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Bibliography on: Biofilm

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jul 2020 at 01:31 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2020-07-03

Zhang P, Ding XS, Zhao B, et al (2020)

Acceleration of biofilm formation in start-up of sequencing batch biofilm reactor using carriers immobilized with Pseudomonas stutzeri strain XL-2.

Bioresource technology, 314:123736 pii:S0960-8524(20)31008-7 [Epub ahead of print].

P. stutzeri strain XL-2 initially immobilized on polypropylene carriers accelerated the biofilm formation in start-up of sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) (denoted R1). The biofilm formation in R1 was approximately completed in 36 days, which was shorter than that of 48 days in an identical SBBR (denoted R2) without strain XL-2. Meanwhile, R1 presented a rapid stabilization of NH4+-N and TN removal to 81.7% and 72.4% respectively. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that strain XL-2 enhanced the initial adhesion of carrier surface due to the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which made it easier for other EPS-producing strains, such as Thauera and Flavobacterium, to adhere to the carriers. PICRUSt revealed that biofilm in R1 presented relatively higher activity of EPS biosynthesis enzymes (glycosyltransferase and asparagine synthase). Thus, high EPS content was obtained due to the application of carriers immobilized with strain XL-2 and finally promoted the biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Cordeiro RA, de Andrade ARC, Portela FVM, et al (2020)

Proposal for a microcosm biofilm model for the study of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

This study proposes a microcosm biofilm (MiB) model for the study of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Different conditions that mimic the vaginal environment were tested for MiB formation. The best growth conditions were obtained with samples incubated in vaginal fluid simulator medium pH 4.5 at 35 °C under a microaerophilic atmosphere. MiBs were evaluated for growth kinetics, fluconazole susceptibility and morphology. Samples containing high numbers of bacteria were analyzed for metagenomics. At 48 h, MiBs presented a higher cell density (CFU ml-1), a higher biomass and tolerance to fluconazole than their corresponding monospecies biofilms. Morphological analysis of MiBs revealed blastoconidia preferentially adhered to epithelial cells. Abundant Lactobacillus spp. were detected in two clinical samples; their MiBs showed a lower biomass and a higher fluconazole susceptibility. The proposed model proved to be a useful tool for the study of the complex microbial relationship in the vaginal environment, and may help to find new strategies for VVC control.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Wu Z, Zheng R, Zhang J, et al (2020)

Transcriptional profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in response to anti-biofilm and anti-infection agent exopolysaccharide EPS273.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Relative few anti-biofilm polysaccharides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were done to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Exopolysaccharide EPS273 can clearly reduce biofilm formation and infection of P. aeruginosa. This study aims to investigate its anti-biofilm and anti-infection mechanism on transcriptional level.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Herein we used an RNA-Seq transcriptomic approach to investigate the underlying anti-biofilm and anti-infection mechanism of EPS273. The expression levels of a large number of genes were changed after P. aeruginosa PAO1 was treated with EPS273. Especially, the genes related to biofilm formation, such as gene involved in production of extracellular matrix and virulence factor, genes involved in flagella and cell motility and genes involved in iron acquisition. Notably, the expression levels of genes involved in regulatory and signal transduction were markedly downregulated, such as two-component system PhoP-PhoQ and quorum sensing (QS) system LasI/ LasR and RhlI/ RhlR. Furthermore, when gene phoP and phoQ was disrupted respectively, the reduction of biofilm formation and cell motility in mutant △phoP or △phoQ was also detected.

CONCLUSION: EPS273 may exert its anti-biofilm and anti-infection function by downregulating gene expression of two-component system PhoP-PhoQ and QS systems LasI/ LasR and RhlI/ RhlR of P. aeruginosa, which further regulated expression of genes involved in biofilm formation.

Our data will expand understanding of anti-biofilm mechanisms of polysaccharides on transcriptomic level.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

da Silva ACB, Sardi JCO, de Oliveira DGL, et al (2020)

Development of a novel anti-biofilm peptide derived from profilin of Spodoptera frugiperda.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Candida yeast infections are the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Peptides with antimicrobial activity are a promising alternative treatment for such infections. Here, the antifungal activity of a new antimicrobial peptide-PEP-IA18-was evaluated against Candida species. PEP-IA18 was designed from the primary sequence of profilin, a protein from Spodoptera frugiperda, and displayed potent activity against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, showing a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 µM. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of PEP-IA18 involved interaction with the cell membrane (ergosterol complexation). Treatment at MIC and/or 10 × MIC significantly reduced biofilm formation and viability. PEP-IA18 showed low toxicity toward human fibroblasts and only revealed hemolytic activity at high concentrations. Thus, PEP-IA18 exhibited antifungal and anti-biofilm properties with potential applicability in the treatment of infections caused by Candida species.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Liu Y, Zeng R, Duan Z, et al (2020)

[Effect of 5-aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamics Therapy on Biofilm of Propionibacterium Acnes].

Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae, 42(3):283-288.

Objective To investigate the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) on Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) biofilm. MethodsP.acnes biofilms were constructed on a cell slide and treated with ALA-PDT.According to different light doses,the biofilms were divided into six groups:ALA-PDT group [ALA-PDT1 (50 J/cm2),ALA-PDT2 group (100 J/cm2),ALA-PDT3 group (200 J/cm2)],ALA-only group (ALA group),light-only group (LED),and a negative control group (ALA-PDT-group).The biofilm structure and the ratio of the dead bacteria/live bacteria were observed using a laser confocal microscope (CLSM).Biofilm viability was measured using the XTT assay. Results CLSM showed that the biofilm structures of ALA group and LED group were not significantly different from that of ALA-PDT-group,whereas the biofilm structure was more seriously damaged in ALA-PDT1 group,ALA-PDT2 group,and ALA-PDT3 group than in the ALA-PDT-group.The ratios of the dead/live bacteria in ALA-PDT-group,ALA group,LED group,ALA-PDT1 group,ALA-PDT2 group,and ALA-PDT3 group were 0.350±0.033, 0.305±0.046, 0.330±0.032, 1.525±0.439, 2.293±0.148 and 3.092±0.189,respectively.ALA group(md=0.003, P=1.000)and LED group(md=-0.025, P=1.000)did not significantly differ from the ALA-PDT-group.However,the ratio of dead/live bacteria in ALA-PDT-group was significantly lower than those in ALA-PDT1 group (md=-0.162, P<0.001),ALA-PDT2 group (md=-0.254, P<0.001),and ALA-PDT3 group (md=-0.352, P<0.001).The values of the XTT assay were were 0.462±0.028,0.465±0.044,0.437±0.047,0.301±0.040,0.207±0.001,and 0.110±0.007,respectively,in ALA-PDT-group,ALA group,LED group,ALA-PDT1 group,ALA-PDT2 group,and ALA-PDT3 group.Although the values of XTT assay in ALA(md=-0.044, P=1.000)and LED groups (md=-0.020, P=1.000)did not significantly differ from that in ALA-PDT-group,it was significantly higher in ALA-PDT-group than in ALA-PDT1 group (md=1.175, P<0.001),ALA-PDT2 group (md=1.942, P<0.001),and ALA-PDT3 group (md=-0.352, md=2.742, P<0.001). Conclusions ALA-PDT has an inhibitory effect on P.acnes biofilm.ALA-PDT destroys biofilm structure and inhibits biofilm viability.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Chaves S, Longo M, Gómez López A, et al (2020)

Control of microbial biofilm formation as an approach for biomaterials synthesis.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 194:111201 pii:S0927-7765(20)30557-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The search for new biomaterials with superior mechanical properties is the focus in the area of materials science. A promising pathway is drawing inspiration from nature to design and develop materials with enhanced properties. In this work, a novel strategy to produce functionalized supramolecular bionanomaterials from the microbial biofilm is reported. Tuneable biofilms with specific characteristics were obtained by controlling the culture condition of the microorganism. When the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was desired the tryptone was the best nutritional component for the EPS production into the biofilm. However, for the expression of a high amount of amyloid protein the combination of peptone and glucose was the best nutritional choice. Each biofilm obtained showed its owner rheology properties. These properties were altered by the addition of extracellular DNA, which increased the viscosity of the biofilm and induced a viscoelastic hydrogel behavior. Besides, as a proof of concept of bionanomaterial, a novel supramolecular polymeric hybrid EPS-Amyloid protein (EPAP) was obtained from the biofilm and it was tested as a new natural functionalized support for enzyme immobilization. The results suggest that this technology could be used as a new concept to obtain biomaterials from biofilms by controlling the nutritional conditions of a microorganism. Understanding environmental factors affecting biofilm formation will help the development of methods for controlling biofilm production and therefore obtaining new biomaterials.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Moussa DG, C Aparicio (2020)

Targeting the oral plaque microbiome with immobilized anti-biofilm peptides at tooth-restoration interfaces.

PloS one, 15(7):e0235283 pii:PONE-D-20-11697.

Recurrent caries, the development of carious lesions at the interface between the restorative material and the tooth structure, is highly prevalent and represents the primary cause for failure of dental restorations. Correspondingly, we exploited the self-assembly and strong antibiofilm activity of amphipathic antimicrobial peptides (AAMPs) to form novel coatings on dentin that aimed to prevent recurrent caries at susceptible cavosurface margins. AAMPs are alternative to traditional antimicrobial agents and antibiotics with the ability to target the complex and heterogeneous organization of microbial communities. Unlike approaches that have focused on using these AAMPs in aqueous solutions for a transient activity, here we assess the effects on microcosm biofilms of a long-acting AAMPs-based antibiofilm coating to protect the tooth-composite interface. Genomewise, we studied the impact of AAMPs coatings on the dental plaque microbial community. We found that non-native all D-amino acids AAMPs coatings induced a marked shift in the plaque community and selectively targeted three primary acidogenic colonizers, including the most common taxa around Class II composite restorations. Accordingly, we investigated the translational potential of our antibiofilm dentin using multiphoton pulsed near infra-red laser for deep bioimaging to assess the impact of AAMPs-coated dentin on plaque biofilms along dentin-composite interfaces. Multiphoton enabled us to record the antibiofilm potency of AAMPs-coated dentin on plaque biofilms throughout exaggeratedly failed interfaces. In conclusion, AAMPs-coatings on dentin showed selective and long-acting antibiofilm activity against three dominant acidogenic colonizers and potential to resist recurrent caries to promote and sustain the interfacial integrity of adhesive-based interfaces.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Dosler S, Hacioglu M, Yilmaz FN, et al (2020)

Biofilm modelling on the contact lenses and comparison of the in vitro activities of multipurpose lens solutions and antibiotics.

PeerJ, 8:e9419 pii:9419.

During the contact lens (CL) usage, microbial adhesion and biofilm formation are crucial threats for eye health due to the development of mature biofilms on CL surfaces associated with serious eye infections such as keratitis. For CL related eye infections, multi drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus (especially MRSA) and Candida albicans are the most common infectious bacteria and yeast, respectively. In this study, CL biofilm models were created by comparing them to reveal the differences on specific conditions. Then the anti-biofilm activities of some commercially available multipurpose CL solutions (MPSs) and antibiotic eye drops against mature biofilms of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans standard and clinical strains were determined by the time killing curve (TKC) method at 6, 24 and 48 h. According to the biofilm formation models, the optimal biofilms occurred in a mixture of bovine serum albumin (20% v/v) and lysozyme (2 g/L) diluted in PBS at 37 °C for 24 h, without shaking. When we compared the CL types under the same conditions, the strongest biofilms according to their cell density, were formed on Pure Vision ≥ Softens 38 > Acuve 2 ∼ Softens Toric CLs. When we compared the used CLs with the new ones, a significant increase at the density of biofilms on the used CLs was observed. The most active MPS against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms at 24 h was Opti-Free followed by Bio-True and Renu according to the TKC analyses. In addition, the most active MPS against C. albicans was Renu followed by Opti-Free and Bio-True at 48 h. None of the MPSs showed 3 Log bactericidal/fungicidal activity, except for Opti-Free against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms during 6 h contact time. Moreover, all studied antibiotic eye drops were active against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms on CLs at 6 h and 24 h either directly or as 1/10 concentration, respectively. According to the results of the study, anti-biofilm activities of MPSs have changed depending on the chemical ingredients and contact times of MPSs, the type of infectious agent, and especially the CL type and usage time.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Li T, Zhang Z, Wang F, et al (2020)

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Metronidazole and Clindamycin against Gardnerella vaginalis in Planktonic and Biofilm Formation.

The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale, 2020:1361825.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), one of the most common vaginal ecosystem-related microbiologic syndromes, is the most common disorder in women of reproductive age. Gardnerella (G.) vaginalis is the predominant species causing this infection. Our aim was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibilities of metronidazole and clindamycin against G. vaginalis at planktonic and biofilm levels.

Methods: From September 2019 to October 2019, we recruited a total of 10 patients with BV who underwent gynecological examinations at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. G. vaginalis isolates were obtained from the vagina and identified using their characteristic colony morphology. Sequence data of clinical G. vaginalis isolates were confirmed by comparing 16S rDNA sequences. Subsequently, clinical isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibilities in vitro to metronidazole and clindamycin at planktonic and biofilm levels. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for metronidazole and clindamycin was evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was evaluated by the biofilm inhibition assay.

Results: Planktonic clinical isolates showed a significantly higher susceptibility rate (76.67%) and lower resistance rate (23.33%) to clindamycin than to metronidazole (susceptibility rate: 38.24%; resistance rate: 58.82%; P < 0.05 for both). Furthermore, in comparison to planktonic isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of metronidazole was significantly higher for biofilm-forming isolates (7.3 ± 2.6 μg/mL vs. 72.4 ± 18.3 μg/mL; P=0.005); the resistance rate was 27.3%, and the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was >128 μg/mL. Moreover, the MIC of clindamycin was higher too for biofilm-forming isolates (0.099 ± 0.041 μg/mL vs. 23.7 ± 9.49 μg/mL; P=0.034); the resistance rate was 27.3%, and the MBEC of clindamycin was 28.4 ± 6.50 μg/mL.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that in comparison to metronidazole, clindamycin seems to be a better choice to tackle G. vaginalis as it exhibits a relatively higher susceptibility rate and lower resistance rate.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Zhuang Z, Yang G, Mai Q, et al (2020)

Physiological potential of extracellular polysaccharide in promoting Geobacter biofilm formation and extracellular electron transfer.

The Science of the total environment, 741:140365 pii:S0048-9697(20)33887-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms have promising applications in renewable energy, pollutant bioremediation, and bioelectronic applications. Genetically manipulating G. sulfurreducens biofilms is an effective strategy to improve the capacity of extracellular electron transfer (EET). Extracellular polysaccharide, a sticky component surrounding microbes, plays an important role in EET. Herein, we constructed a mutant of G. sulfurreducens strain PCA overexpressing the gene GSU1501 (part of the ATP-dependent exporter of the polysaccharide biosynthesis gene operon), designated strain PCA-1501, to increase EET capacity. Experimental results showed that the overexpression of GSU1501 increased extracellular polysaccharide secretion by 25.5%, which promoted the formation of biofilm with higher thickness and viability, as well as the content of extracellular c-type cytochromes. Compared with the control strain, the mutant showed a higher capacity of Fe(III) oxide reduction and current generation (increased by 20.4% and 22.2%, respectively). Interestingly, the overexpression of GSU1501 hindered the pili formation by reducing the transcription level of pilA; a compensatory relationship between extracellular polysaccharide and pili in promoting biofilm formation deserves further investigation. This study provides a feasible method to promote the EET capacity of G. sulfurreducens biofilms, which benefit their bioelectrochemical applications.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Jain A, Armstrong SR, Banas JA, et al (2020)

Dental adhesive microtensile bond strength following a biofilm-based in vitro aging model.

Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB, 28:e20190737 pii:S1678-77572020000100451.

OBJECTIVE: Laboratory tests are routinely used to test bonding properties of dental adhesives. Various aging methods that simulate the oral environment are used to complement these tests for assessment of adhesive bond durability. However, most of these methods challenge hydrolytic and mechanical stability of the adhesive- enamel/dentin interface, and not the biostability of dental adhesives. To compare resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) after a 15-day Streptococcus mutans (SM) or Streptococcus sobrinus (SS) bacterial exposure to the 6-month water storage (WS) ISO 11405 type 3 test.

METHODOLOGY: A total of 31 molars were flattened and their exposed dentin was restored with Optibond-FL adhesive system and Z-100 dental composite. Each restored molar was sectioned and trimmed into four dumbbell-shaped specimens, and randomly distributed based on the following aging conditions: A) 6 months of WS (n=31), B) 5.5 months of WS + 15 days of a SM-biofilm challenge (n=31), C) 15 days of a SM-biofilm challenge (n=31) and D) 15 days of a SS-biofilm challenge (n=31). μTBS were determined and the failure modes were classified using light microscopy.

RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed that each type of aging condition affected μTBS (p<0.0001). For Group A (49.7±15.5MPa), the mean μTBS was significantly greater than in Groups B (19.3±6.3MPa), C (19.9±5.9MPa) and D (23.6±7.9MPa). For Group D, the mean μTBS was also significantly greater than for Groups B and C, but no difference was observed between Groups B and C.

CONCLUSION: A Streptococcus mutans- or Streptococcus sobrinus-based biofilm challenge for 15 days resulted in a significantly lower μTBS than did the ISO 11405 recommended 6 months of water storage. This type of biofilm-based aging model seems to be a practical method for testing biostability of resin-dentin bonding.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Qin JW, Xin X, Lu H, et al (2020)

[Bacterial Community Shifts and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics for a SNAD Process Treating Anaerobic Digester Liquor of Swine Wastewater (ADLSW) in a Continuous-Flow Biofilm Reactor (CFBR)].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 41(5):2349-2357.

To realize a simultaneous partial nitrification, ANAMMOX (anaerobic ammonium oxidation), and denitrification (SNAD) process treating anaerobic digester liquor of swine wastewater (ADLSW) in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor (CFBR), we first gradually increased the influent ammonium (NH4+-N) concentration, and then enhanced the ADLSW ratio in the influent during operation; dissolved oxygen (DO) was controlled at (0.4±0.1) mg·L-1 by adjusting the air flow rate, and the temperature was kept at (30±1)℃. Meanwhile, high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) techniques were used to analyze the bacterial community shifts and the amount of dominant nitrogen removal bacteria. The results demonstrated that a successful start-up of the SNAD process was accomplished in 150 d, and replacement of the actual biogas slurry was completed in 298 d. The effluent (NO3--N+NO2--N)/ΔNH4+-N value was less than 0.11, and the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN (total nitrogen) increased to 63.26% and 55.71%, respectively. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing results demonstrated that the dominant microbial populations at phylum level were Chloroflexi (with a relative abundance of 50.78%), Proteobacteria (13.34%), and Planctomycetes (9.26%). The relative abundance of Nitrosomonas increased from 1.55% to 1.98%. In addition, the relative abundance of Candidatus_Brocadia and Candidatus_Kuenenia increased from 0.01% and (<0.01%) to 4.66% and 4.18%, respectively, and the relative abundance of Denitratisoma increased from (<0.01%) to 2.06%. Meanwhile, qPCR analysis showed that the amounts of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, ANAMMOX, and denitrifying bacteria increased significantly compared with the inoculated sludge. An efficient and stable nitrogen removal rate can be achieved, and the follow-up processing cost can be reduced, by application of the SNAD treatment process for ADLSW.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Zhao ZR, Zhang JY, Li D, et al (2020)

[Purification Characteristics of Urban Tail Water from Sewage Treatment Plant by Biofilm Ecological Floating Bed].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 41(2):809-814.

The purification characteristics of nitrogenous tail water were investigated using a biofilm ecological floating bed technology to study biofilm length, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and biofilm coverage area with the aim to explore the purification characteristics of biofilm on urban tail water. Results show that the removal rates of NH4+-N, NO3--N, and TN were 90.82%, 62.7%, and 81.96%, respectively, at the half water depth to the suspended biofilm. The removal rate of NH4+-N was only 22.07%, and the concentration changes of NO3--N and TN were not obvious throughout the whole water depth to the suspended biofilm. When the HRT was 6 days, the removal rates of NH4+-N and TN could reach 82.01% and 62.88%, respectively, whereas the lowest rates were 55.24% and 46.82%, respectively. When the HRT was 12 days, the removal rates of NH4+-N and TN reached up to 81.4% and 79.93%, respectively, whereas the lowest rates were 8.73% and 17.23%, respectively. In contrast, the nitrogen removal efficiency was high and stable when the HRT was 6 days. When the coverage area was 10%, the removal rate was decreased in one operation cycle. When the coverage area was 20%, the removal rate showed an upward trend. Under the conditions of 10% and 20% biofilm coverage area, the removal rates of TN were 62.88% and 71.09%, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Ho MH, Hasturk H, Young DF, et al (2020)

In vivo and ex vivo actions of a novel P. gingivalis inhibitor on multi-species biofilm, inflammatory response and periodontal bone loss.

Molecular oral microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic periodontitis is one of the most common infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide. Current therapeutic options for the disease are only partially and temporarily successful due to periodontal re-emergence of pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone bacterium in the oral microbial communities, which elicits a dysbiosis between the microbiota and the host. Previously, we reported a peptide inhibitor of P. gingivalis (SAPP) that specifically targets P. gingivalis and reduces its virulence potential in vitro. Here, we show that SAPP can modulate the ability of P. gingivalis to suppress the host innate immune system. Using a cytokine array analysis, we found that the levels of several cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in the culture media of human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) were significantly diminished in the presence of P. gingivalis. Whereas the levels of these cytokines were restored, at least partially, in the culture media of HOKs by SAPP treatment. Furthermore, we also observed in an ex-vivo assay that SAPP efficiently inhibited biofilm primed formation by mixed species oral bacteria, and significantly dampened the abnormally innate immune responses induced by these bacteria. We also demonstrated, using a mouse model, that SAPP could prevent alveolar bone loss induced by P. gingivalis. Our results suggest that SAPP specifically targets P. gingivalis and its associated bacterial communities and could be envisioned as an emerging therapy for periodontitis.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Ueda A, Ogasawara S, K Horiuchi (2020)

Identification of the genes controlling biofilm formation in the plant commensal Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5.

Archives of microbiology pii:10.1007/s00203-020-01966-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Determinant genes controlling biofilm formation in a plant commensal bacterium, Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, were identified by transposon mutagenesis. Comprehensive screening of 7500 transposon-inserted mutants led to the isolation of four mutants exhibiting decreased and five mutants exhibiting increased biofilm formation. Mutations in the genes encoding MFS drug resistance transporter, LapA adhesive protein, RetS sensor histidine kinase/response regulator, and HecA adhesin/hemagglutinin led to decreased biofilm formation, indicating that these genes are necessary for biofilm formation in Pf-5. The mutants exhibiting increased biofilm formation had transposon insertions in the genes coding for an outer membrane protein, a GGDEF domain-containing protein, AraC transcriptional regulator, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase OfaB, and the intergenic region of a DNA-binding protein and the Aer aerotaxis receptor, suggesting that these genes are negative regulators of biofilm formation. Some of these mutants also showed altered swimming and swarming motilities, and a negative correlation between biofilm formation and swarming motility was observed. Thus, sessile-motile lifestyle is regulated by divergent regulatory genes in Pf-5.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Lamichhane K, Adhikari N, Bastola A, et al (2020)

Biofilm-Producing Candida Species Causing Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV Patients Attending Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Diseases Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.

HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.), 12:211-220 pii:255698.

Introduction: Oropharyngeal candidiasis are the commonest fungal infections among HIV-positive patients. The main objective of this study was to explore biofilm-producing Candida species causing oropharyngeal infections among HIV patients attending Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Diseases Hospital (STIDH) in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Methods: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from the HIV-positive patients between July and December 2019. A total of 174 oropharyngeal swabs were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). All samples were inoculated on SDA slants supplemented with chloramphenicol and underwent incubation at 37°C for 24-48 hours. Any visible growth reported was processed for the identification of the species. Candida species were differentiated based on the growth and colour of the isolates on CHROM agar candida. Biofilm production in Candida species was determined by the microtiter plate method (MPM). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using the disc diffusion method.

Results: Among 174 oropharyngeal samples, 23.6% (n=41/174) of them had oropharyngeal infections and 36.6% of the oropharyngeal infections (15/41) had CD4 T-lymphocytes count below 200 cells/mm3 who were also active tobacco users (p<0.05). Among Candidial growth, 61% (25/41) were Candida albicans and 39% (16/41) were non-albicans. Of 41 Candida spp., 65% (27/41) were biofilm producers. An equal proportion of Candida albicans (4 isolates) and non-albicans (4 isolates) were strong biofilm producers. C. albicans isolates were sensitive towards clotrimazole (96%; 24/25) and fluconazole (92%; 23/25), whereas sensitivity towards ketoconazole was only 48% (12/25). Non-albicans Candida was highly sensitive to amphotericin-B (62.5%; 10/16) followed by clotrimazole (56.2%; 9/16). The biofilm-producing Candida isolates showed the highest resistivity (51.9%; 14/27) to ketoconazole and lowest (22.2%; 6/27) to clotrimazole.

Conclusion: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected individuals. The majority of cases of oropharyngeal candidiasis are caused by biofilm producers Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida. Biofilm producers Candida were more resistant towards commonly used antifungal drugs.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Kashef MT, Saleh NM, Assar NH, et al (2020)

The Antimicrobial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Niosomes against Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus aureus.

Infection and drug resistance, 13:1619-1629 pii:249628.

Purpose: The threat of Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance is increasing worldwide. Niosomes are a new drug delivery system that enhances the antimicrobial potential of antibiotics. We hereby aim to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomes.

Methods: The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical S. aureus isolates (n=59) was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Their biofilm formation activity was tested by Christensen's method. Two ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomal formulations were prepared by thin-film hydration method, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by agar dilution method, against ciprofloxacin-resistant and biofilm-forming isolates (n=24). Their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and eradicate already formed biofilms was evaluated and further confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Non-synonymous mutations, in a quinolone resistance-determining regions of S. aureus isolates, were detected by polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Most of the isolates were methicillin- (47/59) and ciprofloxacin-resistant (45/59). All except two isolates were capable of biofilm production. Niosomal preparation I reduced ciprofloxacin MIC by twofold in four isolates, whereas preparation II reduced ciprofloxacin MIC of most isolates by 8- to 32-fold, with three isolates that became ciprofloxacin-susceptible. Non-synonymous mutations were detected in isolates that maintained phenotypic ciprofloxacin resistance against ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomal preparation II. Ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomes reduced the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and the minimum biofilm eradication concentration in 58% and 62% of the tested isolates, respectively.

Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomes can restore ciprofloxacin activity against resistant S. aureus isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the inhibition of biofilm formation and eradication of formed biofilms by ciprofloxacin-loaded niosomes.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

De Gregorio E, Esposito A, Vollaro A, et al (2020)

N-Nonyloxypentyl-l-Deoxynojirimycin Inhibits Growth, Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factors Expression of Staphylococcus aureus.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(6): pii:antibiotics9060362.

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of hospital- and community-associated bacterial infections throughout the world, which are difficult to treat due to the rising number of drug-resistant strains. New molecules displaying potent activity against this bacterium are urgently needed. In this study, d- and l-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and a small library of their N-alkyl derivatives were screened against S. aureus ATCC 29213, with the aim to identify novel candidates with inhibitory potential. Among them, N-nonyloxypentyl-l-DNJ (l-NPDNJ) proved to be the most active compound against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and its clinical isolates, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 128 μg/mL. l-NPDNJ also displayed an additive effect with gentamicin and oxacillin against the gentamicin- and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate 00717. Sub-MIC values of l-NPDNJ affected S. aureus biofilm development in a dose-dependent manner, inducing a strong reduction in biofilm biomass. Moreover, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that l-NPDNJ effectively inhibited at sub-MIC values the transcription of the spa, hla, hlb and sea virulence genes, as well as the agrA and saeR response regulator genes.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Locke L, Shankaran K, Gong L, et al (2020)

Evaluation of peptide-based probes towards in vivo diagnostic imaging of bacterial biofilm-associated infections.

ACS infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

The clinical management of bacterial biofilm infections represents an enormous challenge in today's healthcare setting. The NIH estimates that 65% of bacterial infections are biofilm related and therapeutic outcomes are positively correlated with early intervention. Currently, there is no reliable imaging technique to detect biofilm infections in vivo and current clinical protocols for accurate and direct biofilm identification are non-existent. In orthopedic implant-associated biofilm infections, for example, current detection methods are based on non-specific X-ray or radiolabeled white blood cell imaging, coupled with peri-prosthetic tissue or fluid samples taken invasively and must be cultured. This approach is time consuming and often fails to detect biofilm bacteria due to sampling errors and lack of sensitivity. The ability to quantify bacterial biofilms by real-time, non-invasive imaging is an urgent, unmet clinical need that would revolutionize the management and treatment of these devastating types of infections. In the present study, we assembled a collection of fluorescently labeled peptide candidates to specifically explore their biofilm targeting properties. We evaluated these fluorescently labeled peptides using various in vitro assays for their ability to specifically and non-destructively target biofilms produced by the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lead candidate that emerged, 4Iphf-HN17, demonstrated rapid biofilm labeling kinetics, a lack of bactericidal activity, and biofilm targeting specificity in human cell infection models. In vivo, fluorescently labeled 4Iphf-HN17 showed enhanced accumulation in biofilm-infected wounds, thus warranting further study.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Ohn HM, Mizuno T, Sudo Y, et al (2020)

Interaction of Escherichia coli and its culture supernatant with Vibrio vulnificus during biofilm formation.

Microbiology and immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Vibrio vulnificus is a foodborne pathogen causing septicemia with high mortality rate. In this study, we explored how Escherichia coli, one of the commensal bacteria in human gastrointestinal tract, can interact with V. vulnificus. Our study showed that, the amount of biofilm produced by V. vulnificus was reduced in the presence of E. coli ATCC 35218, although the growth of V. vulnificus L-180 remains unaffected. We also detected antibiofilm effect of E. coli culture supernatant against V. vulnificus. But this effect could not be reduced even after heat treatment. These findings indicate that E. coli and its culture supernatant may be suitable to prevent the biofilm formation by V. vulnificus. On the other hand, V. vulnificus living cells could reduce the amount of preformed E. coli biofilm, however, its culture supernatant could not. This suggests that the cell-associated factors contribute towards reduction in the E. coli biofilm. Therefore, we speculate that ingestion of infectious dose of V. vulnificus might induce dislodging of the commensal bacteria from the intestinal epithelia and thus can colonize to initiate the infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Marmont LS, Whitfield GB, Pfoh R, et al (2020)

PelX is a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4-epimerase involved in Pel polysaccharide-dependent biofilm formation.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:RA120.014555 [Epub ahead of print].

Pel is an N-acetylgalactosamine-rich bacterial polysaccharide that contributes to the structure and function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The pelABCDEFG operon is highly conserved among diverse bacterial species, and Pel may therefore be a widespread biofilm determinant. Previous annotation of pel gene clusters has helped us identify an additional gene, pelX, that is present adjacent to pelABCDEFG in >100 different bacterial species. The pelX gene is predicted to encode a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, but its potential role in Pel-dependent biofilm formation is unknown. Herein, we have used Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 as a model to elucidate PelX function as P. aeruginosa lacks a pelX homologue in its pel gene cluster. We found that P. protegens forms Pel-dependent biofilms; however, despite expression of pelX under these conditions, biofilm formation was unaffected in a ΔpelX strain. This observation led us to identify a pelX paralog, PFL_5533, which we designate here PgnE, that appears to be functionally redundant to pelX In line with this, a ΔpelX ΔpgnE double mutant was substantially impaired in its ability to form Pel-dependent biofilms. To understand the molecular basis for this observation, we determined the structure of PelX to 2.1 Å resolution. The structure revealed that PelX resembles UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) C4-epimerases. Using 1H NMR analysis, we show that PelX catalyzes the epimerization between UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc. Our results indicate that Pel-dependent biofilm formation requires a UDP-GlcNAc C4-epimerase that generates the UDP-GalNAc precursors required by the Pel synthase machinery for polymer production.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Thorarinsdottir HR, Kander T, Holmberg A, et al (2020)

Biofilm formation on three different endotracheal tubes: a prospective clinical trial.

Critical care (London, England), 24(1):382 pii:10.1186/s13054-020-03092-1.

BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation on endotracheal tubes (ETTs) is an early and frequent event in mechanically ventilated patients. The biofilm is believed to act as a reservoir for infecting microorganisms and thereby contribute to development and relapses of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Once a biofilm has formed on an ETT surface, it is difficult to eradicate. This clinical study aimed to compare biofilm formation on three widely used ETTs with different surface properties and to explore factors potentially predictive of biofilm formation.

METHODS: We compared the grade of biofilm formation on ETTs made of uncoated polyvinyl chloride (PVC), silicone-coated PVC, and PVC coated with noble metals after > 24 h of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. The comparison was based on scanning electron microscopy of ETT surfaces, biofilm grading, surveillance and biofilm cultures, and occurrence of VAP.

RESULTS: High-grade (score ≥ 7) biofilm formation on the ETTs was associated with development of VAP (OR 4.17 [95% CI 1.14-15.3], p = 0.031). Compared to uncoated PVC ETTs, the silicone-coated and noble-metal-coated PVC ETTs were independently associated with reduced high-grade biofilm formation (OR 0.18 [95% CI 0.06-0.59], p = 0.005, and OR 0.34 [95% CI 0.13-0.93], p = 0.036, respectively). No significant difference was observed between silicon-coated ETTs and noble-metal-coated ETTs (OR 0.54 [95% CI 0.17-1.65], p = 0.278). In 60% of the oropharyngeal cultures and 58% of the endotracheal cultures collected at intubation, the same microorganism was found in the ETT biofilm at extubation. In patients who developed VAP, the causative microbe remained in the biofilm in 56% of cases, despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. High-grade biofilm formation on ETTs was not predicted by either colonization with common VAP pathogens in surveillance cultures or duration of invasive ventilation.

CONCLUSION: High-grade biofilm formation on ETTs was associated with development of VAP. Compared to the uncoated PVC ETTs, the silicone-coated and noble-metal-coated PVC ETTs were independently associated with reduced high-grade biofilm formation. Further research on methods to prevent, monitor, and manage biofilm occurrence is needed.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02284438 . Retrospectively registered on 21 October 2014.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Loimaranta V, Mazurel D, Deng D, et al (2020)

Xylitol and erythritol inhibit real-time biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):184 pii:10.1186/s12866-020-01867-8.

BACKGROUND: Regular consumption of xylitol decreases the number of cariogenic streptococci in dental plaque. In vitro biofilm models to study the mechanism of xylitol action have been set-up, but the obtained results are contradictory. Biofilm growth is a dynamic process with time-specific characteristics that may remain undetected in conventional end-point biofilm tests. In this study we used an impedance spectroscopy instrument, xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analyzer (RTCA), that allows label-free, non-invasive real-time monitoring of biofilm formation, to explore effects of xylitol on biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Based on the obtained information of biofilm dynamics, we assessed the number of viable bacteria, the polysaccharide content, and the expression levels of selected genes involved in glucan-mediated biofilm formation in different biofilm stages. Xylitol inhibition was compared with that of erythritol; another polyol suggested to have a positive impact on oral health.

RESULTS: Our results showed that real-time monitoring provided new information of polyol-induced changes in S. mutans biofilm formation dynamics. The inhibitory effect of polyols was more pronounced in the early stages of biofilm formation but affected also the measured total amount of formed biofilm. Effects seen in the real-time biofilm assay were only partially explained by changes in CFU values and polysaccharide amounts in the biofilms. Both xylitol and erythritol inhibited real-time biofilm formation by all the nine tested S. mutans strains. Sensitivity of the strains to inhibition varied: some were more sensitive to xylitol and some to erythritol. Xylitol also modified the expression levels of gbpB, gtfB, gtfC and gtfD genes that are important in polysaccharide-mediated adherence of S. mutans.

CONCLUSION: The erythritol- and xylitol- induced inhibition of biofilm formation was only partly explained by decrease in the number of viable S. mutans cells or the amount of polysaccharides in the biofilm matrix, suggesting that in addition to reduced proliferation also the matrix composition and thereby the surface attachment quality of biofilm matrix may be altered by the polyols.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Katongole P, Nalubega F, Florence NC, et al (2020)

Biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence genes of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from clinical isolates in Uganda.

BMC infectious diseases, 20(1):453 pii:10.1186/s12879-020-05186-1.

INTRODUCTION: Uropathogenic E. coli is the leading cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs), contributing to 80-90% of all community-acquired and 30-50% of all hospital-acquired UTIs. Biofilm forming Uropathogenic E. coli are associated with persistent and chronic inflammation leading to complicated and or recurrent UTIs. Biofilms provide an environment for poor antibiotic penetration and horizontal transfer of virulence genes which favors the development of Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). Understanding biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance determinants of Uropathogenic E. coli strains will provide insight into the development of treatment options for biofilm-associated UTIs. The aim of this study was to determine the biofilm forming capability, presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Uropathogenic E. coli isolates in Uganda.

METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried in the Clinical Microbiology and Molecular biology laboratories at the Department of Medical Microbiology, Makerere University College of Health Sciences. We randomly selected 200 Uropathogenic E. coli clinical isolates among the stored isolates collected between January 2018 and December 2018 that had significant bacteriuria (> 105 CFU). All isolates were subjected to biofilm detection using the Congo Red Agar method and Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby disk diffusion method. The isolates were later subjected PCR for the detection of Urovirulence genes namely; Pap, Fim, Sfa, Afa, Hly and Cnf, using commercially designed primers.

RESULTS: In this study, 62.5% (125/200) were positive biofilm formers and 78% (156/200) of these were multi-drug resistant (MDR). The isolates were most resistant to Trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole and Amoxicillin (93%) followed by gentamycin (87%) and the least was imipenem (0.5%). Fim was the most prevalent Urovirulence gene (53.5%) followed by Pap (21%), Sfa (13%), Afa (8%), Cnf (5.5%) and Hyl (0%).

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a high prevalence of biofilm-forming Uropathogenic E. coli strains that are highly associated with the MDR phenotype. We recommend routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation to understand the antibiotics suitable in the management of biofilm-associated UTIs.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Balaure PC, AM Grumezescu (2020)

Recent Advances in Surface Nanoengineering for Biofilm Prevention and Control. Part I: Molecular Basis of Biofilm Recalcitrance. Passive Anti-Biofouling Nanocoatings.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(6): pii:nano10061230.

Medical device-associated infections are becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, prompting researchers to find new, more effective ways to control the bacterial colonisation of surfaces and biofilm development. Bacteria in biofilms exhibit a set of "emergent properties", meaning those properties that are not predictable from the study of free-living bacterial cells. The social coordinated behaviour in the biofilm lifestyle involves intricate signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms underlying the gain in resistance and tolerance (recalcitrance) towards antimicrobial agents as compared to free-floating bacteria. Nanotechnology provides powerful tools to disrupt the processes responsible for recalcitrance development in all stages of the biofilm life cycle. The present paper is a state-of-the-art review of the surface nanoengineering strategies currently used to design antibiofilm coatings. The review is structurally organised in two parts according to the targeted biofilm life cycle stages and molecular mechanisms intervening in recalcitrance development. Therefore, in the present first part, we begin with a presentation of the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms responsible for increased recalcitrance that have to be disrupted. Further, we deal with passive surface nanoengineering strategies that aim to prevent bacterial cells from settling onto a biotic or abiotic surface. Both "fouling-resistant" and "fouling release" strategies are addressed as well as their synergic combination in a single unique nanoplatform.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Hathroubi S, Zerebinski J, Clarke A, et al (2020)

Helicobacter pylori Biofilm Confers Antibiotic Tolerance in Part via A Protein-Dependent Mechanism.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(6): pii:antibiotics9060355.

Helicobacter pylori, a WHO class I carcinogen, is one of the most successful human pathogens colonizing the stomach of over 4.4 billion of the world's population. Antibiotic therapy represents the best solution but poor response rates have hampered the elimination of H. pylori. A growing body of evidence suggests that H. pylori forms biofilms, but the role of this growth mode in infection remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that H. pylori cells within a biofilm are tolerant to multiple antibiotics in a manner that depends partially on extracellular proteins. Biofilm-forming cells were tolerant to multiple antibiotics that target distinct pathways, including amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, this tolerance was significantly dampened following proteinase K treatment. These data suggest that H. pylori adapts its phenotype during biofilm growth resulting in decreased antibiotic susceptibility but this tolerance can be partially ameliorated by extracellular protease treatment.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Li C, Gu Z, Zhu S, et al (2020)

17β-Estradiol removal routes by moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) under various C/N ratios.

The Science of the total environment, 741:140381 pii:S0048-9697(20)33903-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This study evaluated the contribution of biotic and abiotic routes to the 17β-estradiol (E2) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs), and uncovered the interrelation between the E2 removal routes and biofilm characteristics, which was not researched in previous literature. Three MBBRs with different C/N ratios (0 for C/N0; 2 for C/N2; and 5 for C/N5) were operated in continuous mode. A 65-day degradation demonstrated that the MBBRs had high potential to remove E2 regardless of the C/N (E2 removal greater than 99% for all MBBRs; P > 0.05). Further batch tests showed that the E2 removal mainly resulted from heterotrophic activities for all MBBRs, accounting for approximately 85% for all MBBRs (P > 0.05), followed by nitrification (10-11%) and adsorption (4-5%). Importantly, lower adhesive force likely led to higher E2 adsorption onto biofilms. Besides, enhanced ammonia oxidizing rate (AOR) was consistent with the high contribution of nitrification to the E2 attenuation. Importantly, heterotrophic activity was positively correlated with its contribution to E2 removal (r = 0.99, P < 0.05). To sum, the results obtained in this study helped to understand the E2 removal routes in nitrifying biofilm systems.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Tang K, Ooi GTH, Torresi E, et al (2020)

Municipal wastewater treatment targeting pharmaceuticals by a pilot-scale hybrid attached biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™).

Chemosphere, 259:127397 pii:S0045-6535(20)31591-5 [Epub ahead of print].

A hybrid wastewater treatment process with combined attached biofilm (moving bed biofilm reactor) and activated sludge, named as Hybas™, was implemented for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The system consisted of six staged reactors in series including pre-denitrification and nitrification in the Hybas™ line and post-denitrification in a pure MBBR. In addition to the significant removal of nutrients and organic matter from municipal wastewater, Hybas™ also showed removal capacity for pharmaceuticals. Of particular interest was the enhanced removal for pharmaceuticals (i.e. X-ray contrast media) compared to other biological systems. Spiking experiments showed that the maximum removal rate constants (k, h-1) for 10 out of the 21 investigated pharmaceuticals (including diclofenac) were observed to occur within the two aerobic Hybas ™ reactors, operated in a flow-shifting mode that allows even biofilm growth of nitrifying bacteria. In total, 14 out of the 21 pharmaceuticals were removed by more than 50% during continuous flow operation in the all Hybas™ line and post-denitrification MBBR. The calculated and estimated removal contributions of pharmaceuticals by each individual reactor were also assessed.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Ismail NS, Subbiah SK, NM Taib (2020)

Application of Phenotype Microarray for Profiling Carbon Sources Utilization between Biofilm and Non-Biofilm of Clinical Isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology pii:CPB-EPUB-107768 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa a gram-negative bacterium with high versatility that can undergo aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Capabilities in deploying different carbon sources, energy metabolism, and regulatory system, ensure the survival of this microorganism in the diverse environmental conditions. Determination of differences in carbon sources utilization among biofilm and non-biofilm of P. aeruginosa provides a platform in understanding the metabolic activities of the microorganism. Three archived clinical isolates of strong, moderate, and non-biofilm producers were identified. ATCC 27853 P. aeruginosa was used as a negative control or non-biofilm producing microorganism. Biofilm formation of ATCC 27853 P. aeruginosa was confirmed by crystal violet assay (CVA) and Congo red agar (CRA). Metabolic profiles of the biofilm and non-biofilms isolates were determined by phenotype microarrays (Biolog Omnilog). In this study, the biofilm isolates utilized uridine, threonine, and serine while non-biofilm isolates utilized adenosine, inosine, monomethyl, sorbic acid, and succinamic acid. Sugar utilization was seen between the isolates adhering that biofilm P. aeruginosa preferred glucoside, galactoside, glucuronide, glucosaminide, mannoside, and galactosaminide, but it was not utilized by the non-biofilm. The outcome of this result can be used for future studies to improve detection or inhibition of the growth of clinical P. aeruginosa biofilm and non-biofilm, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Pettersson S, Ahnoff M, Edin F, et al (2020)

A Hydrogel Drink With High Fructose Content Generates Higher Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation and Lower Dental Biofilm pH Compared to Two Other, Commercially Available, Carbohydrate Sports Drinks.

Frontiers in nutrition, 7:88.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the substrate oxidation of three commercially available, 14%-carbohydrate sports drinks with different compositions, osmolality, and pH for their impact on dental exposure to low pH. In a cross-over, randomized double-blinded design, 12 endurance athletes (age 31. 2 ± 7.7 years, V ˙ O2max 65.6 ± 5.0 mL·kg-1) completed 180 min of cycling at 55% Wmax. During the first 100 min of cycling, athletes consumed amylopectin starch (AP), maltodextrin+sucrose (MD+SUC), or maltodextrin+fructose hydrogel (MD+FRU) drinks providing 95 g carbohydrate·h-1, followed by water intake only at 120 and 160 min. Fuel use was determined using indirect calorimetry and stable-isotope techniques. Additionally, dental biofilm pH was measured using the microtouch method in a subsample of participants (n = 6) during resting conditions before, and at different time intervals up to 45 min following a single bolus of drink. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) during the 2nd hour of exercise was significantly (P < 0.05) different between all three drinks: MD+FRU (1.17 ± 0.17 g·min-1), MD+SUC (1.01 ± 0.13 g·min-1), and AP (0.84 ± 0.11 g·min-1). At the end of exercise, CHOEXO and blood glucose concentrations (3.54 ± 0.50, 4.07 ± 0.67, and 4.28 ± 0.47 mmol·L-1, respectively) were significantly lower post MD+FRU consumption than post MD+SUC and AP consumption (P < 0.05). Biofilm acidogenicity at rest demonstrated a less pronounced pH fall for MD+FRU compared to the acidulant-containing MD+SUC and AP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, while total intake of MD+FRU showed signs of completed uptake before end of monitoring, this was less so for MD+SUC, and not at all the case for AP. Thus, this study showed that despite carbohydrates being encapsulated in a hydrogel, a higher CHOEXO was observed following MD+FRU drink ingestion compared to AP and MD+SUC consumption upon exposure to the acidic environment of the stomach. This finding may be related to the higher fructose content of the MD+FRU drink compared with the MD+SUC and AP drinks. Furthermore, a carbohydrate solution without added acidulants, which are commonly included in commercial sport drinks, may have less deleterious effects on oral health.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Hu D, Zou L, Yu W, et al (2020)

Relief of Biofilm Hypoxia Using an Oxygen Nanocarrier: A New Paradigm for Enhanced Antibiotic Therapy.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany), 7(12):2000398.

Biofilms are chief culprits of most intractable infections and pose great threats to human health. Conventional antibiotic therapies are hypodynamic to biofilms due to their strong drug resistance, closely related with biofilm hypoxia. A new strategy for enhanced antibiotic therapy by relieving biofilm hypoxia is reported here. A two-step sequential delivery strategy is fabricated using perfluorohexane (PFH)-loaded liposomes (lip) as oxygen (O2) carriers (denoted as lip@PFH@O2) and commercial antibiotics. The results indicate that the two-step sequential treatment exhibits much lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than the antibiotic treatment alone. In this design, the lip@PFH@O2 holds positively charged surface for better biofilm penetration. After penetrating into biofilm, oxygen can be released from lip@PFH@O2 by inches, which greatly relieves biofilm hypoxia. With the relief of hypoxia, the quorum sensing and the drug efflux pumps of bacteria are suppressed by restraining related gene expression, leading to the reduced antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, the in vivo experimental results also demonstrate that lip@PFH@O2 can effectively relieve biofilm hypoxia and enhance therapeutic efficacy of antibiotics. As a proof-of-concept, this research provides an innovative strategy for enhanced antibiotic therapy by relieving hypoxia, which may hold a bright future in combating biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Hakimi Alni R, Ghorban K, M Dadmanesh (2020)

Combined effects of Allium sativum and Cuminum cyminum essential oils on planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella typhimurium isolates.

3 Biotech, 10(7):315.

Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) represents an important global public health problem and has the ability to survive under desiccation conditions in foods and food processing facilities for years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Allium sativum (A. sativum) and Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) essential oils (EOs) against planktonic growth, biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS) of S. Typhimurium isolates, the strong biofilm producers. The major components of EOs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Biofilm formation of S. Typhimurium isolates was measured by crystal violet staining. Then, the effects of the EOs on the planktonic cell growth (using determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)), measurement of the synergistic effects of EOs (using checkerboard method), biofilm formation (using microtiter-plate test and scanning electron microscope (SEM)), and expression of QS and cellulose synthesis genes (using quantitative real-time PCR) were assessed. Finally, tetrazolium-based colorimetric (MTT) assay was used to examine EOs cytotoxicity on the Vero cell line. GC-MS analysis showed that terpineol, carene and pinene in C. cyminum EO and sulfur compounds in A. sativum EO were the major components of the plant extract. The Geometric mean of MIC values of the A. sativum and C. cyminum were 0.66 and 2.62 μL mL-1, respectively. The geometric means of the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICi) for both EOs were calculated as 1.05. The qPCR results showed that MIC/2 concentrations of both EOs significantly down-regulated of QS (sdiA and luxS) and cellulose synthesis (csgD and adrA) genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed the EOs reduced the amount of S. Typhimurium mature biofilm. In general, we showed that C. cyminum and A. sativum EOs can be considered as the potential agents against planktonic and biofilm form of S. Typhimurium without any concern of cytotoxic effect at 4 MIC concentrations on the eukaryotic Vero cells.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Cui P, Feng L, Zhang L, et al (2020)

Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Genes, and Biofilm Formation Capacity Among Enterococcus species From Yaks in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1250.

Yaks provide necessities such as meat and milk for Tibetans living at high altitudes on and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Enterococci are ubiquitous members of the animal gut microbiota that can cause biofilm-associated opportunistic infections. Meanwhile, multidrug-resistant Enterococcus also poses a serious threat to public health. This study aims to characterize antibiotic resistance, virulence genes, and biofilm formation of enterococci from yaks. From April 2018 to July 2019, we collected 395 fecal samples of yaks in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China. Enterococci isolated from the samples were identified and classified according to the 16S rDNA sequence. The antibiotic resistance of each isolate was detected according to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Enterococcal biofilms were assessed using standard procedures. Different virulence genes were detected by PCR and sequencing. In total, 381 enterococci strains were recovered, with Enterococcus faecalis (41.99%) and Enterococcus faecium (37.80%) being the predominant species. Many isolates were multidrug- resistant (60.37%) and showed a high resistance rate to rifampicin (64.30%) and tetracycline (61.54%). We also detected various antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in the tested strains. The E. faecalis strains had higher frequency of biofilm formation and virulence genes than other enterococcal species. This is the first report that shows yaks are repositories for drug-resistant enterococci with virulent determinants and biofilms that may spread into humans and to environment. This study also provides useful data suggesting that enterococci may pose a potential health risk to yaks. Therefore, active surveillance of AMR and pathogenesis in enterococci from yaks is urgently warranted.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Cherdvorapong V, Panti N, Suyotha W, et al (2020)

Prevention of oral biofilm formation and degradation of biofilm by recombinant α-1,3-glucanases from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3.

The Journal of general and applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The genes encoding α-1,3-glucanases (Agls; AglST1 and AglST2) from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3 were cloned and were then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B (DE3). We purified the resultant histidine (His)-tagged α-1,3-glucanases (recombinant enzymes, rAglST1 and rAglST2). Both the recombinant enzymes were similar to the wild-type enzymes. We examined the effects of rAglST1 and rAglST2 on the formation and degradation of biofilms on glass plates with Streptococcus mutans NRBC 13955 by evaluating the biofilm content (%), release of reducing sugar (mM), release of S. mutans (log CFU/mL), and the biofilm structure using laser scanning microscopy (LSM). The results showed that after incubation for 16 h, rAglST1 and rAglST2 reduced the formation of biofilm to 52% and 49% of the control, respectively. The result may reflect the fact that the concentration of the reducing sugar and the number of S. mutans cells in the rAglATs-added medium were higher than in the control medium. After an 8-h treatment with rAglST1 and rAglST2, biofilms decreased to less than 60% of the control. The number of S. mutans cells in the reaction mixture gradually increased during the incubation period. The enzymes can degrade the biofilms that were pre-formed on the glass plate by more than 50% after a 30-min incubation in the presence of toothpaste ingredients (1% w/v of sodium fluoride, benzethonium chloride, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) at 50°C. Our study showed that rAglST1 and rAglST2 have advantageous properties for dental care applications.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Huang C, Liu LZ, Kong HK, et al (2020)

A novel incompatibility group X3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-1 encodes a small RNA that regulates host fucose metabolism and biofilm formation.

RNA biology [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) has become a major health threat to clinical managements of gram-negative bacteria infections. A novel incompatibility group X3 plasmid (IncX3) pNDM-HN380 carrying blaNDM-1 has recently been found to epidemiologically link with multiple geographical areas in China. In this paper, we studied the metabolic responses of host bacteria E. coli J53 upon introduction of pNDM-HN380. A reduction of bacterial motility was observed in J53/pNDM-HN380. We profiled the RNA repertoires of the transconjugants and found a downregulation of genes involved in flagella and chemotaxis metabolic pathways at logarithmic (log) phase. We also identified a novel intragenic region (IGR) small RNA plas2. The plasmid-transcribed sRNA IGR plas2 was further characterized as a regulator of fucRwhich controls the fucose metabolism. By knockdown of IGR plas2 using an antisense decoy, we managed to inhibit the formation of bacterial biofilm of the host. Our study demonstrated a potential way of utilizing plasmid-transcribed sRNA against infectious bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-06-28

Zeng M, Yang J, Wu Z, et al (2020)

Achieving single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal by composite membrane aerated biofilm with gel under two microbial entrapping patterns: experimental and modeling aspects.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-020-09660-w [Epub ahead of print].

Single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal offers advantages of low energy and carbon consumptions. Based on previous work about a novel composite membrane aerated biofilm (CMAB), two microbial entrapping patterns (mixed and stratified patterns) were evaluated for their applicability to artificially regulate the spatial distribution of distinct microbial aggregates for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal. Experimental results showed that the stratified pattern caused little accumulation of NO2- and NO3-, which leads to a superior nitrogen removal performance compared with the mixed pattern. Candidatus Kuenenia was found to be the major anammox bacterium in the gel film of the mixed pattern and the outer film of the stratified pattern. In contrast, Nitrosomonas, as a representative genus of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, was substantially enriched in the inner film of the stratified pattern and the gel film of the mixed pattern. Finally, modeling results further confirmed the advantages of the stratified pattern with respect to the formation of rational microbial and nutrient profiles in gel films. The ratio of partial nitrification and anammox film thicknesses should remain below 3:2 to obtain a high fraction of anammox bacteria and to avoid NO2- accumulation. Increasing O2 surface loading does not affect microbial profiles, but can greatly promote the TN removal performance only in the stratified pattern. Overall, the stratified pattern should be employed to achieve optimal microbial profiles and nitrogen removal efficiency.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Gao L, Han F, Zhang X, et al (2020)

Simultaneous nitrate and dissolved organic matter removal from wastewater treatment plant effluent in a solid-phase denitrification biofilm reactor.

Bioresource technology, 314:123714 pii:S0960-8524(20)30986-X [Epub ahead of print].

In the present study, an up-flow solid-phase denitrification biofilm reactor (US-DBR) was established for simultaneous nitrate and dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal from wastewater treatment plant effluent. After 100 days operation, the nitrate and COD removal efficiencies were high of 97% and 80%, respectively. According to EEM-FRI analysis, aromatic and tryptophan protein-like, humic-like and fulvic acid-like substances were identified in DOM. Additionally, protein-like substances in DOM components were much easier transformed as carbon source for denitrification. Moreover, protein secondary structure of DOM changed significantly due to the biodegradation and microorganisms metabolic process. High-throughput sequencing analysis implied that Simplicispira, Diaphorobacter, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudoxanthmonas and Stenotrophomonas were the dominate genera in the whole of US-DBR, that were responsible for the removal of nitrate, organics and degradation of solid carbon source, respectively. This study provided a further biological basis about practical application of solid-phase denitrification for simultaneously remove nitrate and organic matter.

RevDate: 2020-06-28

Sorkhdini P, Gregory RL, Crystal YO, et al (2020)

Effectiveness of In Vitro Primary Coronal Caries Prevention with Silver Diamine Fluoride - chemical vs biofilm models.

Journal of dentistry pii:S0300-5712(20)30164-0 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The main goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of SDF and its individual components, silver (Ag+) and fluoride (F-) ions, in preventing enamel demineralization using biofilm and chemical models.

METHODES: Polished human enamel specimens were assigned to five treatment groups (n = 18 per group): SDF (38%); SDF followed by application of a saturated solution of potassium iodide (SDF + KI); silver nitrate (AgNO3; silver control, 253,900 ppm Ag+); potassium fluoride (KF; fluoride control, 44,800 ppm F); deionized water (DIW). Treatments were applied once to sound enamel. In the biofilm model, specimens were demineralized by aerobic overnight incubation using cariogenic bacteria isolated from human saliva in brain heart infusion supplemented with 0.2% sucrose for three days. In the chemical model, enamel specimens were immersed in a demineralizing solution containing 0.1 M lactic acid, 4.1 mM CaCl2, 8.0 mM KH2PO4, 0.2% Carbopol 907, pH adjusted to 5.0 for five days. Vickers surface microhardness was used to determine the extent of enamel demineralization. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

RESULTS: In the chemical model, there was no statistically significant difference between SDF and SDF + KI in preventing coronal caries (p < 0.0001). In the biofilm model, SDF + KI was significantly less effective in preventing demineralization than SDF (p < 0.0001). In both models, SDF and SDF + KI were superior in their ability to prevent caries lesion formation than AgNO3 and DIW.

CONCLUSION: KI application after SDF treatment appears to impair SDF's ability to prevent biofilm-mediated but not chemically induced demineralization.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: SDF may be a viable option in preventing primary coronal caries.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Xiang Y, Shao Z, Chai H, et al (2020)

Functional microorganisms and enzymes related nitrogen cycle in the biofilm performing simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

Bioresource technology, 314:123697 pii:S0960-8524(20)30969-X [Epub ahead of print].

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) is a potential energy-saving process in wastewater treatment while the nitrogen removal mechanism is still unclear due to the lack of information about the functional microbes and enzymes. Sequencing batch biofilm reactors were implemented to achieve efficient SND. Eight nitrogen removal related microorganisms out of the top abundant 20 microbial community and reference species were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Functional enzymes and modules analysis were investigated to reveal the SND pathway: in the aerobic part of the biofilm, ammonia oxidation was catalyzed by complete ammonia oxidizers while in the inner anoxic part, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction (DNRA) and nitrogen fixation (NF) cooperated to stimulate nitrate removal. These results provide a practical aeration control strategy to achieve SND and indicate that DNRA and NF are important nitrogen removal pathways that should not be ignored in the SND mechanism.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Kato K, Tamura K, Y Shimazaki (2020)

Oral biofilm uptake of mineral ions released from experimental toothpaste containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler.

Archives of oral biology, 117:104777 pii:S0003-9969(20)30155-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the fluoride/mineral kinetics in an oral biofilm following concurrent application of fluoride and other mineral ions released from experimental toothpaste containing S-PRG filler using depth-specific analysis.

STUDY DESIGN: Twenty subjects wore in situ plaque-generating devices, comprised of a pair of enamel slabs, and a biofilm was allowed to form. The devices were removed after three days, immersed in the toothpaste filtrate containing Al, B, Sr and F ions for 1 min, and then reinserted at the same location. After 30 min, the devices were removed and samples were obtained by sectioning into outer, middle and inner biofilm layers (300-μm thick). Samples treated with filtrate containing F without S-PRG filler extract served as the control. Fluoride and the three other mineral ions extracted from 4-μm sections were quantified using a fluoride electrode and ICP-AES, respectively. The results were corrected for biomass volume, estimated by the area measurement of stained 2-μm sections.

RESULTS: The mean uptake ratios (S-PRG/control, ng/mm3) of Al, B, Sr and F were 186.6/53.7, 58.4/25.0, 456.9/125.7 and 43.6/12.0, respectively, in the outer layer, indicating that the mineral ions could easily diffuse into the biofilm. F concentrations in the outer biofilm treated using filtrate with S-PRG filler extract were significantly higher than those in controls, although both biofilms were exposed to filtrates containing the same level of F.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that toothpaste containing S-PRG filler promotes fluoride retention in oral biofilms via the uptake of other mineral ions.

RevDate: 2020-06-27

Braga AS, de Melo Simas LL, Pires JG, et al (2020)

Antibiofilm and anti-caries effects of an experimental mouth rinse containing Matricaria chamomilla L. extract under microcosm biofilm on enamel.

Journal of dentistry pii:S0300-5712(20)30161-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the antibiofilm and anti-caries effects of an experimental mouth rinse containing aqueous extract of Matricaria chamomilla L.

METHODS: Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel, from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2 % sucrose exposure, for 5 days. The biofilm was daily treated using (1 mL/1 min): Vochysia tucanorum Mart. (2.5 mg/mL); Myrcia bella Cambess. (1.25 mg/mL); Matricaria chamomilla L. (20 mg/mL); Malva sylvestris (Malvatricin® Plus-Daudt); 0.12 % Chlorhexidine (PerioGard®-Palmolive, Positive control) and PBS (Negative control). The % dead bacteria, biofilm thickness, EPS biovolume, lactic acid concentration, the CFU counting (total microorganisms, Lactobacillus sp., total streptococci and Streptococcus mutans/S. sobrinus) were determined. Enamel demineralization was measured by TMR.

RESULTS: All mouth rinses induced bacterial death compared to PBS (p < 0.0001). The biofilm thickness varied from 12 ± 2 µm (chlorhexidine) to 18 ± 2 µm (V. tucanorum) (ANOVA/Tukey, p < 0.0001). The EPS biovolume varied from 7(4)% (chlorhexidine) to 30(20)% (PBS) (Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, p < 0.0001). The lactic acid production was reduced by M. sylvestris (1.1 ± 0.2 g/L) and chlorhexidine (0.6 ± 0.2 g/L) compared to PBS (2.6 ± 1.3 g/L) (ANOVA, p < 0.0001). Malva sylvestris and chlorhexidine showed significant low CFU for total microorganisms, Lactobacillus sp. and total streptococci. Only chlorhexidine significantly reduced S. mutans/S. sobrinus. CFUs for total streptococci and Lactobacillus sp, were also significantly reduced by M. chamomilla L. Malva sylvestris (63.4 % of mineral loss reduction), chlorhexidine (47.4 %) and M. chamomilla L. (39.4 %) significantly reduced enamel demineralization compared to PBS (ANOVA/Tukey, p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: M. chamomilla L. has lower antibiofilm action, but comparable anti-caries effect to those found for chlorhexidine, under this model.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study shows that the antibiofilm and anti-caries potential may vary between the commercial and experimental mouth rinses containing natural agents, with promising results for those containing Matricaria chamomilla L. and Malva Sylvestris.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Koşarsoy Ağçeli G, N Cihangir (2020)

Nano-sized biopolymer levan: Its antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and anti-cancer effects.

Carbohydrate research, 494:108068 pii:S0008-6215(20)30214-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Among other polysaccharides, levan is a fructan with great potential in biotechnological applications due to its functional properties. The levan has only been available in small quantities because of its high cost. Here, a levan-producing microorganism was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas mandelii. TGA, SEM, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Zetasizer analyses were used to characterize thermal properties and the morphology of the levan. It is the first time, the levan synthesized from P. mandelii is reported as nano sized. The culture conditions were optimized. It is the most comprehensive optimization study regarding levan production of P. mandelii up to the present. The optimum conditions found for levan production were 37 °C, at pH 8, under static conditions, with 15% sucrose and 1.5% mannitol as the C sources and yeast extract as the N source. In addition, the levan production yield was calculated at optimum conditions. Antibacterial activity of levan was evaluated against bacteria and the largest zone of inhibition was observed against E. coli at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Antibiofilm activity of levan was evaluated, and we found that all levan concentrations inhibited biofilm formation of all microorganisms in the study. We have shown that the levan from Pseudomonas mandelii induce cytotoxicity breast (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Wang S, Breslawec AP, Li C, et al (2020)

A Colorimetric Assay to Enable High-Throughput Identification of Biofilm Exopolysaccharide-Hydrolyzing Enzymes.

Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Glycosidase enzymes that hydrolyze the biofilm exopolysaccharide poly-ß-(1,6)-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) are critical tools to study biofilm and potential therapeutic biofilm dispersal agents. Function-driven metagenomic screening is a powerful approach for discovery of new glycosidase but requires sensitive assays capable of distinguishing between the desired enzyme and functionally related enzymes. Here, we report the synthesis of a colorimetric PNAG disaccharide analog whose hydrolysis by PNAG glycosidases results in production of para-nitroaniline that can be continuously monitored at 410 nm. The assay is specific for enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PNAG and not related ß-hexosaminidase enzymes with alternative glycosidic linkage specificities. This analog enabled development of a continuous colorimetric assay for detection of PNAG hydrolyzing enzyme activity in crude E. coli cell lysates and suggest that this disaccharide probe will be critical for establishing the functional screening of metagenomic DNA libraries.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Kang J, Liu L, Liu Y, et al (2020)

Ferulic Acid Inactivates Shigella flexneri through Cell Membrane Destructieon, Biofilm Retardation, and Altered Gene Expression.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic resistance and capacity for biofilm formation of Shigella flexneri render previous prevention and control strategies minimally effective. Ferulic acid (FA) has been demonstrated to be useful due to its application in foods as an alternative natural preservative. However, information regarding the S. flexneri phenotype and molecular responses to FA exposure is limited. The present study investigated the effects of FA on S. flexneri planktonic growth and biofilm formation. The results demonstrated that the cell membrane of S. flexneri in planktonic growth mode exhibited irreversible destruction after FA exposure, as characterized by decreased cell viability, leakage of cytoplasmic constituents, accelerated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption, cell membrane depolarization, and cellular morphological changes. FA significantly inhibited S. flexneri adhesion and biofilm formation at a working concentration (1/8 MIC) that almost did not inhibit planktonic growth. Transcriptomics profiling showed that the exposure to a subinhibitory concentration of FA dramatically altered gene expression in the S. flexneri biofilm, as a total of 169 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated and 533 DEGs were downregulated, compared to the intact biofilm. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in pathways of ribosomes, ABC transporters, and the citrate cycle. Furthermore, we show that FA altered the transcription of S. flexneri genes associated with adhesion, transcriptional regulation, and the synthesis and transport of extracellular polymeric substances that contribute to biofilm formation. These data provide novel insights into S. flexneri behavioral responses to FA exposure and suggest that FA could effectively constrain S. flexneri and its biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Parlak O, A Richter-Dahlfors (2020)

Bacterial Sensing and Biofilm Monitoring for Infection Diagnostics.

Macromolecular bioscience [Epub ahead of print].

Recent insights into the rapidly emerging field of bacterial sensing and biofilm monitoring for infection diagnostics are discussed as well as recent key developments and emerging technologies in the field. Electrochemical sensing of bacteria and bacterial biofilm via synthetic, natural, and engineered recognition, as well as direct redox-sensing approaches via algorithm-based optical sensing, and tailor-made optotracing technology are discussed. These technologies are highlighted to answer the very critical question: "how can fast and accurate bacterial sensing and biofilm monitoring be achieved? Following on from that: "how can these different sensing concepts be translated for use in infection diagnostics? A central obstacle to this transformation is the absence of direct and fast analysis methods that provide high-throughput results and bio-interfaces that can control and regulate the means of communication between biological and electronic systems. Here, the overall progress made to date in building such translational efforts at the level of an individual bacterial cell to a bacterial community is discussed.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

do Nascimento Dias J, de Souza Silva C, de Araújo AR, et al (2020)

Mechanisms of action of antimicrobial peptides ToAP2 and NDBP-5.7 against Candida albicans planktonic and biofilm cells.

Scientific reports, 10(1):10327.

Candida albicans is a major cause of human infections, ranging from relatively simple to treat skin and mucosal diseases to systemic life-threatening invasive candidiasis. Fungal infections treatment faces three major challenges: the limited number of therapeutic options, the toxicity of the available drugs, and the rise of antifungal resistance. In this study, we demonstrate the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of peptides ToAP2 and NDBP-5.7 against planktonic cells and biofilms of C. albicans. Both peptides were active against C. albicans cells; however, ToAP2 was more active and produced more pronounced effects on fungal cells. Both peptides affected C. albicans membrane permeability and produced changes in fungal cell morphology, such as deformations in the cell wall and disruption of ultracellular organization. Both peptides showed synergism with amphotericin B, while ToAP2 also presents a synergic effect with fluconazole. Besides, ToAP2 (6.25 µM.) was able to inhibit filamentation after 24 h of treatment and was active against both the early phase and mature biofilms of C. albicans. Finally, ToAP2 was protective in a Galleria mellonella model of infection. Altogether these results point to the therapeutic potential of ToAP2 and other antimicrobial peptides in the development of new therapies for C. albicans infections.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Kannappan A, Durgadevi R, Srinivasan R, et al (2020)

2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde from Hemidesmus indicus is antagonistic to Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that accounts for recalcitrant device-related infections worldwide. Owing to the growing interest in plants and their secondary metabolites targeting bacterial adhesion, this study was intended to uncover the anti-biofilm potential of Hemidesmus indicus and its major constituent 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMB) against SE. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of H. indicus root extract and HMB were found to be 500 and 250 µg ml-1, respectively. The results of time-dependent biofilm inhibition and mature biofilm disruption assays confirmed that HMB targets initial cell adhesion. Furthermore, interference by HMB in the expression of adhesin genes (icaA, aap and bhp) and biofilm components was associated with an increased susceptibility of SE to oxidative stress and antibiotics. To conclude, this study reports for the first time HMB as a potential drug against SE biofilms.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Szymczyk-Ziółkowska P, Hoppe V, Rusińska M, et al (2020)

The Impact of EBM-Manufactured Ti6Al4V ELI Alloy Surface Modifications on Cytotoxicity toward Eukaryotic Cells and Microbial Biofilm Formation.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 13(12): pii:ma13122822.

Electron beam melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing technique, which allows forming customized implants that perfectly fit the loss of the anatomical structure of bone. Implantation efficiency depends not only on the implant's functional or mechanical properties but also on its surface properties, which are of great importance with regard to such biological processes as bone regeneration or microbial contamination. This work presents the impact of surface modifications (mechanical polishing, sandblasting, and acid-polishing) of EBM-produced Ti6Al4V ELI implants on essential biological parameters. These include wettability, cytotoxicity toward fibroblast and osteoblast cell line, and ability to form biofilm by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Obtained results indicated that all prepared surfaces exhibited hydrophilic character and the highest changes of wettability were obtained by chemical modification. All implants displayed no cytotoxicity against osteoblast and fibroblast cell lines regardless of the modification type. In turn, the quantitative microbiological tests and visualization of microbial biofilm by means of electron microscopy showed that type of implant's modification correlated with the species-specific ability of microbes to form biofilm on it. Thus, the results of the presented study confirm the relationship between such technological aspects as surface modification and biological properties. The provided data are useful with regard to applications of the EBM technology and present a significant step towards personalized, customized implantology practice.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Dornelas Figueira LM, Ricomini Filho AP, da Silva WJ, et al (2020)

Glucose effect on Candida albicans biofilm during tissue invasion.

Archives of oral biology, 117:104728 pii:S0003-9969(20)30106-0 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of two glucose concentrations (0.1 mM and 1.0 mM, simulating glucose concentration in saliva of healthy and diabetic individuals) on Candida albicans biofilm grown on epithelial monolayer.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: C. albicans was inoculated on epithelial monolayers supplemented with 0.1 mM, 1.0 mM or no glucose. Control groups without C. albicans were also evaluated. Tissue response was assessed through the production of Interleukin-1α, Interleukin-8, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The complex of monolayer and biofilms were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), Caspase-3 (CASP3), β-defensin-1 (DEFB-1) and β-defensin-3 (DEFB-3). The biofilm architecture was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

RESULTS: The production of Interleukin-1α and Interleukin-8 were increased in the presence of C. albicans (p < 0.05). Glucose did not interfere in the release of any cytokine evaluated. C. albicans downregulated transcripts for CDH1 (p < 0.05). Glucose did not induce a significant change in CDH1, CASP3, DEFB-1 and DEFB-3 messenger RNA expression. The biofilms were more structured in the presence of glucose, but no difference in the diffusion of hyphae through the epithelial cells were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that glucose concentration does not affect the behavior of C. albicans during tissue invasion and other mechanisms must be related to the greater susceptibility of diabetic individuals to candidiasis.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Li Y, Liu X, Li B, et al (2020)

Near-Infrared Light Triggered Phototherapy and Immunotherapy for Elimination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Infection on Bone Implant.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Clinically, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm infection inevitably induces the failure of bone implants. Herein, a hydrophilic and viscous hydrogel of poly(vinyl alcohol) modified with chitosan, polydopamine, and NO release donor was formed on a red phosphorus nanofilm deposited on a titanium implant (Ti-RP/PCP/RSNO). Under the irradiation of near-infrared light (NIR), peroxynitrite (•ONOO-) was formed by the reaction between the released NO and superoxide (•O2-) produced by the RP nanofilm. Specifically, we revealed the antibacterial mechanism of the ONOO- against the MRSA biofilm. In addition, osteogenic differentiation was promoted and inflammatory polarization was regulated by the released NO without NIR irradiation through upregulating the expression of Opn and Ocn genes and TNF-α. The MRSA biofilm was synergistically eradicated by •ONOO-, hyperthermia, and •O2- under NIR irradiation as well as the immunoreaction of the M1 polarization. The in vivo results also confirmed the excellent osteogenesis and biofilm eradication by released NO from the RP/PCP/RSNO system under NIR irradiation, indicating the noninvasive tissue reconstruction of MRSA-infected tissues through phototherapy and immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Costa ACBP, Back-Brito GN, Mayer FL, et al (2020)

Candida albicans Mrv8, is involved in epithelial damage and biofilm formation.

FEMS yeast research pii:5862582 [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen that can cause superficial and deep-seated infections in susceptible individuals. Despite its medical importance, the vast majority of C. albicans genes remain of unknown function. Here we report a role for the lineage-specific gene, MRV8, in host pathogen interactions, mycelial microcolony maturation and biofilm formation. In silico analysis indicated that MRV8 encodes a four-pass transmembrane protein unique to the closely related pathogens C. albicans and Candida dubliniensis. Deletion of MRV8 did not affect C. albicans adherence to, or initial invasion into human oral epithelia, but inhibited mycelial development and strongly reduced epithelial damage. mrv8Δ/Δ cells exhibited a media-dependent defect in biofilm formation and mutant biofilm metabolic activity was enhanced by cyclosporin A. mrv8Δ/Δ biofilms were more tolerant to treatment with caspofungin, but not to fluconazole or amphotericin B. Co-stimulation with calcium chloride and calcofluor white rescued biofilm growth in the presence of caspofungin, and this rescue-effect was Mrv8-dependent. Together, our data demonstrate an important role for a lineage-specific gene (MRV8) in C. albicans biofilm formation, drug tolerance and host-pathogen interactions.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Desch A, Freifrau von Maltzahn N, Stumpp N, et al (2020)

Biofilm formation on zirconia and titanium over time - an in vivo model study.

Clinical oral implants research [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate volume, vitality and diversity of biofilms on the abutment materials zirconia and titanium as a function of time using an in vivo model for the biofilm formation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development of biofilms on zirconia and titanium grade 4 test specimens in the human oral cavity over time was analysed. After pretreatment, a total of 96 titanium and 96 zirconia discs were fixed on 12 composite splints, which were worn by 12 volunteers. After 6 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 5 days, biofilms on 48 specimens of each material were analysed with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The microbiota composition on the other 48 test specimens was examined using full-length 16S sequence analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS and R, level of significance was set at 0.05.

RESULTS: CLSM analysis of the biofilms revealed significant changes in volume over time on zirconia and titanium. The material did not significantly influence the volume or live/dead ratio at the individual time points. The composition of the microbiome was influenced by the age of the biofilm, but not by the material of the test specimen. The most frequently found bacteria were Streptococcus spp., followed by Neisseria spp., Rothia spp., Haemophilus spp., Gemella spp. and Abiotrophia spp..

CONCLUSIONS: On both materials, the quantity and diversity of the microbiome increased over time. Apart from a slight difference in Veillonella abundance at one time point, there were no significant differences between zirconia and titanium.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Kallscheuer N, Wiegand S, Boedeker C, et al (2020)

Caulifigura coniformis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Planctomycetaceae isolated from a red biofilm sampled in a hydrothermal area.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek pii:10.1007/s10482-020-01439-w [Epub ahead of print].

Pan44T, a novel strain belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes, was isolated from a red biofilm in a hydrothermal area close to the island Panarea in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, Italy. The strain forms white colonies on solid medium and displays the following characteristics: cell division by budding, formation of rosettes, presence of matrix or fimbriae and long stalks. The cell surface has an interesting and characteristic texture made up of triangles and rectangles, which leads to a pine cone-like morphology of the strain. Strain Pan44T is mesophilic (temperature optimum 26 °C), slightly alkaliphilic (pH optimum 8.0), aerobic and heterotrophic. The strain has a genome size of 6.76 Mb with a G + C content of 63.2%. Phylogenetically, the strain is a member of the family Planctomycetaceae, order Planctomycetales, class Planctomycetia. Our analysis supports delineation of strain Pan44T from all known genera in this family, hence, we propose to assign it to a novel species within a novel genus, for which we propose the name Caulifigura coniformis gen. nov., sp. nov., represented by Pan44T (DSM 29405T = LMG 29788T) as the type strain.

RevDate: 2020-06-27

Kim JH, Ruegger PR, Lebig EG, et al (2020)

High Levels of Oxidative Stress Create a Microenvironment That Significantly Decreases the Diversity of the Microbiota in Diabetic Chronic Wounds and Promotes Biofilm Formation.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:259.

Diabetics chronic wounds are characterized by high levels of oxidative stress (OS) and are often colonized by biofilm-forming bacteria that severely compromise healing and can result in amputation. However, little is known about the role of skin microbiota in wound healing and chronic wound development. We hypothesized that high OS levels lead to chronic wound development by promoting the colonization of biofilm-forming bacteria over commensal/beneficial bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we used our db/db-/- mouse model for chronic wounds where pathogenic biofilms develop naturally after induction of high OS immediately after wounding. We sequenced the bacterial rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of the wound microbiota from wound initiation to fully developed chronic wounds. Indicator species analysis, which considers a species' fidelity and specificity, was used to determine which bacterial species were strongly associated with healing wounds or chronic wounds. We found that healing wounds were colonized by a diverse and dynamic bacterial microbiome that never developed biofilms even though biofilm-forming bacteria were present. Several clinically relevant species that are present in human chronic wounds, such as Cutibacterium acnes, Achromobacter sp., Delftia sp., and Escherichia coli, were highly associated with healing wounds. These bacteria may serve as bioindicators of healing and may actively participate in the processes of wound healing and preventing pathogenic bacteria from colonizing the wound. In contrast, chronic wounds, which had high levels of OS, had low bacterial diversity and were colonized by several clinically relevant, biofilm-forming bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Corynebacterium frankenforstense, and Acinetobacter sp. We observed unique population trends: for example, P. aeruginosa associated with aggressive biofilm development, whereas Staphylococcus xylosus was only present early after injury. These findings show that high levels of OS in the wound significantly altered the bacterial wound microbiome, decreasing diversity and promoting the colonization of bacteria from the skin microbiota to form biofilm. In conclusion, bacteria associated with non-chronic or chronic wounds could function as bioindicators of healing or non-healing (chronicity), respectively. Moreover, a better understanding of bacterial interactions between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria within an evolving chronic wound microbiota may lead to better solutions for chronic wound management.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Yan J, J Xie (2020)

Comparative Proteome Analysis of Shewanella putrefaciens WS13 Mature Biofilm Under Cold Stress.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1225.

Worldwide, Shewanella putrefaciens is the predominant seafood spoilage microorganism during cold storage. This bacterium can attach to biotic/abiotic surfaces to form biofilms which contribute to seafood quality degradation and shelf-life reduction. The mechanism of S. putrefaciens biofilm formation is not yet described. Crystal violet staining in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to study the sequence of events leading to the establishment of a mature biofilm at 4, 15, and 30°C. In addition, the main chemical constituents of the mature biofilm were determined by Raman spectroscopy (RM), whereas, comparative proteomic analysis was used to quantify changes in metabolic pathways and to find out underlying protein determinants. The physical dimensions of the mature biofilm, i.e., biomass, biovolume, and mean thickness, were higher at 4°C when compared to 15 and 30°C. The variations of proteins measured by RM confirmed the importance of proteins during the formation of a mature biofilm. Comparative proteomic analysis showed that siderophore and iron chelate transport proteins were down-regulated during mature biofilm formation. The down-regulated aforementioned proteins are involved in promoting iron storage in response to a higher demand for metabolic energy, whereas, the upregulated proteins of the sulfur relay system, pyrimidine metabolism, and purine metabolism are related to bacterial adaptability. Synthesis of proteins related to cold stress was increased and proteins involved in aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis were up-regulated, whereas, proteins involved in aminopeptidase activity were down-regulated. Proteolysis to scavenge energy was reduced as proteins involved in pyrophosphatase activity were up-regulated. Also extracellular eDNA was found which may play an important role in maintaining the stability of mature S. putrefaciens biofilm structures under cold stress. This work provides a better understanding of the role of proteins in mature biofilms. In addition, the biofilm formation mechanism of a psychrotrophic spoilage bacterial species at low temperature is explored, which may contribute to generating biofilm controlling strategies during seafood preservation and processing.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Trego AC, Galvin E, Sweeney C, et al (2020)

Growth and Break-Up of Methanogenic Granules Suggests Mechanisms for Biofilm and Community Development.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1126.

Methanogenic sludge granules are densely packed, small, spherical biofilms found in anaerobic digesters used to treat industrial wastewaters, where they underpin efficient organic waste conversion and biogas production. Each granule theoretically houses representative microorganisms from all of the trophic groups implicated in the successive and interdependent reactions of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Information on exactly how methanogenic granules develop, and their eventual fate will be important for precision management of environmental biotechnologies. Granules from a full-scale bioreactor were size-separated into small (0.6-1 mm), medium (1-1.4 mm), and large (1.4-1.8 mm) size fractions. Twelve laboratory-scale bioreactors were operated using either small, medium, or large granules, or unfractionated sludge. After >50 days of operation, the granule size distribution in each of the small, medium, and large bioreactor sets had diversified beyond-to both bigger and smaller than-the size fraction used for inoculation. Interestingly, extra-small (XS; <0.6 mm) granules were observed, and retained in all of the bioreactors, suggesting the continuous nature of granulation, and/or the breakage of larger granules into XS bits. Moreover, evidence suggested that even granules with small diameters could break. "New" granules from each emerging size were analyzed by studying community structure based on high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Methanobacterium, Aminobacterium, Propionibacteriaceae, and Desulfovibrio represented the majority of the community in new granules. H2-using, and not acetoclastic, methanogens appeared more important, and were associated with abundant syntrophic bacteria. Multivariate integration (MINT) analyses identified distinct discriminant taxa responsible for shaping the microbial communities in different-sized granules.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Wu X, Zhang S, Li H, et al (2020)

Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans Facilitates Fungal Infiltration and Persister Cell Formation in Vaginal Candidiasis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1117.

Background: Vaginal candidiasis is an important medical condition awaiting more effective treatment. How Candida albicans causes this disease and survives antifungal treatment is not yet fully understood. This study aimed to establish a comprehensive understanding of biofilm-related defensive strategies that C. albicans uses to establish vaginal candidiasis and to survive antifungal treatment.

Methods: A mouse model of vaginal candidiasis was adopted to examine the formation of biotic biofilms on the vaginal epithelium and fungal infiltration by laboratory and clinical strains of C. albicans. Histopathological changes and local inflammation in the vaginal epithelium caused by C. albicans of different biofilm phenotypes were compared. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out for C. albicans grown as planktonic cells, microplate-based abiotic biofilms, and epithelium-based biotic biofilms. Formation of persister cells by C. albicans in different growth modes was also quantified and compared.

Results: C. albicans wild-type reference strains and clinical isolates, but not the biofilm-defective mutants, formed a significant number of biotic biofilms on the vaginal epithelium of mice and infiltrated the epithelium. Biofilm formation and epithelial invasion induced local inflammatory responses and histopathological changes in the vaginal epithelium including neutrophil infiltration and subcorneal microabscesses. Biofilm growth on the vaginal epithelium also led to high resistance to antifungal treatments and promoted the formation of antifungal-tolerant persister cells.

Conclusion: This study comprehensively assessed biofilm-related microbial strategies that C. albicans uses in vaginal candidiasis and provided experimental evidence to support the important role of biofilm formation in the histopathogenesis of vaginal candidiasis and the recalcitrance of the infection to antifungal treatment.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Choo S, Borchert E, Wiese J, et al (2020)

Polaribacter septentrionalilitoris sp. nov., isolated from the biofilm of a stone from the North Sea.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

A new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae was isolated from the biofilm of a stone at Nordstrand, a peninsula at the German North Sea shore. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain ANORD1T was most closely related to the validly described type strains Polaribacter porphyrae LNM-20T (97.0 %) and Polaribacter reichenbachii KMM 6386T (96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and clustered with Polaribacter gangjinensis K17-16T (96.0 %). Strain ANORD1T was determined to be mesophilic, Gram-negative, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30 °C, within a salinity range of 2-7 % sea salt and from pH 7-10. Like other type strains of the genus Polaribacter, ANORD1T was tested negative for flexirubin-type pigments, while carotenoid-type pigments were detected. The DNA G+C content of strain ANORD1T was 30.6 mol%. The sole respiratory quinone detected was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major fatty acids identified were C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 1 ω6c and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. Based on the polyphasic approach, strain ANORD1T represents a novel species in the genus Polaribacter, with the name Polaribacter septentrionalilitoris sp. nov. being proposed. The type strain is ANORD1T (=DSM 110039T=NCIMB 15081T=MTCC 12685T).

RevDate: 2020-06-29
CmpDate: 2020-06-29

Silva AM, Miranda LFB, AraÚjo ASM, et al (2020)

Electric toothbrush for biofilm control in individuals with Down syndrome: a crossover randomized clinical trial.

Brazilian oral research, 34:e057 pii:S1806-83242020000100244.

Poor oral hygiene seems to be the norm in children and teenagers with Down Syndrome (DS). Advances in design and types of toothbrushes may improve biofilm control. This randomized, single-blind, crossover clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of electric toothbrushes regarding mechanical control of biofilm in children and teenagers with DS and their cooperation. Twenty-nine participants with DS, aged 6 to 14 years, used both types of toothbrushes: electric (ET) and manual (MT). The order of use of the different types of toothbrushes was randomly defined, including a 7-day period with each type with 7-day washout period in between. The Turesky-Quigley-Hein biofilm index was used before and after brushing to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Frankl's behavioral scale was used during toothbrushing to assess the participants' cooperation. Paired T-test, Mann Whitney, Chi-square, and Fisher's Exact tests were applied, with a significance level of 5%. The quantity of dental biofilm was significantly reduced after both brushing techniques (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found in total biofilm (ET: 0.73 ± 0.36; MT: 0.73 ± 0.34; p = 0.985) or % biofilm reduction (ET: 72.22%; MT: 70.96%; p = 0.762) after brushing between techniques or in % biofilm reduction between toothbrushes of age groups (6 -9 years, p = 0.919; 10-14 years, p = 0.671). Participants showed similar cooperation level with the two types of toothbrush (p = 1.000). The use of electric or manual toothbrush had no effect on the quantity of dental biofilm removed in children and teenagers with DS, nor did it influence their cooperation during the procedure.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Bulut F, Cumbul A, AS Safak (2020)

An analysis of the histomorphometric and clinical significance of mucosal biofilm in tonsil tissue of the children with a history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis in both the mother and father.

European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery pii:10.1007/s00405-020-06111-7 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to analyse the histomorphometric and clinical features of the mucosal biofilm in tonsil tissue of children with a history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis in both the mother and father.

METHODS: This study enrolled 82 children (between 3 and 14 years of age). These children were divided into two main groups according to the present of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis. Patients in group 1 were divided into four subgroups (A, B, C, D) according to the history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis in mother and/or father. 30 patients in group 1 were underwent tonsillectomy and the 52 patients in control group (2) have not had history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis. To that end, among children with a history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis certain changes in the volume and thickness of mucosal biofilm in tonsil tissue have been exhibited with respect to it is histomorphometric and clinical significance.

RESULTS: The children with a parental history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis in group A, an increase in the thickness and volume of mucosal biofilm samples was detected according to the other subgroups (B, C, D). Parents history of group A patients statistically significant differences were detected with respect to halitosis symptoms, attack age of the first tonsillitis and resistant fever despite antibiotic treatment for children under the age of 3 years.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that children under the age of 3 years of age with a history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis in both the mother and father, halitosis symptoms, attack age of the first tonsillitis and resistant fever despite antibiotic treatment are collectively linked.

RevDate: 2020-06-27

Walsh BJC, Wang J, Edmonds KA, et al (2020)

The Response of Acinetobacter baumannii to Hydrogen Sulfide Reveals Two Independent Persulfide-Sensing Systems and a Connection to Biofilm Regulation.

mBio, 11(3):.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that is the causative agent of several serious infections in humans, including pneumonia, sepsis, and wound and burn infections. A. baumannii is also capable of forming proteinaceous biofilms on both abiotic and epithelial cell surfaces. Here, we investigate the response of A. baumannii toward sodium sulfide (Na2S), known to be associated with some biofilms at oxic/anoxic interfaces. The addition of exogenous inorganic sulfide reveals that A. baumannii encodes two persulfide-sensing transcriptional regulators, a primary σ54-dependent transcriptional activator (FisR), and a secondary system controlled by the persulfide-sensing biofilm growth-associated repressor (BigR), which is only induced by sulfide in a fisR deletion strain. FisR activates an operon encoding a sulfide oxidation/detoxification system similar to that characterized previously in Staphylococcus aureus, while BigR regulates a secondary persulfide dioxygenase (PDO2) as part of yeeE-yedE-pdo2 sulfur detoxification operon, found previously in Serratia spp. Global S-sulfuration (persulfidation) mapping of the soluble proteome reveals 513 persulfidation targets well beyond FisR-regulated genes and includes five transcriptional regulators, most notably the master biofilm regulator BfmR and a poorly characterized catabolite regulatory protein (Crp). Both BfmR and Crp are well known to impact biofilm formation in A. baumannii and other organisms, respectively, suggesting that persulfidation of these regulators may control their activities. The implications of these findings on bacterial sulfide homeostasis, persulfide signaling, and biofilm formation are discussed.IMPORTANCE Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been known as a respiratory poison, recent reports in numerous bacterial pathogens reveal that H2S and more downstream oxidized forms of sulfur collectedly termed reactive sulfur species (RSS) function as antioxidants to combat host efforts to clear the infection. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional and proteomic response of A. baumannii to exogenous sulfide as a model for how this important human pathogen manages sulfide/RSS homeostasis. We show that A. baumannii is unique in that it encodes two independent persulfide sensing and detoxification pathways that govern the speciation of bioactive sulfur in cells. The secondary persulfide sensor, BigR, impacts the expression of biofilm-associated genes; in addition, we identify two other transcriptional regulators known or projected to regulate biofilm formation, BfmR and Crp, as highly persulfidated in sulfide-exposed cells. These findings significantly strengthen the connection between sulfide homeostasis and biofilm formation in an important human pathogen.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Béchon N, Mihajlovic J, Vendrell-Fernández S, et al (2020)

Capsular Polysaccharide Cross-Regulation Modulates Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Biofilm Formation.

mBio, 11(3):.

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is one of the most abundant gut symbiont species, whose contribution to host health through its ability to degrade dietary polysaccharides and mature the immune system is under intense scrutiny. In contrast, adhesion and biofilm formation, which are potentially involved in gut colonization and microbiota structure and stability, have hardly been investigated in this intestinal bacterium. To uncover B. thetaiotaomicron biofilm-related functions, we performed a transposon mutagenesis in the poorly biofilm-forming reference strain VPI-5482 and showed that capsule 4, one of the eight B. thetaiotaomicron capsules, hinders biofilm formation. We then showed that the production of capsules 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 also inhibits biofilm formation and that decreased capsulation of the population correlated with increased biofilm formation, suggesting that capsules could be masking adhesive surface structures. In contrast, we showed that capsule 8 displayed intrinsic adhesive properties. Finally, we demonstrated that BT2934, the wzx homolog of the B. thetaiotaomicron glycosylation locus, competes with capsule production and impacts its adhesion capacity. This study therefore establishes B. thetaiotaomicron capsule regulation as a major determinant of B. thetaiotaomicron biofilm formation, providing new insights into how modulation of different B. thetaiotaomicron surface structures affects in vitro biofilm formation.IMPORTANCE The human gut harbors a complex bacterial community that plays important roles in host health and disease, including nutrient acquisition, maturation of the immune system, and resistance to infections. The capacity to adhere to surfaces and form communities called biofilms is believed to be important for niche colonization and maintenance of gut bacteria. However, little is known about the adhesion capacity of most gut bacteria. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, one of the most abundant bacteria of the normal mammalian intestine. We identified that B. thetaiotaomicron capsules, a group of eight surface-exposed polysaccharidic layers mediating important interactions with the gut environment, are also major determinants of biofilm formation that mask or unmask adhesion factors. Studying how B. thetaiotaomicron regulates its adhesion properties will allow us to better understand the physiology and specific properties of this important gut symbiont within anaerobic biofilms.

RevDate: 2020-06-27

Simmons EL, Bond MC, Koskella B, et al (2020)

Biofilm Structure Promotes Coexistence of Phage-Resistant and Phage-Susceptible Bacteria.

mSystems, 5(3):.

Encounters among bacteria and their viral predators (bacteriophages) are among the most common ecological interactions on Earth. These encounters are likely to occur with regularity inside surface-bound communities that microbes most often occupy in natural environments. Such communities, termed biofilms, are spatially constrained: interactions become limited to near neighbors, diffusion of solutes and particulates can be reduced, and there is pronounced heterogeneity in nutrient access and physiological state. It is appreciated from prior theoretical work that phage-bacteria interactions are fundamentally different in spatially structured contexts, as opposed to well-mixed liquid culture. Spatially structured communities are predicted to promote the protection of susceptible host cells from phage exposure, and thus weaken selection for phage resistance. The details and generality of this prediction in realistic biofilm environments, however, are not known. Here, we explore phage-host interactions using experiments and simulations that are tuned to represent the essential elements of biofilm communities. Our simulations show that in biofilms, phage-resistant cells-as their relative abundance increases-can protect clusters of susceptible cells from phage exposure, promoting the coexistence of susceptible and phage-resistant bacteria under a large array of conditions. We characterize the population dynamics underlying this coexistence, and we show that coexistence is recapitulated in an experimental model of biofilm growth measured with confocal microscopy. Our results provide a clear view into the dynamics of phage resistance in biofilms with single-cell resolution of the underlying cell-virion interactions, linking the predictions of canonical theory to realistic models and in vitro experiments of biofilm growth.IMPORTANCE In the natural environment, bacteria most often live in communities bound to one another by secreted adhesives. These communities, or biofilms, play a central role in biogeochemical cycling, microbiome functioning, wastewater treatment, and disease. Wherever there are bacteria, there are also viruses that attack them, called phages. Interactions between bacteria and phages are likely to occur ubiquitously in biofilms. We show here, using simulations and experiments, that biofilms will in most conditions allow phage-susceptible bacteria to be protected from phage exposure, if they are growing alongside other cells that are phage resistant. This result has implications for the fundamental ecology of phage-bacteria interactions, as well as the development of phage-based antimicrobial therapeutics.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Rodríguez López AL, Lee MR, Wang NB, et al (2020)

Correction for Rodríguez López et al., "Small-Molecule Morphogenesis Modulators Enhance the Ability of 14-Helical β-Peptides To Prevent Candida albicans Biofilm Formation".

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 64(7): pii:64/7/e00841-20.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Singh R, AK Dubey (2020)

Isolation and Characterization of a New Endophytic Actinobacterium Streptomyces californicus Strain ADR1 as a Promising Source of Anti-Bacterial, Anti-Biofilm and Antioxidant Metabolites.

Microorganisms, 8(6): pii:microorganisms8060929.

In view of the fast depleting armamentarium of drugs against significant pathogens, like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and others due to rapidly emerging drug-resistance, the discovery and development of new drugs need urgent action. In this endeavor, a new strain of endophytic actinobacterium was isolated from the plant Datura metesl, which produced secondary metabolites with potent anti-infective activities. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces californicus strain ADR1 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Metabolites produced by the isolate had been investigated for their antibacterial attributes against important pathogens: S. aureus, MRSA, S. epidermis, Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values against these pathogens varied from 0.23 ± 0.01 to 5.68 ± 0.20 μg/mL. The metabolites inhibited biofilm formation by the strains of S. aureus and MRSA (Biofilm inhibitory concentration [BIC90] values: 0.74 ± 0.08-4.92 ± 0.49 μg/mL). The BIC90 values increased in the case of pre-formed biofilms. Additionally, the metabolites possessed good antioxidant properties, with an inhibitory concentration (IC90) value of 217.24 ± 6.77 µg/mL for 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. An insight into different classes of compounds produced by the strain ADR1 was obtained by chemical profiling and GC-MS analysis, wherein several therapeutic classes, for example, alkaloids, phenolics, terpenes, terpenoids and glycosides, were discovered.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Ma Y, Zhang Z, Nitin N, et al (2020)

Integration of photo-induced biocidal and hydrophilic antifouling functions on nanofibrous membranes with demonstrated reduction of biofilm formation.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 578:779-787 pii:S0021-9797(20)30782-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Survival and pathogenic microbial adhesions on surfaces of materials followed by the formation of biofilms with robust resistance to antibiotics constitute the forefront of disease transmissions. Conventional strategies responding to this challenge are rather limited due to the biofouling effect of microorganisms or the irreversible consumption of antimicrobial agents embedded into the materials. Herein, we report an approach of combining photo-induced rechargeable biocidal properties with microbial resisting and releasing zwitterionic hydrophilic functions on surfaces of materials to improve antifouling performances. Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (EVOH) nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) were chemically incorporated with both 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPTCD), a photoactive chemical, and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (SBMA), a zwitterionic monomer. Both functional agents work independently and construct concerted microbial resisting, killing, and releasing functions to reduce microbial contamination and biofilm formation. The resulted SBMA@EVOH NFMs exhibited integrated features of large ROS production capacity, ease of photoactive rechargeability and controllability, long-term stability, high biocidal efficacy (>99.9999% via contact killing), and promising antifouling performance, which enable the SBMA@EVOH NFMs to serve as a biocidal material for food safety and medical applications.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Yuan K, Li S, F Zhong (2020)

Treatment of coking wastewater in biofilm-based bioaugmentation process: Biofilm formation and microbial community analysis.

Journal of hazardous materials, 400:123117 pii:S0304-3894(20)31106-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Coking wastewater (CWW) containing complicated organic compositions and strong toxicity cause potential hazards to natural water bodies as well as human health. The aim of this study was integrating newly isolated Comamonas sp. ZF-3, biofilm-based bioaugmentation and fluidized bed reactor into an anoxic filter-fluidized bed reactor (AF-FBR) system to treat actual CWW. The results showed that 93 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 97 % of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) removal efficiency were achieved with hydraulic retention time of 70 h. The main pollutants including phenolic compounds, heterocyclic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be removed via biofilm-based process in AF-FBR. The formation of carrier biofilm was consistent with the system performance as well as the biofilm community evolution, during which the microbial community was gradually dominated by some functional genus (e.g., Comamonas, Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas and Thauera), meanwhile, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria Nitrosomonas, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira and denitrifiers (e.g., Pseudomonas, Thiobacillus and Bacillus) coexisted in biofilm to form a microbial community for biological nitrogen removal. Such microbial community structure explained the observed simultaneous removal of COD and NH4+-N in the AF-FBR.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Díaz MA, González SN, Alberto MR, et al (2020)

Human probiotic bacteria attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and virulence by quorum-sensing inhibition.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

This work investigated chloroform extracts from culture supernatants of two human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 730 for the production of virulence factors and quorum sensing (QS) interference against three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Both extracts inhibited biofilm biomass (up to 50%), biofilm metabolic activity (up to 39%), the production of the enzyme elastase (up to 63%) and pyocyanin (up to 77%), and decreased QS, without presenting any antibacterial acgivity. In addition, the chloroform extracts of both strains disrupted preformed biofilms of the three strains of P. aeruginosa analyzed (up to 40%). GC-MS analysis revealed that the major compounds detected in the bioactive extracts were four diketopiperazines. This study suggests that the metabolites of L. casei and L. acidophilus could be a promising alternative to combat the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Szerencsés B, Igaz N, Tóbiás Á, et al (2020)

Size-dependent activity of silver nanoparticles on the morphological switch and biofilm formation of opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.

BMC microbiology, 20(1):176.

BACKGROUND: Dimorphism and biofilm formation are important virulence factors of some opportunistic human pathogenic yeasts. Such species commensally colonize skin or mucosal surfaces generally in yeast form, but under particular circumstances, convert into virulent hyphae and disseminate internal organs or cause mucocutaneous infections. The yeast-to-hypha shape-conversion promotes the development of a biofilm, a thick extracellular matrix with sessile cells within. The biofilm is capable to prevent the penetration of antifungal drugs, rendering the surviving biofilm-resident cells intrinsic sources of recurrent infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to attenuate the morphological switch and biofilm formation of several opportunistic pathogenic yeasts and to determine whether this feature depends on the nanoparticle size.

RESULTS: AgNPs in three different sizes were prepared by chemical reduction approach and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antifungal activity was evaluated by the microdilution method, the inhibitory capacity on biofilm formation and the biofilm degradation ability of differently sized AgNPs was assessed by viability assay. The morphological state of opportunistic pathogenic yeast cells in monoculture and in co-culture with human keratinocytes in the presence of AgNPs was examined by flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy. All the three AgNPs inhibited the growth of the examined opportunistic pathogenic yeasts, nevertheless, AgNPs with the smallest diameter exhibited the most prominent toxic activities. AgNPs attenuated the biofilm formation in a nanoparticle size-dependent manner; however, their biofilm destruction capacity was negligible. AgNPs with the smallest size exerted the most significant effect on suppressing the morphological change of pathogens in monoculture as well as in a co-culture with keratinocytes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that AgNPs are capable to hinder yeast-to-hypha morphological conversion and biofilm formation of opportunistic pathogens and this biological effect of AgNPs is size-dependent.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Jeon BK, Lee CH, Kim AR, et al (2020)

Effect of Etching Procedures on the Adhesion of Biofilm-Coated Dentin.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 13(12): pii:ma13122762.

Oral biofilms coat all surfaces in the oral cavity including the exposed dentin surface. This study aimed to investigate biofilm removal by acid etching procedures and the effects of the residual biofilm on dentin surfaces on composite-dentin adhesion. Dentin discs were assigned to five groups: no biofilm formation (C); biofilm formation and no surface treatment (BF); biofilm formation and acid etching (BF-E); biofilm formation and acid etching followed by chlorhexidine soaking (BF-EC); and biofilm formation and rubbing with pumice, followed by acid etching (BF-RE). Biofilms were formed on saliva-precoated dentin discs by soaking the discs in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) suspension. Biofilm removal from the dentin surface was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. To compare the bond strength of the biofilm-coated dentin discs with the surface treatments, specimens were assigned to four groups: no biofilm formation and acid etching (C-E); BF-E; BF-EC; and BF-RE. Assessments of the micro-shear bond strength and subsequent failure modes were performed. BF-E and BF-EC did not remove the biofilm, whereas BF-RE partially removed the biofilm attached to the dentin (p < 0.05). The bond strength of BF-RE was significantly higher than those of BF-E and BF-EC, but lower than that of C-E (p < 0.05). In conclusion, mechanical biofilm removal is recommended before etching procedures to enhance adhesion to the biofilm-coated dentin.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Zhao L, Wang Z, Ren HY, et al (2020)

Improving biogas upgrading and liquid chemicals production simultaneously by a membrane biofilm reactor.

Bioresource technology, 313:123693 pii:S0960-8524(20)30965-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, a novel membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was developed for simultaneously biogas upgrading and liquid chemicals production. With external hydrogen supplied from inside of the gas permeable hollow fiber of the MBfR, CO2 in biogas could be captured via a biological process as liquid chemicals and simultaneously producing high-purity methane. Continuous operation of MBfR further confirmed that higher solubilized hydrogen was favorably affecting acetate and ethanol titer and rate, and methane purity. Moreover, by retaining biomass on the outer surface of hollow fiber, the highest biogas purity (96.7%) and acetate and ethanol production rates (37.8 and 13.5 mmol L-1d-1) were achieved at a hydraulic retention time of 2.0 d. Meanwhile, the CO2 and hydrogen conversion efficiency reached to the maximum of 93.8% and 98.1%, respectively. The findings obtained can pave a new way for efficient liquid chemical production and biogas upgrading with both economic and environmental benefits.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Vargas-Straube MJ, Beard S, Norambuena R, et al (2020)

High copper concentration reduces biofilm formation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans by decreasing production of extracellular polymeric substances and its adherence to elemental sulfur.

Journal of proteomics, 225:103874 pii:S1874-3919(20)30242-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an acidophilic bacterium able to grow in environments with high concentrations of metals. It is a chemolithoautotroph able to form biofilms on the surface of solid minerals to obtain its energy. The response of both planktonic and sessile cells of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 grown in elemental sulfur and adapted to high copper concentration was analyzed by quantitative proteomics. It was found that 137 proteins varied their abundance when comparing both lifestyles. Copper effllux proteins, some subunits of the ATP synthase complex, porins, and proteins involved in cell wall modification increased their abundance in copper-adapted sessile lifestyle cells. On the other hand, planktonic copper-adapted cells showed increased levels of proteins such as: cupreredoxins involved in copper cell sequestration, some proteins related to sulfur metabolism, those involved in biosynthesis and transport of lipopolysaccharides, and in assembly of type IV pili. During copper adaptation a decreased formation of biofilms was measured as determined by epifluorescence microscopy. This was apparently due not only to a diminished number of sessile cells but also to their exopolysaccharides production. This is the first study showing that copper, a prevalent metal in biomining environments causes dispersion of A. ferrooxidans biofilms. SIGNIFICANCE: Copper is a metal frequently found in high concentrations at mining environments inhabitated by acidophilic microorganisms. Copper resistance determinants of A. ferrooxidans have been previously studied in planktonic cells. Although biofilms are recurrent in these types of environments, the effect of copper on their formation has not been studied so far. The results obtained indicate that high concentrations of copper reduce the capacity of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 to form biofilms on sulfur. These findings may be relevant to consider for a bacterium widely used in copper bioleaching processes.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Kotian A, Aditya V, Jazeela K, et al (2020)

Effect of bile on growth and biofilm formation of Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars isolated from seafood and poultry.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(20)30056-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial cells adopt various strategies to adapt themselves in diverse environmental conditions. Salmonella is one such bacteria with diverse mechanisms to survive, replicate and infect in wide host range. This study aims at investigating the biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant and sensitive Salmonella serovars on exposure to bile. Antibiogram of all the isolates was determined by disk diffusion method and their biofilm-forming ability in the presence or absence of bile was assessed by microtiter plate assay. Biofilm results were validated by calcofluor, Congo red plate and test tube method. Few isolates were selected for further study of their expression of biofilm related genes on exposure to bile using real time PCR. Among the 59 isolates of Salmonella isolated from seafood and poultry, 30 isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Under control conditions, 57% (n=25) of the serovars were able to form biofilm. While, 86% (n=51) of the serovars produced biofilm in the presence of bile. The relative gene expression study of the selected serovars for 8 different genes showed a striking difference in the expression levels, supporting the hypothesis that the presence of bile triggers biofilm formation in food associated strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella by upregulation of genes involved in biofilm production.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Foster CE, Kok M, Flores AR, et al (2020)

Adhesin genes and biofilm formation among pediatric Staphylococcus aureus isolates from implant-associated infections.

PloS one, 15(6):e0235115.

BACKGROUND: Microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) facilitate Staphylococcus aureus adherence to host tissue. We hypothesized that S. aureus isolates from implant-associated infections (IAIs) would differ in MSCRAMM profile and biofilm formation in vitro compared to skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) isolates.

METHODS: Pediatric patients and their isolates were identified retrospectively. IAI and SSTI isolates were matched (1:4). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed to group isolates as USA300 vs. non-USA300. Whole genome sequencing was performed and raw sequence data were interrogated for presence of MSCRAMMs (clfA, clfB, cna, ebh, efb, fnbpA, fnbpB, isdA, isdB, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE), biofilm-associated (icaA,D,B,C), and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukSF-PV) genes, accessory gene regulator group, and multilocus sequence types. In vitro biofilm formation was assessed for 47 IAI and 47 SSTI isolates using a microtiter plate assay. Conditional logistic regression was performed for analysis of matched data (STATA11, College Station, TX).

RESULTS: Forty-seven IAI and 188 SSTI isolates were studied. IAI isolates were more often methicillin susceptible S. aureus and non-USA300 vs. SSTI isolates [34 (72%) vs. 79 (42%), p = 0.001 and 38 (81%) vs. 57 (30%) p <0.001, respectively]. Greater than 98% of isolates carried clfA, clfB, efb, isdA, isdB, and icaA,D,B,C while cna was more frequently found among IAI vs. SSTI isolates (p = 0.003). Most isolates were strong biofilm producers.

CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus IAI isolates were significantly more likely to be MSSA and non-USA300 than SSTI isolates. Carriage of MSCRAMMs and biofilm formation did not differ significantly between isolates. Evaluation of genetic polymorphisms and gene expression profiles are needed to further delineate the role of adhesins in the pathogenesis of IAIs.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Zhang Y, Pan X, Liao S, et al (2020)

Quantitative proteomics reveals the mechanism of silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

Journal of proteome research [Epub ahead of print].

The decline of clinical effective antibiotics has made it necessary to develop more effective antimicrobial agents, especially for refractory biofilm-related infections. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a new type of antimicrobial agent that can eradicate biofilms and reduce bacterial resistance, but its anti-biofilm mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of AgNPs against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by means of anti-biofilm tests, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Tandem Mass Tag (TMT)-labeled quantitative proteomics. Results of anti-biofilm demonstrated that AgNPs inhibited the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilm and disrupted its preformed biofilm. SEM showed that when exposed to AgNPs, the structure of P. aeruginosa biofilm was destroyed, along with significant reduction of its biomass. TMT-labeled quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that that AgNPs could defeat P. aeruginosa biofilm in multiple ways by inhibiting its adhesion and motility, stimulating strong oxidative stress response, destroying iron homeostasis, blocking aerobic and anaerobic respirations, and affecting quorum sensing (QS) systems. Our findings offer a new insight into clarifying the mechanism of AgNPs against biofilm, thus provide a theoretical basis for its clinical application.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Azam MW, Zuberi A, AU Khan (2020)

bolA gene involved in curli amyloids and fimbriae production in E. coli: exploring pathways to inhibit biofilm and amyloid formation.

Journal of biological research (Thessalonike, Greece), 27:10.

Background: Biofilm formation is a complex phenomenon of bacterial cells, involved in several human infections. Its formation is regulated and controlled by several protein factors. The BolA-like proteins (bolA gene) are conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The BolA protein is a transcription factor involved in bacterial cell motility and biofilm formation. This study was initiated to elucidate the role of the bolA gene in the curli biogenesis and amyloid production as well as to observe changes in the expression of fimH, a fimbriae gene.

Methods: Knockdown mutants of Escherichia coli MG1655 bolA gene (bolA-KD) were generated using CRISPR interference. The results obtained, were validated through gene expression using RT-PCR, microscopic analysis and different biofilm and amyloid assays.

Results: The bolA knockdown mutants showed a decrement in curli amyloid fibers, in fimbriae production and biofilm formation. We have also observed a reduction in EPS formation, eDNA production and extracellular protein content. Gene expression data showed that bolA downregulation caused the suppression of csgA and csgD of curli that led to the reduction in curli fiber and the amyloid formation and also the suppression of fimH, leading to the loss of fimbriae.

Conclusions: Curli fibers and fimbriae are found to be involved in biofilm formation leading to the pathogenicity of the bacterial cell. BolA is a conserved protein and is found to play a significant role in curli and fimbriae formation in E. coli. This study further proved that CRISPRi mediated suppression of the bolA gene leads to inhibition of biofilm formation through curli and fimbriae inhibition. Hence, it may be proposed as a possible target for intervention of biofilm mediated infections.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Hashimoto A, Miyamoto H, Kobatake T, et al (2020)

The combination of silver-containing hydroxyapatite coating and vancomycin has a synergistic antibacterial effect on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

Bone & joint research, 9(5):211-218.

Aims: Biofilm formation is intrinsic to prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In the current study, we evaluated the effects of silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) coating and vancomycin (VCM) on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm formation.

Methods: Pure titanium discs (Ti discs), Ti discs coated with HA (HA discs), and 3% Ag-HA discs developed using a thermal spraying were inoculated with MRSA suspensions containing a mean in vitro 4.3 (SD 0.8) x 106 or 43.0 (SD 8.4) x 105 colony-forming units (CFUs). Immediately after MRSA inoculation, sterile phosphate-buffered saline or VCM (20 µg/ml) was added, and the discs were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. Viable cell counting, 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy with Airyscan, and scanning electron microscopy were then performed. HA discs and Ag HA discs were implanted subcutaneously in vivo in the dorsum of rats, and MRSA suspensions containing a mean in vivo 7.2 (SD 0.4) x 106 or 72.0 (SD 4.2) x 105 CFUs were inoculated on the discs. VCM was injected subcutaneously daily every 12 hours followed by viable cell counting.

Results: Biofilms that formed on HA discs were thicker and larger than those on Ti discs, whereas those on Ag-HA discs were thinner and smaller than those on Ti discs. Viable bacterial counts in vivo revealed that Ag-HA combined with VCM was the most effective treatment.

Conclusion: Ag-HA with VCM has a potential synergistic effect in reducing MRSA biofilm formation and can thus be useful for preventing and treating PJI.Cite this article:Bone Joint Res. 2020;9(5):211-218.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Higgins M, Zhang L, Ford R, et al (2020)

The microbial biofilm composition on peripherally inserted central catheters: A comparison of polyurethane and hydrophobic catheters collected from paediatric patients.

The journal of vascular access [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters are susceptible to microbial colonisation and subsequent biofilm formation, leading to central line-associated bloodstream infection, a serious peripherally inserted central catheter-related complication. Next-generation peripherally inserted central catheter biomaterials, such as hydrophobic materials (e.g. Endexo®), may reduce microbial biofilm formation or attachment, consequently reducing the potential for central line-associated bloodstream infection.

METHODS: Within a randomised controlled trial, culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to determine if the biomaterials used in traditional polyurethane peripherally inserted central catheters and hydrophobic peripherally inserted central catheters impacted microbial biofilm composition. This study also explored the impact of other clinical characteristics including central line-associated bloodstream infection, antibiotic therapy and dwell time on the microbial biofilm composition of peripherally inserted central catheters.

RESULTS: From a total of 32 patients, one peripherally inserted central catheter was determined to be colonised with Staphylococcus aureus, and on further analysis, the patient was diagnosed with central line-associated bloodstream infection. All peripherally inserted central catheters (n = 17 polyurethane vs n = 15 hydrophobic) were populated with complex microbial communities, including peripherally inserted central catheters considered non-colonised. The two main microbial communities observed included Staphylococcus spp., dominant on the colonised peripherally inserted central catheter, and Enterococcus, dominant on non-colonised peripherally inserted central catheters. Both the peripherally inserted central catheter biomaterial design and antibiotic therapy had no significant impact on microbial communities. However, the diversity of microbial communities significantly decreased with dwell time.

CONCLUSION: More diverse pathogens were present on the colonised peripherally inserted central catheter collected from the patient with central line-associated bloodstream infection. Microbial biofilm composition did not appear to be affected by the design of peripherally inserted central catheter biomaterials or antibiotic therapy. However, the diversity of the microbial communities appeared to decrease with dwell time.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Tak S, Tiwari A, BP Vellanki (2020)

Correction to: Identification of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)-based drinking water treatment plant around River Yamuna in India.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 192(7):445 pii:10.1007/s10661-020-08381-4.

The original version of this article unfortunately contains mistakes introduced during the production phase. Figures 7, 8, and 10 were incorrectly captured.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Zhang L, Fu G, Z Zhang (2020)

Long-term stable and energy-neutral mixed biofilm electrode for complete nitrogen removal from high-salinity wastewater: Mechanism and microbial community.

Bioresource technology, 313:123660 pii:S0960-8524(20)30932-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The steady mixed biofilm electrode (MBE) was investigated for the removal of nitrogen from mustard tuber wastewater. Results showed that complete nitrogen removal occurred over a wide initial chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratio ranging from 2.8 to 9.8 using MBE. MBE revealed broad-spectrum applicability for the treatment of high-salinity wastewater containing different forms of nitrogen. Bio-electrochemical process, in-situ heterotrophic nitrogen reduction, ammonia stripping, nitrogen assimilation, and endogenous denitrification coexisted for the removal of nitrogen. Batch activity tests and functional microorganism analysis confirmed that autotrophic/heterotrophic nitrification, anoxic/aerobic denitrification, and nitrogen bio-electrochemical reduction cooperated to achieve efficient nitrogen conversion. More importantly, the analysis of the preliminary energy balance demonstrated that MBE was self-sustaining. The long-term operation stability of MBE was of great importance for its practical application. The results provided herein offer new insights into bioelectrochemical nitrogen removal and resource treatment of high-salinity wastewater.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Moralez AP, Perini HF, Paulo EA, et al (2020)

Effect of phenotypic switching on biofilm traits in Candida tropicalis.

Microbial pathogenesis, 149:104346 pii:S0882-4010(20)30712-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Candida tropicalis can undergo multiple forms of phenotypic switching. We have reported a switching system in C. tropicalis that is associated with changes in virulence attributes. We aimed to assess biofilm formation by distinct switch states of C. tropicalis and evaluate whether their sessile cells exhibit altered virulence traits. C. tropicalis strains included the parental phenotype (a clinical isolate) and four switch phenotypes (crepe, rough, revertant of crepe and revertant of rough). Biofilm formation and adhesion capability of sessile cells on polystyrene were assessed through quantification of total biomass. Filamentous forms were characterized by direct counting of sessile cells. A virulence assay was conducted using the Galleria mellonella infection model. Switch variants (crepe and rough) and their revertant counterparts produced higher biofilm biomass (P < 0.05) than the parental strain. Additionally, filamentous forms were enriched among sessile cells of switched strains compared to those observed for sessile cells of the parental strain, with the exception of the revertant of rough. Sessile cells of switched strains showed higher adhesion to polystyrene compared to the parental strain. Sessile cells of the crepe variant and its revertant strain (RC) exhibited higher virulence against G. mellonella larvae than sessile cells of the parental strain. Our findings indicate that switching events in C. tropicalis affect biofilm development and that sessile cells of distinct switch states may exhibit increased adhesion ability and enhanced virulence towards G. mellonella larvae.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Cai W, Liu W, Wang B, et al (2020)

Semi-quantitative detection of hydrogen-associated or -free electron transfer within methanogenic biofilm of microbial electrosynthesis.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.01056-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Hydrogen-entangled electron transfer is verified as an important extracellular pathway of sharing reducing equivalents to regulate biofilm activities within the diversely anaerobic environment, especially in microbial electrosynthesis system. However, the lack of useful methods for in-situ hydrogen detection in cathodic biofilm, the role of hydrogen involved in electron transfer is still debatable. Herein, the cathodic biofilm was constructed in the CH4-produced microbial electrosynthesis reactors, in which the hydrogen evolution dynamic was analyzed to confirm the presence of hydrogen-associated electron transfer nearby the cathode within the micrometre scale. The fluorescent in-situ hybridization images indicated that a colocalized community of archaea and bacteria developed within the thick of biofilm 58.10 μm at cathode suggesting the hydrogen gradient detected by microsensor was consumed by the collaboration of bacteria and archaea. Coupling microsensor and cyclic voltammetry test further provided the semi-quantitative results of hydrogen-associated contribution to methane generation (around 21.20% ± 1.57% having a potential of -0.5 V to 0.69 V). This finding provides deep insight into the mechanism of electron transfer in biofilm on conductive materials.IMPORTANCE: Electron transfer from the electrode to biofilm is of great interest to the fields of microbial electrochemical technology, bioremediation and methanogenesis. It has promising application potential to boost more value-added products or pollutant degradation. Importantly, the microbial ability to obtain electrons from electrode and utilizing it brings a new insight into the direct interspecies electron transfer during methanogenesis. Previous studies had verified the direct pathway of electron transfer from the electrode to the pure-culture bacterium, but it was rarely reported how the methanogenic biofilm of mixed cultures shares electrons by hydrogen-associated or hydrogen-free pathway. In the current study, a combination method of microsensor and cyclic voltammetry successfully semi-quantified the role of hydrogen in the electron transfer from the electrode to methanogenic biofilm.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Pannella G, Lombardi SJ, Coppola F, et al (2020)

Effect of Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the Malolactic Fermentation in Model Wine.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 9(6): pii:foods9060797.

Biofilm life-style of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strains was evaluated in vitro as a new and suitable biotechnological strategy to assure L-malic acid conversion in wine stress conditions. Sixty-eight L. plantarum strains isolated from diverse sources were assessed for their ability to form biofilm in acid (pH 3.5 or 3.2) or in ethanol (12% or 14%) stress conditions. The effect of incubation times (24 and 72 h) on the biofilm formation was evaluated. The study highlighted that, regardless of isolation source and stress conditions, the ability to form biofilm was strain-dependent. Specifically, two clusters, formed by high and low biofilm producer strains, were identified. Among high producer strains, L. plantarum Lpls22 was chosen as the highest producer strain and cultivated in planktonic form or in biofilm using oak supports. Model wines at 12% of ethanol and pH 3.5 or 3.2 were used to assess planktonic and biofilm cells survival and to evaluate the effect of biofilm on L-malic acid conversion. For cells in planktonic form, a strong survival decay was detected. In contrast, cells in biofilm life-style showed high resistance, assuring a prompt and complete L-malic acid conversion.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Fu Y, An Q, Cheng Y, et al (2020)

A Textile Pile Debridement Material Consisting of Polyester Fibers for in Vitro Removal of Biofilm.

Polymers, 12(6): pii:polym12061360.

Biofilms formed on skin wound lead to inflammation and a delay of healing. In the present work, a novel textile pile debridement material was prepared and treated by plasma. Samples before and after plasma treatment were characterized by a series of methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and water uptake capacity. Besides, mechanical, coagulation, and in vitro biofilm removal performances of the textile pile debridement material were evaluated, with a medical gauze as a control. The results demonstrate that the plasma treatment produced corrosions and oxygen-containing polar groups on the fiber surface, offering an enhanced water uptake capacity of the textile pile debridement material. In addition, compressive tests certify the mechanical performances of the textile pile debridement material in both dry and wet conditions. The results from a kinetic clotting time test suggest a favorable ability to promote blood coagulation. Furthermore, the results of an MTT cell viability assay, SEM, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) illustrate that the textile pile debridement material demonstrates a more superior in vitro biofilm removal performance than medical gauze. All of these characterizations suggest that the textile pile debridement material can offer a feasible application for clinical wound debridement.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Singh P, Pandit S, Mokkapati V, et al (2020)

A Sustainable Approach for the Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Solibacillus isronensis sp. and Their Application in Biofilm Inhibition.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(12): pii:molecules25122783.

The use of bacteria as nanofactories for the green synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a sustainable approach, owing to the stability, biocompatibility, high yields and facile synthesis of nanoparticles. The green synthesis provides the coating or capping of biomolecules on nanoparticles surface, which confer their biological activity. In this study, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by an environmental isolate; named as AgNPs1, which showed 100% 16S rRNA sequence similarity with Solibacillus isronensis. UV/visible analysis (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. The stable nature of nanoparticles was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Further, these nanoparticles were tested for biofilm inhibition against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The AgNPs showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 3.12 µg/mL and 6.25 µg/mL for E. coli, and 1.56 µg/mL and 3.12 µg/mL for P. aeruginosa, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Li K, Qian J, Wang P, et al (2020)

Responses of freshwater biofilm formation processes (from colonization to maturity) to anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles: Effects of nanoparticles aging and transformation.

Water research, 182:115953 pii:S0043-1354(20)30490-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Most of the current studies on the toxicology of pristine nanoparticles (NPs) are environmentally irrelevant, because their ''aging'' process accompanied by the physicochemical transformation is inevitable in the environment. Considering aging phenomenon will gain a better understanding of the toxicity and fate of NPs in the environment. Here, we focused on the physicochemical transformation of anatase-NPs (TiO2-A) and rutile-NPs (TiO2-R) after 90 days of aging and investigated the responses of freshwater biofilm formation to the stress changes of naturally aged TiO2-NPs (aTiO2-NPs). We found that after aging, the TiO2-NPs underwent sophisticated physicochemical transformations in the original morphology and microstructure owing to organic and crystal salts inclusions, such as energy band changes and the formation of Ti3+ on the NPs surfaces. These comprehensive transformations increased the stability of NPs in the exposed suspension. However, the physicochemical transformations were crystal-forms-dependent, and aging did not change the crystal structure and crystallinity. Interestingly, compared to pristine NPs, aTiO2-NPs showed much lower cytotoxicity and had the weaker ability to promote or inhibit the biofilm formation (p < 0.05) owing to the passivation of photoactivity caused by the comprehensive effect of the inclusions, especially for aTiO2-A. Regardless of aging or not of crystal forms, responses of biofilm formation were exposure-concentration-dependent, namely low concentration promotion (0.1 mg/L) and high concentration inhibition (10 mg/L), e.g., role transition of the pioneers (algae or bacteria) in initial colonization, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion and compositions of development stages with polysaccharide (PS)-rich and protein (PRO)-rich stages, and biomass and cell activity at different depths of mature biofilms. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by TiO2-NPs showed typical hormesis. The changing trends of the autoinducers (c-di-GMP and quorum sensing signals including AHL and AI-2) were highly consistent with the growth stages of biofilms and were stimulated or suppressed by TiO2-NPs. The NPs crystal-dependently changed the microorganism community structures, while the UPGMA clustering of bacteria was based on the growth stages of the biofilms. The toxic mechanisms revealed that photoactivity and nanoscale retention of particles are the main reasons for the differences in the ecological stress capacity of four kinds of TiO2-NPs. Aging reduced characteristic differences of two pristine NPs and even reversed their relative stresses levels (p > 0.05). However, the toxicity of high-concentration aTiO2-NPs (10 mg/L) remained serious in a water environment. This study provides a better understanding for the water environmental risks evaluation and policy control of nanoparticles, that is, the effect of time aging has to be considered.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Schwarz A, Suárez JI, Aybar M, et al (2020)

A membrane-biofilm system for sulfate conversion to elemental sulfur in mining-influenced waters.

The Science of the total environment, 740:140088 pii:S0048-9697(20)33608-1 [Epub ahead of print].

A system of two membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) was tested for the conversion of sulfate (1.5 g/L) in mining-process water into elemental sulfur (S0) particles. Initially, a H2-based MBfR reduced sulfate to sulfide, and an O2-based MBfR then oxidized sulfide to S0. Later, the two MBfRs were coupled by a recirculation flow. Surface loading, reactor-coupling configuration, and substrate-gas pressure exerted important controls over performance of each MBfR and the coupled system. Continuously recirculating the liquid between the H2-based MBfR and the O2-based MBfR, compared to series operation, avoided the buildup of sulfide and gave overall greater sulfate removal (99% vs 62%) and production of S0 (61% vs 54%). The trade-off was that recirculation coupling demanded greater delivery of H2 and O2 (in air) due to the establishment of a sulfur cycle catalyzed by Sulfurospirillum spp., which had an average abundance of 46% in the H2-based MBfR fibers and 62% in the O2-based MBfR fibers at the end of the experiments. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio and Desulfomicrobium) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiofaba, Thiomonas, Acidithiobacillus and Sulfuricurvum) averaged only 22% and 11% in the H2-based MBfR and O2-based MBfR fibers, respectively. Evidence suggests that the undesired Sulfurospirillum species, which reduce S0 to sulfide, can be suppressed by increasing sulfate-surface loading and H2 pressure.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Llama-Palacios A, Potupa O, Sánchez MC, et al (2020)

Proteomic analysis of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth in biofilm versus planktonic state.

Molecular oral microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Fusobacterium nucleatum is isolated from both supra- and sub-gingival dental biofilms in humans and has been implicated in the aetiology of periodontitis. Also, this bacterium plays an important role in serious infections in other parts of the body. The aim of this investigation was to study the protein differential expression of F. nucleatum when growing on biofilm, compared to planktonic state, using proteomic analysis by the 2D-DIGE™ system. Sixty-eight proteins were differentially expressed during biofilm growth (1.5-fold, p<0.05), being 20 down-expressed and 31 over-expressed. The repressed proteins belonged to metabolism, biosynthesis, and were outer membrane proteins (OMPs); and over-expressed were proteins involved in metabolism, transcription, translation, transport, and proteins with unknown function. Also, of the seven enzymes that regulate the synthesis of butyrate, six of them were differentially expressed (over- and down-) when the bacteria were forming biofilms. The enzymatic activities of two of the enzymes in the butyrate pathway were analyzed when the bacteria were growing in biofilms or in planktonic growth. All these results confirmed that this metabolic pathway is important in the formation of the biofilm of F. nucleatum and in its pathogenicity, both in the oral cavity and in other locations of the body.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Huang X, Zheng M, Yi Y, et al (2020)

Inhibition of berberine hydrochloride on Candida albicans biofilm formation.

Biotechnology letters pii:10.1007/s10529-020-02938-6 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of berberine hydrochloride (BH) on Candida albicans (C.albicans) ATCC10231 biofilm formation.

RESULTS: This paper found a positive correlation between the concentration of BH and its inhibitory effect on the cellular activity of early biofilms because we found that 128 and 32 μg/mL BH significantly inhibited biofilm formation (P < 0.05). BH significantly inhibited the cellular activity in early biofilms, destroyed the microscopic morphology of C.albicans and reduced the thickness of the biofilm. Both 128 and 32 μg/mL concentration solutions of BH significantly inhibited biofilm formation (P < 0.05). We found that the inhibitory effect of BH solution was positively correlated with its concentration and 128 μg/mL BH was better than 4 μg/mL fluconazole. Additionally, the results of RT-PCR indicated that 128 and 32 μg/mL BH inhibited the expression of EFG1, HWP1, ECE1, and ALS1 (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The efficacy of BH in inhibiting the formation of C.albicans biofilm by killing the cells in the biofilm and destroying its structure; and the mechanism may be to down-regulate the expression of EFG1, HWP1, ECE1, and ALS1 in hyphae formation, thereby, retarding the morphological transformation of C. albicans.

RevDate: 2020-06-22
CmpDate: 2020-06-22

Miranda SLF, Damaceno JT, Faveri M, et al (2020)

In Vitro Antimicrobial Effect of Cetylpyridinium Chloride on Complex Multispecies Subgingival Biofilm.

Brazilian dental journal, 31(2):103-108.

Periodontopathogenic subgingival biofilm is the main etiological agent of periodontitis. Thus, a search for antimicrobials as adjuvant for periodontal treatment in the literature is intense. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is a well-known antimicrobial agent commonly used in mouthrinses. However, CPC effects on a complex biofilm model were not found over the literature. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript is to evaluate 0.075% CPC antimicrobial properties in a multispecies subgingival biofilm model in vitro. The subgingival biofilm composed by 31 species related to periodontitis was formed for 7 days, using the calgary device. The treatments with CPC and chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.12% (as positive control) were performed 2x/day, for 1 min, from day 3 until the end of experimental period, totaling 8 treatments. After 7 days of biofilm formation, biofilm metabolic activity was evaluated by a colorimetric reaction and biofilms microbial composition by DNA-DNA hybridization. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with data transformed via BOX-COX followed by Dunnett post-hoc. Both CPC and CHX reduced biofilm metabolic activity in 60% and presented antimicrobial activity against 13 different species. Specifically, only CHX reduced levels of F.n. vicentii and P. gingivalis while only CPC reduced A. odontolyticus and A. israelli. CPC was as effective as CHX as antimicrobial through in vitro complex multispecies subgingival biofilm. However, future studies using in vivo models of experimental periodontal disease should be performed to prove such effect.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Subbiahdoss G, E Reimhult (2020)

Biofilm formation at oil-water interfaces is not a simple function of bacterial hydrophobicity.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 194:111163 pii:S0927-7765(20)30519-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial adsorption to interfaces is the initial step in biofilm formation. The mechanism of biofilm formation at liquid-liquid interfaces differs from the process of biofilm formation on solid-liquid interfaces. Until now, the former is not well understood. We study the bacterial adsorption and biofilm formation of three different bacteria, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis at the n-decane-water interface, with focus on the relationship between bacteria wettability, excretion of biosurfactants, and biofilm formation. The adhesion capacity of these bacteria to hydrocarbons was characterized using the bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons test. We monitored the interfacial rheology of bacterial adsorption and biofilm formation at the interface over time using a drop shape analyzer and imaged the formed biofilms by using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. P. aeruginosa showed high adhesion capacity to hydrocarbons, while the adhesion capacity of both staphylococci was negligible. P. aeruginosa also showed rapid adsorption to the n-decane-water interface as measured by the rapid decrease in interfacial tension for the pure bacteria suspension. However, S. epidermidis, with a negligible hydrophobicity value, showed the most substantial reduction in interfacial tension and the formation of the most elastic biofilms at the oil-water interface. S. epidermidis accomplishes this by the secretion of biosurfactants. S. aureus did not form biofilms at the n-decane-water interface, in contrast to P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis. We conclude that bacterial adsorption and biofilm formation at oil-water interfaces, in general, are not simple functions of cell hydrophobicity. Biosurfactant modification and metabolism of the interface also play essential roles.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Zhou Y, Guo B, Li R, et al (2020)

Treatment of grey water (GW) with high linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) content and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (O2-MBfR).

Chemosphere, 258:127363 pii:S0045-6535(20)31556-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Grey water (GW) containing high levels of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) can be a threat to the human health and organisms in the environment if not treated properly. Although aerobic treatment may achieve high GW treatment efficacy, conventional aeration can lead to serious foaming. Here, we firstly and systematically evaluated an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (O2-MBfR) for its capacity to simultaneous remove organics and nitrogen from greywater with high LAS levels and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. After a five-day startup period, multifarious microorganisms formed multifunctional biofilms and the MBfR achieved high removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), LAS, and total nitrogen (TN) of 88.4%, 95.6%, and 80%, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time of 7.86 h. Higher organics loading (5.53 g TCOD/m2-day) caused cell lysis and damaged the O2-MBfR system, leading to a discernible and continuous decline of the reactor performance. The O2-MBfR design completely eliminated foaming formation. LAS -biodegrading-rich genus containing Clostridium, Parvibaculum, Dechloromonas, Desulfovibrio, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Zoogloea enable the nearly complete removal of LAS even under high C/N conditions. Results demonstrated that the O2-MBfR technology is feasible for treating GW containing high LAS and C/N ratio, while remaining free of foaming formation, and at a low cost due to high O2 utilization rates.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Miao W, Sheng L, Yang T, et al (2020)

The impact of flavonoids-rich Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Extract on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 20(1):187.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effect of flavonoids-rich Ziziphus jujuba Mill. extract (FZM) against the formation of bacterial biofilms (BBFs) in Staphylococcus aureus.

RESULTS: FZM can effectively inhibit the formation of S. aureus biofilms in vitro. Morphological observation showed a decrease in both biofilm adhesion and thickness. Results of confocal laser scanning microscopy used to detect the thickness of the BBFs showed that FZM treatment reduced the thickness of the BBFs. Furthermore, after the Image-Pro Plus v.6.0 analysis of the fluorescence intensity, FZM treatment reduced the thickness of the BBFs as well as the proportion of green fluorescence. Scanning electron microscopy showed that FZM can disrupt the channels available for substance exchange in the biofilm, thus exposing the bacterial cells and damaging its three-dimensional structures.

CONCLUSION: FZM can inhibit biofilm formation, improve the bacterial pH environment, and eliminate the hydrophobic effect of reactive oxygen species and flavonoids.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Grønseth T, Vestby LK, Nesse LL, et al (2020)

Bioactive glass S53P4 eradicates Staphylococcus aureus in biofilm/planktonic states in vitro.

Upsala journal of medical sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Increasing antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics is a substantial health threat. Bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG) has an antimicrobial effect that can reduce the use of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of BAG in vitro on staphylococci in biofilm and in planktonic form. Secondary aims were to investigate whether supernatant fluid primed from BAG retains the antibacterial capacity and if ciprofloxacin enhances the effect.Methods: BAG-S53P4 granules, <45 µm, primed in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were investigated with granules present in TSB (100 mg/mL) and after removal of granules (100, 200, and 400 mg/mL). The efficacy of BAG to eradicate Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in vitro was tested using 10 different clinical strains and 1 reference strain in three test systems: the biofilm-oriented antiseptic test based on metabolic activity, the biofilm bactericidal test based on culturing surviving bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) combined with LIVE/DEAD staining.Results: Exposure to 48 h primed BAG granules (100 mg/mL) produced bactericidal effects in 11/11 strains (p = 0.001), and CLSM showed reduction of viable bacteria in biofilm (p = 0.001). Supernatant primed 14 days, 400 mg/mL, reduced metabolic activity (p < 0.001), showed bactericidal effects for 11/11 strains (p = 0.001), and CLSM showed fewer viable bacteria (p = 0.001). The supernatant primed for 48 h, or in concentrations lower than 400 mg/mL at 14 days, did not completely eradicate biofilm.Conclusion: Direct exposure to BAG granules, or primed supernatant fluid, effectively eradicated S. aureus in biofilm. The anti-biofilm effect is time- and concentration-dependent. When BAG had reached its full antimicrobial effect, ciprofloxacin had no additional effect.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Arata Y, Oshima T, Ikeda Y, et al (2020)

OP50, a bacterial strain conventionally used as food for laboratory maintenance of C. elegans, is a biofilm formation defective mutant.

microPublication. Biology, 2020:.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Nagar N, Aswathanarayan JB, RR Vittal (2020)

Anti-quorum sensing and biofilm inhibitory activity of Apium graveolens L. oleoresin.

Journal of food science and technology, 57(7):2414-2422.

Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) is a dietary herb used as a spice, condiment and medicine. A. graveolens (Celery) has been studied for its antimicrobial property and for its application as flavours in food industry. The present study investigated the Apium graveolens oleoresin as an anti-quorum sensing and antibiofilm agent. The quorum sensing and biofilm inhibition study was carried out using biosensor strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The MIC of celery oleoresin against C. violaceum CV12472 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 was 10 and 25% v/v, respectively. Inhibition of violacein and biofilm formation was tested at concentrations of oleoresins ranging from 1.56 and 50% v/v. The oleoresins showed a concentration dependent QS inhibitory activity and at sub-MIC of 6.25 and 12.5% v/v, the oleoresins significantly inhibited violacein production and biofilm formation (p < 0.05). Similarly, the celery oleoresin had significant QS modulatory effect on swimming, swarming and twitching motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 at 12.5% v/v (p < 0.05). The major phytoconstituents present in celery oleoresin as analysed by GC-MS were eicosadiene, benzenemethanol and methyl ester which have not been previously reported. The findings suggest that celery has QS and biofilm inhibitory potential against gram negative pathogens and can find application as food intervention techniques.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Cai Y, Wang C, Chen Z, et al (2020)

Transporters HP0939, HP0497, and HP0471 participate in intrinsic multidrug resistance and biofilm formation in Helicobacter pylori by enhancing drug efflux.

Helicobacter, 25(4):e12715.

BACKGROUND: The multidrug resistance of Helicobacter pylori is becoming an increasingly serious issue. It is therefore necessary to study the mechanism of multidrug resistance of H pylori. We have previously identified that the HP0939, HP0497, and HP0471 transporters affect the efflux of drugs from H pylori. As efflux pumps participate in bacterial multidrug resistance and biofilm formation, we hypothesized that these transporters could be involved in the multidrug resistance and biofilm formation of H pylori.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We therefore constructed three knockout strains, Δhp0939, Δhp0497, and Δhp0471, and three high-expression strains, Hp0939he , Hp0497he , and Hp0471he , using the wild-type (WT) 26 695 strain of H pylori as the template. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of wild strains, knockout strains, and high-expression strains to amoxicillin, metronidazole, and other antibiotics were measured. The efflux capacity of high-expression strains and wild strains was compared by Hoechst 33 342 accumulation assay.

RESULTS: Determination of the MIC and MBC of the antibiotics revealed that the knockout strains were more sensitive to antibiotics, while the high-expression strains were less sensitive to antibiotics, compared to the WT. The ability of the high-expression strains to efflux drugs was significantly higher than that of the WT. We also induced H pylori to form biofilms, and observed that the knockout strains could barely form biofilms and were more sensitive to several antibiotics, compared to the WT. The mRNA expression of hp0939, hp0497, and hp0471 in the clinically sensitive and multidrug-resistant strains was determined, and it was found that these genes were highly expressed in the multidrug-resistant strains that were isolated from the clinics.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found three transporters involved in intrinsic multidrug resistance of H pylori.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Chen G, H Liang (2020)

A novel c-di-GMP signal system regulates biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Microbial cell (Graz, Austria), 7(6):160-161 pii:MIC0270E121.

The bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) controls biofilm formation and other phenotypes relevant to pathogenesis. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes 17 diguanylate cyclase (DGCs) proteins which are required for c-di-GMP synthesis. Therefore, the c-di-GMP regulatory system in P. aeruginosa is highly sophisticated. SiaD, one of the DGC enzymes, is co-transcribed with SiaA/B/C and has been shown to be essential for bacterial aggregate formation in response to environmental stress. However, the detailed function of this operon remains unknown. In our recent paper (Chen et al., doi: 10.15252/embj.2019103412), we have demonstrated that the siaABCD operon encodes a signaling network that regulates biofilm and aggregate formation by modulating the enzymatic activity of SiaD. Among this signaling system, SiaC interaction with SiaD promotes the diguanylate cyclase activity of SiaD and subsequently facilities the intracellular c-di-GMP synthesis; SiaB is a unique protein kinase that phosphorylates SiaC, whereas SiaA phosphatase can dephosphorylate SiaC. The phosphorylation state of SiaC is critical for its interaction with SiaD, which will switch on or off the DGC activity of SiaD. This report unveils a novel signaling system that controls biofilm formation, which may provide a potential target for developing antimicrobial drugs.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Hamida RS, Ali MA, Goda DA, et al (2020)

Novel Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Inhibit the Biofilm Formation and Virulence Activities of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strain.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 8:433.

Emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria result in increased mortality and have negative economic impacts. It is necessary to discover new strategies to create alternative antibacterial agents that suppress the bacterial resistance mechanism and limit the spread of serious infectious bacterial diseases. Silver nanoparticles may represent a new medicinal agents as alternative antibiotics affect different bacterial mechanisms such as virulence and resistance. In addition to that of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ampicillin, for the first time, the inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Desertifilum sp. (D-SNPs) was evaluated against five pathogenic bacteria using the agar well diffusion method. Also, the influence of D-SNPs and AgNO3 on bacterial antioxidant and metabolic activities was studied. The antibacterial activity of D-SNPs and AgNO3 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was studied at the morphological and molecular level. D-SNPs and AgNO3 have the ability to inhibit the growth of the five bacterial strains and resulted in an imbalance in the CAT, GSH, GPx and ATPase levels. MRSA treated with D-SNPs and AgNO3 showed different morphological changes such as apoptotic bodies formation and cell wall damage. Moreover, both caused genotoxicity and denaturation of MRSA cellular proteins. Additionally, TEM micrographs showed the distribution of SNPs synthesized by MRSA. This result shows the ability of MRSA to reduce silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles. These data indicate that D-SNPs may be a significant alternative antibacterial agent against different bacteria, especially MDR bacteria, by targeting the virulence mechanism and biofilm formation, leading to bacterial death.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Colquhoun JM, PN Rather (2020)

Insights Into Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation in Acinetobacter baumannii and Implications for Uropathogenesis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:253.

Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a serious healthcare threat. In fact, the Center for Disease Control recently reported that carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii is responsible for more than 8,500 infections, 700 deaths, and $281 million in healthcare costs annually in the United States with few, if any, treatment options available, leading to its designation as a pathogen of urgent concern and a priority for novel antimicrobial development. It is hypothesized that biofilms are, at least in part, responsible for the high prevalence of A. baumannii nosocomial and recurrent infections because they frequently contaminate hospital surfaces and patient indwelling devices; therefore, there has been a recent push for mechanistic understanding of biofilm formation, maturation and dispersal. However, most research has focused on A. baumannii pneumonia and bloodstream infections, despite a recent retrospective study showing that 17.1% of A. baumannii isolates compiled from clinical studies over the last two decades were obtained from urinary samples. This highlights that A. baumannii is an underappreciated uropathogen. The following minireview will examine our current understanding of A. baumannii biofilm formation and how this influences urinary tract colonization and pathogenesis.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


Order from Amazon

This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )