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Bibliography on: Biofilm

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 28 Jun 2022 at 01:36 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-06-27

Liu L, He Y, Yang H, et al (2022)

Nlp enhances biofilm formation by Yersinia pestis biovar microtus.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(22)00272-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms formed by Yersinia pestis are able to attach to and block flea's proventriculus, which stimulates the transmission of this pathogen from fleas to mammals. In this study, we found that Nlp (YP1143) enhanced biofilm formation by Y. pestis and had regulatory effects on biofilm-associated genes at the transcriptional level. Phenotypic assays, including colony morphology assay, crystal violet staining, and Caenorhabditis elegans biofilm assay, disclosed that Nlp strongly promoted biofilm formation by Y. pestis. Further gene regulation assays showed that Nlp stimulated the expression of hmsHFRS, hmsCDE and hmsB, while had no regulatory effect on the expression of hmsT and hmsP at the transcriptional level. These findings promoted us to gain more understanding of the complex regulatory circuits controlling biofilm formation by Y. pestis.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Jin Y, Zhao B, Guo W, et al (2022)

Penetration and photodynamic ablation of drug-resistant biofilm by cationic Iron oxide nanoparticles.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society pii:S0168-3659(22)00379-0 [Epub ahead of print].

As we step into the post-antibiotic era, the accelerated emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria poses an increasingly serious threat to public health. The formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms further challenges currently available drugs and treatment options, calling for novel strategies for effective ablation of such biofilm with minimal concern on safety and development of resistance. Herein, we report a novel type of photodynamic nanoagent, composed of chlorin e6 (Ce6)-loaded water-soluble chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (named Ce6@WCS-IONP), for drug-resistant bacteria killing and biofilm eradication. The fabricated Ce6@WCS-IONP has negligible toxicity to mammalian cells and exhibited equivalent singlet oxygen generation capacity to free Ce6; however, its association with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was greatly enhanced, as evidenced by flow cytometry analysis and transmission electron microscope. In vitro studies verified that Ce6@WCS-IONP has superior photodynamic bactericidal effect against planktonic MRSA. Furthermore, with the aid of the cationic nature and small size, Ce6@WCS-IONP could effectively penetrate into MRSA biofilm, revealed by 3D fluorescence imaging. Both biomass analysis and viable bacteria counting demonstrated that Ce6@WCS-IONP showed potent biofilm ablation efficacy, averagely 7.1 log unit lower than that in free Ce6 group upon identical light irradiation. In addition, local treatment of MRSA-infected mice with Ce6@WCS-IONP plus light irradiation resulted in significant antibacterial and wound healing effect, accompanied by good biocompatibility in vivo. Collectively, photosensitizer-loaded cationic IONP with effective biofilm penetration and photodynamic eradication potential might be a promising nano platform in fighting against antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogen and biofilm.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Vendrell-Puigmitja L, Proia L, Espinosa C, et al (2022)

Hypersaline mining effluents affect the structure and function of stream biofilm.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)04063-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The salinisation of freshwater ecosystems is a global environmental problem that threatens biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and human welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential impact of a realistic salinity gradient on the structure and functioning of freshwater biofilms. The salinity gradient was based on the real ion concentration of a mining effluent from an abandoned mine in Germany. We exposed biofilm from a pristine stream to 5 increasing salinities (3 to 100 g L-1) under controlled conditions in artificial streams for 21 days. We evaluated its functional (photosynthetic efficiency, nutrient uptake, and microbial respiration) and structural responses (community composition, algal biomass and diatom, cyanobacteria and green algae metrics) over time. Then we compared their responses with an unexposed biofilm used as control. The functionality and structure of the biofilm exposed to the different salinities significantly decreased after short-term and long-term exposure, respectively. The community composition shifted to a new stable state where the most tolerant species increased their abundances. At the same time, we observed an increase in the community tolerance (measured as Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance) along the salinity gradient. This study provides relevant information on the salt threshold concentrations that can substantially damage algal cells (i.e., between 15 and 30 g L-1). The results provide new insights regarding the response and adaptation of stream biofilm to salinity and its potential implications at the ecosystem level.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Ben Hur D, Kapach G, Wani NA, et al (2022)

Antimicrobial Peptides against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm from Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

Journal of medicinal chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Lung infection is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and is mainly dominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Treatment of CF-associated lung infections is problematic because the drugs are vulnerable to multidrug-resistant pathogens, many of which are major biofilm producers like P. aeruginosa. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components in all life forms and exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here we investigated a series of AMPs (d,l-K6L9), each composed of six lysines and nine leucines but differing in their sequence composed of l- and d-amino acids. The d,l-K6L9 peptides showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against P. aeruginosa from CF patients. Furthermore, the data revealed that the d,l-K6L9 peptides are stable and resistant to degradation by CF sputum proteases and maintain their activity in a CF sputum environment. Additionally, the d,l-K6L9 peptides do not induce bacterial resistance. Overall, these findings should assist in the future development of alternative treatments against resistant bacterial biofilms.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Klementiev AD, M Whiteley (2022)

Development of a Versatile, Low-Cost Electrochemical System to Study Biofilm Redox Activity at the Micron Scale.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Spatially resolving chemical landscapes surrounding microbial communities can provide insight into chemical interactions that dictate cellular physiology. Electrochemical techniques provide an attractive option for studying these interactions due to their robustness and high sensitivity. Unfortunately, commercial electrochemical platforms that are capable of measuring chemical activity on the micron scale are often expensive and do not easily perform multiple scanning techniques. Here, we report development of an inexpensive electrochemical system that features a combined micromanipulator and potentiostat component capable of scanning surfaces while measuring molecular concentrations or redox profiles. We validate this experimental platform for biological use with a two-species biofilm model composed of the oral bacterial pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. We measure consumption of H2O2 by A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms temporally and spatially, providing new insights into how A. actinomycetemcomitans responds to this S. gordonii-produced metabolite. We advance our platform to spatially measure redox activity above biofilms. Our analysis supports that redox activity surrounding biofilms is species specific, and the region immediately above an S. gordonii biofilm is highly oxidized compared to that above an A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm. This work provides description and validation of a versatile, quantitative framework for studying bacterial redox-mediated physiology in an integrated and easily adaptable experimental platform. IMPORTANCE Scanning electrochemical probe microscopy methods can provide information of the chemical environment along a spatial surface with micron-scale resolution. These methods often require expensive instruments that perform optimized and highly sensitive niche techniques. Here, we describe a novel system that combines a micromanipulator that scans micron-sized electrodes across the surface of bacterial biofilms and a potentiostat, which performs various electrochemical techniques. This platform allows for spatial measurement of chemical gradients above live bacteria in real time, and as proof of concept, we utilize this setup to map H2O2 detoxification above an oral pathogen biofilm. We increased the versatility of this platform further by mapping redox potentials of biofilms in real time on the micron scale. Together, this system provides a technical framework for studying chemical interactions among microbes.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Wan P, Guo W, Wang Y, et al (2022)

Photosensitizer-Polypeptide Conjugate for Effective Elimination of Candida albicans Biofilm.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

Persistent fungal infections caused by biofilms seriously endanger human health. In this study, a photosensitizer-polypeptide conjugate (PPa-cP) comprising a photosensitizer, pyropheophorbide a (PPa), and a cationic polypeptide (cP) was readily synthesized for effective antifungal and antibiofilm treatment. Compared with free PPa, the cationic PPa-cP showed enhanced binding ability to the negatively charged surface of Candida albicans (C. albicans) through electrostatic interactions. As a result, PPa-cP exhibited effective antifungal efficiency against both C. albicans and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans in vitro under light irradiation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPa-cP for both C. albicans and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans was 1 μM. In addition, PPa-cP also showed improved penetration in C. albicans biofilm, thus effectively eliminating C. albicans biofilm by photodynamic effect. More importantly, PPa-cP demonstrated significantly enhanced therapeutic effects in a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans-infected rat model with minimal side effects. In conclusion, the current work presents an effective strategy to combat biofilm infections associated with biomedical equipment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Filemban H, Bhadila G, Wang X, et al (2022)

Novel low-shrinkage-stress bioactive nanocomposite with anti-biofilm and remineralization capabilities to inhibit caries.

Journal of dental sciences, 17(2):811-821.

Background/purpose: A common reason for dental composite restoration failure is recurrent caries at the margins. Our objectives were to: (1) develop a novel low-shrinkage-stress, antibacterial and remineralizing resin composite; (2) evaluate the effects of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) on mechanical properties, biofilm inhibition, calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release, degree of conversion, and shrinkage stress on the new low-shrinkage-stress resin composite for the first time.

Material and methods: The resin consisted of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethylene glycol divinylbenzyl ether (TEG-DVBE) with high resistance to salivary hydrolytic degradation. Composites were made with 0%-8% of DMAHDM for antibacterial activity, and 20% of nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) for remineralization. Mechanical properties and Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on composites were assessed. Ca and P ion releases, degree of conversion and shrinkage stress were evaluated.

Results: Adding 2-5% DMAHDM and 20% NACP into the low-shrinkage-stress composite did not compromise the mechanical properties (p > 0.05). The incorporation of DMAHDM greatly reduced S. mutans biofilm colony-forming units by 2-5 log and lactic acid production by 7 folds, compared to a commercial composite (p < 0.05). Adding 5% DMAHDM did not compromise the Ca and P ion release. The low-shrinkage-stress composite maintained a high degree of conversion of approximately 70%, while reducing the shrinkage stress by 37%, compared to a commercial control (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The bioactive low-shrinkage-stress composite reduced the polymerization shrinkage stress, without compromising other properties. Increasing the DMAHDM content increased the antibacterial effect in a dose-dependent manner.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Cho E, Hwang JY, Park JS, et al (2022)

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion and biofilm formation with small-molecule inhibitors of sortase A from Juniperus chinensis.

Journal of oral microbiology, 14(1):2088937 pii:2088937.

Background: Streptococcus mutans, an important Gram-positive pathogen in dental caries, uses sortase A (SrtA) to anchor surface proteins to the bacterial cell wall, thereby promoting biofilm formation and attachment to the tooth surface.

Design: Based on activity-guided separation, inhibitors of S. mutans SrtA were isolated from Juniperus chinensis and identified through combined spectroscopic analysis. Further effects of isolated SrtA inhibitor on S. mutans were evaluated on bacterial aggregation, adherence and biofilm formation.

Results: Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from the dried heartwood of J. chinensis. A novel compound designated 3',3"-dihydroxy-(-)-matairesinol (1) was identified, which exhibited potent inhibitory activity toward S. mutans SrtA (IC50 = 16.1 μM) without affecting microbial viability (minimum inhibitory concentration > 300 μM). The results of subsequent bioassays using compound 1 indicated that this compound inhibits S. mutans aggregation, adhesion and biofilm formation on solid surfaces by inhibiting SrtA activity. The onset and magnitude of inhibition of adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans treated with compound 1 at 4× the SrtA IC50 are comparable to the behaviors of the untreated srtA-deletion mutant.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that small-molecule inhibitors of S. mutans SrtA may be useful for the prevention of dental plaque and treatment of dental microbial diseases.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Li Y, Chen N, Wu Q, et al (2022)

A Flagella Hook Coding Gene flgE Positively Affects Biofilm Formation and Cereulide Production in Emetic Bacillus cereus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:897836.

Bacillus cereus, an important foodborne pathogen, poses a risk to food safety and quality. Robust biofilm formation ability is one of the key properties that is responsible for the food contamination and food poisoning caused by B. cereus, especially the emetic strains. To investigate the mechanism of biofilm formation in emetic B. cereus strains, we screened for the mutants that fail to form biofilms by using random mutagenesis toward B. cereus 892-1, an emetic strain with strong biofilm formation ability. When knocking out flgE, a flagellar hook encoding gene, the mutant showed disappearance of flagellar structure and swimming ability. Further analysis revealed that both pellicle and ring presented defects in the null mutant compared with the wild-type and complementary strains. Compared with the flagellar paralytic strains Δ motA and Δ motB, the inhibition of biofilm formation by Δ flgE is not only caused by the inhibition of motility. Interestingly, Δ flgE also decreased the synthesis of cereulide. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that a flagellar component can both affect the biofilm formation and cereulide production in emetic B. cereus, which can be used as the target to control the biohazard of emetic B. cereus.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Liu J, Zhu Y, Li Y, et al (2022)

Bacteriophage-Resistant Mutant of Enterococcus faecalis Is Impaired in Biofilm Formation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:913023.

Enterococcus faecalis is a common gram-positive non-spore-forming bacterium in nature and is found in the upper respiratory tract, intestine, and mouth of healthy people. E. faecalis is also one of the common pathogens causing nosocomial infections and is resistant to several antibiotics commonly used in practice. Thus, treating drug-resistant E. faecalis with antibiotics is challenging, and new approaches are needed. In this study, we isolated a bacteriophage named EFap02 that targets E. faecalis strain EFa02 from sewage at Southwest Hospital. Phage EFap02 belongs to the Siphoviridae family with a long tail of approximately 210 nm, and EFap02 can tolerate a strong acid and alkali environment and high temperature. Its receptor was identified as the capsular polysaccharide. Phage-resistant mutants had loss-of-function mutations in glycosyltransferase (gtr2), which is responsible for capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis, and this caused the loss of capsular polysaccharide and interruption of phage adsorption. Although phage-resistant mutants against EFap02 can be selected, such mutants are impaired in biofilm formation due to the loss of capsular polysaccharide, which compromises its virulence. Therefore, this study provided a detailed description of the E. faecalis EFap02 phage with the potential for treating E. faecalis infection.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Ghafil JA, İbrahim BMS, AK Zgair (2022)

Coating indwelling urinary catheters with moxifloxacin prevents biofilm formation by Burkholderia cepacia.

Polimery w medycynie [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia adhesion and biofilm formation onto abiotic surfaces is an important feature of clinically relevant isolates. The in vitro biofilm formation of B. cepacia onto coated indwelling urinary catheters (IDCs) with moxifloxacin has not been previously investigated.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the ability of B. cepacia to form biofilms on IDCs and the effect of coating IDCs with moxifloxacin on biofilm formation by B. cepacia in vitro.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The adhesion of B. cepacia to coated and uncoated IDCs with moxifloxacin was evaluated. Pieces of IDCs were coated with moxifloxacin (adsorption method). The spectrophotometric method was used to check moxifloxacin leaching into tubes. Coated and uncoated tubes were incubated with 107 colony forming units (cfu)/mL of B. cepacia. The viable bacterial count was used to count the number of bacteria adhered to coated and uncoated IDC pieces.

RESULTS: A significant adhesion of B. cepacia to uncoated IDC pieces started 15 min after the incubation in a bacterial suspension (107 cfu/mL). A maximum adhesion was observed at 48 h. The pretreatment of IDCs with 100 μg/mL of moxifloxacin produced the best adsorption of antibiotic onto the IDCs. Coating IDC pieces with moxifloxacin significantly reduced the adhesion and biofilm formation of B. cepacia (p < 0.05) at various time intervals (1 h, 4 h and 24 h).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study has demonstrated for the first time that coated IDCs with moxifloxacin reduce B. cepacia adhesion and biofilm formation. This finding has opened the door to the production of the new generation IDCs that prevent bacteria from attaching and forming biofilms.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Mishra P, Ch S, Hong SJ, et al (2022)

Antimicrobial peptide S100A12 (calgranulin C) inhibits growth, biofilm formation, pyoverdine secretion and suppresses type VI secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(22)00267-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and is the major cause of corneal infections in India and worldwide. The increase in antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas has prompted rise in significant research to develop alternative therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as potent alternatives to combat bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of S100A12, a host defense peptide, against PAO1 and an ocular clinical isolate. Increased expression of S100A12 was observed in corneal tissues obtained from Pseudomonas keratitis patients by immunohistochemistry. S100A12 significantly inhibited growth of Pseudomonas in vitro as determined from colony forming units. Furthermore, recombinant S100A12 reduced the corneal opacity and the bacterial load in a mouse model of Pseudomonas keratitis. Transcriptome changes in PAO1 in response to S100A12 was investigated using RNA sequencing. The pathway analysis of transcriptome data revealed that S100A12 inhibits expression of genes involved in pyoverdine synthesis and biofilm formation. It also impedes several important pathways like redox, pyocyanin synthesis and type 6 secretion system (T6SS). The transcriptome data was further validated by checking the expression of several affected genes by quantitative PCR. Our study sheds light on how S100A12 impacts Pseudomonas and that it might have the potential to be used as therapeutic intervention in addition to antibiotics to combat infection in future.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Revie NM, Iyer KR, Maxson ME, et al (2022)

Targeting fungal membrane homeostasis with imidazopyrazoindoles impairs azole resistance and biofilm formation.

Nature communications, 13(1):3634.

Fungal infections cause more than 1.5 million deaths annually. With an increase in immune-deficient susceptible populations and the emergence of antifungal drug resistance, there is an urgent need for novel strategies to combat these life-threatening infections. Here, we use a combinatorial screening approach to identify an imidazopyrazoindole, NPD827, that synergizes with fluconazole against azole-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Candida albicans. NPD827 interacts with sterols, resulting in profound effects on fungal membrane homeostasis and induction of membrane-associated stress responses. The compound impairs virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of candidiasis, blocks C. albicans filamentation in vitro, and prevents biofilm formation in a rat model of catheter infection by C. albicans. Collectively, this work identifies an imidazopyrazoindole scaffold with a non-protein-targeted mode of action that re-sensitizes the leading human fungal pathogen, C. albicans, to azole antifungals.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Cheng Y, Wang H, Deng Z, et al (2022)

Efficient removal of Imidacloprid and nutrients by algae-bacteria biofilm reactor (ABBR) in municipal wastewater: Performance, mechanisms and the importance of illumination.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)01911-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Neonicotinoids, such as Imidacloprid (IMI), are frequently detected in water and wastewater, posing a threat on both the environment and the health of living things. In this work, a novel algae-bacteria biofilm reactor (ABBR) was constructed to remove IMI and conventional nutrients from municipal wastewater, aiming to explore the removal effect and advantage of ABBR. Results showed that ABBR achieved 74.9% removal of IMI under 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 light, higher than photobioreactor (PBR) without biofilm (61.2%) or ABBR under 40 μmol·m-2·s-1 light (48.4%) after 16 days of operation. Moreover, it also showed that ABBR allowed a marked improvement on the removal of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). ABBR showed different IMI removal efficiencies and bacterial communities under different light conditions, indicating that light played an important role in driving ABBR. The merits of ABBR are including (i) ABBR showed rapid pollutant removal in a short time, (ii) in ABBR, stable consortiums were formed and chlorophyll content in effluent was very low, (iii) compared with PBR, degradation products in ABBR showed lower biological toxicity. Our study highlights the benefits of ABBR on IMI removing from municipal wastewater and provides an effective and environment-friendly engineering application potential of IMI removal.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Chen X, Yuan C, Zhu Y, et al (2022)

Bioaugmentation with Acinetobacter sp. TAC-1 to enhance nitrogen removal in swine wastewater by moving bed biofilm reactor inoculated with bacteria.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)00835-5 [Epub ahead of print].

To enhance the performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) inoculated with heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD) bacteria, bioaugmentation with Acinetobacter sp. TAC-1 was firstly employed and then the treatment performance for real swine wastewater was presented in this study. Results indicated that NH4+-N and TN removal rates of bioaugmented reactor were significantly improved from 16.53 mg/L/h and 16.15 mg/L/h to 24.58 mg/L/h and 24.45 mg/L/h, respectively. The efficient removal performance (NH4+-N 95.01%, TN 86.40%) for real swine wastewater was achieved within 24 h. Microbial analysis indicated that the composition of functional bacteria varied with the introduction of Acinetobacter sp. TAC-1, especially the abundance of Acinetobacter, Paracoccus and Rhodococcus related to the nitrogen removal. Furthermore, bioaugmentation with Acinetobacter sp. TAC-1 increased abundance of enzymes and functional genes (nirS, nirK and norZ) corresponding to denitrification that may be responsible for the enhanced nitrogen removal performance.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Di Ciccio P, Rubiola S, Panebianco F, et al (2022)

Biofilm formation and genomic features of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from meat and dairy industries located in Piedmont (Italy).

International journal of food microbiology, 378:109784 pii:S0168-1605(22)00256-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Listeria monocytogenes is considered a major challenge for the food industry as it can persist for long periods in food processing plants by forming biofilms. The aims of this study were: i) to assess the biofilm producing ability of 57 Listeria monocytogenes isolates previously subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS); ii) to compare the levels of biofilm formation with the presence or absence of biofilm associated genes. To determine the presence or absence of a known set of biofilm associated genes, a comparative genomic analysis was performed on each strain. Among Listeria monocytogenes isolates, 58 %, 38.5 % and 3.5 % exhibited weak, moderate or strong biofilm production, respectively. No difference in biofilm production was observed between food and environmental isolates. The percentage of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from meat products (57 %) classified as moderate or strong biofilm producers was higher than the percentage obtained for strains isolated from dairy products (28 %). The presence of the Stress Survival Islet 1, the arsD stress gene and the truncated inlA protein was significantly associated with increased levels of biofilm. Combining biofilm phenotype with molecular and genotyping data may provide the opportunity to better understand the relationship between genes linked to biofilm formation in Listeria monocytogenes.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Balu S, Bhunia S, Gachhui R, et al (2022)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sequestration by intertidal phototrophic biofilms cultivated in hydrophobic and hydrophilic biofilm-promoting culture vessels.

Journal of hazardous materials, 437:129318 pii:S0304-3894(22)01108-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Phototrophic biofilms collected from intertidal sediments of the world's largest tidal mangrove forest were cultured in two sets of a biofilm-promoting culture vessel having hydrophilic glass surface and hydrophobic polymethyl methacrylate surface wherein 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were spiked. Biofilms from three locations of the forest were most active in sequestering 98-100% of the spiked pollutants. PAH challenge did not alter the biofilm phototrophic community composition; rather biofilm biomass production and synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were enhanced. Photosynthetic pigment and EPS synthesis were sensitive to vessel-surface property. The lowest mean residual amounts of PAHs in the liquid medium as well as inside the biofilm were recorded in the very biofilm cultivated in the hydrophobic flask where highest values of biofilm biomass, total chlorophyll, released polysaccharidic (RPS) carbohydrates, RPS uronic acids, capsular polysaccharidic (CPS) carbohydrates, CPS proteins, CPS uronic acids and EPS hydrophobicity were obtained. Ratios of released RPS proteins: polysaccharides increased during PAH sequestration whereas the ratios of CPS proteins: polysaccharides remained constant. Efficacious PAH removal by the overlying phototrophic biofilm will reduce the entry of these contaminants in the sediments underneath and this strategy could be a model for "monitored natural recovery".

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Nishimura A, Nakagami K, Kan K, et al (2022)

Arginine inhibits Saccharomyces cerevisiae biofilm formation by inducing endocytosis of the arginine transporter Can1.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry pii:6617583 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms are formed by the aggregation of microorganisms into multicellular structures that adhere to surfaces. Biofilm formation by yeast is a critical issue in clinical and industrial fields because of the strong adhesion of yeast biofilm to abiotic surfaces and tissues. Here, we clarified the arginine-mediated inhibition of biofilm formation by yeast. First, we showed that arginine inhibits biofilm formation in fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata, and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but not in bacteria. In regard to the underlying mechanism, biochemical analysis indicated that arginine inhibits biofilm formation by suppressing Flo11-dependent flocculation. Intriguingly, a strain with deletion of the arginine transporter-encoding CAN1 was insensitive to arginine-mediated inhibition of biofilm formation. Finally, Can1 endocytosis appeared to be required for the inhibitory mechanism of biofilm formation by arginine. The present results could help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of yeast biofilm formation and its control.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Dollery SJ, Harro JM, Wiggins TJ, et al (2022)

Select Whole-Cell Biofilm-Based Immunogens Protect against a Virulent Staphylococcus Isolate in a Stringent Implant Model of Infection.

Vaccines, 10(6): pii:vaccines10060833.

Many microbes of concern to human health remain without vaccines. We have developed a whole-microbe inactivation technology that enables us to rapidly inactivate large quantities of a pathogen while retaining epitopes that were destroyed by previous inactivation methods. The method that we call UVC-MDP inactivation can be used to make whole-cell vaccines with increased potency. We and others are exploring the possibility of using improved irradiation-inactivation technologies to develop whole-cell vaccines for numerous antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we apply UVC-MDP to produce candidate MRSA vaccines which we test in a stringent tibia implant model of infection challenged with a virulent MSRA strain. We report high levels of clearance in the model and observe a pattern of protection that correlates with the immunogen protein profile used for vaccination.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Falanga A, Maione A, La Pietra A, et al (2022)

Competitiveness during Dual-Species Biofilm Formation of Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans and a Novel Treatment Strategy.

Pharmaceutics, 14(6): pii:pharmaceutics14061167.

During an infection, a single or multispecies biofilm can develop. Infections caused by non-dermatophyte molds, such as Fusarium spp. and yeasts, such as Candida spp., are particularly difficult to treat due to the formation of a mixed biofilm of the two species. Fusarium oxysporum is responsible for approximately 20% of human fusariosis, while Candida albicans is responsible for superficial mucosal and dermal infections and for disseminated bloodstream infections with a mortality rate above 40%. This study aims to investigate the interactions between C. albicans and F. oxysporum dual-species biofilm, considering variable formation conditions. Further, the ability of the WMR peptide, a modified version of myxinidin, to eradicate the mixed biofilm when used alone or in combination with fluconazole (FLC) was tested, and the efficacy of the combination of WMR and FLC at low doses was assessed, as well as its effect on the expression of some biofilm-related adhesin and hyphal regulatory genes. Finally, in order to confirm our findings in vivo and explore the synergistic effect of the two drugs, we utilized the Galleria mellonella infection model. We concluded that C. albicans negatively affects F. oxysporum growth in mixed biofilms. Combinatorial treatment by WMR and FLC significantly reduced the biomass and viability of both species in mature mixed biofilms, and these effects coincided with the reduced expression of biofilm-related genes in both fungi. Our results were confirmed in vivo since the synergistic antifungal activity of WMR and FLC increased the survival of infected larvae and reduced tissue invasion. These findings highlight the importance of drug combinations as an alternative treatment for C. albicans and F. oxysporum mixed biofilms.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Lattwein KR, Beekers I, Kouijzer JJP, et al (2022)

Dispersing and Sonoporating Biofilm-Associated Bacteria with Sonobactericide.

Pharmaceutics, 14(6): pii:pharmaceutics14061164.

Bacteria encased in a biofilm poses significant challenges to successful treatment, since both the immune system and antibiotics are ineffective. Sonobactericide, which uses ultrasound and microbubbles, is a potential new strategy for increasing antimicrobial effectiveness or directly killing bacteria. Several studies suggest that sonobactericide can lead to bacterial dispersion or sonoporation (i.e., cell membrane permeabilization); however, real-time observations distinguishing individual bacteria during and directly after insonification are missing. Therefore, in this study, we investigated, in real-time and at high-resolution, the effects of ultrasound-induced microbubble oscillation on Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, without or with an antibiotic (oxacillin, 1 μg/mL). Biofilms were exposed to ultrasound (2 MHz, 100-400 kPa, 100-1000 cycles, every second for 30 s) during time-lapse confocal microscopy recordings of 10 min. Bacterial responses were quantified using post hoc image analysis with particle counting. Bacterial dispersion was observed as the dominant effect over sonoporation, resulting from oscillating microbubbles. Increasing pressure and cycles both led to significantly more dispersion, with the highest pressure leading to the most biofilm removal (up to 83.7%). Antibiotic presence led to more variable treatment responses, yet did not significantly impact the therapeutic efficacy of sonobactericide, suggesting synergism is not an immediate effect. These findings elucidate the direct effects induced by sonobactericide to best utilize its potential as a biofilm treatment strategy.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Silva V, Correia E, Pereira JE, et al (2022)

Exploring the Biofilm Formation Capacity in S. pseudintermedius and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Species.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:pathogens11060689.

The ability of biofilm formation seems to play an important role in the virulence of staphylococci. However, studies reporting biofilm formation of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from animals are still very scarce. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the biofilm-forming capacity of CoNS and S. pseudintermedius isolated from several animal species and to investigate the effect of conventional antimicrobials on biofilm reduction. A total of 35 S. pseudintermedius and 192 CoNS were included. Biofilm formation was accessed by the microtiter plate assay and the biofilms were stained by crystal violet. Association between biofilm formation and staphylococci species and antimicrobial resistance was also performed. Biofilm susceptibility testing was performed with tetracycline and amikacin at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 10 × MIC. The metabolic activity of the biofilm cells after antimicrobial treatment was accessed by the XTT assay. All isolates formed biofilm, with S. urealyticus producing the most biofilm biomass and S. pseudintermedius producing the least biomass. There was a positive association between biofilm formation and multidrug resistance as well as resistance to individual antimicrobials. Neither tetracycline nor amikacin were able to eradicate the biofilm, not even at the highest concentration used. This study provides new insights into biofilm formation and the effects of antimicrobials on CoNS species.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Matchawong A, Srisawat C, Sangboonruang S, et al (2022)

The Ability of Nuclease-Resistant RNA Aptamer against Streptococcus suis Serotype 2, Strain P1/7 to Reduce Biofilm Formation In Vitro.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(12): pii:molecules27123894.

Streptococcus suis, a Gram-positive bacterium, is an important swine and human pathogen, with serotype 2 being the most prevalent strain found worldwide. Deafness, meningitis, and death (in severe cases) are observed in S. suis-infected cases. Development of the ligands that can bind to S. suis with high affinity and specificity could be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of S. suis infection. Herein, the nuclease-resistant RNA aptamers based on 2'-fluoropyrimidine modification against S. suis serotype 2, strain P1/7, were established using the cell- Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX) technique. One of the aptamers, R8-su12, could bind to the S. suis target strain as well as other S. suis serotypes, i.e., 1, 1/2, 9, and 14, but not to other bacteria tested, i.e., S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Moreover, the R8-su12 RNA aptamer was also capable of inhibiting the biofilm formation of the S. suis target strain, making it potentially useful for the study of biofilm formation and the treatment of S. suis infection in humans and pigs in the future.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Sionov RV, D Steinberg (2022)

Targeting the Holy Triangle of Quorum Sensing, Biofilm Formation, and Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061239.

Chronic and recurrent bacterial infections are frequently associated with the formation of biofilms on biotic or abiotic materials that are composed of mono- or multi-species cultures of bacteria/fungi embedded in an extracellular matrix produced by the microorganisms. Biofilm formation is, among others, regulated by quorum sensing (QS) which is an interbacterial communication system usually composed of two-component systems (TCSs) of secreted autoinducer compounds that activate signal transduction pathways through interaction with their respective receptors. Embedded in the biofilms, the bacteria are protected from environmental stress stimuli, and they often show reduced responses to antibiotics, making it difficult to eradicate the bacterial infection. Besides reduced penetration of antibiotics through the intricate structure of the biofilms, the sessile biofilm-embedded bacteria show reduced metabolic activity making them intrinsically less sensitive to antibiotics. Moreover, they frequently express elevated levels of efflux pumps that extrude antibiotics, thereby reducing their intracellular levels. Some efflux pumps are involved in the secretion of QS compounds and biofilm-related materials, besides being important for removing toxic substances from the bacteria. Some efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) have been shown to both prevent biofilm formation and sensitize the bacteria to antibiotics, suggesting a relationship between these processes. Additionally, QS inhibitors or quenchers may affect antibiotic susceptibility. Thus, targeting elements that regulate QS and biofilm formation might be a promising approach to combat antibiotic-resistant biofilm-related bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Tuck B, Watkin E, Somers A, et al (2022)

Enhancing Biocide Efficacy: Targeting Extracellular DNA for Marine Biofilm Disruption.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061227.

Biofilm formation is a global health, safety and economic concern. The extracellular composition of deleterious multispecies biofilms remains uncanvassed, leading to an absence of targeted biofilm mitigation strategies. Besides economic incentives, drive also exists from industry and research to develop and apply environmentally sustainable chemical treatments (biocides); especially in engineered systems associated with the marine environment. Recently, extracellular DNA (eDNA) was implicated as a critical structural polymer in marine biofilms. Additionally, an environmentally sustainable, multi-functional biocide was also introduced to manage corrosion and biofilm formation. To anticipate biofilm tolerance acquisition to chemical treatments and reduce biocide application quantities, the present research investigated eDNA as a target for biofilm dispersal and potential enhancement of biocide function. Results indicate that mature biofilm viability can be reduced by two-fold using reduced concentrations of the biocide alone (1 mM instead of the recommended 10 mM). Importantly, through the incorporation of an eDNA degradation stage, biocide function could be enhanced by a further ~90% (one further log reduction in viability). Biofilm architecture analysis post-treatment revealed that endonuclease targeting of the matrix allowed greater biocide penetration, leading to the observed viability reduction. Biofilm matrix eDNA is a promising target for biofilm dispersal and antimicrobial enhancement in clinical and engineered systems.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Kozień Ł, Gallienne E, Martin O, et al (2022)

PDIA, an Iminosugar Compound with a Wide Biofilm Inhibitory Spectrum Covering Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Human Bacterial Pathogens.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061222.

Many difficult-to-treat human infections related to catheters and other indwelling devices are caused by bacteria residing in biofilms. One of the key properties of microorganisms residing in a biofilm is decreased susceptibility towards antimicrobial agents. Therefore, many different approaches have been researched to destroy or inhibit biofilm production by bacteria. Different iminosugars (IS) were reported to inhibit biofilm formation in S. mutans, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to look for a spectrum of the activity in one of these IS. The iminosugar PDIA beta-1-C-propyl-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol was tested in vitro at the same concentration against 30 different strains of the most important Gram-negative and Gram-positive human pathogens looking for their biofilm production and viability at different time intervals. It appeared that PDIA inhibited biofilm production of Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and S. aureus in 8 h, and Klebsiella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and S.epidermidis in 24 h. PDIA caused no growth inhibition of the tested bacteria at a concentration of 0.9 mM. Our results indicate a broad-spectrum biofilm inhibitory activity of PDIA. which may be the basis for future application studies that will help in control of the associated device and biofilm-related infections caused by a wide spectrum of the causative agents.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Drożdż K, Ochońska D, Ścibik Ł, et al (2022)

The Frequency of Occurrence of Resistance and Genes Involved in the Process of Adhesion and Accumulation of Biofilm in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Tracheostomy Tubes.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061210.

Background: Bacterial biofilm on the surface of tracheostomy tubes (TTs) is a potential reservoir of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including S. aureus. For this reason, our study aimed to investigate biofilm production in vitro and the presence of icaAD and MSCRAMM genes in clinical S. aureus strains derived from TTs, with respect to antibiotic resistance and genetic variability. Methods: The clonality of the S. aureus strains was analyzed by the PFGE method. The assessment of drug resistance was based on the EUCAST recommendations. The isolates were evaluated for biofilm production by the microtiter plate method and the slime-forming ability was tested on Congo red agar (CRA). The presence of icaAD genes was investigated by PCR and MSCRAMM genes were detected by multiplex PCR. Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. One TT was obtained from each patient (n = 60). Twenty-one TTs (35%) were colonized with S. aureus. A total of 24 strains were isolated as 3 patients showed colonization with 2 SA clones (as confirmed by PFGE). PFGE showed twenty-two unique molecular profiles. Two isolates (8%) turned out to be MRSA, but 50% were resistant to chloramphenicol, 25% to erythromycin and 8% to clindamycin (two cMLSB and four iMLSB phenotypes were detected). The microtiter plate method with crystal violet confirmed that 96% of the strains were biofilm formers. Representative strains were visualized by SEM. All isolates had clfAB, fnbA, ebpS and icaAD. Different MSCRAMM gene combinations were observed. Conclusions: the present study showed that the S. aureus isolated from the TTs has a high diversity of genotypes, a high level of antibiotic resistance and ability to produce biofilm.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Hou J, Wang L, Alm M, et al (2022)

Enhanced Antibiotic Tolerance of an In Vitro Multispecies Uropathogen Biofilm Model, Useful for Studies of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061207.

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are a common clinical concern as they can lead to severe, persistent infections or bacteremia in long-term catheterized patients. This type of CAUTI is difficult to eradicate, as they are caused by multispecies biofilms that may have reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. Many new strategies to tackle CAUTI have been proposed in the past decade, including antibiotic combination treatments, surface modification and probiotic usage. However, those strategies were mainly assessed on mono- or dual-species biofilms that hardly represent the long-term CAUTI cases where, normally, 2-4 or even more species can be involved. We developed a four-species in vitro biofilm model on catheters involving clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis isolated from indwelling catheters. Interspecies interactions and responses to antibiotics were quantitatively assessed. Collaborative as well as competitive interactions were found among members in our model biofilm and those interactions affected the individual species' abundances upon exposure to antibiotics as mono-, dual- or multispecies biofilms. Our study shows complex interactions between species during the assessment of CAUTI control strategies for biofilms and highlights the necessity of evaluating treatment and control regimes in a multispecies setting.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Kolodkin-Gal I, Cohen-Cymberknoh M, Zamir G, et al (2022)

Targeting Persistent Biofilm Infections: Reconsidering the Topography of the Infection Site during Model Selection.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061164.

The physiology of an organism in the environment reflects its interactions with the diverse physical, chemical, and biological properties of the surface. These principles come into consideration during model selection to study biofilm-host interactions. Biofilms are communities formed by beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, where cells are held together by a structured extracellular matrix. When biofilms are associated with a host, chemical gradients and their origins become highly relevant. Conventional biofilm laboratory models such as multiwall biofilm models and agar plate models poorly mimic these gradients. In contrast, ex vivo models possess the partial capacity to mimic the conditions of tissue-associated biofilm and a biofilm associated with a mineralized surface enriched in inorganic components, such as the human dentin. This review will highlight the progress achieved using these settings for two models of persistent infections: the infection of the lung tissue by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the infection of the root canal by Enterococcus faecalis. For both models, we conclude that the limitations of the conventional in vitro systems necessitate a complimentary experimentation with clinically relevant ex vivo models during therapeutics development.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Carcione D, Leccese G, Conte G, et al (2022)

Lack of Direct Correlation between Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Resistance in Clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from an Italian Hospital.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061163.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. In this work, we show that, among 51 S. epidermidis isolates from an Italian hospital, only a minority displayed biofilm formation, regardless of their isolation source (peripheral blood, catheter, or skin wounds); however, among the biofilm-producing isolates, those from catheters were the most efficient in biofilm formation. Interestingly, most isolates including strong biofilm producers displayed production levels of PIA (polysaccharide intercellular adhesin), the main S. epidermidis extracellular polysaccharide, similar to reference S. epidermidis strains classified as non-biofilm formers, and much lower than those classified as intermediate or high biofilm formers, possibly suggesting that high levels of PIA production do not confer a particular advantage for clinical isolates. Finally, while for the reference S. epidermidis strains the biofilm production clearly correlated with the decreased sensitivity to antibiotics, in particular, protein synthesis inhibitors, in our clinical isolates, such positive correlation was limited to tetracycline. In contrast, we observed an inverse correlation between biofilm formation and the minimal inhibitory concentrations for levofloxacin and teicoplanin. In addition, in growth conditions favoring PIA production, the biofilm-forming isolates showed increased sensitivity to daptomycin, clindamycin, and erythromycin, with increased tolerance to the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole association. The lack of direct correlation between the biofilm production and increased tolerance to antibiotics in S. epidermidis isolates from a clinical setting would suggest, at least for some antimicrobials, the possible existence of a trade-off between the production of biofilm determinants and antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Ma PY, Chong CW, Than LTL, et al (2022)

Impact of IsaA Gene Disruption: Decreasing Staphylococcal Biofilm and Alteration of Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profiles.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061119.

Staphylococcus aureus expresses diverse proteins at different stages of growth. The immunodominant staphylococcal antigen A (IsaA) is one of the proteins that is constitutively produced by S. aureus during colonisation and infection. SACOL2584 (or isaA) is the gene that encodes this protein. It has been suggested that IsaA can hydrolyse cell walls, and there is still need to study isaA gene disruption to analyse its impact on staphylococcal phenotypes and on alteration to its transcription and protein profiles. In the present study, the growth curve in RPMI medium (which mimics human plasma), autolytic activity, cell wall morphology, fibronectin and fibrinogen adhesion and biofilm formation of S. aureus SH1000 (wildtype) was compared to that of S. aureus MS001 (isaA mutant). RNA sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were carried out on samples of both S. aureus strains taken during the exponential growth phase, followed by bioinformatics analysis. Disruption of isaA had no obvious effect on the growth curve and autolysis ability or thickness of cell walls, but this study revealed significant strength of fibronectin adherence in S. aureus MS001. In particular, the isaA mutant formed less biofilm than S. aureus SH1000. In addition, proteomics and transcriptomics showed that the adhesin/biofilm-related genes and hemolysin genes, such as sasF, sarX and hlgC, were consistently downregulated with isaA gene disruption. The majority of the upregulated genes or proteins in S. aureus MS001 were pur genes. Taken together, this study provides insight into how isaA disruption changes the expression of other genes and has implications regarding biofilm formation and biological processes.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Qin Y, Angelini LL, Y Chai (2022)

Bacillus subtilis Cell Differentiation, Biofilm Formation and Environmental Prevalence.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061108.

Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling, spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium capable of cell differentiation. For decades, B. subtilis has been used as a model organism to study development of specialized cell types. In this minireview, we discuss cell differentiation in B. subtilis, covering both past research and recent progresses, and the role of cell differentiation in biofilm formation and prevalence of this bacterium in the environment. We review B. subtilis as a classic model for studies of endospore formation, and highlight more recent investigations on cell fate determination and generation of multiple cell types during biofilm formation. We present mechanistic details of how cell fate determination and mutually exclusive cell differentiation are regulated during biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Ballén V, Cepas V, Ratia C, et al (2022)

Clinical Escherichia coli: From Biofilm Formation to New Antibiofilm Strategies.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061103.

Escherichia coli is one of the species most frequently involved in biofilm-related diseases, being especially important in urinary tract infections, causing relapses or chronic infections. Compared to their planktonic analogues, biofilms confer to the bacteria the capacity to be up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics and to evade the action of the host's immune system. For this reason, biofilm-related infections are very difficult to treat. To develop new strategies against biofilms, it is important to know the mechanisms involved in their formation. In this review, the different steps of biofilm formation in E. coli, the mechanisms of tolerance to antimicrobials and new compounds and strategies to combat biofilms are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Lacotte PA, Simons A, Bouttier S, et al (2022)

Inhibition of In Vitro Clostridioides difficile Biofilm Formation by the Probiotic Yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 through Modification of the Extracellular Matrix Composition.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061082.

Clostridioides difficile is responsible for post-antibiotic diarrhea and most of the pseudomembranous colitis cases. Multiple recurrences, one of the major challenges faced in C. difficile infection (CDI) management, can be considered as chronic infections, and the role of biofilm formation in CDI recurrences is now widely considered. Therefore, we explored if the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 could impact the in vitro formation of C. difficile biofilm. Biomass staining and viable bacterial cell quantification showed that live S. boulardii exerts an antagonistic effect on the biofilm formation for the three C. difficile strains tested. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation revealed a weakening and an average thickness reduction of the biofilm structure when C. difficile is co-incubated with S. boulardii, compared to the single-species bacterial biofilm structure. These effects, that were not detected with another genetically close yeast, S. cerevisiae, seemed to require direct contact between the probiotic yeast and the bacterium. Quantification of the extrapolymeric matrix components, as well as results obtained after DNase treatment, revealed a significant decrease of eDNA, an essential structural component of the C. difficile biofilm matrix, in the dual-species biofilm. This modification could explain the reduced cohesion and robustness of C. difficile biofilms formed in the presence of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 and be involved in S. boulardii clinical preventive effect against CDI recurrences.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

De Francesco F, Riccio M, S Jimi (2022)

Contribution of Topical Agents such as Hyaluronic Acid and Silver Sulfadiazine to Wound Healing and Management of Bacterial Biofilm.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 58(6): pii:medicina58060835.

Background and Objectives: Wound healing is commonly associated with critical bacterial colonization or bacterial infection, which induces prolonged inflammation, resulting in delayed re-epithelialization. An appropriate wound dressing requires a humid environment, which also functions as a barrier against bacterial contamination and will accelerate a regenerative response of the wound. Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is used to prevent wound infection. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an extracellular matrix component involved in tissue regeneration. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cream and gauze pads based on hyaluronic acid at low molecular weight (200 kDa) and silver sulfadiazine 1% in the wound healing process. In addition, we examined SSD action on biofilms in vitro and on animal wounds, obtaining positive outcomes therefrom. Materials and Methods: We selected 80 patients with complicated chronic wounds of different etiologies, including diabetes mellitus (10), post-traumatic ulcers (45), burns (15), and superficial abrasion (10). Results: After 8 weeks, ulcer size was decreased in 95 ± 2% of the treated patients; a significant reduction in the inflammatory process was observed from day 14 onwards (p < 0.01 vs. baseline), considering improvement of the surrounding skin and reduction of the bacterial load. The SSD treatment decreased bacterial colony proliferation, both in planktonic state and in biofilm, in a dose-dependent manner on the wound but inhibited the development of tissue granulation at the highest dose (800 μg/wound). Conclusions: In conclusion, the combined action of SSD and HA is clinically effective in improving wound healing.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Gaglione R, Pane K, De Luca M, et al (2022)

Novel Antimicrobial Strategies to Prevent Biofilm Infections in Catheters after Radical Cystectomy: A Pilot Study.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:life12060802.

Catheter-associated infections in bladder cancer patients, following radical cystectomy or ureterocutaneostomy, are very frequent, and the development of antibiotic resistance poses great challenges for treating biofilm-based infections. Here, we characterized bacterial communities from catheters of patients who had undergone radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of conventional antibiotics, alone or combined with the human ApoB-derived antimicrobial peptide r(P)ApoBLAla, to treat ureteral catheter-colonizing bacterial communities on clinically isolated bacteria. Microbial communities adhering to indwelling catheters were collected during the patients' regular catheter change schedules (28 days) and extracted within 48 h. Living bacteria were characterized using selective media and biochemical assays. Biofilm growth and novel antimicrobial strategies were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Statistical analyses confirmed the relevance of the biofilm reduction induced by conventional antibiotics (fosfomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tetracycline) and a well-characterized human antimicrobial peptide r(P)ApoBLAla (1:20 ratio, respectively). Catheters showed polymicrobial communities, with Enterobactericiae and Proteus isolates predominating. In all samples, we recorded a meaningful reduction in biofilms, in both biomass and thickness, upon treatment with the antimicrobial peptide r(P)ApoBLAla in combination with low concentrations of conventional antibiotics. The results suggest that combinations of conventional antibiotics and human antimicrobial peptides might synergistically counteract biofilm growth on ureteral catheters, suggesting novel avenues for preventing catheter-associated infections in patients who have undergone radical cystectomy and ureterocutaneostomy.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Jahan F, Chinni SV, Samuggam S, et al (2022)

The Complex Mechanism of the Salmonella&nbsp;typhi Biofilm Formation That Facilitates Pathogenicity: A Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126462.

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, where biofilm (aggregation and colonization of cells) formation is one of their advantageous traits. Salmonella typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in the human body and is exceptionally host specific. It is transmitted through the fecal-oral route by consuming contaminated food or water. This subspecies is quite intelligent to evade the innate detection and immune response of the host body, leading to systemic dissemination. Consequently, during the period of illness, the gallbladder becomes a harbor and may develop antibiotic resistance. Afterwards, they start contributing to the continuous damage of epithelium cells and make the host asymptomatic and potential carriers of this pathogen for an extended period. Statistically, almost 5% of infected people with Salmonella typhi become chronic carriers and are ready to contribute to future transmission by biofilm formation. Biofilm development is already recognized to link with pathogenicity and plays a crucial role in persistency within the human body. This review seeks to discuss some of the crucial factors related to biofilm development and its mechanism of interaction causing pathogenicity. Understanding the connections between these things will open up a new avenue for finding therapeutic approaches to combat pathogenicity.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Rahman MA, Amirkhani A, Chowdhury D, et al (2022)

Proteome of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Changes Significantly with Aging.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126415.

Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious biofilm-producing pathogen that is frequently isolated from implantable medical device infections. As biofilm ages, it becomes more tolerant to antimicrobial treatment leading to treatment failure and necessitating the costly removal of infected devices. In this study, we performed in-solution digestion followed by TMT-based high-throughput mass spectrometry and investigated what changes occur in the proteome of S. aureus biofilm grown for 3-days and 12-days in comparison with 24 h planktonic. It showed that proteins associated with biosynthetic processes, ABC transporter pathway, virulence proteins, and shikimate kinase pathway were significantly upregulated in a 3-day biofilm, while proteins associated with sugar transporter, degradation, and stress response were downregulated. Interestingly, in a 3-day biofilm, we observed numerous proteins involved in the central metabolism pathways which could lead to biofilm growth under diverse environments by providing an alternative metabolic route to utilize energy. In 12-day biofilms, proteins associated with peptidoglycan biosynthesis, sugar transporters, and stress responses were upregulated, whereas proteins associated with ABC transporters, DNA replication, and adhesion proteins were downregulated. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that more proteins are involved in metabolic processes in 3dwb compared with 12dwb. Furthermore, we observed significant variations in the formation of biofilms resulting from changes in the level of metabolic activity in the different growth modes of biofilms that could be a significant factor in S. aureus biofilm maturation and persistence. Collectively, potential marker proteins were identified and further characterized to understand their exact role in S. aureus biofilm development, which may shed light on possible new therapeutic regimes in the treatment of biofilm-related implant-associated infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Shaghayegh G, Cooksley C, Ramezanpour M, et al (2022)

Chronic Rhinosinusitis, S. aureus Biofilm and Secreted Products, Inflammatory Responses, and Disease Severity.

Biomedicines, 10(6): pii:biomedicines10061362.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammation of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses associated with tissue remodelling, dysfunction of the sinuses' natural defence mechanisms, and induction of different inflammatory clusters. The etiopathogenesis of CRS remains elusive, and both environmental factors, such as bacterial biofilms and the host's general condition, are thought to play a role. Bacterial biofilms have significant clinical relevance due to their potential to cause resistance to antimicrobial therapy and host defenses. Despite substantial medical advances, some CRS patients suffer from recalcitrant disease that is unresponsive to medical and surgical treatments. Those patients often have nasal polyps with tissue eosinophilia, S. aureus-dominant mucosal biofilm, comorbid asthma, and a severely compromised quality of life. This review aims to summarise the contemporary knowledge of inflammatory cells/pathways in CRS, the role of bacterial biofilm, and their impact on the severity of the disease. Here, an emphasis is placed on S. aureus biofilm and its secreted products. A better understanding of these factors might offer important diagnostic and therapeutic perceptions for recalcitrant disease.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Radunovic M, Barac M, Kuzmanovic Pficer J, et al (2022)

Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida albicans Isolated from Tongue and Subgingival Biofilm of Periodontitis Patients.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:antibiotics11060802.

The subgingival biofilm, as the most complex microbial community, has been proven to be reservoir of Candida spp. The main concept of this study was to investigate if there is a difference between the sensitivity of Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolated from tongue and subgingival areas of periodontitis patients to antifungal agents. The aim of the study was to determine: (1) the distribution of different Candida species in the tongue and subgingival samples of periodontitis patients; (2) the susceptibility of Candida albicans strains from tongue and subgingival biofilm to the effects of commonly used antifungal agents: fluconazole, amphotericin B and itraconazole; (3) the correlation between the susceptibility of Candida albicans and clinical periodontal parameters. Tongue and subgingival biofilm samples of periodontitis subjects (N = 163) were examined. Susceptibility was tested when the same Candida species was isolated from both sites (17 subjects). Candida spp. were isolated in 23.3% of tongue and 21.5% of the subgingival samples. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, while 64.71% of tongue and 52.94% of subgingival isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. A low frequency of itraconazole susceptibility was observed for tongue (17.64%) and subgingival isolates (11.76%). The correlations between full-mouth plaque score and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for tongue isolates were strongly positive for all antimycotics. Positive correlation was also observed between moderate periodontal destruction and MICs for tongue and subgingival isolates. The susceptibility of C. albicans to antifungals correlate with oral hygiene and moderate periodontal destruction. There is no difference in antifungal susceptibility between tongue and subgingival isolates.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Silva V, Correia E, Pereira JE, et al (2022)

Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus aureus from Pets, Livestock, and Wild Animals: Relationship with Clonal Lineages and Antimicrobial Resistance.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:antibiotics11060772.

This study aimed to compare the biofilm formation ability of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a wide range of animals and study the association between biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages. A total of 214 S. aureus strains isolated from pets, livestock, and wild animals were evaluated regarding their ability to form biofilms by the microtiter biofilm assay and their structure via confocal scanning laser microscopy. Statistical analysis was used to find an association between biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance, sequence types (STs), spa and agr-types of the isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 24 h-old biofilms was assessed against minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and 10× MIC of amikacin and tetracycline, and the biomass reduction was measured. The metabolic activity of biofilms after antimicrobial treatment was evaluated by the XTT assay. All isolates were had the ability to form biofilms. Yet, significant differences in biofilm biomass production were detected among animal species. Multidrug resistance had a positive association with biofilm formation as well as methicillin-resistance. Significant differences were also detected among the clonal lineages of the isolates. Both tetracycline and amikacin were able to significantly reduce the biofilm mass. However, none of the antimicrobials were able to eradicate the biofilm at the maximum concentration used. Our results provide important information on the biofilm-forming capacity of animal-adapted S. aureus isolates, which may have potential implications for the development of new biofilm-targeted therapeutics.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Takenaka S, Sotozono M, Ohkura N, et al (2022)

Evidence on the Use of Mouthwash for the Control of Supragingival Biofilm and Its Potential Adverse Effects.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:antibiotics11060727.

Antimicrobial mouthwash improves supragingival biofilm control when used in conjunction with mechanical removal as part of an oral hygiene routine. Mouthwash is intended to suppress bacterial adhesion during biofilm formation processes and is not aimed at mature biofilms. The most common evidence-based effects of mouthwash on the subgingival biofilm include the inhibition of biofilm accumulation and its anti-gingivitis property, followed by its cariostatic activities. There has been no significant change in the strength of the evidence over the last decade. A strategy for biofilm control that relies on the elimination of bacteria may cause a variety of side effects. The exposure of mature oral biofilms to mouthwash is associated with several possible adverse reactions, such as the emergence of resistant strains, the effects of the residual structure, enhanced pathogenicity following retarded penetration, and ecological changes to the microbiota. These concerns require further elucidation. This review aims to reconfirm the intended effects of mouthwash on oral biofilm control by summarizing systematic reviews from the last decade and to discuss the limitations of mouthwash and potential adverse reactions to its use. In the future, the strategy for oral biofilm control may shift to reducing the biofilm by detaching it or modulating its quality, rather than eliminating it, to preserve the benefits of the normal resident oral microflora.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Babosan A, Gaschet M, Muggeo A, et al (2022)

A qnrD-Plasmid Promotes Biofilm Formation and Class 1 Integron Gene Cassette Rearrangements in Escherichia coli.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:antibiotics11060715.

Bacteria within biofilms may be exposed to sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics. Cell-to-cell contact within biofilms facilitates horizontal gene transfers and favors induction of the SOS response. Altogether, it participates in the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Aminoglycosides at sub-MICs can induce the SOS response through NO accumulation in E. coli carrying the small plasmid with the quinolone resistance qnrD gene (pDIJ09-518a). In this study, we show that in E. coli pDIJ09-518a, the SOS response triggered by sub-MICs of aminoglycosides has important consequences, promoting genetic rearrangement in class 1 integrons and biofilm formation. We found that the integrase expression was increased in E. coli carrying pDIJ09-518a in the presence of tobramycin, which was not observed for the WT isogenic strain that did not carry the qnrD-plasmid. Moreover, we showed that biofilm production was significantly increased in E. coli WT/pDIJ09-518a compared to the WT strain. However, such a higher production was decreased when the Hmp-NO detoxification pathway was fully functional by overexpressing Hmp. Our results showing that a qnrD-plasmid can promote biofilm formation in E. coli and potentiate the acquisition and spread of resistance determinants for other antibiotics complicate the attempts to counteract antibiotic resistance and prevention of biofilm development even further. We anticipate that our findings emphasize the complex challenges that will impact the decisions about antibiotic stewardship, and other decisions related to retaining antibiotics as effective drugs and the development of new drugs.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Necel A, Bloch S, Topka-Bielecka G, et al (2022)

Synergistic Effects of Bacteriophage vB_Eco4-M7 and Selected Antibiotics on the Biofilm Formed by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:antibiotics11060712.

Apart from antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, the formation of biofilms is a feature that makes bacterial infections especially difficulty to treat. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are dangerous pathogens, causing severe infections in humans, and capable of biofilm production. We have reported previously the identification and characterization of the vB_Eco4-M7 bacteriophage, infecting various STEC strains. It was suggested that this phage might be potentially used in phage therapy against these bacteria. Here, we tested the effects of vB_Eco4-M7 alone or in a phage cocktail with another STEC-infecting phage, and/or in a combination with different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and rifampicin) on biofilm formed by a model STEC strain, named E. coli O157:H7 (ST2-8624). The vB_Eco4-M7 phage appeared effective in anti-biofilm action in all these experimental conditions (2-3-fold reduction of the biofilm density, and 2-3 orders of magnitude reduction of the number of bacterial cells). However, the highest efficiency in reducing a biofilm's density and number of bacterial cells was observed when phage infection preceded antibiotic treatment (6-fold reduction of the biofilm density, and 5-6 orders of magnitude reduction of the number of bacterial cells). Previous reports indicated that the use of antibiotics to treat STEC-caused infections might be dangerous due to the induction of Shiga toxin-converting prophages from bacterial genomes under stress conditions caused by antibacterial agents. We found that ciprofloxacin was almost as efficient in inducing prophages from the E. coli O15:H7 (ST2-8624) genome as a classical inducer, mitomycin C, while no detectable prophage induction could be observed in rifampicin-treated STEC cells. Therefore, we conclude the latter antibiotic or similarly acting compounds might be candidate(s) as effective and safe drug(s) when used in combination with phage therapy to combat STEC-mediated infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Ji H, Hu H, Tang Q, et al (2022)

Precisely controlled and deeply penetrated micro-nano hybrid multifunctional motors with enhanced antibacterial activity against refractory biofilm infections.

Journal of hazardous materials, 436:129210.

The biofilm resistance of microorganisms has severe economic and environmental implications, especially the contamination of facilities associated with human life, including medical implants, air-conditioning systems, water supply systems, and food-processing equipment, resulting in the prevalence of infectious diseases. Once bacteria form biofilms, their antibiotic resistance can increase by 10-1,000-fold, posing a great challenge to the treatment of related diseases. In order to overcome the contamination of bacterial biofilm, destroying the biofilm's matrix so as to solve the penetration depth dilemma of antibacterial agents is the most effective way. Here, a magnetically controlled multifunctional micromotor was developed by using H2O2 as the fuel and MnO2 as the catalyst to treat bacterial biofilm infection. In the presence of H2O2, the as-prepared motors could be self-propelled by the generated oxygen microbubbles. Thereby, the remotely controlled motors could drill into the EPS of biofilm and disrupt them completely with the help of bubbles. Finally, the generated highly toxic •OH could efficiently kill the unprotected bacteria. This strategy combined the mechanical damage, highly toxic •OH, and precise magnetic guidance in one system, which could effectively eliminate biologically infectious fouling in microchannels within 10 min, possessing a wide range of practical application prospects especially in large scale and complex infection sites.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Geng N, Xia Y, Lu D, et al (2022)

The bacterial community structure in epiphytic biofilm on submerged macrophyte Potamogetom crispus L. and its contribution to heavy metal accumulation in an urban industrial area in Hangzhou.

Journal of hazardous materials, 430:128455.

Submerged macrophytes and their epiphytic biofilms are important media for metal transport/transformation in aquatic environment. However, the bacterial community structure and the contribution of the epiphytic biofilm to the heavy metal accumulation remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, water, sediment, submerged macrophyte (Potamogeton crispus L.) and its epiphytic biofilm samples in three sites of the moat in the industrial area of Hangzhou were collected for analyzing. The bacterial community structure was significantly impacted by the TN concentrations, and Genus Aeromonas (24.5-41.8%), Acinetobacter (16.2-29.8%) and Pseudomonas (12.6-23.6%) dominated in all epiphytic biofilm samples, which had the heavy metal pollutant resistibility. The contents of Cr in biofilms (7.4-8.3 mg/kg, DW) were significantly higher than those in leaves (1.0-2.4 mg/kg, DW), while the contents of Cu (11.0-13.9 mg/kg, DW) in leaves were significantly higher than those in biofilms (0.7-3.9 mg/kg, DW) in all the three sites. The BCF values of metals in the biofilm were followed the order of YF < IC < ETS. The results indicated that the epiphytic biofilm had positive effects on the metal bioaccumulation, and the metal accumulation ability increased with the hydrodynamic forces. Bioaccumulation by the epiphytic biofilm may be an effective way for metal (especially Cr) remediation.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Soliemani O, Salimi F, A Rezaei (2022)

Characterization of exopolysaccharide produced by probiotic Enterococcus durans DU1 and evaluation of its anti-biofilm activity.

Archives of microbiology, 204(7):419.

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria are complicated polymers with industrial applications. LAB were isolated, screened for EPS production, and their probiotic properties determined. The anti-biofilm activity of EPS was investigated. Safety of EPS-producing isolate was investigated and it was molecularly identified through 16S rRNA sequencing. Finally, anti-biofilm and emulsification activity of EPS was studied and it was characterized using FT-IR, TGA, 1H-NMR, DLS and HPLC. Thirteen LAB were isolated from dairy products. They showed probiotic characteristics like acid resistance (0-6.51 CFU ml-1) hydrophobicity (8-54.04%), autoaggregation (0% [t = 2 h]-99.8% [t = 24 h]) and coaggregation with food borne pathogens. Among them, Enterococcus durans DU1 had ability to produce EPS. EPS of Enterococcus durans DU1 showed antibiofilm activity against Y. enterocolitica (24.06-51.36%), S. aureus (12.33-49.6%), and B. cereus (11.66-27.16%). FT-IR showed this EPS had characteristic absorption peaks due to the presence of the pyran ring of sugars. 1H NMR showed that EPS has N-acetyl, methyl, and alkyl groups in its structure. The HPLC analysis showed that EPS is a heteropolysaccharide and consists of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. EPS showed significant thermal stability (20% weight loss) under 300 °C and zeta potential of - 18.1 mV. This EPS can be used in the food industry with no adverse effect on consumers.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Hernandez-Cuellar E, Guerrero-Barrera AL, Avelar-Gonzalez FJ, et al (2022)

Characterization of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus polymicrobial biofilm on different surfaces.

Revista iberoamericana de micologia pii:S1130-1406(22)00017-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans have been co-isolated from biofilm-associated diseases such as denture stomatitis, periodontitis, and burn wound infections, as well as from medical devices. However, the polymicrobial biofilm of both microorganisms has not been fully characterized.

AIMS: To characterize the polymicrobial biofilm of C. albicans and S. aureus in terms of microbial density, synergy, composition, structure, and stability against antimicrobials and chemical agents.

METHODS: Crystal violet assay was used to measure the biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the structure and chemical composition of the biofilms, respectively.

RESULTS: Supplemented media with fetal bovine serum (FBS) decreased the biofilm formation of S. aureus and the polymicrobial biofilm. For C. albicans, depending on the culture media, the addition of glucose or FBS had a positive effect in biofilm formation. FBS decreased the adhesion to polystyrene wells for both microorganisms. Supplementing the media with glucose and FBS enhanced the growth of C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. It seems that C. albicans contributes the most to the adhesion process and to the general structure of the biofilms on all the surfaces tested, including a catheter model. Interestingly, S. aureus showed a great adhesion capacity to the surface of C. albicans in the biofilms. Proteins and β-1,6-linked polysaccharides seem to be the most important molecules in the polymicrobial biofilm.

CONCLUSIONS: The polymicrobial biofilm had a complex structure, with C. albicans serving as a scaffold where S. aureus adheres, preferentially to the hyphal form of the fungus. Detection of polymicrobial infections and characterization of biofilms will be necessary in the future to provide a better treatment.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Sharma A, Vashistt J, R Shrivastava (2022)

Mycobacterium fortuitum fabG4 knockdown studies: Implication as pellicle and biofilm specific drug target.

Journal of basic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is crucial for the formation of the mycobacterial cell envelope. The fatty acid synthase type-II (FAS-II) components are attractive targets for designing anti-biofilm inhibitors. Literature review, bioinformatics analysis, cloning, and sequencing led to the identification of a novel Mycobacterium fortuitum FAS-II gene MFfabG4 which interacts with mycobacterial proteins involved in biofilm formation. A manually curated M. fortuitum fatty acid biosynthesis pathway has been proposed exploiting functional studies from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Mycobrowser databases for MFFabG4. M. fortuitum MFfabG4 knockdown strain (FA) was constructed and validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The FA strain displayed unstructured smooth colony architecture, correlating with decreased pathogenicity and virulence. MFfabG4 knockdown resulted in diminished pellicle and attenuated biofilm formation, along with impaired sliding motility, and reduced cell sedimentation. The FA strain showed lowered cell surface hydrophobicity, indicating attenuation in M. fortuitum intracellular infection-causing ability. Stress survival studies showed the requirement of MFfabG4 for survival in a nutrient-starved environment. The results indicate that MFfabG4 maintains the physiology of the cell envelope and is required for the formation of M. fortuitum pellicle and biofilm. The study corroborates the role of MFfabG4 as a pellicle- and biofilm-specific drug target and a potential diagnostic marker for M. fortuitum and related pathogenic mycobacteria.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Souza SO, Raposo BL, Sarmento-Neto JF, et al (2022)

Photoinactivation of Yeast and Biofilm Communities of Candida albicans Mediated by ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+ Porphyrin.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(6): pii:jof8060556.

Candida albicans is the main cause of superficial candidiasis. While the antifungals available are defied by biofilm formation and resistance emergence, antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) arises as an alternative antifungal therapy. The tetracationic metalloporphyrin Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+) has high photoefficiency and improved cellular interactions. We investigated the ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+ as a photosensitizer (PS) to photoinactivate yeasts and biofilms of C. albicans strains (ATCC 10231 and ATCC 90028) using a blue light-emitting diode. The photoinactivation of yeasts was evaluated by quantifying the colony forming units. The aPDI of ATCC 90028 biofilms was assessed by the MTT assay, propidium iodide (PI) labeling, and scanning electron microscopy. Mammalian cytotoxicity was investigated in Vero cells using MTT assay. The aPDI (4.3 J/cm2) promoted eradication of yeasts at 0.8 and 1.5 µM of PS for ATCC 10231 and ATCC 90028, respectively. At 0.8 µM and same light dose, aPDI-treated biofilms showed intense PI labeling, about 89% decrease in the cell viability, and structural alterations with reduced hyphae. No considerable toxicity was observed in mammalian cells. Our results introduce the ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+ as a promising PS to photoinactivate both yeasts and biofilms of C. albicans, stimulating studies with other Candida species and resistant isolates.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Bulock LL, Ahn J, Shinde D, et al (2022)

Interplay of CodY and CcpA in Regulating Central Metabolism and Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important pathogen with high metabolic versatility allowing it to infect various niches within a host. S. aureus utilizes two major transcriptional regulators, namely, CodY and CcpA, to remodel metabolic and virulence gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions. Previous studies revealed that inactivation of either codY or ccpA has a pronounced impact on different aspects of staphylococcal physiology and pathogenesis. To determine the contribution and interplay of these two regulators in modulating central metabolism, virulence, and biofilm development, we constructed and characterized the codY ccpA double mutant in S. aureus UAMS-1. In line with previous studies, we found that CcpA and CodY control the cellular metabolic status by altering carbon flux through the central and overflow metabolic pathways. Our results demonstrate that ccpA inactivation impairs biofilm formation and decreases incorporation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) into the biofilm matrix, whereas disrupting codY resulted in a robust structured biofilm tethered together with eDNA and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). Interestingly, inactivation of both codY and ccpA decreases biofilm biomass and reduces eDNA release in the double mutant. Compared with the inactivation of codY, the codY ccpA mutant did not overexpress toxins but maintained overexpression of amino acid metabolism pathways. Furthermore, the codY ccpA mutant produced large amounts of PIA, in contrast to the wild-type strain and ccpA mutant. Combined, the results of this study suggest that the coordinated action of CodY and CcpA modulate central metabolism, virulence gene expression, and biofilm-associated genes to optimize growth on preferred carbon sources until starvation sets in. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of biofilm-associated infections, including infective endocarditis, worldwide. A greater understanding of metabolic forces driving biofilm formation in S. aureus is essential for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and for the development of new strategies to combat this medically important pathogen. This study characterizes the interplay and regulation of central metabolism and biofilm development by two global transcriptional regulators, CodY and CcpA. We found that the lack of CcpA and/or CodY have different impacts on intracellular metabolic status leading to a formation of morphologically altered biofilms. Overall, the results of this study provide new insights into our understanding of metabolism-mediated regulation of biofilm development in S. aureus.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Pamukçu A, Erdoğan N, D Şen Karaman (2022)

Polyethylenimine-grafted mesoporous silica nanocarriers markedly enhance the bactericidal effect of curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials [Epub ahead of print].

The recalcitrant nature of biofilms makes biofilm-associated infections difficult to treat in modern medicine. Biofilms have a high vulnerability to antibiotics and a limited repertoire of antibiotics could act on matured biofilms. This issue has resulted in a gradual paradigm shift in drug discovery and therapy, with anti-biofilm compounds being sought alongside new drug carriers. A potential solution to biofilm-associated infections is to employ antibiofilm treatments, which can attack biofilms from many fronts. Nanocarriers are promising in this regard because they can be entrapped within biofilm matrix, target biofilm matrix, and provide local drug delivery to inhibit biofilm formation. In this study, curcumin as an herbal extract was loaded onto hyperbranched polyethylenimine-grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (F-MSN-PEI/Cur) and antibiofilm investigations were performed. The F-MSN-PEI/Cur design has the potential to repurpose curcumin as an antibiofilm agent by increasing its solubility and lowering the required doses for the destruction of matured biofilms as well as suppressing biofilm development. Using imaging and spectroscopic techniques, we assessed the interaction of F-MSN-PEI/Cur with Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells and determined the impact of F-MSN-PEI/Cur on eradicating matured biofilms and suppressing biofilm development. The F-MSN-PEI/Cur design is highly cytocompatible, as observed by the cytotoxicity screening investigations on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. Our findings show that F-MSN-PEI/Cur design reduces the bacterial cell viability, inhibits biofilm formation, and induces biofilm eradication, which is attributed to F-MSN-PEI/Cur design having the potential to repurpose the antibiofilm activity of curcumin-herbal extract.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Guo M, Tan S, Zhu J, et al (2022)

Genes Involved in Biofilm Matrix Formation of the Food Spoiler Pseudomonas fluorescens PF07.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:881043.

The extracellular matrix is essential for the biofilm formation of food spoilers. Pseudomonas fluorescens PF07 is a previous isolate from spoiled marine fish; however, the genes involved in the extracellular matrix formation of PF07 biofilms remain poorly defined. In this study, PF07 formed a wrinkled macrocolony biofilm through the high production of extracellular matrix. The genes involved in biofilm matrix formation and regulation were screened and identified by RNA-seq-dependent transcriptomic analysis and gene knock-out analysis. The macrocolony biofilms of PF07 grown for 5 days (PF07_5d) were compared with those grown for 1 day (PF07_1d). A total of 1,403 genes were significantly differentially expressed during biofilm formation. These mainly include the genes related to biofilm matrix proteins, polysaccharides, rhamnolipids, secretion system, biofilm regulation, and metabolism. Among them, functional amyloid genes fapABCDE were highly upregulated in the mature biofilm, and the operon fapA-E had a -24/-12 promoter dependent on the sigma factor RpoN. Moreover, the RNA-seq analyses of the rpoN mutant, compared with PF07, revealed 159 genes were differentially expressed in the macrocolony biofilms, and fapA-E genes were positively regulated by RpoN. In addition, the deletion mutants of fapC, rpoN, and brfA (a novel gene coding for an RpoN-dependent transcriptional regulator) were defective in forming mature macrocolony biofilms, solid surface-associated (SSA) biofilms, and pellicles, and they showed significantly reduced biofilm matrices. The fap genes were significantly downregulated in ΔbrfA, as in ΔrpoN. These findings suggest that the functional amyloid Fap is the main component of PF07 biofilm matrices, and RpoN may directly regulate the transcription of fap genes, in conjunction with BrfA. These genes may serve as potential molecular targets for screening new anti-biofilm agents or for biofilm detection in food environments.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Bai P, Li Y, Bai J, et al (2022)

Markedly decreased growth rate and biofilm formation ability of Acinetobacter schindleri after a long-duration (64 days) spaceflight.

European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 26(11):4001-4015.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-duration space flight on the biological characteristics of Acinetobacter schindleri (A. schindleri).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, an A. schindleri strain was collected from condensate water of the Shenzhou-10 spacecraft and then was sent into space again to the Tiangong-2 space lab for a long-duration spaceflight (64 days). Later, the impacts of the long-duration spaceflight on phenotype, genome and transcriptome of A. schindleri were analyzed.

RESULTS: It was found that the long-duration spaceflight markedly decreased the growth rate and biofilm formation ability of A. schindleri. Furthermore, comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that the decreased growth rate might be associated with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in transmembrane transport, energy production and conversion, and biofilm was reduced due to downregulation of the pil and algR genes.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings are of major importance for predicting bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms and possible spacecraft contamination during long-duration spaceflights in the future.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Hughes JM, Eberl HJ, S Sonner (2022)

A mathematical model of discrete attachment to a cellulolytic biofilm using random DEs.

Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE, 19(7):6582-6619.

We propose a new mathematical framework for the addition of stochastic attachment to biofilm models, via the use of random ordinary differential equations. We focus our approach on a spatially explicit model of cellulolytic biofilm growth and formation that comprises a PDE-ODE coupled system to describe the biomass and carbon respectively. The model equations are discretized in space using a standard finite volume method. We introduce discrete attachment events into the discretized model via an impulse function with a standard stochastic process as input. We solve our model with an implicit ODE solver. We provide basic simulations to investigate the qualitative features of our model. We then perform a grid refinement study to investigate the spatial convergence of our model. We investigate model behaviour while varying key attachment parameters. Lastly, we use our attachment model to provide evidence for a stable travelling wave solution to the original PDE-ODE coupled system.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Haji Hossein Tabrizi A, Habibi M, Foroohi F, et al (2022)

Investigation of the effects of antimicrobial and anti-biofilm peptide IDR1018 and chitosan nanoparticles on ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli.

Journal of basic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Peptide IDR1018 and chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) showed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity against bacteria. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of peptide IDR1018 and CNs were evaluated on 50 clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) resistant to ciprofloxacin. Ion gelation method was applied for CNs synthesis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were utilized to evaluate the nanoparticles. Antimicrobial and synergistic activity of peptide IDR1018 and CNs with ciprofloxacin were evaluated by microtiter broth dilution method. The checkerboard test was used to investigate the antimicrobial effects of IDR1018 and CNS in combination with ciprofloxacin. Anti-biofilm effect of ciprofloxacin, peptide IDR1018, and CNs was evaluated using crystal violet method. Fourteen (28%), 21 (42%), and 15 (30%) of clinical isolates produced strong, moderate, and weak biofilm, respectively. The CNs were spherical and uniform under electron microscopy with an average diameter of 246 nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 16-128, 20-40, and 375-750 (µg/ml) for ciprofloxacin, peptide IDR1018, and CNs, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) analysis indicated a synergistic effect of ciprofloxacin in combination with peptide IDR1018, but in combination with CNs, this antibiotic showed an additive effect. Our results revealed that peptide IDR1018 and CNs have antimicrobial properties on UPEC isolates. Biofilm inhibition and biofilm eradication of clinical isolate were shown by peptide IDR1018 and CNs in a concentration-dependent manner. The antimicrobial agents alone and in combination decreased the number of viable bacteria in the biofilms. Therefore, these components seem to be a treating approach against biofilm-forming UPEC isolates.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Abdulghani M, Iram R, Chidrawar P, et al (2022)

Proteomic profile of Candida albicans biofilm.

Journal of proteomics pii:S1874-3919(22)00185-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans biofilms are characterized by structural and cellular heterogeneity that confers antifungal resistance and immune evasion. Despite this, biofilm formation remains poorly understood. In this study, we used proteomic analysis to understand biofilm formation in C. albicans related to morphophysiological and architectural features. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that 64 proteins were significantly modulated, of which 31 were upregulated and 33 were downregulated. The results indicate that metabolism (25 proteins), gene expression (13 proteins), stress response (7 proteins), and cell wall (5 proteins) composition are modulated. The rate of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, vitamin B6, and thiamine increased, while the rate of methionine biosynthesis decreased. There was a significant modification of the cell wall architecture due to higher levels of Sun41, Pir1 and Csh1 and increased glycosylation of proteins. It was observed that C. albicans induces hyphal growth by upregulating the expression of genes involved in cAMP-PKA and MAPK pathways. This study is significant in that it suggests an increase in OxPhos and alteration of cell wall architecture that could be contributing to the recalcitrance of C. albicans cells growing in biofilms. Nevertheless, a deeper investigation is needed to explore it further. SIGNIFICANCE: Candida sps is included in the list of pathogens with potential drug resistance threat due to the increased frequency especially colonization of medical devices, and tissues among the patients, in recent years. Significance of our study is that we are reporting traits like modulation in cell wall composition, amino acid and vitamin biosynthesis and importantly energy generation (OxPhos) etc. These traits could be conferring antifungal resistance, host immune evasion etc. and thus survival, in addition to facilitating biofilm formation. These findings are expected to prime the further studies on devising potent strategy against biofilm growth among the patients.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Zheng P, Li Y, Chi Q, et al (2022)

Structural characteristics and microbial function of biofilm in membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for the biodegradation of volatile pyridine.

Journal of hazardous materials, 437:129370 pii:S0304-3894(22)01163-3 [Epub ahead of print].

In order to avoid the serious air pollution caused by the volatilization of high recalcitrant pyridine, membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) with bubble-free aeration was used in this study, with the structural characteristics and microbial function of biofilm emphasized. The results showed that as high as 0.6 kg·m-3·d-1 pyridine could be completely removed in MABR. High pyridine loading thickened the biofilm, but without obvious detachment observed. The distinct stratification of microbes and extracellular polymeric substances were shaped by elevated pyridine load, enhancing the structural heterogeneity of biofilm. The increased tryptophan-like substances as well as α-helix and β-sheet proportion in proteins stabilized the biofilm structure against high influent loading. Based on the identified intermediates, possible pyridine biodegradation pathways were proposed. Multi-omics analyses revealed that the metabolic pathways with initial hydroxylation and reduction reaction was enhanced at high pyridine loading. The functional genes were mainly associated with Pseudomonas and Delftia, might responsible for pyridine biodegradation. The results shed light on the effective treatment of wastewater containing recalcitrant pollutants such as pyridine via MABR.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Saygin H, A Baysal (2022)

Interaction of nanoplastics with simulated biological fluids and their effect on the biofilm formation.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last decade, it has become clear that the pollution by plastic debris presents global societal, environmental, and human health challenges. Moreover, humans are exposed to plastic particles in daily life and very limited information is available concerning human health, especially interactions with biological fluids. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the interaction of plastic particles with simulated biological fluids (e.g., artificial saliva, artificial lysosomal fluid, phagolysosomal simulant fluid, and Gamble's solution) using various exposure stages (2 h to 80 h) and the effect of plastic particles on the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms under simulated biological conditions. The plastic particles incubating various simulated biological fluids were characterized using surface functional groups, zeta potentials, and elemental composition. The results indicated that functional group indices (C-O, C = O, C-H, C = C, C-N, S = O, and OH) decreased compared to the control group during the incubation periods, except for the hydroxyl group index. The FTIR results showed that the hydroxyl group formed with the artificial lysosomal fluid, the phagolysosomal simulant fluid, and Gamble's solution. With the impact of the declining functional groups, the zeta potentials were more negative than in the control. Moreover, EDX results showed the release of the components in the particles with the interaction of simulated biological fluids as well as new components like P and Ca introduced to the particles. The biofilms were formed in the presence of nanoplastic particles under both controlled conditions and simulated biological conditions. The amount of biofilm formation was mainly affected by the surface characteristics under simulated biological conditions. In addition, the biofilm characteristics were influenced by the O/C and N/C ratios of the plastic particles with the impact of simulated biological fluids.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Xiong H, Yang G, Shan X, et al (2022)

Unveiling the effect of acetate on the interactions of functional bacteria in an anammox biofilm system.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)01901-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Biodegradable organics make an important impact on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) system. In this study, acetate was selected as a typical biodegradable organic, and its effect on the anammox biofilm system was comprehensively discussed from the macro and micro perspectives. Under a low influent concentration of acetate (<240 ± 10 mg/L), the best total nitrogen (TN) removal performance was 96%, but it decreased to 83% when the acetate concentration increased to 350 ± 20 mg/L. With the addition of acetate, the relative abundance of the family Brocadiaceae, which contains all known anammox bacteria, gradually increased from 7.97% to 12.79%, indicating that the presence of acetate promoted enrichment of anammox bacteria in the biofilm. Metagenomic analysis further demonstrated that an appropriate concentration of acetate helps to increase the abundances of the key enzymes related to nitrogen removal and enhance the metabolism of anammox and denitrification, thereby promoting the synergy of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Hydrazine synthase (hzs), which is unique to the anammox process, was detected in association with the genera Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Jettenia and Candidatus Brocadia, with its abundance increasing from 13268 (with no addition of acetate) to 19186 (with acetate addition of 240 ± 10 mg/L). This work provides a deeper understanding of the intrinsic interactions between functional bacteria in an anammox biofilm system.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Said M, DB Hom (2022)

Commentary on "Evidence of Biofilm and Persister Cell Formation in Revision Rhinoplasty" by Kao et al.

Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine, 24(3):238-239.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Kao WK, Faddis B, Chole RA, et al (2022)

Evidence of Biofilm and Persister Cell Formation in Revision Rhinoplasty.

Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine, 24(3):233-238.

Background: Postoperative rhinoplasty infection can lead to serious cosmetic deformity, loss of structural integrity to the nose, and functional deficiencies. Understanding the factors contributing to postoperative infection is important. Microbial biofilms and persister cells play an important role in health care-associated infections. The objective of this study is to identify microbial biofilm and persister cells in the nasal soft tissue of patients undergoing revision rhinoplasty. Methods: Fourteen patients undergoing rhinoplasty were recruited for this study. Nasal soft tissue was removed during rhinoplasty and preserved in 2% paraformaldehyde/2.5% glutaraldehyde. High-resolution images were then obtained from these nasal soft tissue samples. Results: Three samples were positive for the presence of microbial persister cells or biofilms. All samples came from patients undergoing revision rhinoplasty. These patients had between one to six previous rhinoplasty procedures and one patient had previous injectable nasal filler. Conclusions: Biofilms and persister cells are able to form in nasal soft tissue of revision rhinoplasty patients in the absence of an implant and may contribute to increased postoperative infection risk.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Austin PD, Stapleton P, M Elia (2022)

Comparative effect of seven prophylactic locks to prevent biofilm biomass and viability in intravenous catheters.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy pii:6611840 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Patients requiring long-term intravenous access are at risk of intraluminal catheter bloodstream infection. 'Prophylactic' locks aim to limit this risk but there is uncertainty regarding the most effective lock.

OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel technique intended to replicate clinical procedures to compare the effectiveness of various 'prophylactic' locks against biofilm biomass ('biomass') formation and biofilm viability ('viability') of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis in intravenous catheters.

METHODS: For 10 consecutive days 106 cfu/mL E. coli NCTC 10418 and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 were separately cultured in single lumen 9.6 French silicone tunnelled and cuffed catheters. These were flushed with 0.9% w/v sodium chloride using a push-pause technique before and after instillation of seven 'prophylactic' locks (water, ethanol, sodium chloride, heparinized sodium chloride, citrate, taurolidine plus citrate, and taurolidine; each in triplicate) for 6 h daily. Intraluminal 'biomass' and 'viability' were quantified using crystal violet staining and flush culture, respectively.

RESULTS: The reduction of 'biomass' and 'viability' depended on both agent and species. Citrate was least effective against E. coli 'viability' and 'biomass' but most effective against S. epidermidis 'viability', and taurolidine was most effective against E. coli 'biomass' and 'viability' but least effective against S. epidermidis 'viability'. 'Biomass' and 'viability' were significantly correlated in E. coli between (r = 0.997, P < 0.001) and within (r = 0.754, P = 0.001) interventions, but not in S. epidermidis.

CONCLUSIONS: A novel technique found the effect of 'prophylactic' agents in reducing 'biomass' and 'viability' varied by species. The choice of agent depends on the most likely infecting organism.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Dong K, Feng X, Yao Y, et al (2022)

Nitrogen Removal From Nitrate-Containing Wastewaters in Hydrogen-Based Membrane Biofilm Reactors via Hydrogen Autotrophic Denitrification: Biofilm Structure, Microbial Community and Optimization Strategies.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:924084.

The hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) has been widely applied in nitrate removal from wastewater, while the erratic fluctuation of treatment efficiency is in consequence of unstable operation parameters. In this study, hydrogen pressure, pH, and biofilm thickness were optimized as the key controlling parameters to operate MBfR. The results of 653.31 μm in biofilm thickness, 0.05 MPa in hydrogen pressure and pH in 7.78 suggesting high-efficiency NO 3 - - N removal and the NO 3 - - N removal flux was 1.15 g·m-2 d-1. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that Pseudomonas, Methyloversatilis, Thauera, Nitrospira, and Hydrogenophaga were the five most abundant bacterial genera in MBfRs after optimization. Moreover, significant increases of Pseudomonas relative abundances from 0.36 to 9.77% suggested that optimization could effectively remove nitrogen from MBfRs. Membrane pores and surfaces exhibited varying degrees of calcification during stable operation, as evinced by Ca2+ precipitation adhering to MBfR membrane surfaces based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analyses also confirmed that the primary elemental composition of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane surfaces after response surface methodology (RSM) optimization comprised Ca, O, C, P, and Fe. Further, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated the formation of Ca5F(PO4)3 geometry during the stable operation phase.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Pombo JP, Ebenberger SP, Müller AM, et al (2022)

Impact of Gene Repression on Biofilm Formation of Vibrio cholerae.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:912297.

Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, is a facultative intestinal pathogen which can also survive in aquatic ecosystems in the form of biofilms, surface-associated microbial aggregates embedded in an extracellular matrix, which protects them from predators and hostile environmental factors. Biofilm-derived bacteria and biofilm aggregates are considered a likely source for cholera infections, underscoring the importance of V. cholerae biofilm research not just to better understand bacterial ecology, but also cholera pathogenesis in the human host. While several studies focused on factors induced during biofilm formation, genes repressed during this persistence stage have been fairly neglected. In order to complement these previous studies, we used a single cell-based transcriptional reporter system named TetR-controlled recombination-based in-biofilm expression technology (TRIBET) and identified 192 genes to be specifically repressed by V. cholerae during biofilm formation. Predicted functions of in-biofilm repressed (ibr) genes range from metabolism, regulation, surface association, transmembrane transport as well as motility and chemotaxis. Constitutive (over)-expression of these genes affected static and dynamic biofilm formation of V. cholerae at different stages. Notably, timed expression of one candidate in mature biofilms induced their rapid dispersal. Thus, genes repressed during biofilm formation are not only dispensable for this persistence stage, but their presence can interfere with ordered biofilm development. This work thus contributes new insights into gene silencing during biofilm formation of V. cholerae.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Gupta KK, Sharma KK, H Chandra (2022)

Micrococcus luteus strain CGK112 isolated from cow dung demonstrated efficient biofilm-forming ability and degradation potential toward high-density polyethylene (HDPE).

Archives of microbiology, 204(7):402.

Biodegradation is the most promising environmentally sustainable method that offers a significant opportunity with minimal negative environmental consequences while searching for solutions to this global problem of plastic pollution that has now spread to almost everywhere in the entire world. In the present work, HDPE-degrading bacterial strain CGK112 was isolated from the fecal matter of a cow. The bacterial strain was identified as Micrococcus luteus CGK112 by 16S rRNA sequence coding analysis. Significant weight loss, i.e., 3.85% was recorded in the HDPE film treated with strain CGK112 for 90 days. The surface micromorphology was examined using FE-SEM, which revealed spectacular bacterial colonization as well as structural deformation. Furthermore, the EDX study indicated a significant decrease in the atomic percentage of carbon content, whereas FTIR analysis confirmed functional groups alternation as well as an increase in the carbonyl index which can be attributed to the metabolic activity of biofilm. Our findings provide insight into the capacity of our strain CGK112 to colonize and utilize HDPE as a single carbon source, thus promoting its degradation.

RevDate: 2022-06-19

Alrashed W, Chandra R, Abbott T, et al (2022)

Nitrite reduction using a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) in a hypoxic environment with dilute methane under low pressures.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03854-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Methane-based membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) can be an effective solution for nitrogen control in wastewater, but there is limited information on nitrite reduction for dilute wastewater (e.g., municipal wastewater) in hypoxic MBfRs. This study assessed the impacts of dilute (20 %), low-pressure methane (0.35-2.41 kPa) applied to MBfRs at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 2-12 h on nitrite removals, dissolved methane concentrations, and the resulting changes in the microbial community. High nitrite flux along with rapid and virtually complete (>99 %) nitrite removals were observed at methane pressures of 1.03-2.41 kPa at HRTs above 4 h, despite the use of diluted methane gas for the MBfR. The lowest methane pressure (0.35 kPa) was also able to achieve up to 98 % nitrite removals but required HRTs of up to 12 h. All scenarios had low dissolved methane concentrations (<10 mg/L), indicating that dilute methane at low supply pressures can effectively remove nitrite while meeting dissolved methane guidelines in treated effluent. Methylococcus genus was the key bacterium in MBfR biofilm grown at different HRTs and methane pressures, along with Methylocystis and other heterotrophic denitrifiers (Terrimonas and Hyphomicrobium). This study indicates that methane-based denitrification MBfRs can be a valuable tool to meet nitrogen limits for dilute wastewater coupled to partial nitrification, while limiting the release of methane to the environment.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Jia J, Xue X, Guan Y, et al (2022)

Biofilm characteristics and transcriptomic profiling of Acinetobacter johnsonii defines signatures for planktonic and biofilm cells.

Environmental research, 213:113714 pii:S0013-9351(22)01041-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Most bacteria in the natural environment have a biofilm mode of life, which is intrinsically tolerant to antibiotics. While until now, the knowledge of biofilm formation by Acinetobacter johnsonii is not well understood. In this study, the characteristics and the effect of a sub-inhibitory concentration of antibiotic on A. johnsonii biofilm and planktonic cells were determined. We discovered a positive relationship between biofilm formation and tetracycline resistance, and biofilms rapidly evolve resistance to tetracycline they are treated with. Persister cells commonly exist in both planktonic and biofilm cells, with a higher frequency in the latter. Further transcriptomic analysis speculates that the overexpression of multidrug resistance genes and stress genes were mainly answered to sub lethal concentration of tetracycline in planktonic cells, and the lower metabolic levels after biofilm formation result in high resistance level of biofilm cells to tetracycline. Altogether, these data suggest that A. johnsonii can adjust its phenotype when grown as biofilm and change its metabolism under antibiotic stress, and provide implications for subsequent biofilm control.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Crescente CL, de Sousa ET, Lima-Holanda AT, et al (2022)

Biofilm accumulation and sucrose rinse modulate calcium and fluoride bioavailability in the saliva of children with early childhood caries.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10283.

This study aimed at investigating the combined effect of biofilm accumulation and 20% sucrose rinse on the modulation of calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (Pi), and fluoride (F-) bioavailability in the saliva of children with early childhood caries (ECC). Fifty-six preschoolers of both genders were evaluated according to caries experience and activity: caries-free (CF, n = 28) and with ECC (n = 28) and then, submitted to biofilm intervention (biofilm accumulation). In each situation, saliva samples were collected before and five minutes after a 20% sucrose rinse to determine the concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, and F-. Calcium concentration was significantly lower in the biofilm accumulation situation compared to the situation of biofilm mechanical control (p ≤ 0.01), except for CF children after sucrose rinse. Biofilm accumulation increased salivary calcium concentration in children with ECC after sucrose rinse (p = 0.04), whereas mechanical biofilm control reduced it in both groups (p = 0.000). Phosphate concentration was influenced by mechanical control of biofilm in CF children (p = 0.03). The fluoride bioavailability was reduced by sucrose rinse and biofilm accumulation in CF and ECC children (p ≤ 0.002). In conclusion, the combined effect of biofilm accumulation and sucrose rinse modifies the bioavailability of calcium and fluoride in the saliva of children with early childhood caries.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Pan L, Wan Z, Feng Q, et al (2022)

Biofilm response and removal via the coupling of visible-light-driven photocatalysis and biodegradation in an environment of sulfamethoxazole and Cr(VI).

Journal of environmental sciences (China), 122:50-61.

The widespread contamination of water systems with antibiotics and heavy metals has gained much attention. Intimately coupled visible -light-responsive photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) provides a novel approach for removing such mixed pollutants. In ICPB, the photocatalysis products are biodegraded by a protected biofilm, leading to the mineralization of refractory organics. In the present study, the ICPB approach exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and biodegradation, providing up to ∼1.27 times the degradation rate of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and 1.16 times the Cr(VI) reduction rate of visible-light-induced photocatalysis . Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated the synergistic ICPB effects of photocatalysis and biodegradation for removing SMX and reducing Cr(VI). In addition, the toxicity of the SMX intermediates and Cr(VI) in the ICPB process significantly decreased. The use of MoS2/CoS2 photocatalyst accelerated the separation of electrons and holes, with•O2- and h+ attacking SMX and e- reducing Cr(VI), providing an effective means for enhancing the removal and mineralization of these mixed pollutants via the ICPB technique. The microbial community results demonstrate that bacteria that are conducive to pollutant removal are were enriched by the acclimation and ICPB operation processes, thus significantly improving the performance of the ICPB system.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Arabgol R, Vanrolleghem PA, R Delatolla (2022)

Influence of MBBR carrier geometrical properties and biofilm thickness restraint on biofilm properties, effluent particle size distribution, settling velocity distribution, and settling behaviour.

Journal of environmental sciences (China), 122:138-149.

The relatively poor settling characteristics of particles produced in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) outline the importance of developing a fundamental understanding of the characterization and settleability of MBBR-produced solids. The influence of carrier geometric properties and different levels of biofilm thickness on biofilm characteristics, solids production, particle size distribution (PSD), and particle settling velocity distribution (PSVD) is evaluated in this study. The analytical ViCAs method is applied to the MBBR effluent to assess the distribution of particle settling velocities. This method is combined with microscopy imaging to relate particle size distribution to settling velocity. Three conventionally loaded MBBR systems are studied at a similar loading rate of 6.0 g/(m2 •day) and with different carrier types. The AnoxK™ K5 carrier, a commonly used carrier, is compared to so-called thickness-restraint carriers, AnoxK™ Z-carriers that are newly designed carriers to limit the biofilm thickness. Moreover, two levels of biofilm thickness, 200 μm and 400 μm, are studied using AnoxK™ Z-200 and Z-400 carriers. Statistical analysis confirms that K5 carriers demonstrated a significantly different biofilm mass, thickness, and density, in addition to distinct trends in PSD and PSVD in comparison with Z-carriers. However, in comparison of thickness-restraint carriers, Z-200 carrier results did not vary significantly compared to the Z-400 carrier. The K5 carriers showed the lowest production of suspended solids (0.7 ± 0.3 g-TSS/day), thickest biofilm (281.1 ± 8.7 µm) and lowest biofilm density (65.0 ± 1.5 kg/m3). The K5 effluent solids also showed enhanced settling behaviour, consisting of larger particles with faster settling velocities.

RevDate: 2022-06-18

Petrovic M, Bonvin D, Todic J, et al (2022)

Surface modification of Poly (methyl-methacrylate) with farnesol to prevent Candida biofilm formation.

Letters in applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans promote biofilm formation on dentures, which compromises the use of poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) as dental material. Farnesol (FAR), a natural compound that prevents C. albicans filamentation and biofilm formation, was incorporated into the PMMA matrix, to obtain antifungal PMMA_FAR materials. The tested concentrations (0.0125% and 0.4%) of FAR, 24h after incubation on YPD agar, inhibited filamentation of C. albicans. PMMA was modified with different FAR concentrations (3% - 12%), and physicochemical properties, antifungal activity, and cytotoxicity of these modified materials (PMMA_FAR) were tested. The presence of FAR in PMMA_FAR composites was verified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Incorporation of FAR into the polymeric matrix significantly decreased hydrophilicity at all tested concentrations and significantly reduced biofilm and planktonic cells metabolic activity in the early stage of biofilm formation at ≥ 6% FAR in PMMA. PMMA_FAR composites with < 9% FAR were non-toxic. Modification of PMMA with FAR is a good strategy for reducing C. albicans biofilm formation on dentures.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Benedek T, Pápai M, Gharieb K, et al (2022)

Nocardioides carbamazepini sp. nov., an ibuprofen degrader isolated from a biofilm bacterial community enriched on carbamazepine.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 45(4):126339 pii:S0723-2020(22)00046-7 [Epub ahead of print].

From the metagenome of a carbamazepine amended selective enrichment culture the genome of a new to science bacterial species affiliating with the genus Nocardioides was reconstructed. From the same enrichment an aerobic actinobacterium, strain CBZ_1T, sharing 99.4% whole-genome sequence similarity with the reconstructed Nocardioides sp. bin genome was isolated. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity the novel isolate affiliated to the genus Nocardioides, with the closest relatives Nocardioides kongjuensis DSM19082T (98.4%), Nocardioides daeguensis JCM17460T (98.4%) and Nocardioides nitrophenolicus DSM15529T (98.2%). Using a polyphasic approach it was confirmed that the isolate CBZ_1T represents a new phyletic lineage within the genus Nocardioides. According to metagenomic, metatranscriptomic studies and metabolic analyses strain CZB_1T was abundant in both carbamazepine and ibuprofen enrichments, and harbors biodegradative genes involved in the biodegradation of pharmaceutical compounds. Biodegradation studies supported that the new species was capable of ibuprofen biodegradation. After 7 weeks of incubation, in mineral salts solution supplemented with glucose (3 g l-1) as co-substrate, 70% of ibuprofen was eliminated by strain CBZ_1T at an initial conc. of 1.5 mg l-1. The phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data supported the classification of strain CBZ_1T to the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides carbamazepini sp. nov. (CBZ_1T = NCAIM B.0.2663 = LMG 32395) is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports simultaneous genome reconstruction of a new to science bacterial species using metagenome binning and at the same time the isolation of the same novel bacterial species.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Liu M, Huang L, Xu X, et al (2022)

Copper Doped Carbon Dots for Addressing Bacterial Biofilm Formation, Wound Infection, and Tooth Staining.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Oral infectious diseases and tooth staining, the main challenges of dental healthcare, are inextricably linked to microbial colonization and the formation of pathogenic biofilms. However, dentistry has so far still lacked simple, safe, and universal prophylactic options and therapy. Here, we report copper-doped carbon dots (Cu-CDs) that display enhanced catalytic (catalase-like, peroxidase-like) activity in the oral environment for inhibiting initial bacteria (Streptococcus mutans) adhesion and for subsequent biofilm eradication without impacting the surrounding oral tissues via oxygen (O2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Especially, Cu-CDs exhibit strong affinity for lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and peptidoglycans (PGN), thus conferring them with excellent antibacterial ability against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), such that they can prevent wound purulent infection and promoting rapid wound healing. Additionally, the Cu-CDs/H2O2 system shows a better performance in tooth whitening, compared with results obtained with other alternatives, e.g., CDs and clinically used H2O2, particularly its negligible enamel and dentin destruction. It is anticipated that the biocompatible Cu-CDs presented in this work are a promising nano-mouthwash for eliminating oral pathogenic biofilms, prompting wound healing as well as tooth whitening, highlighting their significance in oral health management.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Fei P, Jing H, Ma Y, et al (2022)

Cronobacter spp. in Commercial Powdered Infant Formula Collected From Nine Provinces in China: Prevalence, Genotype, Biofilm Formation, and Antibiotic Susceptibility.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:900690.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in commercial powdered infant formula (PIF) from nine provinces in China from March 2018 to September 2020, and to reveal the genotype, biofilm-forming ability, and antibiotic susceptibility of these isolates. A total of 27 Cronobacter strains, consisting of 22 Cronobacter sakazakii strains, 3 Cronobacter malonaticus strains, 1 Cronobacter turicensis strain, and 1 Cronobacter dublinensis strain, were isolated from 3,600 commercial PIF samples with a prevalence rate of 0.75%. Compared with the other 8 provinces, PIF from Shaanxi province had a higher prevalence rate (1.25%) of Cronobacter spp. These isolates were divided into 14 sequence types (STs), and 6 Cronobacter serotypes. The main Cronobacter STs were ST4, ST1, and ST64, and the dominant Cronobacter serotype was C. sakazakii serotype O2. Approximately 88.89% of Cronobacter isolates had a strong ability (OD595 > 1) to form biofilms on tinplate, among which the strains with ST4 were more dominant. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, sulfadiazine, sulfadoxine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and colistin, while 55.56 and 96.30% isolates were resistant to cephalothin and vancomycin, respectively. Taken together, our findings highlighted the contamination status and characterization of Cronobacter spp. in commercial PIF from nine provinces of China, and provided guidance for the effective prevention and control of this pathogen in the production of PIF.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Aleksić A, Stojanović-Radić Z, Harmanus C, et al (2022)

In vitro anti-clostridial action and potential of the spice herbs essential oils to prevent biofilm formation of hypervirulent Clostridioides difficile strains isolated from hospitalized patients with CDI.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(22)00095-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile is the most common causative agent of antibiotic-acquired diarrhea in hospitalized patients associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The global epidemic of CDI (Clostridioides difficile infection) began in the early 20th century with the emergence of the hypervirulent and resistant ribotype 027 strains, and requires an urgent search for new therapeutic agents.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of the three essential oils isolated from spice herbs (wild oregano, garlic and black pepper) against C. difficile clinical isolates belonging to 6 different PCR ribotypes and their potential inhibitory effect on the biofilm production in in vitro conditions.

RESULTS: Wild oregano essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity in concentrations 0.02-1.25 mg/mL and bactericidal activity in concentrations from 0.08 to 10 mg/mL. Garlic essential oil was effective in the concentration range of 0.02-40 mg/mL, and 0.16 - > 40 mg/mL. MIC and MBC for black pepper oil ranged from 0.04 to 40 mg/mL, and 0.08 - > 40 mg/mL, respectively. All the tested oils reduced in vitro biofilm production, with the best activity of oregano oil.

CONCLUSION: Essential oils of wild oregano, black pepper and garlic are candidates for adjunctive therapeutics in the treatment of CDI. Oregano oil should certainly be preferred due to the lack of selectivity of action in relation to the ribotype, the strength of the produced biofilm and/or antibiotic-susceptibility patterns.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Rajivgandhi G, Ramachandran G, Chackaravarthi G, et al (2022)

Preparation of antibacterial Zn and Ni substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for efficient biofilm eradication.

Analytical biochemistry pii:S0003-2697(22)00243-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Zinc (Zn) and, alternatively, nickel (Ni) substituted cobalt ferrite (CF) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of cubic structure of cobalt ferrite. FTIR analysis confirmed the vibrational band located at 550-580 cm-1 that belongs to the M-O bond (M = Ni, and Zn). The alteration of the surface morphology of CF after the addition of Zn and Ni ions was observed from scanning electron microscopic images. The additional peaks in the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) analysis spectra were found to correspond to Zn and Ni. The presence of Zn and, alternatively, Ni ions enhanced the biocidal properties of CF NPs against gram negative organisms, in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to CF, CF-Zn and CF-Ni NPs decreased metabolic activity due to the damage of extra polymorphic substances, live/dead cell variation, architecture and surface integrity of the cells. Altogether, the present investigation provides the basis of metal ion substituted metal oxide NPs as anti-biofilm agents against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

de Siqueira VM, da Silva BGM, Passos JCDS, et al (2022)

(MeOPhSe)2, a synthetic organic selenium compound, inhibits virulence factors of Candida krusei: Adherence to cervical epithelial cells and biofilm formation.

Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), 73:127019 pii:S0946-672X(22)00099-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Systemic candidiasis is produced by Candida albicans or non-albicans Candida species, opportunistic fungi that produce both superficial and invasive infections. Despite the availability of a wide range of antifungal agents for the treatment of candidiasis, failure of therapy is observed frequently, which opens new avenues in the field of alternative therapeutic strategies.

METHODS: The effects of p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide [(MeOPhSe)2], a synthetic organic selenium (organochalcogen) compound, were investigated on virulence factors of C. krusei and compared with its antifungal effects on the virulence factors related to adhesion to cervical epithelial cell surfaces with C. albicans.

RESULTS: (MeOPhSe)2, a compound non-toxic in epithelial (HeLa) and fibroblastic (Vero) cells, inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner and changed the kinetics parameters of C. krusei and, most importantly, extending the duration of lag phase of growth, inhibiting biofilm formation, and changing the structure of biofilm. Also, (MeOPhSe)2 reduced C. albicans and C. krusei adherence to cervical epithelial cells, an important factor for the early stage of the Candida-host interaction. The reduction was 37.24 ± 2.7 % in C. krusei (p = 0.00153) and 32.84 ± 3.2 % in C. albicans (p = 0.0072) at 20 µM (MeOPhSe)2, and the effect is in a concentration-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the antifungal potential on adhesion was similar between both species, indicating the potential of (MeOPhSe)2 as a promising antifungal drug against different Candida infections.

CONCLUSION: Overall, we demonstrated the potential of (MeOPhSe)2 as an effective antifungal drug against the virulence factors of Candida species.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Deepika G, Subbarayadu S, Chaudhary A, et al (2022)

Dibenzyl (benzo [d] thiazol-2-yl (hydroxy) methyl) phosphonate (DBTMP) showing anti-S. aureus and anti-biofilm properties by elevating activities of serine protease (SspA) and cysteine protease staphopain B (SspB).

Archives of microbiology, 204(7):397.

Staphylococcus aureus biofilms are the pathogenic factor in the spread of infection and are more pronounced in multidrug-resistant strains of S. aureus, where high expression of proteases is observed. Among various proteases, Serine protease (SspA) and cysteine protease Staphopain B (SspB) are known to play a key role in the biofilm formation and removal of biofilms. In earlier studies, we have reported Dibenzyl (benzo [d] thiazol-2-yl (hydroxy) methyl) phosphonate (DBTMP) exhibits anti-S. aureus and anti-biofilm properties by elevating the expression of the protease. In this study, the effect of DBTMP on the activities of SspA, and SspB of S. aureus was evaluated. The SspA and SspB genes of S. aureus ATCC12600 were sequenced (Genbank accession numbers: MZ456982 and MW574006). In S. aureus active SspA is formed by proteolytic cleavage of immature SspA, to get this mature SspA (mSspA), we have PCR amplified the mSspA sequence from the SspA gene. The mSspA and SspB genes were cloned, expressed, and characterized. The pure recombinant proteins rSspB and rmSspA exhibited a single band in SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 40 and 30 KD, respectively. The activities of rmSspA and rSspB are 32.33 and 35.45 Units/mL correspondingly. DBTMP elevated the activities of rmSspA and rSspB by docking with respective enzymes. This compound disrupted the biofilms formed by the multidrug-resistant strains of S. aureus and further prevented biofilm formation. These findings explain that DBTMP possesses anti-S. aureus and anti-biofilm features.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Lim H, Chung JH, Park Y, et al (2022)

Inner surface modification of ureteral stent polyurethane tubes based by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to reduce encrustation and biofilm formation.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Encrustation and/or biofilm formation in ureteral stents are major causes of obstruction and reduce the lifetime of a ureteral stent. In this study, the inner surfaces of polyurethane (PU) tubes (inner and outer diameters of 1.2 and 2.0 mm, respectively) were reformed with Ar, O2, and C2H2 gases using specialized plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for the first time. Then, the modified PU tubes were immersed in urine for 15 days, and the characteristics of the inner surfaces were analyzed. Depending on the modification procedure, the corresponding inner surface exhibited different chemical properties and different rates of encrustation and biofilm formation. For a hydrophilic surface treated with Ar and O2, encrustation and biofilm formation increased, while for the C2H2 coating, the development of encrustation and biofilm reduced by more than five times compared with the untreated bare PU tube. This study demonstrated that inner plasma surface modification of ureteral stents greatly enhances resistance to encrustation and biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Consoli GML, Granata G, Ginestra G, et al (2022)

Antibacterial Nanoassembled Calix[4]arene Exposing Choline Units Inhibits Biofilm and Motility of Gram Negative Bacteria.

ACS medicinal chemistry letters, 13(6):916-922.

The high incidence of antibiotic resistance and biofilm-associated infections is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality and triggers the need for new antimicrobial drugs and strategies. Nanotechnology is an emerging approach in the search for novel antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the inherent antibacterial effects of a self-assembling amphiphilic choline-calix[4]arene derivative (Chol-Calix) against Gram negative bacteria. Chol-Calix showed activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including antibiotic-resistant strains, and affected the bacterial biofilm and motility. The activity is likely related to the amphipathicity and cationic surface of Chol-Calix nanoassembly that can establish large contact interactions with the bacterial surface. Chol-Calix appears to be a promising candidate in the search for novel nanosized nonconventional antimicrobials.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Nosrati M, R Ranjbar (2022)

Investigation of the antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities of Prangos acaulis (DC.) Bornm in nanoparticulated formulation.

Nanotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Here in, a chitosan based nanoformulation of P.acaulis was evaluated for its antibacterial and antibiofilm inhibitory activities against some known foodborne bacteria. The FTIR, FE-SEM, DLS and zeta-potential analysis were performed for confirming loading process, morphological appearance, hydrodynamic diameter and surface charge of the nanoparticles respectively. The results confirmed that, the nanoparticles had semi-spherical shape with the mean hydrodynamic diameter and surface charge of 89.8±5.8 nm and 10.78±2.7 mv respectively. Furthermore, the FTIR analysis approved that the nanoparticles were successfully loaded with ethyl acetate fraction from P.acaulis. The antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities of the nanoformulated fraction were significantly increased against the tested Gram positive strains than free sample. The results also confirmed that the fraction release from the nanoparticles follows a sustained manner release after 30 h in a logarithmic pattern. Based on the obtained results, chitosan based nanoformulation of P. acaulis can be considered for more evaluations to serve as an alternative natural antibiotic.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Yarkarami F, Kazemian H, Sadeghifard N, et al (2022)

Inhibitory Effects of Carvacrol on Biofilm Formation and Expression of Biofilm Related Genes in Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis.

Clinical laboratory, 68(6):.

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, novel antimicrobial strategies are being developed which focus on debilitating, rather than killing the microorganisms. In this regard, anti-biofilm therapy is one of the important ways to combat bacterial infections. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm activity of Carvacrol against E. faecalis by means of its effects on biofilm formation as well as on the gene expression levels of the two biofilm related genes, Epa and Esp.

METHODS: A total of 40 clinical strains of E. faecalis were collected from three hospitals in Tehran, Iran during 2020. These isolates were confirmed by biochemical and genotypic methods. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of Carvacrol essence were determined according the standard protocol. Finally, expression level of the biofilm related genes (Epa and Esp) were evaluated before and after the treatment with Carvacrol.

RESULTS: A total of 14 isolates were considered as strong biofilm producers and were used for analysis. Carvacrol essence showed the best antibacterial activity at 2,500 μg/mL concentration against all the isolates, the biofilm formation capacity was decreased by Carvacrol essence, and it was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Expression levels of the Esp gene were decreased in 5 isolates while increased in 3 isolates following the Carvacrol treatment. Ex-pression levels of the EpaI gene was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in 4 isolates following the Carvacrol treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results presented in this study suggest that carvacrol extract exhibits significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis, even against vancomycin resistant isolates.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Feitosa-Junior OR, Souza APS, Zaini PA, et al (2022)

The XadA trimeric autotransporter adhesins in Xylella fastidiosa differentially contribute to cell aggregation, biofilm formation, insect transmission and virulence to plants.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Surface adhesion strategies are widely employed by bacterial pathogens during establishment and systemic spread in their host. A variety of cell surface appendages such as pili, fimbriae and afimbrial adhesins are involved in these processes. The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa employs several of these structures for efficient colonization of its insect and plant hosts. Among the adhesins encoded in the X. fastidiosa genome, three afimbrial adhesins, XadA1, Hsf/XadA2, and XadA3, are predicted to be trimeric autotransporters with a C-terminal YadA-anchor membrane domain. We analyzed the individual contributions of XadA1, XadA2, and XadA3 to various cellular behaviors both in vitro and in vivo. Using isogenic X. fastidiosa mutants, we found that cell-cell aggregation and biofilm formation were severely impaired in the absence of XadA3. No significant reduction of cell-surface attachment was found with any mutant under flow conditions. Acquisition by insect vectors and transmission to grapevines were reduced in the XadA3 deletion mutant. While the XadA3 mutant was hypervirulent in grapevines, XadA1 or XadA2 deletion mutants conferred lower disease severity than the wild-type strain. This insight of the importance of these adhesive proteins and their individual contributions to different aspects of X. fastidiosa biology should guide new approaches to reduce pathogen transmission and disease development.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Worlitzer VM, Jose A, Grinberg I, et al (2022)

Biophysical aspects underlying the swarm to biofilm transition.

Science advances, 8(24):eabn8152.

Bacteria organize in a variety of collective states, from swarming-rapid surface exploration, to biofilms-highly dense immobile communities attributed to stress resistance. It has been suggested that biofilm and swarming are oppositely controlled, making this transition particularly interesting for understanding the ability of bacterial colonies to adapt to challenging environments. Here, the swarm to biofilm transition is studied in Bacillus subtilis by analyzing the bacterial dynamics both on the individual and collective scales. We show that both biological and physical processes facilitate the transition. A few individual cells that initiate the biofilm program cause nucleation of large, approximately scale-free, stationary aggregates of trapped swarm cells. Around aggregates, cells continue swarming almost unobstructed, while inside, trapped cells are added to the biofilm. While our experimental findings rule out previously suggested purely physical effects as a trigger for biofilm formation, they show how physical processes, such as clustering and jamming, accelerate biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Wu C, Tang J, Limlingan Malit JJ, et al (2022)

Bathiapeptides: Polythiazole-Containing Peptides from a Marine Biofilm-Derived Bacillus sp.

Journal of natural products [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria in marine biofilms are a rich reservoir of natural products. To facilitate novel secondary metabolite discovery, we investigated the metabolic profile of a marine biofilm-derived Bacillus sp. B19-2 by combining bioinformatics and LC-UV-MS analyses. After dereplication and purification of putatively unknown compounds, a new family of compounds 1-8 was uncovered and named bathiapeptides. Structural elucidation using NMR, HRESIMS, ozonolysis, advanced Marfey's analysis, and X-ray diffraction revealed that bathiapeptides are polypeptides that contain a rare polythiazole moiety. These compounds exhibited strong cytotoxicity against Hep G2, HeLa, MCF-7, and MGC-803 cell lines, and the lowest IC50 value was 0.5 μM. An iterative biosynthesis logic in bathiapeptides' biosynthesis was proposed based on the identified chemical structures and putative gene cluster analysis.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Li Q, Liu J, Xu Y, et al (2022)

Fast Cross-Linked Hydrogel as a Green Light-Activated Photocatalyst for Localized Biofilm Disruption and Brush-Free Tooth Whitening.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm-driven caries and tooth discoloration are two major problems in oral health care. The current methods have the disadvantages of insufficient biofilm targeting and irreversible enamel damage. Herein, an injectable sodium alginate hydrogel membrane doped with bismuth oxychloride (Bi12O17Cl2) and cubic cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles was designed to simultaneously achieve local tooth whitening and biofilm removal through a photodynamic dental therapy process. This fast cross-linked hydrogel could form a biofilm removal coating on the target tooth surface precisely. Afterward, reactive oxygen species was effectively released on demand under green light, which could not only eradicate the biofilm but also whiten the tooth non-destructively in a facile manner without significant damage to both the enamel and biological cells. After the usage, the removal of this hydrogel can also enhance the effect of biofilm destruction and caries prevention.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Park S, Lee ES, Jung HI, et al (2022)

Optical detection of oral biofilm in hospitalized geriatric patients using quantitative light-induced fluorescence technology.

Detection and removal of pathological oral biofilm are essential in hospitalized geriatric patients as the biofilm can lead to lung infection. However, as elderly patients often have cognitive and physical impairments, general oral examination is complicated and detection of pathological biofilms is challenging. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology, which is currently actively used to detect bacterial structures in the oral cavity, is used to detect dental biofilm and to identify various oral bacterial infections. We confirmed the applicability of QLF technology to oral hygiene assessment and evaluation of hospitalized geriatric patients using the QLF technology to detect and remove the pathological oral biofilm in a hospitalized geriatric patient. The oral biofilm attached to the oral mucosa was difficult to observe with the naked eye. However, it was detected with red fluorescence on QLF images, which helped us observe the to detect pathological oral biofilm and evaluate the effectiveness of oral hygiene care (OHC). After OHC, the strong red fluorescence expressed in the oral mucosa was no longer observed. This change in the clinical aspect of red fluorescence suggests that QLF can be used to detect pathological oral biofilm accumulated on the oral mucous membrane and evaluate the effectiveness of OHC in hospitalized patients with extremely poor oral hygiene.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Gujinović L, Maravić A, Kalinić H, et al (2022)

Metagenomic analysis of pioneer biofilm-forming marine bacteria with emphasis on Vibrio gigantis adhesion dynamics.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 217:112619 pii:S0927-7765(22)00302-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Marine biofilms occur frequently and spontaneously in seawater, on almost any submerged solid surface. At the early stages of colonization, it consists of bacteria and evolves into a more complex community. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and comparative metagenomics, the composition and predicted functional potential of one- to three-day old bacterial communities in surface biofilms were investigated and compared to that of seawater. This confirmed the autochthonous marine bacterium Vibrio gigantis as an early and very abundant biofilm colonizer, also functionally linked to the genes associated with cell motility, surface attachment, and communication via signaling molecules (quorum sensing), all crucial for biofilm formation. The dynamics of adhesion on a solid surface of V. gigantis alone was also monitored in controlled laboratory conditions, using a newly designed and easily implementable protocol. Resulting in a calculated percentage of bacteria-covered surface, a convincing tendency of spontaneous adhering was confirmed. From the multiple results, its quantified and reproducible adhesion dynamics will be used as a basis for future experiments involving surface modifications and coatings, with the goal of preventing adhesion.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Li P, Yu M, Ke X, et al (2022)

Cytocompatible Amphipathic Carbon Quantum Dots as Potent Membrane-Active Antibacterial Agents with Low Drug Resistance and Effective Inhibition of Biofilm Formation.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

It is very challenging to design nanomaterials with both excellent antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility when facing bacterial infection. Here, inspired by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we fabricate carbon quantum dots (CQDs) derived from hydrophobic tryptophan and hydrophilic lysine or arginine (Lys/Trp-CQDs and Arg/Trp-CQDs), which possess amphipathic properties. These CQDs could effectively destroy bacterial membranes without developing resistance, inhibit biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, and exhibit good in vitro biocompatibility. The antibacterial activities are caused by not only surface cationic structures and excess intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the CQDs but also the effects of the surface hydrophobic groups. These combined mechanisms of actions lead to bacterial membrane disruption, which raises the hope for combating bacterial infection without concern about drug resistance. What's more, the effect of amphiphilicity on balancing sterilization with biocompatibility expands the research ideas for developing available antibacterial nanomaterials.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Deng Z, Hou K, Valencak TG, et al (2022)

AI-2/LuxS Quorum Sensing System Promotes Biofilm Formation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Enhances the Resistance to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Germ-Free Zebrafish.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The LuxS enzyme plays a key role in both quorum sensing (QS) and the regulation of bacterial growth. It catalyzes the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signaling molecule, which is a component of the methyl cycle and methionine metabolism. This study aimed at investigating the differences between the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) wild-type strain (WT) and its luxS mutant (ΔluxS) during biofilm formation and when resisting to inflammation caused by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in germ-free zebrafish. Our results suggest that in the absence of luxS when LGG was knocked out, biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide secretion and adhesion were all compromised. Addition of synthetic AI-2 indeed rescued, at least partially, the deficiencies observed in the mutant strain. The colonizing and immunomodulatory function in WT versus ΔluxS mutants were further studied in a germ-free zebrafish model. The concentration of AI-2 signaling molecules decreased sharply in zebrafish infected with the ΔluxS. At the same time, compared with the ΔluxS, the wild-type strain could colonize the germ-free zebrafish more effectively. Our transcriptome results suggest that genes involved in immunity, signal transduction, and cell adhesion were downregulated in zebrafish infected with ΔluxS and WT. In the WT, the immune system of germ-free zebrafish was activated more effectively through the MAPK and NF-κB pathway, and its ability to fight the infection against ETEC was increased. Together, our results demonstrate that the AI-2/LuxS system plays an important role in biofilm formation to improve LGG and alleviate inflammation caused by ETEC in germ-free zebrafish. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a widely used probiotic to improve host intestinal health, promote growth, reduce diarrhea, and modulate immunity. In recent years, the bacterial quorum sensing system has attracted much attention; however, there has not been much research on the effect of the LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing system of Lactobacillus on bacteriostasis, microbial ecology balance, and immune regulation in intestine. In this study, we used germ-free zebrafish as an animal model to compare the differences between wild-type and luxS mutant strains. We showed how AI-2/LuxS QS affects the release of AI-2 and how QS regulates the colonization, EPS synthesis and biofilm formation of LGG. This study provides an idea for the targeted regulation of animal intestinal health with probiotics by controlling bacteria quorum sensing system.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Lauková A, Chrastinová Ľ, Micenková L, et al (2022)

Enterocin M in Interaction in Broiler Rabbits with Autochthonous, Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus hirae Kr8 Strain.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Young rabbits are susceptible to gastrointestinal diseases caused by bacteria. Enterococcus hirae can be associated with diseases. But enterocins produced by some enterococcal species can prevent/reduce this problem. Therefore, the interaction of enterocin M with a biofilm-forming, autochthonous E. hirae Kr8+ strain was tested in rabbits to assess enterocin potential in vivo. Rabbits (96), aged 35 days, both sexes, meat line M91 breed were divided into four groups, control C and three experimental groups. The rabbits in C received the standard diet, rabbits in experimental group 1 (E1) received 108 CFU/mL of Kr8+, a dose 500 µL/animal/day, E2 received Ent M (50 µL/animal/day), and E3 received both Kr8+ and Ent M in their drinking water over 21 days. The experiment lasted 42 days. Feces and blood were sampled at day 0/1 (at the start of the experiment, fecal mixture of 96 animals, n = 10), at day 21 (five fecal mixtures per group, n = 5), and at day 42 (21 days after additives cessation, the same). At days 21 and 42, four rabbits from each group were slaughtered, and cecum and appendix were sampled for standard microbial analysis. Ent M showed decreased tendency of Kr8+. Using next-generation sequencing, the phyla detected with the highest abundance were Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Saccharibacteria, and Actinobacteria. Interaction of Ent M with some phyla resulted in reduced abundance percentage. At day 21, significantly increased phagocytic activity (PA) was found in E1 and E2 (p < 0.001). Kr8+ did not attack PA and did not stimulate oxidative stress. But Ent M supported PA. The prospective importance of this study lies in beneficial interaction of enterocin in host body.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Xu JG, Hu HX, Chen JY, et al (2022)

Comparative study on inhibitory effects of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid on Salmonella Enteritidis biofilm formation.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 38(8):136.

Biofilm cells exhibit higher resistance than their planktonic counterparts to commonly used disinfectants in food industry. Phenolic acids are promising substitute offering less selective pressure than traditional antibiotics. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis biofilm formation and explore the underlying inhibitory mechanisms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of FA and p-CA were 1.0 and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. The sub-inhibitory concentration (1/8 MIC) significantly decreased biofilm formation without growth inhibitory effects. The biomass and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of S. Enteritidis biofilm as well as the bacterial swimming and chemotaxis abilities were significantly decreased when exposed to sub-MIC concentrations of FA and p-CA. These two phenolic acids showed high affinity to proteins involved in flagella motility and repressed the S. Enteritidis biofilm formation-related gene expressions. Furthermore, these two phenolic acids maintained high antibiofilm efficiency in simulated food processing conditions. This study provided valuable information of multiple phenotypic and molecular responses of S. Enteritidis to these two phenolic acids.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Ravel G, Bergmann M, Trubuil A, et al (2022)

Inferring characteristics of bacterial swimming in biofilm matrix from time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy.

eLife, 11: pii:76513 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms are spatially organized communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced organic matrix, conferring to the population emerging properties such as an increased tolerance to the action of antimicrobials. It was shown that some bacilli were able to swim in the exogenous matrix of pathogenic biofilms and to counterbalance these properties. Swimming bacteria can deliver antimicrobial agents in situ, or potentiate the activity of antimicrobial by creating a transient vascularization network in the matrix. Hence, characterizing swimmer trajectories in the biofilm matrix is of particular interest to understand and optimize this new biocontrol strategy in particular, but also more generally to decipher ecological drivers of population spatial structure in natural biofilms ecosystems. In this study, a new methodology is developed to analyze time-lapse confocal laser scanning images to describe and compare the swimming trajectories of bacilli swimmers populations and their adaptations to the biofilm structure. The method is based on the inference of a kinetic model of swimmer populations including mechanistic interactions with the host biofilm. After validation on synthetic data, the methodology is implemented on images of three different species of motile bacillus species swimming in a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The fitted model allows to stratify the swimmer populations by their swimming behavior and provides insights into the mechanisms deployed by the micro-swimmers to adapt their swimming traits to the biofilm matrix.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Protasiuk LE, Serov NS, Lokteva AV, et al (2022)

Mechano-bactericidal anisotropic particles for oral biofilm treatment.

Journal of materials chemistry. B [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilms play a major etiological role in dental diseases worldwide. Currently, toothpastes with bactericidal chemicals and abrasive materials are used as preventive care methods. However, chemicals can cause adverse side effects, with the use of antibiotics, fluorides, and antiseptics drastically reducing quality of life. At the same time, the rational design of bulk toothpaste materials has remained unexplored. In this work, we demonstrated a mechano-bactericidal strategy as an antibiotic-free and tooth-safe approach for dental biofilm elimination based on shape-anisotropy CaCO3 (cubic-, stick-, and urchin-shaped). As proof-of-concept, we demonstrated superior efficiency during biofilm eradication from ex vivo teeth using urchin- and stick-shaped microparticles involving both Escherichia coli K12 (227 ± 32.6% and 215 ± 33%, respectively) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 209P (210 ± 54.7% and 202 ± 55.5%, respectively) compared to the spherical particles that are employed in conventional toothpastes. These findings will potentially give rise to the development of novel and safer toothpastes with antibiotic-free bactericidal activity for the prevention of dental diseases.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Vandana , S Das (2022)

Genetic regulation, biosynthesis and applications of extracellular polysaccharides of the biofilm matrix of bacteria.

Carbohydrate polymers, 291:119536.

Bacterial biofilm formation is dependent mainly on the decision-making process of the two key factors of the gene regulatory network, namely the Quorum Sensing (QS) system and bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). c-di-GMP is a secondary messenger molecule that enhances extracellular polysaccharides production by activating pelD and alg44. Genes involved in the metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides are clustered within the genome of the producing bacteria. The extracellular polysaccharide gene cluster encodes specific regulatory enzymes and transporter proteins involved in the different steps of the biosynthesis route. The diversity of extracellular polysaccharides produced by the bacteria is synthesized via different biosynthesis pathways. Understanding the genetic regulation and biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides is crucial for tailor-made polymers via genetic, metabolic, and protein engineering approaches. This review illustrates structure, structure-function relationship, genetics, regulation, biosynthetic pathways, and various applications of extracellular polysaccharides.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Deng YH, Ricciardulli T, Won J, et al (2022)

Self-locomotive, antimicrobial microrobot (SLAM) swarm for enhanced biofilm elimination.

Biomaterials, 287:121610 pii:S0142-9612(22)00250-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm is a major cause of infections and infrastructure deterioration, largely due to molecular diffusion restrictions that hamper the antimicrobial activity of traditional antibiotics and disinfectants. Here, we present a self-locomotive, antimicrobial microrobot (SLAM) swarm that can penetrate, fracture, and detach biofilm and, in turn, nullify bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The SLAM is assembled by loading a controlled mass of manganese oxide nanosheets on diatoms with the polydopamine binder. In hydrogen peroxide solution, SLAMs produce oxygen bubbles that generate thrust to penetrate the rigid and dense Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and self-assemble into a swarm that repeatedly surrounds, expands, and bursts oxygen bubbles. The resulting cavities continue to deform and fracture extracellular polymeric substances from microgrooved silicone substrates and wounded skin explants while decreasing the number of viable bacterial cells. Additionally, SLAM allows irrigating water or antibiotics to access the residual biofilm better, thus enhancing the synergistic efficacy in killing up to 99.9% of bacterial cells.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Chapartegui-González I, Khakhum N, Stockton JL, et al (2022)

Evaluating the Contribution of the Predicted Toxin-Antitoxin System HigBA to Persistence, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Infection and immunity [Epub ahead of print].

Melioidosis is an underreported human disease caused by the Gram-negative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm). Both the treatment and the clearance of the pathogen are challenging, with high relapse rates leading to latent infections. This has been linked to the bacterial persistence phenomenon, a growth arrest strategy that allows bacteria to survive under stressful conditions, as in the case of antibiotic treatment, within a susceptible clonal population. At a molecular level, this phenomenon has been associated with the presence of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. We annotated the Bpm K96243 genome and selected 11 pairs of genes encoding for these TA systems, and their expression was evaluated under different conditions (supralethal antibiotic conditions; intracellular survival bacteria). The predicted HigB toxin (BPSL3343) and its predicted antitoxin HigA (BPS_RS18025) were further studied using mutant construction. The phenotypes of two mutants (ΔhigB and ΔhigB ΔhigA) were evaluated under different conditions compared to the wild-type (WT) strain. The ΔhigB toxin mutant showed a defect in intracellular survival on macrophages, a phenotype that was eliminated after levofloxacin treatment. We found that the absence of the toxin provides an advantage over the WT strain, in both in vitro and in vivo models, during persister conditions induced by levofloxacin. The lack of the antitoxin also resulted in differential responses to the conditions evaluated, and under some conditions, it restored the WT phenotype, overall suggesting that both toxin and antitoxin components play a role in the persister-induced phenotype in Bpm.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Hjort K, Fermér E, Tang PC, et al (2022)

Antibiotic Minimal Selective Concentrations and Fitness Costs during Biofilm and Planktonic Growth.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

The use and misuse of antibiotics have resulted in the selection of difficult-to-treat resistant bacteria. Two key parameters that influence the selection of resistant bacteria are the minimal selective concentration (MSC) and the fitness cost of resistance, both of which have been measured during planktonic growth in several studies. However, bacterial growth most often occurs in biofilms, and it is unclear if and how these parameters differ under these two growth conditions. To address this knowledge gap, we compared a selection of several types of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli mutants during planktonic and biofilm growth to determine the fitness costs and MSCs. Biofilm-forming Escherichia coli strains are commonly found in catheter-associated and recurrent urinary tract infections. Isogenic strains of a biofilm-forming E. coli strain, differing only in the resistance mechanisms and the fluorescent markers, were constructed, and susceptible and resistant bacteria were grown in head-to-head competitions at various concentrations of antibiotics under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Mutants with resistance to five different antibiotics were studied. The results show that during both planktonic and biofilm growth, selection for the resistant mutants occurred for all antibiotics at sub-MICs far below the MIC of the antibiotic. Even though differences were seen, the MSC values and the fitness costs did not differ systematically between planktonic and biofilm growth, implying that despite the different growth modes, the basic selection parameters are similar. These findings highlight the risk that resistant mutants may, similarly to planktonic growth, also be selected at sub-MICs of antibiotics in biofilms. IMPORTANCE Our understanding of how and where antibiotic resistance is selected in response to antibiotic exposure is still limited, and this is particularly true for selective processes when bacteria are growing in biofilms, arguably the most significant mode of growth of bacteria in human and animal infections as well as in other settings. In this study, we compared how different types of resistant E. coli strains were selected in response to antibiotic exposure during planktonic and biofilm growth. Determination of the minimal selective concentrations (MSCs) and fitness costs of resistance showed that they were comparable under these two different conditions, even though some differences were observed. Importantly, the MSCs were far below the MICs for all mutants under both planktonic and biofilm growth, emphasizing the significance of low antibiotic concentrations in driving the emergence and enrichment of resistant bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Dodson TA, Carlson EA, Wamer NC, et al (2022)

Characterization of Distinct Biofilm Cell Subpopulations and Implications in Quorum Sensing and Antibiotic Resistance.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria change phenotypically in response to their environment. Free swimming cells transition to biofilm communities that promote cellular cooperativity and resistance to stressors and antibiotics. We uncovered three subpopulations of cells with diverse phenotypes from a single-species Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm, and used a series of steps to isolate, characterize, and map these cell subpopulations in a biofilm. The subpopulations were distinguishable by size and morphology using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, growth and dispersal of biofilms originating from each cell subpopulation exhibited contrasting responses to antibiotic challenge. Cell subpopulation surface charges were distinctly different, which led us to examine the ionizable surface molecules associated with each subpopulation using mass spectrometry. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis of cell subpopulations revealed ions unique to each subpopulation of cells that significantly co-localized with ions associated with quorum sensing. Transcript levels of algR, lasR, and rhlI in subpopulations isolated from biofilms differed from levels in planktonic stationary and mid-log cell subpopulations. These studies provide insight into diverse phenotypes, morphologies, and biochemistries of PA14 cell subpopulations for potential applications in combating bacterial pathogenesis, with medical, industrial, and environmental complications. IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms can cause chronic infections in burn wounds, grow on medical equipment, and proliferate in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis. These inherently antibiotic tolerant biofilms are difficult to eradicate largely due to the complexity of the biofilm environment. Developing more effective biofilm treatments is reliant upon understanding biofilm heterogeneity. We identified and characterized three separate cell subpopulations found in P. aeruginosa PA14 biofilms. The distinct morphologies, phenotypes, and biochemistries of each of these cell subpopulations indicate that they contribute differently to the overall biofilm environment. These findings demonstrate that bacterial cells of the same species exhibit diversity that implies distinct roles in biofilm initiation, maturation, and maintenance.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )