chest computed tomography revealed a right mediastinal mass combined with an enlarged ipsilateral lymph node and left pleural effusion. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma. Thoracoscopic examination revealed multiple left pleural nodules, leading to the diagnosis of MPM. Despite aggressive anticancer drug therapy, he expired due to disease progression 2.5 years after diagnosis. Autopsy confirmed an epithelioid MPM in the left pleura. MPM comorbidity in patients diagnosed with lung cancer should be considered, especially in those exposed to asbestos.

RevDate: 2018-12-11

Lee LJ, Lin CK, Pan CH, et al (2018)

Clustering of malignant pleural mesothelioma in asbestos factories: a subgroup analysis in a 29-year follow-up study to identify high-risk industries in Taiwan.

BMJ open, 8(12):e021063 pii:bmjopen-2017-021063.

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to asbestos is the major cause for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but the causal link of individual cases is difficult to establish for lack of exposure information and long disease latency.

METHODS: We established a retrospective cohort of workers employed in asbestos industries during the period of 1950-1989 and the occurrence of MPM during the period of 1980-2009 was examined with the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Estimated rate ratios (eRRs) were computed for each factory where any case of MPM was diagnosed by assuming Poisson distribution with a minimal latency of 20 years.

RESULTS: A total of 18 MPM (17 males, 1 female) in eight factories were found. The incidence rate of MPM for the eight factories was 18.0 per million, ranging from 6.2 per million (military factory) to 268.2 per million (asbestos cement). We observed significantly increased risks for MPM in asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, with eRR (genders combined) of 113.6, 87.5 and 15.8, respectively. The sensitivity analyses considering latency showed similar findings in latency ≥30 years, and the shipbuilding industry presented a significant eRR given a latency ≥40 years. The gender-specific eRR showed similar results in men, but high eRR of 729.6 was observed in an asbestos cement factory where a female MPM was diagnosed.

CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study in Taiwan comprehensively shows that different asbestos manufacturing processes, including asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, were at significantly increased risks for MPM. We recommend to establish a medical screening programme for workers previously exposed to asbestos to identify MPM and other asbestos-related diseases at an earlier stage.

RevDate: 2018-12-11

Serio G, Vimercati L, Pennella A, et al (2018)

Genomic changes of chromosomes 8p23.1 and 1q21: Novel mutations in malignant mesothelioma.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 126:106-111.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy of the thoracic cavity caused by prior asbestos exposure. In the peritoneum the mesothelioma is an extremely rare condition. In the present preliminary study, high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed to identify genetic imbalances in a series of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2008, among the cases recorded in the Apulia Mesothelioma Register, we found 22 peritoneal mesothelioma cases. CGH-array was performed on samples from all patients.

RESULTS: The CGH-array analysis revealed multiple chromosomal imbalances. Interestingly, deletion at 8p23.1 was observed in 12 cases. Furthermore, another novel deletion at 1q21 was present in 11. Often, 1q21 and 8p23.1 losses were present in the same patient (7 cases). Losses of BAP1 and CDKN2A loci were not detected.

DISCUSSION: The region at 8p23.1 contains the beta-defensin gene cluster (DEF) and 1q21 contains ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBE2Q1). We hypotesized that the loss of function of ubiquitination, as well as of the defensins, could play an important role in the initial development and subsequent progression of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-12-06

Chee J, Watson MW, Chopra A, et al (2018)

Tumour associated lymphocytes in the pleural effusions of patients with mesothelioma express high levels of inhibitory receptors.

BMC research notes, 11(1):864 pii:10.1186/s13104-018-3953-x.

OBJECTIVE: Pleural effusion (PE) is a common feature of malignant pleural mesothelioma. These effusions typically contain lymphocytes and malignant cells. We postulated that the PE would be a source of lymphocytes for analysis of tumor immune milieu. The aim of this study was to compare the phenotype and T cell receptor usage of pleural effusion T cells with paired concurrently drawn peripheral blood lymphocytes. We used multi-parameter flow cytometry and high-throughput T cell receptor sequencing to analyse peripheral blood and pleural effusion mononuclear cells.

RESULTS: Both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from effusion showed increased expression of T cell inhibitory receptors PD-1, LAG-3 and Tim-3 compared to blood. Comprehensive T cell receptor sequencing on one of the patients showed a discordant distribution of clonotypes in the antigen-experienced (PD-1+) compartment between effusion and blood, suggesting an enrichment of antigen specific clonotypes in the effusion, with potential as an immunological response biomarker.

RevDate: 2018-12-03

Okita R, Nojima Y, Saisho S, et al (2018)

Deciduoid type malignant pleural mesothelioma: a case report.

AME case reports, 2:43 pii:acr-02-2018.09.02.

Here, we report a patient with deciduoid type malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), which rapidly progressed. A 55-year-old man who might have been exposed to asbestos a few decades ago had severe back pain. The chest X-ray scanning and computed tomography (CT) revealed pleural thickness on his right thoracic space, without the presence of a lung mass. A pleural biopsy was performed and the patient was histologically diagnosed with deciduoid type MPM. Although he received two cycles of chemotherapy, his disease rapidly progressed and he died within two months of the diagnosis of deciduoid type MPM.

RevDate: 2018-12-01

Izquierdo-Sánchez V, Muñiz-Hernández S, Vázquez-Becerra H, et al (2018)

Biodistribution and Tumor Uptake of 67Ga-Nimotuzumab in a Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Xenograft.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(12): pii:molecules23123138.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common tumor of the pulmonary pleura. It is a rare and aggressive malignancy, generally associated with continuous occupational exposure to asbestos. Only a multimodal-approach to treatment, based on surgical resection, chemotherapy and/or radiation, has shown some benefits. However, the survival rate remains low. Nimotuzumab (h-R3), an anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) humanized antibody, is proposed as a promising agent for the treatment of MPM. The aim of this research was to implement a procedure for nimotuzumab radiolabeling to evaluate its biodistribution and affinity for EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptors present in a mesothelioma xenograft. Nimotuzumab was radiolabeled with 67Ga; radiolabel efficiency, radiochemical purity, serum stability, and biodistribution were evaluated. Biodistribution and tumor uptake imaging studies by microSPECT/CT in mesothelioma xenografts revealed constant nimotuzumab uptake at the tumor site during the first 48 h after drug administration. In vivo studies using MPM xenografts showed a significant uptake of this radioimmunoconjugate, which illustrates its potential as a biomarker that could promote its theranostic use in patients with MPM.

RevDate: 2018-12-04

Till JE, Beck HL, Boice JD, et al (2018)

Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma Mortality among Atomic Veterans.

International journal of radiation biology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: During the Cold War the United States (U.S.) conducted 230 above-ground atmospheric nuclear weapons tests between 1945 and 1962 at the Nevada Test Site and the Pacific Proving Grounds. These tests involved over 250,000 military personnel. Asbestos was used on the naval vessels for insulation in the boiler room, engine room, and other areas. This is the first quantitative assessment of asbestos-related mesothelioma, including cancers of the pleura and peritoneum, among military personnel who participated in above-ground nuclear weapons testing.

METHODS: Approximately 114,000 atomic veterans were selected for an epidemiological study because they were in one of eight series of weapons tests that were associated with somewhat higher personnel exposures than the other tests and because they have been previously studied. We were able to categorize specific jobs into potential for asbestos exposure based on a detailed database of the military activities of the atomic veterans, developed using historical records provided by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by service, rank(officer/enlisted) and ratings (occupation code and work location aboard ship) after 65 years of follow-up… Results: Mesothelioma deaths were significantly increased overall (SMR 1.56; 95% CI 1.32-1.82; n= 153). This increase was seen only among those serving in the Pacific Proving Ground (SMR 1.97; 95% CI 1.65-2.34; n= 134), enlisted men (SMR 1.81; 95% CI 1.53-2.13; n= 145) and the 70,309 navy personnel (SMR 2.15; 95% CI 1.80-2.56; n= 130). No increased mortality rates were seen among the other services: army (SMR 0.45), air force (SMR 0.85) or marines (SMR 0.75). Job categories with the highest potential for asbestos exposure (machinist's mates, boiler technicians, water tender, pipe fitters, and fireman) had an of SMR 6.47. Job categories with lower potential (SMR =1.35) or no potential (SMR =1.28) for asbestos exposure had non-significantly elevated mesothelioma mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Although jobs with high potential for exposure to asbestos products were held by only 20% of the enlisted naval population, sailors with these jobs (machinist's mate, pipe fitter, boiler technician, water tender and fireman) experienced 55% of mesothelioma deaths. The significantly higher mortality rate overall was explained by asbestos exposure among enlisted naval personnel in this low-dose radiation exposed cohort.

RevDate: 2018-11-30

Regragui M, NB Guebessi (2018)

Primary Malignant Deciduoid Mesothelioma: A Challenging Diagnosis.

Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Primary malignant deciduoid mesothelioma is a rare subtype of epithelioid mesothelioma that was first described in the peritoneum in young women without a history of asbestos exposure. It was thought to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity with ominous prognosis; recent studies have better characterized this entity. On morphology, primary malignant deciduoid mesothelioma is characterized by cytomorphologic features resembling decidualized tissue. Pleomorphism is variable. The immunoprofile is similar to other epithelioid mesotheliomas. The prognosis is the same as other epithelioid mesotheliomas and seems to depend on histological grade.

RevDate: 2018-11-29

Bayram M, Özkan D, Hayat E, et al (2018)

Asbestos-Related Diseases in Turkey: Not Only Caused by Naturally Occurring Fibers, but Also by Industrial Exposures.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-11-29

Dournes G, Dubois A, Benlala I, et al (2018)

3-Dimensional Quantification of Composite Pleural Plaque Volume in Patients Exposed to Asbestos Using High-resolution Computed Tomography: A Validation Study.

Journal of thoracic imaging [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: As pleural plaque has been reported as a risk factor in the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma, a reproducible and precise method of measurement of pleural plaque volume (PPV) is needed to further describe these relationships. The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of a 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetric analysis of PPV in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 patients were retrospectively randomly selected from the multicenter APEXS (Asbestos Post Exposure Survey) study, which was held between 2003 and 2005. All patients underwent a 3D-CT scan. Two readers specialized in chest radiology completed the 3D semiautomated quantification of lung volume using dedicated software. They also had to categorize the visual extent of pleural plaque in terms of thickness and circumference. Reproducibility of the continuous PPV variable was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Reproducibility of categorical variables was assessed using the κ test.

RESULTS: Intraobserver reproducibility of PPV was almost perfect (ICC=0.98 [95% interval: 0.97-0.99]), and interobserver reproducibility was very good (ICC=0.93 [0.88-0.97]). At Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences were 0.1 (limit of agreement: -11.0 to 11.2) and 3.7 cc (-17.8 to 25.2), respectively. Visual analysis of both plaque in terms of thickness and circumference were fair to moderate, with κ values ranging from 0.30 to 0.60.

CONCLUSIONS: 3D semiautomatic quantification of PPV is feasible and reproducible using CT in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos. PPV measurement may be useful to correlate with other asbestos-related disease outcomes and prognosis.

RevDate: 2018-11-29

Park S, Park J, Lee E, et al (2018)

Ovarian cancer in a former asbestos textile factory worker: a case report.

Annals of occupational and environmental medicine, 30:65 pii:277.

Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) defined that asbestos is a group 1 substance that causes lung cancer, mesothelioma (pleura and peritoneum), laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer in humans. Many studies on lung cancer, and mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure have been conducted, but there was no case report of ovarian cancer due to asbestos exposure in Korea. We describe a case of ovarian cancer caused by asbestos exposure in a worker who worked at an asbestos textile factory for 3 years and 7 months in the late 1970s.

Case presentation: A 57-year-old woman visited the hospital because she had difficulty urinating. Ovarian cancer was suspected in radiologic examination, and exploratory laparotomy was performed. She was diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. The patient did not undergo postoperative chemotherapy and recovered. She joined the asbestos factory in March 1976 and engaged in asbestos textile twisting and spinning for 1 year, 2 years and 7 months respectively. In addition, she lived near the asbestos factory for more than 20 years. There was no other specificity or family history.

Conclusion: Considering the patient's occupational and environmental history, it is estimated that she had been exposed to asbestos significantly, so we determined that ovarian cancer in the patient is highly correlated with the occupational exposure of asbestos and environmental exposure is a possible cause as well. Social devices are needed to prevent further exposure to asbestos. It is also necessary to recognize that ovarian cancer can occur in workers who have previously been exposed to asbestos, and the education and social compensation for those workers are needed.

RevDate: 2018-11-29

Tlotleng N, Sidwell Wilson K, Naicker N, et al (2019)

The significance of non-occupational asbestos exposure in women with mesothelioma.

Respirology case reports, 7(1):e00386 pii:RCR2386.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive pleural or peritoneal tumour almost always caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. Exposure to asbestos can cause malignant mesothelioma 30-40 years after exposure. A description of sources of exposure is important for prevention and possible financial compensation. Three women with cases of histologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma diagnosed from non-occupational asbestos exposure are described. Patients were contacted for an interview to assess their exposure history to asbestos. All three cases had mixed exposure histories related to secondary, environmental contamination, and domestic exposure. This case series highlight how ubiquitous asbestos is in the environment and how diverse the exposures may be. It is anticipated that a significant number of cases of non-occupational mesothelioma will be seen in many countries for several decades given the extent of asbestos containing materials.

RevDate: 2018-11-26

Consonni D, C Mensi (2018)

Comment on the paper "Boffetta et al. Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy. Ann Oncol 2018; 29(2): 484-489".

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology pii:5209694 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-11-19

Krówczyńska M, Wilk E, Pabjanek P, et al (2018)

Pleural mesothelioma in Poland: Spatial analysis of malignant mesothelioma prevalence in the period 1999-2013.

Geospatial health, 13(2):.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM), a rare and very deadly tumour, can be due to asbestos exposure. To better understand the cause of incidence of MM, spatial autocorrelation analysis with reference to the quantity of asbestos-cement products in use and the localisation of former asbestos manufacturing plants was applied. Geostatistical analysis shows that strong spatial clustering of MM incidence (referring to the general population as well as females and males separately) during the period 1999-2013 in the administrative units of Poland (provinces and counties). Incidence hotspots were found to be concentrated primarily in southern Poland but also seen in the county of Szczecin, which stands out in local autocorrelation analysis in north-western Poland. High incidence rates were discovered, in particular with reference to counties around former plants manufacturing asbestos-containing products, mainly asbestos-cement manufacturers. The highest frequency of MM incidence rate was found in within a 55 km radius of plants in or near the towns Trzebinia, Ogrodzieniec and Szczucin in the South, where asbestos-cement products had been manufactured for close to 40 years. Areas with significantly high incidence rates were also discovered in the provinces of Śląskie, Małopolskie and Świętokrzyskie in southern Poland.

RevDate: 2018-11-21

Broeckx G, P Pauwels (2018)

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: a review.

Translational lung cancer research, 7(5):537-542.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a very rare malignancy of the peritoneum and has a poor prognosis. Of all mesotheliomas, pleural mesothelioma is more common than MPM. In comparison to pleural mesothelioma, the link with asbestos exposure is weaker (33-50% vs. >80%), but it is still the best-defined risk factor. MPM spreads predominantly expansive rather than infiltrative and symptoms are related to tumor spread within the abdominal cavity. Often, MPM is encountered incidentally by diagnostic imaging or by surgery. Computed tomography scan is widely accepted as a first line modality in diagnostic imaging. In diagnostic histopathology, MPM presents some challenges. Firstly, adequate clinical information is of utmost importance to consider the possibility of the diagnosis of MPM. Furthermore, a few morphological subtypes and variants exist. The most sensitive immunohistochemical markers are calretinin (100%), WT1 (94%) and CK5/6 (89%). The malignant character of immunohistochemically demonstrated mesothelial cells is not always obvious. This paradigm somewhat changed with the advent of immunohistochemical demonstration of BAP1 (BRCA-1 associated protein 1). Loss of BAP1 expression supports a diagnosis of malignancy. The gold standard in treatment remains cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Targetable molecular pathways in MPM are being identified. An exciting finding was the demonstration of ALK rearrangements in a small subset of patients with MPM and it is hoped for that at least this small subgroup of patients could benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors. First-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) did not show any significant activity in MPM. In contrast, nintedanib, an angiokinase inhibitor, improved progression-free survival and bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody increased overall survival in patients with MPM, when administered in combination with cisplatin and pemetrexed. Ongoing immunotherapy trials will offer a possible new treatment.

RevDate: 2018-11-21

Brusselmans L, Arnouts L, Millevert C, et al (2018)

Breath analysis as a diagnostic and screening tool for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review.

Translational lung cancer research, 7(5):520-536.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumour related to a historical exposure to asbestos fibres. Currently, the definite diagnosis is made only by the histological examination of a biopsy obtained through an invasive thoracoscopy. However, diagnosis is made too late for curative treatment because of non-specific symptoms mainly appearing at advanced stage disease. Hence, due to its biologic aggressiveness and the late diagnosis, survival rate is low and the patients' outcome poor. In addition, radiological imaging, like computed tomographic scans, and blood biomarkers are found not to be sensitive enough to be used as an early diagnostic tool. Detection in an early stage is assumed to improve the patients' outcome but is hampered due to non-specific and late symptomology. Hence, there is a need for a new screening and diagnostic test which could improve the patients' outcome. Despite extensive research has focused on blood biomarkers, not a single has been shown clinically useful, and therefore research recently shifted to "breathomics" techniques to recognize specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of the patient as potential non-invasive biomarkers for disease. In this review, we summarize the acquired knowledge about using breath analysis for diagnosing and monitoring MPM and asbestos-related disorders (ARD). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the gold standard of breath analysis, appears to be the method with the highest accuracy (97%) to differentiate MPM patients from at risk asbestos-exposed subjects. There have already been found some interesting biomarkers that are significantly elevated in asbestosis (NO, 8-isoprostane, leukotriene B4, α-Pinene…) and MPM (cyclohexane) patients. Regrettably, the different techniques and the plethora of studies suffer some limitations. Most studies are pilot studies with the inclusion of a limited number of patients. Nevertheless, given the promising results and easy sampling methods, we can conclude that breath analysis may become a useful tool in the future to screen for MPM, but further research is warranted.

RevDate: 2018-11-21

Nuyts V, Nawrot T, Nemery B, et al (2018)

Hotspots of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Western Europe.

Translational lung cancer research, 7(5):516-519.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma, a highly invasive tumour, has been epidemiologically linked to an occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos. Although asbestos has been widely used in diverse industrial applications and in construction, some industrial sectors have been affected much more than others. The objective of this review was to describe the existence of clusters of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Western European countries, based on epidemiological studies published between 2000 and 2015. MEDLINE (PubMed) and Embase were searched for relevant studies on spatial clustering of mesothelioma in Western European countries. Eventually, 16 different studies published between 2000 and 2015 were selected for a comprehensive analysis. Relevant studies on spatial clustering of mesothelioma were found for Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Denmark. Clustering of pleural mesothelioma was found mainly around shipyards (16 studies) and asbestos cement industries (10 studies). Although malignant pleural mesothelioma may be found throughout Western Europe, the present study indicates specific areas with higher past and also probable future incidence.

RevDate: 2018-11-17

Feder IS, Jülich M, Tannapfel A, et al (2018)

[The German Mesothelioma Register : Current pathological diagnostics and services].

Der Pathologe pii:10.1007/s00292-018-0509-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In Germany, asbestos-related diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma) are recognised and compensated occupational diseases. The histologic diagnosis of mesothelioma is sometimes a challenge; additional immunohistochemical and molecular methods are needed. With lung dust analysis, the current asbestos fibre burden of the lung is measured (biomonitoring). Identification of grade I asbestosis (minimal asbestosis) requires directed histological examinations with up to 400-fold magnification, additional iron staining and possibly in connection with a lung dust analysis.

OBJECTIVES: Demonstration of current pathologic diagnostics in association with mesothelioma and lung dust analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of routine data from the German Mesothelioma Register.

RESULTS: Contrary to reactive mesothelial hyperplasia, malignant mesotheliomas have a nuclear BAP1 loss-of-expression in up to 66% of cases. For differential diagnosis between reactive versus malignant, a p16-FISH test may be helpful. BAP1 loss-of-expression and p16-deletion are independent markers. Evaluation of the dataset of the German Mesothelioma Register of patients with repeated tissue sampling proves the detection of asbestos fibres at the same level even after 40 years. The asbestos fibre burden in the human lung remains stable over this long period of time. In the electron microscopic analysis, white asbestos was predominantly found.

CONCLUSIONS: The well-known and industrially appreciated characteristics of asbestos fibres (in ancient ἄσβεστος asbestos "imperishable") as biopersistent have also been experimentally confirmed in human lungs.

RevDate: 2018-11-16

Kumagai-Takei N, Nishimura Y, Matsuzaki H, et al (2018)

Decrease in Intracellular Perforin Levels and IFN-γ Production in Human CD8+ T Cell Line following Long-Term Exposure to Asbestos Fibers.

Journal of immunology research, 2018:4391731.

Although the tumorigenicity of asbestos, which is thought to cause mesothelioma, has been clarified, its effect on antitumor immunity requires further investigation. We previously reported a decrease in the percentage of perforin+ cells of stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from patients with malignant mesothelioma. Therefore, we examined the effects of long-term exposure to asbestos on CD8+ T cell functions by comparing long-term cultures of the human CD8+ T cell line EBT-8 with and without exposure to chrysotile (CH) asbestos as an in vitro model. Exposure to CH asbestos at 5 μg/ml or 30 μg/ml did not result in a decrease in intracellular granzyme B in EBT-8 cells. In contrast, the percentage of perforin+ cells decreased at both doses of CH exposure. CH exposure at 30 μg/ml did not suppress degranulation following stimulation with antibodies to CD3. Secreted production of IFN-γ stimulated via CD3 decreased by CH exposure at 30 μg/ml, although the percentage of IFN-γ+ cells induced by PMA/ionomycin did not decrease. These results indicate that long-term exposure to asbestos can potentially suppress perforin levels and the production of IFN-γ in human CD8+ T cells.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Røe OD (2018)

[Asbestos and mesothelioma in Denmark 2017: status of a man-made cancer epidemic].

Ugeskrift for laeger, 180(46):.

Asbestos-induced cancer is an increasing problem in Denmark, and 32 years after the closure of the Danish Eternit Factory in Aalborg there are > 140 new mesothelioma cases diagnosed yearly, numbers rapidly increasing. Asbestos-induced lung cancer may be six times this number. The non-occupational exposure and even neighborhood exposure as a risk factor suggests, that compensation for mesothelioma should be universal. At the Aalborg University Hospital a multidisciplinary research team has been formed to do epidemiological, translational and clinical studies through national and international collaborations. Transformative research on asbestos cancer should be stimulated.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Berzenji L, P Van Schil (2018)

Multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

F1000Research, 7:.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease of the pleura and is largely related to asbestos exposure. Despite recent advancements in technologies and a greater understanding of the disease, the prognosis of MPM remains poor; the median overall survival rate is about 6 to 9 months in untreated patients. The main therapeutic strategies for MPM are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). The two main surgical approaches for MPM are extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lung is removed en bloc, and pleurectomy/decortication, in which the lung stays in situ. Chemotherapy usually consists of a platinum-based chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, often combined with a folate antimetabolite, such as pemetrexed. More recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a possible therapeutic strategy for MPM. Evidence suggests that single-modality treatments are not an effective therapeutic approach for MPM. Therefore, researchers have started to explore different multimodality treatment approaches, in which often combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and RT are investigated. There is still no definitive answer to the question of which multimodality treatment combinations are most effective in improving the poor prognosis of MPM. Research into the effects of trimodality treatment approaches have found that radical approaches such as EPP and hemithoracic RT post-EPP are less effective than was previously assumed. In general, there are still a great number of unanswered questions and unknown factors regarding the ideal treatment approach for MPM. Hopefully, more research into multimodality therapy will provide insight into which combination of treatment modalities is most effective.

RevDate: 2018-11-08

Guarrera S, Viberti C, Cugliari G, et al (2018)

Peripheral blood DNA methylation as potential biomarker of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in asbestos-exposed subjects.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(18)33412-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Patients are usually diagnosed when current treatments have limited benefits, highlighting the need for non-invasive early diagnosis tests to monitor asbestos-exposed people.

METHODS: We used a genome-wide methylation array to identify, in asbestos-exposed subjects, novel blood DNA methylation markers of MPM in 163 MPM cases and 137 cancer-free controls (82/68 Training Set; replication in 81/69, Test Set) sampled from the same areas.

RESULTS: Evidence of differential methylation between MPM cases and controls was found (>800 CpG sites, Pfdr<0.05), mainly in immune system related genes. Considering the "top" differentially methylated signals, 7 single-CpGs and 5 genomic regions of coordinated methylation replicated with similar effect size in the Test Set (pfdr<0.05). The top hypomethylated single-CpG (cases vs controls effect size<-0.15, pfdr <0.05 in both Training and Test sets) was detected in FOXK1 (Forkhead-box K1) gene, an interactor of BAP1 which was found mutated in MPM tissue and as germline mutation in familial MPM. In the Test set, comparison of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) of two models, including/excluding methylation, showed a significant increase in case/control discrimination when considering DNA methylation together with asbestos exposure (AUC=0.81 vs AUC=0.89, DeLong's test p=0.0013).

CONCLUSIONS: We identified signatures of differential methylation in DNA from whole blood between asbestos exposed MPM cases and controls. Our results provide the rationale to further investigate, in prospective studies, the potential use of blood DNA methylation profiles for the identification of early changes related to MPM carcinogenic process.

RevDate: 2018-11-07

Matsushita A, Sato T, Mukai S, et al (2018)

TAZ activation by Hippo pathway dysregulation induces cytokine gene expression and promotes mesothelial cell transformation.

Oncogene pii:10.1038/s41388-018-0417-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) constitutes a very aggressive tumor that is caused by asbestos exposure after long latency. The NF2 tumor suppressor gene is mutated in 40-50% of MM; moreover, one of its downstream signaling cascades, the Hippo signaling pathway, is also frequently inactivated in MM cells. Although the YAP transcriptional coactivator, which is regulated by the Hippo pathway, can function as a pro-oncogenic protein, the role of TAZ, a paralog of YAP, in MM cells has not yet been clarified. Here, we show that TAZ is expressed and underphosphorylated (activated) in the majority of MM cells compared to immortalized mesothelial cells. ShRNA-mediated TAZ knockdown highly suppressed cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell motility, and invasion in MM cells harboring activated TAZ. Conversely, transduction of an activated form of TAZ in immortalized mesothelial cells enhanced these in vitro phenotypes and conferred tumorigenicity in vivo. Microarray analysis determined that activated TAZ most significantly enhanced the transcription of genes related to "cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction." Among selected cytokines, we found that IL-1 signaling activation plays a major role in proliferation in TAZ-activated MM cells. Both IL1B knockdown and an IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly suppressed malignant phenotypes of immortalized mesothelial cells and MM cells with activated TAZ. Overall, these results indicate an oncogenic role for TAZ in MMs via transcriptional induction of distinct pro-oncogenic genes including cytokines. Among these, IL-1 signaling appears as one of the most important cascades, thus potentially serving as a target pathway in MM cells harboring Hippo pathway inactivation.

RevDate: 2018-11-01

Langer AM, RP Nolan (2018)

The role of fiber type and cumulative exposure in controlling mesothelioma risk.

Toxicology and applied pharmacology pii:S0041-008X(18)30484-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The acceptance of primary tumors arising on the serosal surface of body cavities and its association with asbestos exposure was established in 1960. Epidemiological studies followed in an effort to determine if all asbestos fiber types produced the same malignancy and with the same mortality incidence. Three asbestos mortality studies were published in 1979 authored by the same research team from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The studies followed the same design making their datasets internally consistent and uniquely comparable. Insulation workers who were exposed to three commercial fiber types (amosite, chrysotile, crocidolite), factory workers who manufactured amosite-containing insulation for U.S. warships, and chrysotile miners and millers from Thetford Mines, Quebec, comprised the three cohorts. Lifetime cumulative exposures for these three cohorts (expressed in fiber/mL-years) were available from different source materials. Mortality data were obtained on these workforces and ascertainment of their cause(s) of death was based on medical-pathology evidence rather than information available on death certificates. Depending on the exposure estimates for the three cohorts the calculated mesothelioma risk for mid range mixed fiber exposure (insulators) is about 269 times (range 157 to 490) that of chrysotile exposure alone and for amosite at mid range exposure about 139 times (range 30 to 213) that of chrysotile exposure alone. Risk comparisons are the result of range in cumulative exposure estimates. Based on the available data from three Mt. Sinai studies, these differences in mesothelioma risk regarding fiber type were apparently knowable to the asbestos community as early as 1979. The amphibole asbestos exposures carry far greater mesothelioma risk than chrysotile exposure alone. Mixed fiber exposure (chrysotile and amphibole asbestos) is associated with the highest mesothelioma mortality among the workforces studied.

RevDate: 2018-10-30

Pastorino S, Yoshikawa Y, Pass HI, et al (2018)

A Subset of Mesotheliomas With Improved Survival Occurring in Carriers of BAP1 and Other Germline Mutations.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that four criteria could help identify malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) most likely linked to germline mutations of BAP1 or of other genes: family history of MM, BAP1-associated cancers, or multiple malignancies; or age younger than 50 years.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over the course of 7 years, 79 patients with MM met the four criteria; 22 of the 79 (28%) reported possible asbestos exposure. They were screened for germline BAP1 mutations by Sanger sequencing and by targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) for germline mutations in 55 additional cancer-linked genes. Deleterious mutations detected by tNGS were validated by Sanger sequencing.

RESULTS: Of the 79 patients, 43 (16 probands and 27 relatives) had deleterious germline BAP1 mutations. The median age at diagnosis was 54 years and median survival was 5 years. Among the remaining 36 patients with no BAP1 mutation, median age at diagnosis was 45 years, median survival was 9 years, and 12 had deleterious mutations of additional genes linked to cancer. When compared with patients with MMs in the SEER cohort, median age at diagnosis (72 years), median survival for all MM stages (8 months), and stage I (11 months) were significantly different from the 79 patients with MM in the current study (P < .0001).

CONCLUSION: We provide criteria that help identify a subset of patients with MM who had significantly improved survival. Most of these patients were not aware of asbestos exposure and carried either pathogenic germline mutations of BAP1 or of additional genes linked to cancer, some of which may have targeted-therapy options. These patients and their relatives are susceptible to development of additional cancers; therefore, genetic counseling and cancer screening should be considered.

RevDate: 2018-10-30

Laaksonen S, Ilonen I, Kuosma E, et al (2018)

Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Finland: regional and gender variation.

Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare occupational cancer with a poor prognosis. Even with a multimodality treatment approach, the treatment outcomes remain unsatisfactory. The use of asbestos has been banned in most developed countries, but MPM continues to be a significant occupational disease also in these countries. Aim of this study is to identify modern epidemiology and assess equality in care.

METHODS: Our study cohort consists of 1010 patients diagnosed with MPM in Finland during 2000-2012. The data were collected from the Finnish Cancer Registry, the National Workers' Compensation Center Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death, Statistics Finland.

RESULTS: Women were diagnosed a mean of 4.5 years later than males (p = .001), but survival did not differ (overall median survival 9.7 months). A workers' compensation claim was more common in males (OR 11.0 [95% CI 7.5-16.2]) and in regions with a major asbestos industry (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.3-2.2]). One-year and three-year survivals did not differ regionally. Patients without chemotherapy treatment had an inferior survival (RR 1.8 [95% CI 1.5-2.0]). The initial survival benefit gained with pemetrexed was diluted at 51 months.

CONCLUSIONS: MPM is a disease with a poor prognosis, although chemotherapy appears to improve survival time. Significant gender and regional variation exists among patients, with notable differences in diagnostic and treatment practices. Long-term outcomes with pemetrexed remain indeterminate.

IMPACT: Emphasize centralized consult services for the diagnosis, treatment and support that patients receive for MPM, facilitating equal outcomes and compensation.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Plato N, Martinsen JI, Kjaerheim K, et al (2018)

Mesothelioma in Sweden: Dose-Response Analysis for Exposure to 29 Potential Occupational Carcinogenic Agents.

Safety and health at work, 9(3):290-295.

Background: There is little information on the dose-response relationship between exposure to occupational carcinogenic agents and mesothelioma. This study aimed to investigate this association as well as the existence of agents other than asbestos that might cause mesothelioma.

Methods: The Swedish component of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) study consists of 6.78 million individuals with detailed information on occupation. Mesothelioma diagnoses recorded in 1961-2009 were identified through linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. We determined cumulative exposure, time of first exposure, and maximum exposure intensity by linking data on occupation to the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix, which includes 29 carcinogenic agents and corresponding exposure for 283 occupations. To assess the risk of mesothelioma, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

Results: 2,757 mesothelioma cases were identified in males, including 1,416 who were exposed to asbestos. Univariate analyses showed not only a significant excess risk for maximum exposure intensity, with a hazard ratio of 4.81 at exposure levels 1.25-2.0 fb/ml but also a clear dose-response effect for cumulative exposure with a 30-, 40-, and 50-year latency time. No convincing excess risk was revealed for any of the other carcinogenic agents included in the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix.

Conclusion: When considering asbestos exposure, past exposure, even for short periods, might be enough to cause mesothelioma of the pleura later in life.

RevDate: 2018-10-26

Harris EJ, Kao S, McCaughan B, et al (2018)

Prediction modelling using routine clinical parameters to stratify survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(18)33186-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon cancer with a poor prognosis and heterogeneous survival. Surgery for MPM is offered in some specialist centres to highly selected patients. A previously described classification and regression tree (CART) model stratified survival in unselected MPM patients using routinely collected clinical data. This study aimed to examine the performance of this CART model on a highly selected surgical population.

METHODS: Data were collected from subjects undergoing cytoreductive surgery for MPM from specialist centres in Hyõgo, Japan and Sydney, Australia between 1991 and 2016. The CART model was applied using the combination of clinical variables to stratify subjects into risk groups (1-4); survival characteristics were then compared.

RESULTS: 289 cases were included (205 from Australia, 84 from Japan). Overall median survival was 34.6 (IQR 17.5-56.1) months; median age 63.0 (IQR 57.0-67.8) years, 240/289 (83.0%) were male. There were no clinically meaningful differences between the two cohorts. Survival across the four risk groups was significantly different (p<0.0001); the model stratified survival well with a Harrell's c-statistic of 0.62 (96% CI 0.57-0.66) at 36 months. The group with the longest survival (median 82.5 months) had: no weight loss, Hb >153g/L and serum albumin >43g/L at time of referral to the surgical centre.

CONCLUSION: Using routinely available clinical variables the CART model was able to stratify surgical patients into risk groups with statistically different survival characteristics with fair to good performance. Presence of weight loss, anaemia and low albumin should confer caution when considering surgical therapy for MPM.

RevDate: 2018-10-26

Trenti E, Palermo SM, D'Elia C, et al (2018)

Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis: Report of a very rare case with review of the literature.

Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica, 90(3):212-214.

INTRODUCTION: Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is a extremely rare tumor and represents 0.3 to 0.5% of all malignant mesotheliomas. Exposure to asbestos often precedes illness. Because of its low incidence and nonspecific clinical presentation, it is mostly diagnosed accidentally during surgery for other reasons and the prognosis is usually poor. We present a case of a patient with a mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis, diagnosed secondarily during hydrocele surgery, with long-term survival after radical surgery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: a 40 years old patient was admitted to our department for routine surgery of a left hydrocele. During the operation a frozen section analysis was requested because of the unusual nodular thickening of the tunica vaginalis: the examination revealed a diffuse malignant mesothelioma with epithelioid structure and tubular-papillary proliferation. Therefore a left hemi-scrotectomy with left inguinal lymph node dissection was performed.

RESULTS: The definitive histology confirmed the previous report of diffuse malignant mesothelioma with angio-invasion but normal testicle findings and negative lymph nodes. No metastases were found on the CT-scan. For the first 2 years a CT was repeated every 4 months, for other 3 years every 6 months and then yearly. Six years after surgery the patient is classified as no evidence of disease.

CONCLUSIONS: malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is a rare entity, often initially thought to be a hydrocele or an epididymal cyst. An aggressive approach with hemiscrotectomy with or without inguinal and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy can reduce the risk of recurrence.

RevDate: 2018-10-26

Matboli M, Shafei AE, Ali MA, et al (2018)

Clinical significance of serum DRAM1 mRNA, ARSA mRNA, hsa-miR-2053 and lncRNA-RP1-86D1.3 axis expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Journal of cellular biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

AIM AND BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal cancer mainly caused by chronic exposure of asbestos. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess the expression of serum RNA-based biomarker panel exploring their clinical utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for MPM.

METHODS: We have selected an MPM-specific RNA-based biomarker panel through bioinformatics analysis based on the integration of DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 1 (DRAM1) and arylsulfatase A (ARSA) gene expression with their epigenetic regulators microRNA (miR-2053) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA-RP1-86D1.3). Then, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validation in sera of 60 MPM patients, 20 chronic asbestos exposure patients, and 20 healthy volunteers was done. Lastly, the prognostic power of the selected panel was assessed.

RESULTS: The expression of serum DRAM1 messenger RNA (mRNA), ARSA mRNA, hsa-miR-2053 and lncRNA-RP1-86D1.3 were positive in 78.3%, 90%, 85%, and 83.3% of MPM patients, respectively. The RNA-based biomarker panel was able to discriminate between MPM patients and controls with high accuracy and their combined sensitivity reached 100% for the diagnosis of MPM. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that hsa-miR-2053 is an independent prognostic factor of MPM.

CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data revealed that the chosen RNAs play an important role in driving MPM development and progression.

RevDate: 2018-10-25

Pascotto E, Gianoncelli A, Calligaro C, et al (2018)

Ferruginous bodies resolved by synchrotron XRF in a dog with peritoneal malignant mesothelioma.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-018-3521-x [Epub ahead of print].

Mesothelioma is a malignant tumor mainly correlated to occupational asbestos exposure. Rare reports describe its occurrence also in animals, mainly linked to asbestos in the environment. Asbestos exposure is demonstrated by the appearance of characteristic histological hallmarks: asbestos containing ferruginous bodies that are iron-based structures forming around fibers and also other dust particles. Here we present a clinical case of a suspect of mesothelioma in the peritoneum of a dog with parallel histological observation of ferruginous bodies. To possibly correlate the dog tumor to environmental exposure, we performed X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses at two different synchrotrons to resolve the ferruginous bodies' composition. While the histological examination diagnoses a tubulo-papillary mesothelioma, the XRF analyses show that ferruginous bodies contain Si particles, resembling formations of exogenous origin; however, the morphology is unlikely that of asbestos fibers. We speculate that the peritoneal mesothelioma of this dog could be related to environmental exposure to non-asbestos material.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Ibrahim AM, Al-Akchar M, Obaidi Z, et al (2018)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Cause of Ascites.

Journal of investigative medicine high impact case reports, 6:2324709618807506 pii:10.1177_2324709618807506.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare diagnosis that presents with difficulties in diagnosis and management. This article reports a case of an 88-year-old male who presented with a 2-week history of abdominal distention and bloating. He worked at an insulation production factory between the ages of 23 and 25 years with presumed asbestos exposure. On the computed tomography scan of the abdomen/pelvis, the patient was found to have diffuse omental, peritoneal, and mesenteric nodularity with moderate to large ascites. Omental biopsy revealed MPM. The overall prognosis of MPM remains poor, with a median survival time of 12 months at the time of diagnosis. Treatment modalities offered in the United States include chemotherapy alone, cytoreductive surgery alone, or cytoreductive surgery/chemotherapy combination.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Grosso F, Roveta A, Gallizzi G, et al (2018)

Management of recurrent pleural mesothelioma: Successful rechallenge with nintedanib in combination with chemotherapy.

Clinical case reports, 6(10):2000-2004 pii:CCR31775.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm, generally caused by asbestos exposure. This case details how a patient treated with nintedanib during the LUME-Meso study was rechallenged with nintedanib. The findings highlight the benefit of nintedanib rechallenge and the potential use of continuous anti-angiogenic therapy in MPM treatment.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Adhikary G, Grun D, Alexander HR, et al (2018)

Transglutaminase is a mesothelioma cancer stem cell survival protein that is required for tumor formation.

Oncotarget, 9(77):34495-34505 pii:26130.

Mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the mesothelial cell layer of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium and tunica vaginalis. It is typically caused by asbestos, notoriously resistant to chemotherapy and generally considered incurable with a poor life expectancy. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a GTP binding regulatory protein, is an important cancer stem cell survival and therapy resistance factor. We show that TG2 is highly expressed in human mesothelioma tumors and in mesothelioma cancer stem cells (MCS cells). TG2 knockdown or TG2 inhibitor treatment reduces MCS cell spheroid formation, matrigel invasion, migration and tumor formation. Time to tumor first appearance is doubled in TG2 knockout cells as compared to wild-type. In addition, TG2 loss is associated with reduced expression of stemness, and epithelial mesenchymal transition markers, and enhanced apoptosis. These studies indicate that TG2 is an important MCS cell survival protein and suggest that TG2 may serve as a mesothelioma cancer stem cell therapy target.

RevDate: 2018-10-19

Betti M, Aspesi A, Ferrante D, et al (2018)

Sensitivity to asbestos is increased in patients with mesothelioma and pathogenic germline variants in BAP1 or other DNA repair genes.

Genes, chromosomes & cancer, 57(11):573-583.

Pathogenic germline variants in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene can cause a cancer syndrome called BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS), which is characterized by predisposition to mesothelioma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and other tumors. Other genes that may predispose to mesothelioma are CDKN2A and DNA repair genes. Asbestos exposure has often been reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and germline variants in BAP1, but this exposure has never been quantified. We aimed to search for germline variants in BAP1 among 25 new Italian probands with suspected BAP1-TPDS, summarize the prevalence of these variants in 39 Italian patients with familial MPM and other tumors recruited over a 5-year period, and compare cumulative asbestos exposure in 14 patients with MPM and pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes with that of 67 patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes. We report here a new pathogenic germline variant in BAP1: c.783 + 2 T > C. The prevalence of pathogenic germline variants in BAP1 was 7.7% among patients with familial MPM (3/39). Patients with pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes showed lower cumulative asbestos exposure than patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes (P = .00002). This suggests an interaction between genetic risk factors and asbestos in the development of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-10-15

Brentisci C, Gangemi M, Migliore E, et al (2018)

Comment on "Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy".

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology pii:5132702 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Jargin SV (2018)

Asbestos and Mesothelioma: A Comment.

Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 22(2):113-114.

RevDate: 2018-10-15

Duke KS, Thompson EA, Ihrie MD, et al (2018)

Role of p53 in the chronic pulmonary immune response to tangled or rod-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Nanotoxicology [Epub ahead of print].

The fiber-like shape of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is reminiscent of asbestos, suggesting they pose similar health hazards when inhaled, including pulmonary fibrosis and mesothelioma. Mice deficient in the tumor suppressor p53 are susceptible to carcinogenesis. However, the chronic pathologic effect of MWCNTs delivered to the lungs of p53 heterozygous (p53+/-) mice has not been investigated. We hypothesized that p53+/- mice would be susceptible to lung tumor development after exposure to either tangled (t-) or rod-like (r-) MWCNTs. Wild-type (p53+/+) or p53+/- mice were exposed to MWCNTs (1 mg/kg) via oropharyngeal aspiration weekly over four consecutive weeks and evaluated for cellular and pathologic outcomes 11-months post-initial exposure. No lung or pleural tumors were observed in p53+/+ or p53+/- mice exposed to either t- or rMWCNTs. In comparison to tMWCNTs, the rMWCNTs induced the formation of larger granulomas, a greater number of lymphoid aggregates and greater epithelial cell hyperplasia in terminal bronchioles in both p53+/- and p53+/+ mice. A constitutively larger area of CD45R+/CD3+ lymphoid tissue was observed in p53+/- mice compared to p53+/+ mice. Importantly, p53+/- mice had larger granulomas induced by rMWCNTs as compared to p53+/+ mice. These findings indicate that a combination of p53 deficiency and physicochemical characteristics including nanotube geometry are factors in susceptibility to MWCNT-induced lymphoid infiltration and granuloma formation.

RevDate: 2018-11-05

Fournel L, Janet-Vendroux A, Canny-Hamelin E, et al (2018)

[Malignant pleural mesothelioma: The role of surgery].

Revue de pneumologie clinique, 74(5):351-358.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and highly aggressive disease, whose incidence is increasing. Asbestos is the primary causal agent.

STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge about MPM has evolved. Thoracoscopy is essential for diagnosis of MPM. It allows performing pleural biopsies, to study the extent of the disease and to relieve dyspnea. The pathological diagnosis is also better codified with immunohistochemistry and with analysis by expert of Mesopath group. Curative surgical treatments are pleurectomy decortication and extended pneumonectomy in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Those heavy treatments improve survival in highly selected patients. For the other patients, supportive measures will be considered to reduce pain and dyspnea.

PROSPECT: Radical surgical treatment is only offered in therapeutic trials or multimodal treatment. Its place is not formally established. New therapies associated to surgical treatment are being studied.

CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management of MPM has to be operated in specialized teams where the survival benefit and quality of life is discussed case by case.

RevDate: 2018-11-24

Mansfield AS, Peikert T, Smadbeck JB, et al (2018)

Neoantigenic Potential of Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Mesothelioma.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(18)33179-4 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a disease primarily associated with exposure to the carcinogen asbestos. Whereas other carcinogen-related tumors are associated with a high tumor mutation burden, mesothelioma is not. We sought to resolve this discrepancy.

METHODS: We used mate-pair (n = 22), RNA (n = 28), and T cell receptor sequencing along with in silico predictions and immunologic assays to understand how structural variants of chromosomes affect the transcriptome.

RESULTS: We observed that inter- or intrachromosomal rearrangements were present in every specimen and were frequently in a pattern of chromoanagenesis such as chromoplexy or chromothripsis. Transcription of rearrangement-related junctions was predicted to result in many potential neoantigens, some of which were proven to bind patient-specific major histocompatibility complex molecules and to expand intratumoral T cell clones. T cells responsive to these predicted neoantigens were also present in a patient's circulating T cell repertoire. Analysis of genomic array data from the mesothelioma cohort in The Cancer Genome Atlas suggested that multiple chromothriptic-like events negatively impact survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings represent the discovery of potential neoantigen expression driven by structural chromosomal rearrangements. These results may have implications for the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies and the selection of patients to receive immunotherapies.

RevDate: 2018-10-19

Toyokuni S (2018)

Iron addiction with ferroptosis-resistance in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis: Toward the era of mesothelioma prevention.

Free radical biology & medicine pii:S0891-5849(18)31753-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Cancer is the primary cause of human mortality in most countries. This tendency has increased as various medical therapeutics have advanced, which suggests that we cannot escape carcinogenesis, although the final outcome may be modified by exposomes and statistics. Cancer is classified by its cellular differentiation. Mesothelial cells are distinct in that they line somatic cavities, facilitating the smooth movement of organs, but are not exposed to the external environment. Malignant mesothelioma, or simply mesothelioma, develops either in the pleural, peritoneal or pericardial cavities, or in the tunica vaginalis testes. Mesothelioma has been a relatively rare cancer but is socially important due to its association with asbestos exposure, caused by modern industrial development. The major pathogenic mechanisms include oxidative stress either via catalytic reactions against the asbestos surface or frustrated phagocytosis of macrophages, and specific adsorption of hemoglobin and histones by asbestos fibers in the presence of phagocytic activity of mesothelial cells. Multiwall carbon nanotubes of ~50 nm-diameter, additionally adsorbing transferrin, are similarly carcinogenic to mesothelial cells in rodents and were thus classified as Group 2B carcinogens. Genetic alterations found in human and rat mesothelioma notably contain changes found in other excess iron-induced carcinogenesis models. Phlebotomy and iron chelation therapies have been successful in the prevention of mesothelioma in rats. Alternatively, loading of oxidative stress by non-thermal plasma to mesothelioma cells causes ferroptosis. Therefore, carcinogenesis by foreign fibrous inorganic materials may overlap the uncovered molecular mechanisms of birth of life and its evolution.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Smeele P, d'Almeida SM, Meiller C, et al (2018)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a new soluble biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma involved in angiogenesis.

Molecular cancer, 17(1):148 pii:10.1186/s12943-018-0891-0.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer related to asbestos exposure. The discovery of soluble biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic and/or therapeutic properties would improve therapeutic care of MPM patients. Currently, soluble biomarkers described present weaknesses preventing their use in clinic. This study aimed at evaluating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we previously identified using transcriptomic approach, in MPM. We observed that high BDNF expression, at the mRNA level in tumors or at the protein level in pleural effusions (PE), was a specific hallmark of MPM samples. This protein presented significant but limited diagnostic properties (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.6972, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, high BDNF gene expression and PE concentration were predictive of shorter MPM patient survival (13.0 vs 8.3 months, p < 0.0001, in PE). Finally, BDNF did not affect MPM cell oncogenic properties but was implicated in PE-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, BDNF appears to be a new interesting biomarker for MPM and could also be a new therapeutic target regarding its implication in angiogenesis.

RevDate: 2018-10-12

Funahashi S, Okazaki Y, Nishiyama T, et al (2018)

Global overexpression of divalent metal transporter 1 delays crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis in male mice.

Free radical research [Epub ahead of print].

Exposure to asbestos fiber is central to mesothelial carcinogenesis, for which iron overload in or near mesothelial cells is a key pathogenic mechanism. Alternatively, iron chelation therapy with deferasirox or regular phlebotomy was significantly preventive against crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis in rats. However, the role of iron transporters during asbestos-induced carcinogenesis remains elusive. Here, we studied the role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1; Slc11a2), which is a Fe(II) transporter, that is present not only on the apical plasma membrane of duodenal cells but also on the lysosomal membrane of every cell, in crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis using DMT1 transgenic (DMT1Tg) mice. DMT1Tg mice show mucosal block of iron absorption without cancer susceptibility under normal diet. We unexpectedly found that superoxide production was significantly decreased upon stimulation with crocidolite both in neutrophils and macrophages of DMT1Tg mice, and the macrophage surface revealed higher iron content 1 h after contact with crocidolite. Intraperitoneal injection of 3 mg crocidolite ultimately induced malignant mesothelioma in ∼50% of both wild-type and DMT1Tg mice (23/47 and 14/28, respectively); this effect was marginally (p = 0.069) delayed in DMT1Tg mice, promoting survival. The promotional effect of nitrilotriacetic acid was limited, and the liver showed significantly higher iron content both in DMT1Tg mice and after crocidolite exposure. The results indicate that global DMT1 overexpression causes decreased superoxide generation upon stimulation in inflammatory cells, which presumably delayed the promotional stage of crocidolite-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis. DMT1Tg mice with low-stamina inflammatory cells may be helpful to evaluate the involvement of inflammation in various pathologies.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Sarun KH, Lee K, Williams M, et al (2018)

Genomic Deletion of BAP1 and CDKN2A Are Useful Markers for Quality Control of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) Primary Cultures.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(10): pii:ijms19103056.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly cancer that is caused by asbestos exposure and that has limited treatment options. The current standard of MPM diagnosis requires the testing of multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to differentiate MPM from other lung malignancies. To date, no single biomarker exists for definitive diagnosis of MPM due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity; therefore, there is ongoing research and development in order to identify alternative biomarkers for this purpose. In this study, we utilized primary MPM cell lines and tested the expression of clinically used biomarker panels, including CK8/18, Calretinin, CK 5/6, CD141, HBME-1, WT-1, D2-40, EMA, CEA, TAG72, BG8, CD15, TTF-1, BAP1, and Ber-Ep4. The genomic alteration of CDNK2A and BAP1 is common in MPM and has potential diagnostic value. Changes in CDKN2A and BAP1 genomic expression were confirmed in MPM samples in the current study using Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis or copy number variation (CNV) analysis with digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). To determine whether MPM tissue and cell lines were comparable in terms of molecular alterations, IHC marker expression was analyzed in both sample types. The percentage of MPM biomarker levels showed variation between original tissue and matched cells established in culture. Genomic deletions of BAP1 and CDKN2A, however, showed consistent levels between the two. The data from this study suggest that genomic deletion analysis may provide more accurate biomarker options for MPM diagnosis.

RevDate: 2018-10-17

White R, Pulford E, Elliot DJ, et al (2018)

Quantitative mass spectrometry to identify protein markers for diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Journal of proteomics pii:S1874-3919(18)30359-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating malignancy with a prognosis of <12 months. Even with bans on the use of asbestos in most Western countries, the incidence is still increasing due to the long latency periods between exposure and development of the disease. Diagnosis is often delayed due to invasive biopsies and lack of distinguishable markers. Patients frequently present with pleural effusions months to years before a radiologically detectable mass appears. This study aimed to investigate the proteome of pleural effusions taken from patients with MPM, adenocarcinoma and benign conditions in an attempt to identify a biomarker for early diagnosis. We identified several proteins that may be possible targets and warrant further investigation. Due to the predominance of up regulated proteins involved in VEGF signalling in MPM, we analysed VEGFA levels in effusions and found a strong correlation between VEGFA levels and survival in MPM.

RevDate: 2018-10-23
CmpDate: 2018-10-23

Behrens MA (2018)

Asbestos Trust Transparency.

Fordham law review, 87(1):107-124.

RevDate: 2018-10-08

Mlika M, Lamzirbi O, Limam M, et al (2018)

[Clinical and pathological profile of the pleural malignant mesothelioma: A retrospective study about 30 cases].

Revue de pneumologie clinique pii:S0761-8417(18)30096-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumour usually associated to asbestos exposure. The delay between the exposure and the occurrence of the cancer can reach 40 years. This caused the pick of incidence described in many countries including Tunisia. The diagnosis is suspected based on clinical features but positive diagnosis is microscopic. Our aim was to describe the clinical and microscopic features of MPM through a single institution experience.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study about 30 MPM diagnosed over a 20-year-period (1995-2015). We included only patients with complete records including clinical, radiologic and microscopic features. All the microscopic diagnoses were reviewed by 2 pathologists. A mean of 12 slides per case was reviewed. The diagnosis was based on the 2015 WHO classification.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 61 years, average 22 to 80 years. The sex ratio was 6,5. An asbetose exposition was reported in 21 cases. The most frequent symptoms was chest pain reported in 25 cases. Physical exam was normal in 9 cases. It revealed pleural syndorm in most patients (60 %). Imaging findings consisted mainly in diffuse pleural thickening in 17 cases. Twelve tumours were classified as stage I, 3 stage II, 14 stage III et 1 stage IV. Pleural biopsy was performed using needle in 18 cases, through thoracoscopy in 16 cases, thoracotomy in 3 cases and allowed the diagnosis in respectively 7 cases/18, 16 cases/16 and 3 cases/3. A lymph node biopsy was performed through mediastinoscopy in one case and yelded the diagnosis. The diagnosis was performed on surgical specimen in 2 patients: one bullectomy and one right upper lobectomy. The microscopic exam concluded to an EM in 17 cases, sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) in 4 cases and biphasic mesothelioma (BM) in 9 cases. Pan-cytokeratin antibody was used in all cases in association with 2 antibodies with positive diagnostic value and 2 antibodies with negative diagnostic value. It was repeated in 15 cases and the most used antibodies were the anti-calretinin and the TTF1. This was due to the lack of fixation in one case and in order to reach a quality criteria in the other cases. Surgical resection was possible in 2 patients. 15 patients were lost of view after a mean follow-up period of 3 months. Thirteen patients died before or during the follow-up.

CONCLUSION: This work was about a Tunisian experience in the diagnosis and management of MPM. The major limits faced were the incomplete databases, the small number of patients included. Microsocpic positive diagnosis necessitates a degree of expertise and every laboratory has to determine the most valuable antibodies through its experience in order to optimize the diagnosis and to reduce the delay of diagnosis.

RevDate: 2018-11-06
CmpDate: 2018-11-06

van Gerwen M, Wolf A, Liu B, et al (2018)

Short-term outcomes of pleurectomy decortication and extrapleural pneumonectomy in mesothelioma.

Journal of surgical oncology, 118(7):1178-1187.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We evaluated postoperative mortality and complications after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy decortication (P/D) to better understand their effectiveness in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

METHODS: A meta-analysis was done to evaluate 30-day mortality and postoperative complications. In addition, in-patients data of 500 eligible patients with MPM who underwent EPP or P/D was extracted from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS). Multivariate analyses and propensity matching were used to compare in-hospital mortality and postoperative complications in EPP vs P/D.

RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed a statistically significant difference in 30-day mortality (5% [95% CI: 4-6] vs P/D 2% [95% CI: 1-3]), proportion of complications (46% [95% CI: 36-56] vs 24% [95% CI: 15-34]) and postoperative arrhythmias (20% [95% CI: 12-31] vs 5% [95% CI: 2-8]) for EPP vs P/D. In-hospital mortality (OR adj : 2.6; 95% CI: 0.86-7.75) and postoperative complications (OR adj : 1.1; 95% CI: 0.68-1.86) were not different in EPP compared with P/D while supraventricular arrhythmia was significantly more frequent after EPP vs P/D (OR adj : 5.2; 95% CI: 2.34-11.33).

CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative mortality, postoperative complications, and particularly supraventricular arrhythmia are less frequent after P/D vs EPP. P/D, a less invasive surgery, may provide a better option when technically feasible for patients with MPM.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Fear VS, Tilsed C, Chee J, et al (2018)

Combination immune checkpoint blockade as an effective therapy for mesothelioma.

Oncoimmunology, 7(10):e1494111 pii:1494111.

Mesothelioma is an aggressive asbestos induced cancer with extremely poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Immune checkpoint blockade (ICPB) has demonstrated effective therapy in melanoma and is now being applied to other cancers, including mesothelioma. However, the efficacy of ICPB and which immune checkpoint combinations constitute the best therapeutic option for mesothelioma have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used our well characterised mesothelioma tumour model to investigate the efficacy of different ICBP treatments to generate effective therapy for mesothelioma. We show that tumour resident regulatory T cell co-express high levels of CTLA-4, OX40 and GITR relative to T effector subsets and that these receptors are co-expressed on a large proportion of cells. Targeting any of CTLA-4, OX40 or GITR individually generated effective responses against mesothelioma. Furthermore, the combination of αCTLA-4 and αOX40 was synergistic, with an increase in complete tumour regressions from 20% to 80%. Other combinations did not synergise to enhance treatment outcomes. Finally, an early pattern in T cell response was predictive of response, with activation status and ICP receptor expression profile of T effector cells harvested from tumour and dLN correlating with response to immunotherapy. Taken together, these data demonstrate that combination ICPB can work synergistically to induce strong, durable immunity against mesothelioma in an animal model.

RevDate: 2018-11-28

Kalinke LP, Kalinke MA, Sarquis LMM, et al (2018)

[A proposal for the creation of a system to monitor cases of malignant mesothelioma in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil].

Cadernos de saude publica, 34(9):e00171917 pii:S0102-311X2018000905016.

The study proposes the creation of a system to monitor cases of malignant mesothelioma in the municipality of Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil, based on the Italian model. This diagnosis-type action-research project featured exploratory and planning phases conducted from July 2015 to May 2017. The following search tools were used: Hospital-Based Cancer Registries Integrator with specific morphologies for mesothelioma; Hospital-Based Cancer Registry with codes C38.4 and C45 of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and/or records coded by the ICD-O with topographies C38 and C48; Population-Based Cancer Registry of the Curitiba Municipal Health Department, with the same codes. The study also identified, analyzed, and adapted to the Brazilian reality the model, questionnaires, and registry software for mesothelioma from Lombardy, Italy. Fifteen cases of mesothelioma were recorded in the Hospital-Based Cancer Registries Integrator. Two cases were recorded in the University Hospital-Based Cancer Registry and 16 in the Cancer Hospital. There were 317 cases recorded in the Population-Based Cancer Registry during the same period. Although some information was complete, data were lacking on patients' occupational history, thereby preventing the determination of a causal nexus. Given a predicted increase in cases of mesothelioma in the coming decades and the response to court cases, the implementation of registries has become essential to facilitate knowledge and follow-up on the determination of the causal link and specific sources of asbestos exposure in the country.

RevDate: 2018-11-21

Zhang C, Hao Y, Wu L, et al (2018)

Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in murine malignant mesothelioma.

International journal of oncology, 53(6):2531-2541.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare form of cancer that is associated with asbestos exposure. Unfortunately, current therapies have limited efficacy. Previous studies have indicated that curcumin exerts antiproliferative and antitumor effects, and has low toxicity. The present study aimed to evaluate the anticancer effects of curcumin on the RN5 MPM cell line. The inhibitory effects of curcumin on cell viability were determined using the sulforhodamine B assay. In addition, cell cycle progression was analyzed by propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry, and curcumin‑induced apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/PI double staining. The translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence, and the expression levels of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT serine/threonine kinase (Akt)‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway proteins and mitochondria-associated proteins were evaluated by western blotting. In vivo antitumor effects were evaluated in a subcutaneous murine model. Briefly, tumors were harvested from the mice, and immunohistochemistry was conducted to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. The results indicated that curcumin inhibited RN5 cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death. In addition the findings suggested that curcumin-induced cell apoptosis occurred via the mitochondrial pathway, and caspase‑independent and AIF-dependent pathways. Further analysis revealed that curcumin may act as a PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway inhibitor by downregulating PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, curcumin may be potent enough to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of MPM.

RevDate: 2018-10-28

Tsao AS, Lindwasser OW, Adjei AA, et al (2018)

Current and Future Management of Malignant Mesothelioma: A Consensus Report from the National Cancer Institute Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 13(11):1655-1667.

On March 28- 29, 2017, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thoracic Malignacy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation convened the NCI-International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer- Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Mesothelioma Clinical Trials Planning Meeting in Bethesda, Maryland. The goal of the meeting was to bring together lead academicians, clinicians, scientists, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to focus on the development of clinical trials for patients in whom malignant pleural mesothelioma has been diagnosed. In light of the discovery of new cancer targets affecting the clinical development of novel agents and immunotherapies in malignant mesothelioma, the objective of this meeting was to assemble a consensus on at least two or three practice-changing multimodality clinical trials to be conducted through NCI's National Clinical Trials Network.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Arnold DT, De Fonseka D, Perry S, et al (2018)

Investigating unilateral pleural effusions: the role of cytology.

The European respiratory journal, 52(5): pii:13993003.01254-2018.

The vast majority of undiagnosed unilateral pleural effusions have fluid sent for cytological analysis. Despite widespread use, there is uncertainty about its sensitivity to diagnose malignant pleural effusions (MPEs). Our aim was to ascertain the utility of cytology using a large prospective cohort.Consecutive patients presenting with an undiagnosed unilateral pleural effusion were recruited to this UK-based study. All had pleural fluid sent for cytological analysis. Cytological sensitivity was based on the final diagnosis at 12 months, confirmed by two consultants.Over 8 years, 921 patients were recruited, of which 515 had a MPE. Overall sensitivity of fluid cytology to diagnose malignancy was 46% (95% CI 42-58%). There was variation in sensitivity depending on cancer primary, with mesothelioma (6%) and haematological malignancies (40%) being significantly lower than adenocarcinomas (79%). MPEs secondary to ovarian cancer had high pick-up rates (95%). In asbestos-exposed males with exudative effusions, the risk of MPE was 60%, but cytological sensitivity was 11%.This is the largest prospective study of pleural fluid cytology and informs discussions with patients about the likely requirement for investigations following thoracentesis. In patients presenting with a clinical suspicion of mesothelioma, cytological sensitivity is low, so more definitive investigations could be performed sooner.

RevDate: 2018-09-27

Ascoli V, Murer B, Nottegar A, et al (2018)

What's new in mesothelioma.

Pathologica, 110(1):12-28.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a neoplasm characterized by a very poor prognosis and medico-legal implications. Diagnosis, prognosis and therapy are often challenging and include several issues. Cytological diagnosis is frequently the first step of the diagnostic process, and although its sensitivity may be somewhat lower, diagnostic criteria should be taken into account. When effusion cytology is inconclusive for the diagnosis, tissue biopsies should be taken. Even if the morphologic criteria for deciding whether a mesothelial proliferation is a benign or a malignant process have been defined, the separation of benign from malignant mesothelial proliferation is often a difficult problem for the pathologist, particularly on small biopsies. Thirdly, when the diagnosis is made, despite many efforts have been made to identify possible new biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognostic stratification and also predictive tools should be defined. Nowadays, the main prognostic parameter is still represented by the histological subtype, having the epithelioid MPM a better outcome than the sarcomatoid or biphasic MPM. A nuclear grading system have been also proposed to stratify patient outcome. Reliable predictive biomarkers are still lacking in MPM and a personalized therapeutic concept is eagerly needed. Mesothelioma occurs mostly as sporadic cancer and the main risk factor is asbestos exposure, but it also occurs among blood relatives suggesting possible increased genetic susceptibility besides shared exposures. Recently the study of genetic predisposition syndrome raised new aspect in the occurrence of mesothelioma cases.

This review summarize these most important issues.

RevDate: 2018-09-27

Santarelli L, Gaetani S, Monaco F, et al (2018)

Four-miRNA signature to identify asbestos-related lung malignancies.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology pii:1055-9965.EPI-18-0453 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Altered miRNA expression is an early event upon exposure to occupational/environmental carcinogens; thus, identification of a novel asbestos-related profile of miRNAs able to distinguish asbestos-induced cancer from cancer with different ethiology can be useful for diagnosis. We therefore performed a study to identify miRNAs associated with asbestos-induced malignancies.

METHODS: Four groups of patients were included in the study, including patients with asbestos-related (NSCLCAsb) and asbestos-unrelated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), and disease-free subjects (CTRL). The selected miRNAs were evaluated in asbestos-exposed population.

RESULTS: Four serum miRNAs, i.e. miR-126, miR-205, miR-222 and miR-520g, were found to be implicated in asbestos-related malignant diseases. Notably, increased expression of miR-126 and miR-222 were found in asbestos-exposed subjects, and both miRNAs are involved in major pathways linked to cancer development. Epigenetic changes and cancer-stroma cross-talk could induce repression of miR-126 to facilitate tumor formation, angiogenesis and invasion.

CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that miRNAs are potentially involved in asbestos-related malignancies, and their expression outlines mechanism(s) whereby miRNAs may be involved in an asbestos-induced pathogenesis.

IMPACT: The discovery of a miRNA panel for asbestos-related malignancies would impact on occupational compensation and may be utilized for screening asbestos-exposed populations.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Johnen G, Burek K, Raiko I, et al (2018)

Prediagnostic detection of mesothelioma by circulating calretinin and mesothelin - a case-control comparison nested into a prospective cohort of asbestos-exposed workers.

Scientific reports, 8(1):14321 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-32315-3.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is strongly associated with a previous asbestos exposure. To improve timely detection of MM in asbestos workers, better screening tools - like minimally-invasive biomarkers - are desirable. Between 2008 and 2018 2,769 patients with benign asbestos-related diseases were recruited to participate in annual screens. Using a nested case-control design the protein markers calretinin and mesothelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in prediagnostic plasma samples of 34 MM cases as well as 136 matched controls from the cohort. Conditional on a pre-defined specificity of 98% for calretinin and 99% for mesothelin the markers reached individual sensitivities of 31% and 23%, respectively, when including the incident cases with samples taken between one and 15 months before diagnosis. The combination of both markers increased the sensitivity to 46% at 98% specificity. Marker complementation increased with earlier sampling. The marker combination improves the sensitivity of the individual markers, indicating a useful complementation and suggesting that additional markers may further improve the performance. This is the first prospective cohort study to evaluate a detection of MM by calretinin and its combination with mesothelin up to about a year before clinical diagnosis. Whether an earlier diagnosis will result in reduced mortality has yet to be demonstrated.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Boffetta P, Malvezzi M, Pira E, et al (2018)

International Analysis of Age-Specific Mortality Rates From Mesothelioma on the Basis of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision.

Journal of global oncology.

Past analyses of mortality data from mesothelioma relied on unspecific codes, such as pleural neoplasms. We calculated temporal trends in age-specific mortality rates in Canada, the United States, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, the United Kingdom, and Australia on the basis of the 10th version of the International Classification of Diseases, which includes a specific code for mesothelioma. Older age groups showed an increase (in the United States, a weaker decrease) during the study period, whereas in young age groups, there was a decrease (in Poland, a weaker increase, starting, however, from low rates). Results were consistent between men and women and between pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, although a smaller number of events in women and for peritoneal mesothelioma resulted in less precise results. The results show the heterogeneous effect of the reduction of asbestos exposure on different age groups; decreasing mortality in young people reflects reduced exposure opportunity, and increasing mortality in the elderly shows the long-term effect of early exposures.

RevDate: 2018-10-17

Finkelstein MM (2018)

Response to: 'The epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in women: gender differences and modalities of asbestos exposure' by Marinaccio et al.

Occupational and environmental medicine, 75(11):844.

RevDate: 2018-10-17

Marinaccio A, Corfiati M, Binazzi A, et al (2018)

Letter concerning: 'Response to: 'The epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in women: gender differences and modalities of asbestos exposure' by Marinaccio et al'.

Occupational and environmental medicine, 75(11):844-845.

RevDate: 2018-10-19

Kharazmi E, Chen T, Fallah M, et al (2018)

Familial risk of pleural mesothelioma increased drastically in certain occupations: A nationwide prospective cohort study.

European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990), 103:1-6.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the effect of occupation on familial risk of pleural mesothelioma in a nationwide cohort study design.

METHOD: The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database includes all Swedes born after 1931 and their biological parents, totalling 16.1 million individuals with about 2.3 million cancer patients. Hazards ratios (HRs) were calculated adjusting for age, sex and region of residence.

RESULTS: Having asbestos-related occupation in the absence of family history of mesothelioma increased risk of mesothelioma more than threefold (adjusted HR = 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0-3.5). In those who had a history of mesothelioma in their first-degree relatives and an asbestos-related occupation, risk of mesothelioma dramatically increased compared with individuals without such occupations and family history (without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] HR = 24, 95% CI: 15-39; with COPD 45, 95% CI: 15-141). In those who had a family history of mesothelioma and no history of an asbestos-related occupation, risk of mesothelioma did not show significant increase compared with those who had no family history of mesothelioma and no asbestos-related occupation (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.7-3.8).

CONCLUSION: First-degree relatives of patients with pleural mesothelioma had a drastic risk of developing this malignancy in case of certain occupations, which shows a gene-environment interaction is probable in risk of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-11-07

Marant Micallef C, Shield KD, Vignat J, et al (2019)

Cancers in France in 2015 attributable to occupational exposures.

International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 222(1):22-29.

BACKGROUND: Recent and comprehensive estimates for the number of new cancer cases in France attributable to occupational exposures are lacking.

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of new cancer cases attributable to occupational exposures, using a newly developed methodology and the most recent data, for a comprehensive set of occupational carcinogens in France in 2015.

METHODS: Surveys among employees, the national labor force data, a cohort of agricultural workers, national monitoring of workers exposed to ionizing radiation and job-exposure matrix in France were used. The number and proportion of new cancer cases attributable to established occupational carcinogens (Group 1) was estimated using estimation of lifetime exposure and risk estimates from cohort studies. Cancer data were obtained from the French Cancer Registries Network.

RESULTS: In France in 2015, an estimated 7905 new cancer cases, 7336 among men and 569 among women, were attributable to occupational exposures, representing 2.3% of all new cancer cases (3.9% and 0.4% among men and women respectively). Among men and women, lung cancer was impacted the most, followed by mesothelioma and bladder cancer in men, and by mesothelioma and ovary in women. These cancers contributed to 89% of the total cancers attributable to occupational carcinogens in men, and to 80% in women. The main contributing occupational agent was asbestos among men (45%) and women (60%).

CONCLUSIONS: Currently, occupational exposures contribute to a substantial burden of cancer in France. Enhanced monitoring and implementation of protective labor policies could potentially prevent a large proportion of these cancers.

RevDate: 2018-08-31

Terracini B (2018)

Commentary: Past and current asbestos exposure and future mesothelioma risks in Britain. The Inhaled Particles Study (TIPS).

International journal of epidemiology pii:5086068 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-11-16

Reid A, Franklin P, Berry G, et al (2018)

Are children more vulnerable to mesothelioma than adults? A comparison of mesothelioma risk among children and adults exposed non-occupationally to blue asbestos at Wittenoom.

Occupational and environmental medicine, 75(12):898-903.

OBJECTIVES: The presence of asbestos in public buildings is a legacy of past asbestos use in many developed countries. Of particular concern is the amount and current condition in schools and the vulnerability of children to mesothelioma. Our aim was to compare the risk of mesothelioma between those exposed to blue asbestos as children and as adults at Wittenoom.

METHODS: Public sources were used to establish the Wittenoom residents' cohort. Mesothelioma incidence rates per 100 000 person-years at risk were derived for those first exposed to asbestos at Wittenoom as children (<15 years) or adults separately. Proportional hazards survival models examined the slope of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos exposure and incidence of mesothelioma in different sex and age groups.

RESULTS: The mesothelioma rate was lower among those first exposed as children (76.8 per 100 000) than those first exposed as adults (121.3 per 100 000). Adjusting for cumulative exposure to asbestos and sex, those exposed as adults had a greater risk of mesothelioma (adjusted HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.7). The slope of the exposure-response relationship did not differ between those exposed as children and those exposed as adults.

CONCLUSION: We found no greater susceptibility to mesothelioma among those first exposed to asbestos as children than those first exposed as adults. However, given the long latency of mesothelioma, and the greater years of life yet to be lived by the Wittenoom children, it is likely that there will be more cases of mesothelioma in the future among those first exposed as children.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Rath EM, Cheng YY, Pinese M, et al (2018)

BAMLET kills chemotherapy-resistant mesothelioma cells, holding oleic acid in an activated cytotoxic state.

PloS one, 13(8):e0203003 pii:PONE-D-18-15089.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Here we have investigated in vitro efficacy of BAMLET and BLAGLET complexes (anti-cancer complexes consisting of oleic acid and bovine α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin respectively) in killing mesothelioma cells, determined BAMLET and BLAGLET structures, and investigated possible biological mechanisms. We performed cell viability assays on 16 mesothelioma cell lines. BAMLET and BLAGLET having increasing oleic acid content inhibited human and rat mesothelioma cell line proliferation at decreasing doses. Most of the non-cancer primary human fibroblasts were more resistant to BAMLET than were human mesothelioma cells. BAMLET showed similar cytotoxicity to cisplatin-resistant, pemetrexed-resistant, vinorelbine-resistant, and parental rat mesothelioma cells, indicating the BAMLET anti-cancer mechanism may be different to drugs currently used to treat mesothelioma. Cisplatin, pemetrexed, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and BAMLET, did not demonstrate a therapeutic window for mesothelioma compared with immortalised non-cancer mesothelial cells. We demonstrated by quantitative PCR that ATP synthase is downregulated in mesothelioma cells in response to regular dosing with BAMLET. We sought structural insight for BAMLET and BLAGLET activity by performing small angle X-ray scattering, circular dichroism, and scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate the structural mechanism by which BAMLET and BLAGLET achieve increased cytotoxicity by holding increasing amounts of oleic acid in an active cytotoxic state encapsulated in increasingly unfolded protein. Our structural studies revealed similarity in the molecular structure of the protein components of these two complexes and in their encapsulation of the fatty acid, and differences in the microscopic structure and structural stability. BAMLET forms rounded aggregates and BLAGLET forms long fibre-like aggregates whose aggregation is more stable than that of BAMLET due to intermolecular disulphide bonds. The results reported here indicate that BAMLET and BLAGLET may be effective second-line treatment options for mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-08-25

Muscella A, Cossa LG, Vetrugno C, et al (2018)

ADP sensitizes ZL55 cells to the activity of cisplatin.

Journal of cellular physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignant tumor in which cisplatin therapy is commonly used, although its effectiveness is limited. It follows that research efforts dedicated to identify promising combinations that can synergistically kill cancer cells are needed. Because we recently demonstrated that ADP inhibits the proliferation of ZL55 cells, an MPM-derived cell line obtained from bioptic samples of asbestos-exposed patients. Our objective in this study was to investigate the hypothesis that ADP also potentiates the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin. Results show that in ZL55 cells ADP enhanced (a) the cytotoxicity of cisplatin by 12-fold, (b) the restraint of cell clonogenic potential cisplatin-mediated, and (c) the number of apoptotic cells. Cisplatin, but not ADP, caused caspases activation; nevertheless, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 was not only cleaved in cisplatin-treated cells but also in cells treated with ADP alone. Furthermore, ADP, but not cisplatin, decreased mTOR and 6SK phosphorylations. Both ADP and cisplatin increased p53 protein, but ADP was also able to enhance p53 messenger RNA. P53 silencing resulted in a very large decrement of cell death induced by ADP or by cisplatin and reverted ADP effects on mTOR/S6K phosphorylation, suggesting that activated p53 may act as a negative regulator of mTOR. Consistently, the inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin also sensitized cells to cisplatin, and the effects of cisplatin plus rapamycin were identical to those obtained with cisplatin plus ADP. These findings suggest that the combination of ADP and cisplatin may be a promising strategy for the clinical treatment of cisplatin-resistant MPM.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Kang DM, Kim JE, Kim YK, et al (2018)

Occupational Burden of Asbestos-Related Diseases in Korea, 1998-2013: Asbestosis, Mesothelioma, Lung Cancer, Laryngeal Cancer, and Ovarian Cancer.

Journal of Korean medical science, 33(35):e226.

Background: Asbestos exposure causes asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) including asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer. Although Korea used substantial amounts of asbestos in the past, no study has focused on its occupational burden of disease (OBD). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the OBDs of ARDs in Korea.

Methods: The CARcinogen Exposure (CAREX) database was used to determine the proportion of exposed population. Relative risks for lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer were used to determine the population-attributable fraction. Data for deaths caused by ARDs during 1998-2013 were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. The potential years of life lost (PYLL) and annual average PYLL (APYLL) indicated OBDs.

Results: In Korea, the number of ARD-attributable deaths and PYLL due to all ARDs during 1998-2013 were 4,492 and 71,763.7, respectively. The number of attributable deaths and PYLL due to asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer were 37 and 554.2, 808 and 15,877.0, 3,256 and 47,375.9, 120 and 1,605.5, and 271 and 6,331.1, respectively; additionally, the APYLL were 15.0, 19.7, 14.6, 13.4, and 23.4, respectively, and the average age at death was 70.4, 62.6, 69.1, 69.9, and 61.8, respectively. Our study showed that although the use of asbestos has ceased in Korea, the incidence of ARDs tends to increase.

Conclusion: Therefore, efforts to reduce future OBDs of ARDs, including early detection and proper management of ARDs, are needed in Korea.

RevDate: 2018-08-23

Krupoves A (2018)

Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma risk.

International journal of epidemiology pii:5075854 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-08-23

Farioli A, Mattioli S, Curti S, et al (2018)

Letter to the editor re: Dragani et al. (2018), "Malignant mesothelioma diagnosed at a younger age is associated with heavier asbestos exposure".

Carcinogenesis pii:5078160 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-09-22

Chatfield EJ (2018)

Measurement of elongate mineral particles: What we should measure and how do we do it?.

Toxicology and applied pharmacology pii:S0041-008X(18)30376-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The length distributions of single fibrils of Coalinga, UICC-B and wet dispersed chrysotile were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the distributions significantly diverged above approximately 10 μm (μm) in length, corresponding to differences in published results of animal experiments. This result is in contrast to published data in which counting of an insufficient number of fibers resulted in an erroneous conclusion that the length distribution of Coalinga chrysotile fibrils was indistinguishable from those of other sources of chrysotile. The size distributions of the respirable particle size fractions from acknowledged tremolite asbestos samples were found to be dominated by elongate particles longer than 5 μm that are within the dimensional range of non-asbestiform amphiboles. Prior studies have shown that these elongate particles obscure a correlation between a specific size range of particles and results of animal implantation studies that used tremolite of various morphologies. In the prior studies, a reference protocol was developed from four crushed non-asbestiform amphiboles to differentiate the size range of amphibole particles that correlates with the mesothelioma frequencies observed in the animal studies. In the work reported here, this correlation was tested with TEM analyses of amphiboles from Libby, MT, Sparta, NJ and Homestake mine, Lead, SD, which represent known environmental/occupational situations. Further TEM analyses of the tremolite samples used in the original animal implantation studies have also shown that the numbers of elongate tremolite particles with lengths ≤5 μm implanted into the animals are not correlated with the observed mesothelioma frequencies.

RevDate: 2018-08-29
CmpDate: 2018-08-29

Finkelstein MM (2018)

Letter Concerning: Glynn ME, Keeton KA, Gaffney SH, Sahmel J. Ambient Asbestos Fiber Concentrations and Long-Term Trends in Pleural Mesothelioma Incidence Between Urban and Rural Areas in the United States (1973-2012). Risk Analysis 2018;38(3):454-471.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, 38(8):1521-1523.

RevDate: 2018-08-29
CmpDate: 2018-08-29

Keeton KA, Glynn ME, Gaffney SH, et al (2018)

Response to Letter to the Editor Regarding "Ambient Asbestos Fiber Concentrations and Long-Term Trends in Pleural Mesothelioma Incidence Between Urban and Rural Areas in the United States (1973-2012)" by Finkelstein.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, 38(8):1524-1528.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Bosio M, Salvaterra E, Datturi F, et al (2018)

5-hydroxymethylcytosine but not MTAP methylation status can stratify malignant pleural mesothelioma based on the lineage of origin.

Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine, 13:27 pii:137.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis, mainly associated with work or environmental exposure to asbestos. MPM's molecular profile is largerly unexplored and effective therapies are still lacking. MPM rarely harbours those somatic genetic lesions that usually characterize solid epithelial-derived tumors. On this basis, our study aims at investigating MPM epigenetic profile.

Methods: We here assessed through immunohistochemistry, FISH and methylation specific PCR, the expression of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5- hmC) - an epigenetic marker and an important regulator of embryonic development and carcinogenesis - and the methylation status of the promoter of the MTAP gene - encoding for an enzyme involved in the rescue process of methionine and adenine - in two relevant series of FF-PE MPM samples derived from MPM thoracoscopic biopsies. Tissue sampling was performed at diagnosis.

Results: Within the limitations of the study cohort, the 5-hmC immunophenotype was different among the histological MPM types analysed. In fact, 18% of the epithelial MPMs were negative, 47% weakly positive, and 35% of the cases showed an intense expression of 5-hmC. Sarcomatoid and biphasic MPMs showed intense 5-hmC expression pattern (positive and weakly positive in more than 80% of cases). Among MPM featuring epithelial lineage, none showed methylation of MTAP promoter.

Conclusions: Mesothelial sarcomatoid tumors featured a methylation profile characterized by a permanent gene silencing. Epithelial MPM methylation profile was in-between that of sarcomatoid MPM and the one of epithelial-derived tumors. MTAP promoter methylation level cannot be considered a suitable biomarker of epithelial MPM arousal.

RevDate: 2018-08-17

Smith-Hannah A, R Naous (2018)

Primary peritoneal Epithelioid mesothelioma of clear cell type with a novel VHL gene mutation: a case report.

Human pathology pii:S0046-8177(18)30303-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Clear cell variant of epithelioid mesothelioma is an extremely rare tumor with only isolated cases reported so far in the peritoneum. Here, we report a case of peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma, clear cell variant, in a 63-year-old female patient with a novel VHL gene mutation and an unusual indolent clinical course. The patient, who has no clinical history of asbestos exposure, presented with a 27.2 cm upper abdominal mass and a 5.5 cm liver lesion. Retrospective review of the patient's abdominal CT scan 4 years ago showed two small abdominal lesions that were felt clinically to represent hemangiomas. These were retrospectively considered to have grown in size and represented the current abdominal mass. Both masses were subsequently biopsied and showed a proliferation of monomorphic epithelioid cells with distinct cell membranes, fine chromatin and clear to finely vacuolated pale eosinophilic cytoplasm arranged in nests and solid sheets. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed it to be malignant mesothelioma. Clear cell variant of peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma should always be considered in patients with an abdominal or pelvic mass with clear cell features. Given the rarity of such entity, its clinical course and prognosis remains unclear.

RevDate: 2018-09-26

Panou V, Gadiraju M, Wolin A, et al (2018)

Frequency of Germline Mutations in Cancer Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Mesothelioma.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 36(28):2863-2871.

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and clinical predictors of germline cancer susceptibility mutations in patients with malignant mesothelioma (MM).

METHODS: We performed targeted capture and next-generation sequencing of 85 cancer susceptibility genes on germline DNA from 198 patients with pleural, peritoneal, and tunica vaginalis MM.

RESULTS: Twenty-four germline mutations were identified in 13 genes in 23 (12%) of 198 patients. BAP1 mutations were the most common (n = 6; 25%). The remaining were in genes involved in DNA damage sensing and repair (n = 14), oxygen sensing (n = 2), endosome trafficking (n = 1), and cell growth (n = 1). Pleural site (odds ratio [OR], 0.23; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.58; P < .01), asbestos exposure (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.72; P < .01), and older age (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.99; P = .01) were associated with decreased odds of carrying a germline mutation, whereas having a second cancer diagnosis (OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.22 to 9.07; P = .02) significantly increased the odds. The odds of carrying a mutation in BAP1 (OR, 1,658; 95% CI, 199 to 76,224; P < .001), BRCA2 (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 14.7; P = .03), CDKN2A (OR, 53; 95% CI, 6 to 249; P < .001), TMEM127 (OR, 88; 95% CI, 1.7 to 1,105; P = .01), VHL (OR, 51; 95% CI, 1.1 to 453; P = .02), and WT1 (OR, 20; 95% CI, 0.5 to 135; P = .049) were significantly higher in MM cases than in a noncancer control population. Tumor sequencing identified mutations in a homologous recombination pathway gene in 52% (n = 29 of 54).

CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients with MM carry germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes, especially those with peritoneal MM, minimal asbestos exposure, young age, and a second cancer diagnosis. These data support clinical germline genetic testing for patients with MM and provide a rationale for additional investigation of the homologous recombination pathway in MM.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Löffler MW, Steinhilber J, Hilke FJ, et al (2018)

First case report of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and oral verrucous carcinoma in a patient with a germline PTEN mutation: a combination of extremely rare diseases with probable further implications.

BMC medical genetics, 19(1):144 pii:10.1186/s12881-018-0651-4.

BACKGROUND: The PTEN-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome (PHTS) is caused by germline mutations in Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) and predisposes to the development of several typical malignancies. Whereas PTEN mutations have been implicated in the occurrence of malignant mesotheliomas, the genetic landscape of verrucous carcinomas (VC) is largely uncharted. Both VC and malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPM) are exceedingly rare and a potential link between these malignancies and PHTS has never been reported.

CASE PRESENTATION: We here describe the clinical course of a PHTS patient who, in addition to a typical thyroid carcinoma at the age of 36 years, developed a highly-differentiated oral VC and an epithelioid MPM six years later. The patient with a history of occupational asbestos exposure underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for MPM. The clinical diagnosis of PHTS was consequently corroborated by a germline PTEN deletion. Sequencing of tumor tissue revealed a second hit in PTEN in the thyroid carcinoma and VC, confirmed by a PTEN loss and activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, additional somatic mutations in the thyroid carcinoma as well as in the VC were detected, whereas the genetics of MPM remained unrevealing.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We here report the very unusual clinical course of a patient with rare tumors that have a germline mutation first hit in PTEN in common. Since this patient was exposed to asbestos and current evidence suggests molecular mechanisms that might render PHTS patients particularly susceptible to mesothelioma, we strongly recommend PHTS patients to avoid even minimal exposure.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Salazar C, Kanter Md N, A Abboud (2018)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma, Biphasic Type: An Unusual and Insidious Case of Rapidly Progressive Small Blue Cell Tumor.

Cureus, 10(6):e2749.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm. It predominantly affects elderly individuals aged over 70 years presenting with a unilateral pleural tumor usually associated with previous asbestos exposure. The respiratory symptoms are associated with ipsilateral pleural involvement with concomitant pleural effusions. The diagnosis of MPM is established by the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of a cytologic specimen. MPM can present as three histologic subtypes: epithelioid, sarcomatoid, or biphasic. We present a case of an 85-year-old Caucasian female with a history of occupational asbestos exposure. She complained of 1-week history of progressive sharp right flank and scapular pain with mild shortness of breath, dry cough and pleuritic chest pain. CT of the chest showed a large loculated right pleural effusion with adjacent pleural thickening. CT abdomen and pelvis was negative for other neoplastic findings. CT-guided core biopsy of the right pleural-based mass was positive for a spindle to plasmacytoid small blue cell tumor. An extensive immunohistochemical panel was non-specific. A focal OSCAR keratin and WT-1 expression in the absence of carcinoma markers, a malignant mesothelioma, biphasic type was diagnosed. Further workup with PET-CT and cytotoxic chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors was recommended by oncology. The patient refused further imaging and treatment, and palliative care was consulted.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Krówczyńska M, E Wilk (2018)

Asbestos Exposure and the Mesothelioma Incidence in Poland.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(8): pii:ijerph15081741.

Asbestos is carcinogenic to humans; the exposure to asbestos causes a wide range of diseases.

AIM: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is unique for asbestos exposure.

METHODS: Based on the physical inventory of asbestos-cement roofing, the social-economic situation of communes, the proximity of asbestos manufacturing plants, the land use data referring to the surface of the built-up area, and the historical data on the annexations, the amount of asbestos-containing products in use was estimated by computing best Random Forest models. Per capita asbestos use is an indicator to compare the state of asbestos use among countries. MM cases in the local administrative units (provinces) were tested by the application of Moran's I and Getis and Ord statistic.

RESULTS: The total amount of asbestos roofing in Poland was estimated at 738,068,000 m² (8.2 million tons). In total there were 28 plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The amount of asbestos-cement roofing in use is correlated primarily with the measurements of asbestos concentration fibers (rs = 0.597). MM raw morbidity rate was calculated, stratified by province, and classified into five groups with respect to incidence. Hotspots of MM cases are in the southern part of Poland.

CONCLUSIONS: MM cases are concentrated in the same geographical areas, which may indicate an increasing impact of environmental exposure. The results of the local and global autocorrelation clearly indicate a statistically significant relationship between incidences of MM in provinces. Poland and other Eastern European countries are among countries with low MM incidence rate. Detailed investigation is desirable since the current MM morbidity rate in Poland seems to be underestimated.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Negi Y, Kuribayashi K, Doi H, et al (2018)

Double cancer comprising malignant pleural mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung treated with radiotherapy: A case report.

Molecular and clinical oncology, 9(2):181-186.

Pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) is the surgical treatment of choice for early malignant mesothelioma, but it remains unclear whether radiotherapy along with P/D should be used as multimodal treatment for this disease. We herein present the case of a 76-year-old man with a history of asbestos exposure who was diagnosed with left-sided malignant pleural mesothelioma in February 2010. The patient underwent chemotherapy with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed and achieved stable disease, after which time he was kept under observation. A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan performed in February 2011 revealed nodular shadows with fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in S3 of the left lung; using bronchoscopy, the patient was diagnosed with stage IIB (cT3N0M0) primary squamous cell carcinoma. Chemoradiotherapy with vinorelbine and 60 Gy/20 fr radiotherapy was performed, and a partial response was obtained, suggesting that the radiotherapy used to treat the carcinoma of the lung may have also helped control the disease activity of the pre-existing mesothelioma. The present case indicates the value of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. The aim of the present study was to examine the possibility of new multimodal treatments for mesothelioma, along with a discussion of the relevant literature.

RevDate: 2018-09-07

Aida S, Aida J, Naoi M, et al (2018)

Measurement of telomere length in cells from pleural effusion: Asbestos exposure causes telomere shortening in pleural mesothelial cells.

Pathology international, 68(9):503-508.

We estimated the telomere lengths of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mesothelial cells and examined their correlation with asbestos exposure and the expression of markers of mesothelial malignancy. Cell blocks of pleural effusion obtained from 35 cases of non-neoplastic disease (NN), 12 cases of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and 12 cases of carcinomatous effusion due to lung adenocarcinoma (LA) were examined. Fifteen of the 35 NN cases had pleural plaques (NNpp+) suggestive of asbestos exposure, and the other 20 cases had no pleural plaques (NNpp-). Telomere length was measured using the tissue quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization method, and expressed as normalized telomere-to-centromere ratio. NN cases had significantly longer telomeres than MM (P < 0.001) and LA (P < 0.001) cases. Telomeres in NNpp+ cases were slightly shorter than those of NNpp- cases (P = 0.047). MM and LA showed almost the same telomere length. NN cases with shorter telomeres tended to show aberrant expression of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CD146, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and IGF-II messenger RNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3). These results suggest that telomere shortening and subsequent genetic instability play an important role in the development of MM. Measurement of telomere length of cells in pleural effusion might be helpful for earlier detection of MM.

RevDate: 2018-08-07

Lucas C (2018)

Miracle mineral or mesothelioma: cancer and asbestos in the USA.

The Lancet. Oncology, 19(7):868.

RevDate: 2018-09-08

Garabrant DH, ST Pastula (2018)

A comparison of asbestos fiber potency and elongate mineral particle (EMP) potency for mesothelioma in humans.

Toxicology and applied pharmacology pii:S0041-008X(18)30314-4 [Epub ahead of print].

We analyzed the mesothelioma mortality in cohorts of workers exposed to crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile to estimate asbestos fiber potency for mesothelioma, using the method of Hodgson and Darnton (2000). We relied on the original 17 cohort studies in their analysis, along with 3 updates of those studies and 3 new asbestos cohort studies published since 2000. We extended the analyses to examine the mesothelioma potency of tremolite in vermiculite from Libby, Montana, and for non-asbestiform elongate mineral particles (EMPs) in taconite iron ore, talc, and South Dakota gold mining. Mesothelioma potency (RMeso) was calculated as the percent of all expected deaths that were due to mesothelioma per fiber/cc-year of exposure.The RMeso was 0.0012 for chrysotile, 0.099 for amosite, and 0.451 for crocidolite: thus, the relative potency of chrysotile:amosite:crocidolite was 1:83:376, which was not appreciably different from the estimates by Hodgson and Darnton in 2000. The RMeso for taconite mining fibers was 0.069 which was slightly smaller than that for amosite. The RMeso for Libby fibers was 0.028 which was greater than that for chrysotile and less than that for amosite. Talc and gold mining EMPs were non-potent for mesothelioma. Although there are a number of methods for estimating fiber potency of asbestos and non-asbestiform EMPs, the method of Hodgson and Darnton provides a uniform method by which fiber potency can be compared across many fiber types. Our estimates of RMeso provide a useful addition to our knowledge of mesothelioma potency for different asbestos and non-asbestiform EMP fibers.

RevDate: 2018-08-03

Lin RT, Chang YY, Wang JD, et al (2018)

Upcoming epidemic of asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma in Taiwan: A prediction of incidence in the next 30 years.

Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi pii:S0929-6646(18)30250-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Globally, asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) keep rising over the coming decades. The epidemic of ARDs will be a burden on public health. We aimed to predict the malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) incidence in the next 30 years for Taiwan based on historical asbestos consumption.

METHODS: We collected annual data on local asbestos consumption during 1939-2015 and sex-specific incidence of pleural cancer as a proxy for MPM during 1979-2013. We applied Poisson log-linear models to predict future MPM numbers under the assumption that latency periods between asbestos exposure and MPM incidence were between 25 and 45 years.

RESULTS: Asbestos consumption reached a peak in the 1980s, with a total of 668 thousand metric tons during 1939-2015. The observed number of MPM incidence increased by 9- and 6-fold in males and females during 1979-2013, with a cumulative number of 907. Given a latency period of 31 years, MPM incidences were expected to peak around 2012-2016 for males and 2016-2020 for females. In 2017-2046, the predicted total number of new MPM might reach 659 cases (95% confidence interval = 579-749); and the male to female ratios ranged from 1.8 to 2.8.

CONCLUSION: The MPM epidemic in Taiwan will likely peak in 2012-2020 as a result of local asbestos consumption. Approximately 659 new MPM cases in the next 30 years warrant an urgent need to implement a total asbestos ban and put more resources on a comprehensive surveillance, diagnosis, and follow-up health care system for ARDs.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Sage AP, Martinez VD, Minatel BC, et al (2018)

Genomics and Epigenetics of Malignant Mesothelioma.

High-throughput, 7(3): pii:ht7030020.

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal asbestos-related disease. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is particularly challenging and is further complicated by the lack of disease subtype-specific markers. As a result, it is especially difficult to distinguish malignant mesothelioma from benign reactive mesothelial proliferations or reactive fibrosis. Additionally, mesothelioma diagnoses can be confounded by other anatomically related tumors that can invade the pleural or peritoneal cavities, collectively resulting in delayed diagnoses and greatly affecting patient management. High-throughput analyses have uncovered key genomic and epigenomic alterations driving malignant mesothelioma. These molecular features have the potential to better our understanding of malignant mesothelioma biology as well as to improve disease diagnosis and patient prognosis. Genomic approaches have been instrumental in identifying molecular events frequently occurring in mesothelioma. As such, we review the discoveries made using high-throughput technologies, including novel insights obtained from the analysis of the non-coding transcriptome, and the clinical potential of these genetic and epigenetic findings in mesothelioma. Furthermore, we aim to highlight the potential of these technologies in the future clinical applications of the novel molecular features in malignant mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-11-21
CmpDate: 2018-11-21

Jean D, MC Jaurand (2018)

Mesotheliomas in Genetically Engineered Mice Unravel Mechanism of Mesothelial Carcinogenesis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(8): pii:ijms19082191.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM), a rare and severe cancer, mainly caused as a result of past-asbestos exposure, is presently a public health concern. Current molecular studies aim to improve the outcome of the disease, providing efficient therapies based on the principles of precision medicine. To model the molecular profile of human malignant mesothelioma, animal models have been developed in rodents, wild type animals and genetically engineered mice harbouring mutations in tumour suppressor genes, especially selecting genes known to be inactivated in human malignant mesothelioma. Animals were either exposed or not exposed to asbestos or to other carcinogenic fibres, to understand the mechanism of action of fibres at the molecular level, and the role of the selected genes in mesothelial carcinogenesis. The aim of the manuscript was to compare mesothelioma models to human malignant mesothelioma and to specify the clue genes playing a role in mesothelial carcinogenesis. Collectively, MM models recapitulate the clinical features of human MM. At least two altered genes are needed to induce malignant mesothelioma in mice. Two pathways regulated by Cdkn2a and Trp53 seem independent key players in mesothelial carcinogenesis. Other genes and pathways appear as bona fide modulators of the neoplastic transformation.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )