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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jul 2020 at 01:32 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 28666 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-07-03

Dai T, Zaman MH, Padula W, et al (2020)

Supply Chain Failures Amid Covid-19 Signal a New Pillar for Global Health Preparedness.

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged health systems around the globe and exposed a myriad of fault lines, demonstrating how critically important the healthcare supply chain, and its integrity, is to health systems and as a consequence, to the well-being of individuals, families, and communities. Supply chain inefficiency, and its brittleness in times of crises has been a well-noted barrier in low- and middle-income countries but the graphic descriptions of preventable death through absence of effective personal protective equipment (PPE) in developed economies is both chastening and confronting.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Ceulemans M, Hompes T, V Foulon (2020)

Mental health status of pregnant and breastfeeding women during the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action.

International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

Pregnancy and early parenthood are life-changing periods characterized by intense emotions and a high vulnerability to emotional problems. Overall, 10-20% of pregnant women and women in the early postpartum period suffer from mental health problems. In the first months of 2020, pregnant and breastfeeding women have also needed to face the COVID-19 pandemic, including the exceptional quarantine measures that have disturbed private and professional life.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Smith GD, Ng F, R Watson (2020)

'Masking the evidence': perspectives of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a severe and acute public health emergency around the world. The event of the pandemic has seen an upsurge in the general public wearing of disposable surgical masks (DSM) and other types of face masks. The World Health Organisation of mask wearing has been widely debated in the press a(WHO) have changed their advice, to now recommend the routine wearing of fabric masks by the general public as a means of preventing the spread of COVID-19 (WHO 2020a).

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Kristoffersen ES, Jahr SH, Thommessen B, et al (2020)

Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on stroke admission rates in a Norwegian population.

Acta neurologica Scandinavica [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: There are concerns that public anxiety around Covid-19 discourages patients from seeking medical help. The aim of this study was to see how lockdown due to the pandemic affected the number of admissions of acute stroke.

METHODS: All patients discharged from Akershus University Hospital with a diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA) or acute stroke were identified by hospital chart review. January 3rd to March 12th was defined as before, and March 13th to April 30th as during lockdown.

RESULTS: There were 21.8 admissions/week before and 15.0 admissions/week during the lockdown (p<0.01). Patients had on average higher NIHSS during the lockdown than before (5.9 vs. 4.2, p=0.041). In the multivariable logistic regression model for ischemic stroke (adjusted for sex, age, living alone and NIHSS≤5) there was an increased OR of 2.05 (95% CI 1.10-3.83, p=0.024) for not reaching hospital within 4.5 hours during the lockdown as compared to the period before the lockdown.

CONCLUSION: There was a significant reduction in number of admissions for stroke and TIAs during the lockdown due to the covid-19 pandemic in Norway.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Fassett MJ, Lurvey LD, Yasumura L, et al (2020)

Universal SARS-Cov-2 Screening in Women Admitted for Delivery in a Large Managed Care Organization.

American journal of perinatology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a need for data regarding the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnant women. After implementing universal screening for COVID-19 in women admitted for delivery, we sought to describe the characteristics of COVID-19 in this large cohort of women.

STUDY DESIGN: An observational study of women admitted to labor and delivery units in Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals between April 6 and May 11, 2020 who were universally offered testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 3,963). Hospital inpatient and outpatient physician encounter, and laboratory records were used to ascertain universal testing levels, test results, and medical and obstetrical histories. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated from the number of women who tested positive during labor per 100 women delivered.

RESULTS: Of women delivered during the study period, 3,923 (99.0%) underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. A total of 17 (0.43%; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.63%) women tested positive, and none of them were symptomatic on admission. There was no difference in terms of characteristics between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative tested women. One woman developed a headache attributed to COVID-19 3 days postpartum. No neonates had a positive test at 24 hours of life.

CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that in pregnant women admitted for delivery between April 6 and May 11, 2020 in this large integrated health care system in Southern California, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 test positive was very low and all patients were asymptomatic on admission.

KEY POINTS: · The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large diverse cohort of term pregnant women was 0.43%.. · 99% of women accepted SARS-CoV-2 screening on admission to labor and delivery.. · All women with positive test results were asymptomatic at the time of testing..

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Gorzalski AJ, Tian H, Laverdure C, et al (2020)

High-Throughput Transcription-mediated amplification on the Hologic Panther is a highly sensitive method of detection for SARS-CoV-2.

Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 129:104501 pii:S1386-6532(20)30243-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: As the demand for laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 increases, additional varieties of testing methodologies are being considered. While real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has performed as the main method for virus detection, other methods are becoming available, including transcription mediated amplification (TMA). The Hologic Aptima SARS-CoV-2 Assay utilizes TMA as a target amplification mechanism, and it has only recently received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Aptima SARS-CoV-2 Assay to RTPCR as a means of SARS-CoV-2 detection in a diagnostic setting.

STUDY DESIGN: We performed a limit-of-detection study (LoD) to assess the analytical sensitivity of TMA and RT-PCR. This preceded a comparison of the methods using previously evaluated clinical specimens (nasopharyngeal swabs) using 116 human specimens tested by both methodologies. Specimens included sixty-one (61) specimens found reactive by real-time PCR, fifty-one (51) found non-reactive, and four (4) deemed inconclusive.

RESULTS: The Aptima SARS-CoV-2 Assay showed a markedly higher analytical sensitivity than RT-PCR by LoD study. Evaluation of clinical specimens resulted in fewer inconclusive results by the SARS-CoV-2 assay, leading to potentially higher clinical sensitivity.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher analytical sensitivity may explain TMA's ability to ascertain for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genome in human specimens deemed inconclusive by real-time PCR. TMA provides an effective, highly sensitive means of detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal specimens.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Liu R, Liu X, Yuan L, et al (2020)

Analysis of adjunctive serological detection to nucleic acid test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis.

International immunopharmacology, 86:106746 pii:S1567-5769(20)31369-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in China, December 2019. The clinical features and treatment of COVID-19 patients remain largely elusive. However, accurate detection is required for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the antibodies-based test and nucleic acid-based test for SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.

METHODS: We retrospectively studied 133 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, China, from January 23 to March 1, 2020. Demographic data, clinical records, laboratory tests, and outcomes were collected. Data were accessed by SARS-CoV-2 IgM-IgG antibody test and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detection for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in COVID-19 patients.

RESULTS: Of 133 COVID-19 patients, there were 44 moderate cases, 52 severe cases, and 37 critical cases with no differences in gender and age among three subgroups. In RT-PCR detection, the positive rate was 65.9%, 71.2%, and 67.6% in moderate, severe, and critical cases, respectively. Whereas the positive rate of IgM/IgG antibody detection in patients was 79.5%/93.2%, 82.7%/100%, and 73.0%/97.3% in moderate, severe, and critical cases, respectively. Moreover, the IgM and IgG antibodies concentrations were also examined with no differences among three subgroups.

CONCLUSION: The IgM-IgG antibody test exhibited a useful adjunct to RT-PCR detection, and improved the accuracy in COVID-19 diagnosis regardless of the severity of illness, which provides an effective complement to the false-negative results from a nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis after onsets.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Houot R, Levy R, Cartron G, et al (2020)

Could anti-CD20 therapy jeopardise the efficacy of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?.

European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990), 136:4-6 pii:S0959-8049(20)30350-6 [Epub ahead of print].

A vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 might represent the most promising approach to halt durably the current COVID-19 pandemic. We believe that anti-CD20 therapy may jeopardise the efficacy of such a vaccine. This is regrettable because patients receiving anti-CD20 therapy (i.e. those with haematologic malignancies or autoimmune disorders) are particularly at risk of severe COVID-19 and, as such, are the most in need of a vaccine. Here, we review the reasons why anti-CD20 therapy may abrogate or diminish the efficacy of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and we draw physicians' attention towards this potential risk so that it can be considered when evaluating the risk/benefit ratio of anti-CD20 therapy during the current pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Manzanedo RD, P Manning (2020)

COVID-19: Lessons for the climate change emergency.

The Science of the total environment, 742:140563 pii:S0048-9697(20)34085-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak pandemic is now a global crisis. It has caused 9+ million confirmed cases and 400,000+ deaths at the time of writing and triggered unprecedented preventative measures that have confined a substantial portion of the global population and established 'social distancing' as a new global behavioral norm. The COVID-19 crisis has affected all aspects of everyday life and work, and heavily impacted the global economy. This crisis also offers unprecedented insights into how the global climate crisis may be managed, as there are many parallels between the COVID-19 crisis and what we expect from the imminent global climate emergency. Reflecting upon the challenges of today's crisis may help us better prepare for the future. Here we compile a list, by no means comprehensive, of the similarities and differences between the two crises, and the lessons we can learn from them: (i) High momentum trends, (ii) Irreversible changes, (iii) Social and spatial inequality, (iv) Weakening of international solidarity, and (v) Less costly to prevent than to cure.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Arora S, Bhaukhandi KD, PK Mishra (2020)

Coronavirus lockdown helped the environment to bounce back.

The Science of the total environment, 742:140573 pii:S0048-9697(20)34095-X [Epub ahead of print].

As the transmission of novel corona virus (COVID-19) increases rapidly, the whole world adopted the curfew/lockdown activity with restriction of human mobility. The imposition of quarantine stopped all the commercial activity that greatly affects the various important environmental parameters which directly connected to human health. As all the types of social, economic, industrial and urbanization activity suddenly shut off, nature takes the advantages and showed improvement in the quality of air, cleaner rivers, less noise pollution, undisturbed and calm wildlife. This research aims to discuss the COVID-19 effect on the global environment. The outcome of this research says that "Although coronavirus vaccine is not available coronavirus itself is earth's vaccine and us humans are the virus".

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Razzini K, Castrica M, Menchetti L, et al (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the air and on surfaces in the COVID-19 ward of a hospital in Milan, Italy.

The Science of the total environment, 742:140540 pii:S0048-9697(20)34062-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 outbreak has rapidly progressed worldwide finding the health system, scientists and society unprepared to face a little-known, fast spreading, and extremely deadly virus. Italy is one of the countries hardest hit by the pandemic, resulting in healthcare facilities bearing heavy burdens and severe restrictive measures. Despite efforts to clarify the virus transmission, especially in indoor scenarios, several aspects of SARS-CoV-2 spread are still rudimentary. This study evaluated the contamination of the air and surfaces by SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the COVID-19 isolation ward of a hospital in Milan, Italy. A total of 42 air and surface samples were collected inside five different zones of the ward including contaminated (COVID-19 patients' area), semi-contaminated (undressing room), and clean areas. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection was performed using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Overall, 24.3% of swab samples were positive, but none of these were collected in the clean area. Thus, the positivity rate was higher in contaminated (35.0%) and semi-contaminated (50.0%) areas than in clean areas (0.0%; P<0.05). The most contaminated surfaces were hand sanitizer dispensers (100.0%), medical equipment (50.0%), medical equipment touch screens (50.0%), shelves for medical equipment (40.0%), bedrails (33.3%), and door handles (25.0%). All the air samples collected from the contaminated area, namely the intensive care unit and corridor, were positive while viral RNA was not detected in either semi-contaminated or clean areas. These results showed that environmental contamination did not involve clean areas, but the results also support the need for strict disinfection, hand hygiene and protective measures for healthcare workers as well as the need for airborne isolation precautions.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Aldaco R, Hoehn D, Laso J, et al (2020)

Food waste management during the COVID-19 outbreak: a holistic climate, economic and nutritional approach.

The Science of the total environment, 742:140524 pii:S0048-9697(20)34046-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Improving the food supply chain efficiency has been identified as an essential means to enhance food security, while reducing pressure on natural resources. Adequate food loss and waste (FLW) management has been proposed as an approach to meet these objectives. The main hypothesis of this study is to consider that the "strong fluctuations and short-term changes" on eating habits may have major consequences on potential FLW generation and management, as well as on GHG emissions, all taking into account the nutritional and the economic cost. Due to the exceptional lockdown measures imposed by the Spanish government, as a consequence of the emerging coronavirus disease, COVID-19, food production and consumption systems have undergone significant changes, which must be properly studied in order to propose strategies from the lessons learned. Taking Spain as a case study, the methodological approach included a deep analysis of the inputs and outputs of the Spanish food basket, the supply chain by means of a Material Flow Analysis, as well as an economic and comprehensive nutritional assessment, all under a life cycle thinking approach. The results reveal that during the first weeks of the COVID-19 lockdown, there was no significant adjustment in overall FLW generation, but a partial reallocation from extra-domestic consumption to households occurred (12% increase in household FLW). Moreover, the economic impact (+11%), GHG emissions (+10%), and the nutritional content (-8%) complete the multivariable impact profile that the COVID-19 outbreak had on FLW generation and management. Accordingly, this study once again highlights that measures aimed at reducing FLW, particularly in the household sector, are critical to make better use of food surpluses and FLW prevention and control, allowing us to confront future unforeseen scenarios.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Lv J, Yang J, Xue J, et al (2020)

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA residue on object surfaces in nucleic acid testing laboratory using droplet digital PCR.

The Science of the total environment, 742:140370 pii:S0048-9697(20)33892-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The rapid development of global COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to the safety and quality of laboratory diagnostic testing. Little is known about the laboratory surface areas and operation behaviors that may cause potential contamination in SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing. This study aims to provide reference basis for the improvement of laboratory disinfection programs and personal operating protocols. In this study, we compared the qRT-PCR and ddPCR in detecting of residual virus that existed on the object surfaces from sample transportation and reception related facilities, testing related instruments, personal protective equipment and other facilities in nucleic acid testing laboratory. All samples were negative by qRT-PCR, in contrast, 13 of 61 samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by ddPCR. The areas with highest density of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid were the outer gloves of operator A (37.4 copies/cm2), followed by door handle of 4 °C refrigerator (26.25 copies/cm2), goggles of operator A (22.16 copies/cm2), outer cover of high speed centrifuge (19.95 copies/cm2), inner wall of high speed centrifuge (14.70 copies/cm2) and others. We found that all the positive objects were directly or indirectly contacted by the operator's gloved hands, suggesting that hands contact was the main transmission pathway that led to laboratory environmental contamination. In summary, ddPCR has an advantage over qRT-PCR in tracing laboratory contamination. We evaluated the risk areas and operation behaviors that may easily cause contamination, and provided recommendation for improving the laboratory disinfection programs and personal operating specifications.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Badrfam R, A Zandifar (2020)

COVID-19 and mental health: An Iranian perspective.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Singh R, Baral KP, S Mahato (2020)

An urgent call for measures to fight against increasing suicides during COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Gupta AK, Sahoo S, Mehra A, et al (2020)

Psychological impact of 'Lockdown' due to COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal: An online survey.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Hsu ST, Chou LS, Chou FH, et al (2020)

Challenge and strategies of infection control in psychiatric hospitals during biological disasters-From SARS to COVID-19 in Taiwan.

Asian journal of psychiatry, 54:102270 pii:S1876-2018(20)30382-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Psychiatric hospitals play an important role in supporting patients with mental illness to relieve symptoms and improve functioning in a physically and psychologically safe environment. However, these hospitals are also vulnerable to emerging infectious diseases. In early 2020, a psychiatric hospital and a psychiatric unit were reported to have nosocomial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. A large number of patients and staff were severely impacted. This type of nosocomial infection threatens patient safety and quality of care. By learning from previous experiences of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and previous studies, psychiatric hospitals can provide safeguards to prevent nosocomial infection among patients and staff during an epidemic or biological disaster. These strategies include a series of actions such as following national guidelines for infection control, reserving adequate support for disinfection equipment, providing relevant and sufficient pro-service and in-service education and training, establishing regular surveillance of hand hygiene habits, proper communication and health education, and providing opportunities for vaccination if possible. Based on the harm reduction concept, staff division of office breaks and ward classification and shunting are recommended and should be further implemented.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Green AS, Ruchman SG, Katz CL, et al (2020)

Piloting forensic tele-mental health evaluations of asylum seekers.

Psychiatry research, 291:113256 pii:S0165-1781(20)31589-4 [Epub ahead of print].

While the number of medical human rights programs has increased, there is substantial unmet need for forensic evaluations among asylum seekers throughout the United States. From September 2019 through May 2020, the Mount Sinai Human Rights Program has coordinated pro bono forensic mental health evaluations by telephone or video for individuals seeking protected immigration status who are unable to access in-person services. The national network clinicians conducted 32 forensic evaluations of individuals in eight U.S. states and Mexico seeking immigration relief. Remote forensic services have been a relevant solution for individuals in immigration detention, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Singh N, A Bharara Singh (2020)

S2 Subunit of SARS-nCoV-2 Interacts with Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 and BRCA: an In Silico Study.

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the biggest threat to human being globally. The first case was identified in a patient with flu symptoms along with severe acute respiratory syndrome in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and now it has spread in more than 200 countries. COVID-19 is more lethal in the elderly and people with an underlying condition such as asthma, cancer, diabetes. Here we performed bioinformatic analysis to investigate the interaction of S2 subunit protein of SARS-nCoV-2 of novel coronavirus with tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA-1/2. In this short communication we report the interaction between S2 subunit proteins with tumor suppressor proteins for the first time. This preliminary result will open up a new direction to investigate the effect of a novel coronavirus in cancer patients.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Tankisi H, Tankisi A, Harbo T, et al (2020)

Critical illness myopathy as a consequence of Covid-19 infection.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Katal S, Aghaghazvini L, A Gholamrezanezhad (2020)

Chest-CT findings of COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing malignancies; a pictorial review.

Clinical imaging, 67:121-129 pii:S0899-7071(20)30208-4 [Epub ahead of print].

As of April 17th, 2020, more than 2,190,010 COVID-19 cases with 147,010 deaths have been recorded worldwide. It has been suggested that a high mortality rate occurs in patients with severe disease and is associated with advanced age and underlying comorbidities, such as malignancies. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been conducted to evaluate chest CT features in patients with malignancy and concomitant COVID-19 infection. In fact, the imaging findings can be challenging and have not yet been fully understood in this setting. In this manuscript, we go over imaging findings in chest CT of patients with COVID-19 and known cancer. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and exponentially increasing incidence throughout the world, in at-risk and vulnerable populations such as patients with known malignancies, infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be included in the differential considerations even with atypical image pictures. Detection of superimposed infection in patients with cancers who present with pulmonary infiltrations warrant correlation with clinical picture, contact history, and RT-PCR confirmatory testing.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

De Nardo P, Gentilotti E, Mazzaferri F, et al (2020)

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to prioritize hospital admission of patients affected by COVID-19 in low-resource settings with hospital-bed shortage.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30516-6 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To use Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) to determine weights for eleven criteria in order to prioritize COVID-19 non-critical patients for admission to hospital in healthcare settings with limited resources.

METHODS: The MCDA was applied in two main steps: specification of criteria for prioritizing COVID-19 patients (and levels within each criterion); and determination of weights for the criteria based on experts' knowledge and experience in managing COVID-19 patients, via an online survey. Criteria were selected based on available COVID-19 evidence with a focus on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

RESULTS: The most important criteria (mean weights, summing to 100%), are: PaO2 (16.3%); peripheral O2 saturation (15.9%); chest X-ray (14.1%); Modified Early Warning Score-MEWS (11.4%); respiratory rate (9.5%); comorbidities (6.5%); living with vulnerable people (6.4%); body mass index (5.6%); duration of symptoms before hospital evaluation (5.4%); CRP (5.1%); and age (3.8%).

CONCLUSIONS: At the beginning of a new pandemic, when evidence for disease predictors is limited or unavailable and effective national contingency plans are difficult to establish, the MCDA prioritization model could play a pivotal role in improving the response of health systems.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Dubert M, Visseaux B, Isernia V, et al (2020)

Case reports study of the first five patients COVID-19 treated with remdesivir in France.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as responsible for the COVID-19 outbreak worldwide. Data on treatment are scare and parallels are made between SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus. Remdesivir is a broad spectrum antiviral with efficient in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and controversial evidence of clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients. We aimed to describe the clinical outcome and virological monitoring of the first five COVID-19 patients admitted in ICU for severe pneumonia related to SARS-CoV-2 and treated with remdesivir in the University hospital of Bichat, Paris, France. SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR in blood plasma, lower and upper respiratory tract were monitored. Among the five treated patients, two needed mechanical ventilation and one high flow cannula oxygen. A significant decrease in SARS-CoV-2 viral load from upper respiratory tract was observed in most cases but two died with active SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lower respiratory tract. Plasma samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in only one patient. Remdesivir was interrupted for side effects among four patients, including 2 ALT elevations (3 to 5 N) and 2 renal failures requiring renal replacement. This case series of five COVID-19 patients requiring ICU for a respiratory distress and treated with remdesivir, highlights the complexity of remdesivir use in such critically ill patients.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Alkhamis MA, Youha SA, Khajah MM, et al (2020)

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of COVID-19 epidemic in the State of Kuwait.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30512-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The prompt understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of the epidemic on a national level is a critical step for the timely allocation of surveillance resources. Therefore, we explored the temporal and spatiotemporal dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Kuwait using daily confirmed case data collected between the 23rd of February and the 7th of May, 2020.

METHODS: We quantified the epidemic progression using the time-dependent reproductive number (R(t)), while we used the spatiotemporal scan statistic model to identify local clustering events. We accounted for the variability in the transmission dynamics within and between two socioeconomic classes, including citizens-residents and migrant workers.

RESULTS: Overall, the epidemic size in Kuwait continues to grow (R(t)s ≥ 2), indicating significant ongoing spread. Significant spreading and clustering events were detected among migrant workers due to their densely populated areas and poor living conditions. However, the government's aggressive intervention measures substantially lowered epidemic growth in migrant worker areas. Yet, at a later stage of the study period, we inferred active spreading and clustering events among both socioeconomic classes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses unveiled deeper insights into the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Kuwait and provided an important platform for rapid guidance of decisions related to intervention activities.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Chen X, Zhu B, Hong W, et al (2020)

Associations of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Regimens with Viral RNA Shedding Duration in Patients with COVID-19.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30526-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, but the factors influencing viral RNA shedding remain unclear to inform optimal control strategies.

METHODS: The clinical course and viral RNA shedding pattern of 267 consecutive symptomatic COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital from January 20, 2020 to March 15, 2020 were retrospectively evaluated.

RESULTS: The median viral RNA shedding duration was 12 days (interquartile range, 8-16 d) after the onset of illness. Of the 267 patients included in this study, 65.2% had viral RNA cleared within 14 days, 88.8% within 21 days, and 94.4% within 28 days. Older age (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.00; P = 0.04), time lag from illness onset to hospital admission (HR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88-0.94; P < 0.001), diarrhea (HR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36-0.96; P = 0.036), corticosteroid treatment (HR, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39-0.94; P = 0.024), and lopinavir/ritonavir use (HR, 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52-0.94; P = 0.014) were significantly independently associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding.

CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and timely hospital admission may be warranted for symptomatic COVID-19 patients, especially for older patients and patients with diarrhea. Corticosteroid treatment is associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding and should be used with caution. Lopinavir/ritonavir use may be associated with prolonged viral RNA shedding in non-severe patients; further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this finding.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Noh JY, Song JY, Yoon JG, et al (2020)

Safe Hospital Preparedness in the Era of COVID-19: The Swiss Cheese Model.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30529-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the first emergence in December 2019, COVID-19 rapidly spread out worldwide. During the pandemic of an emerging infectious disease, it is very important to prevent nosocomial outbreak and operate hospitals safely to maintain their functions. In this article, we presented the strategies for safe hospital operation based on the experiences of the Republic of Korea during early COVID-19 pandemic. Each hospital should keep multiple layered defenses to prevent even small cracks in the hospital's quarantine system.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Seidu AA, Hagan JE, Ameyaw EK, et al (2020)

The role of testing in infectious disease control: A case of COVID-19 in Africa.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)30525-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The dramatic increase in COVID-19 suspected cases in Africa has placed enormous burden on public and private clinical facilities. Till date, the most commonly used method for the identification and confirmation of the virus is the laboratory-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Unfortunately, testing capacities have been limited in many parts of Africa because of inadequate test kits which have restricted scaling up beyond the few public health laboratories at designated locations. We present in this mini-review Africa's preparedness and readiness toward testing, why testing is crucial, the need to immediately strengthen existing facilities and what it involves as combined approaches for managing the COVID-19 crisis. The review highlights the urgent need for speedy expansion and distribution of several laboratory testing platforms to public health facilities and fully accredited private clinical laboratories, including real-time PCR and serological assays.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Poignon C, Blaize M, Vezinet C, et al (2020)

Invasive pulmonary fusariosis in an immunocompetent critically ill patient with severe COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Bandera A, Aliberti S, Gualtierotti R, et al (2020)

COVID-19 network: the response of an Italian reference Institute to research challenges about a new pandemia.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Abbas AM, Fathy SK, Khamees AA, et al (2020)

A focused review on the genital and sexual affection of COVID-19 patients.

Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction pii:S2468-7847(20)30192-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) could harm the reproductive and sexual health of both males and females. This could be through psychological, immunological, or systemic effects. In this article, we tried to elucidate the mechanisms that could explain the current and future genital affection of COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Reznik SE, Tiwari AK, CR Ashby (Jr) (2020)

Edaravone: a potential treatment for the COVID-19-induced inflammatory syndrome?.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Alamer A, I Abraham (2020)

Mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with ACEIs/ARBs: re-estimated meta-analysis results following the Mehra et al. retraction.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Martin R, Löchel HF, Welzel M, et al (2020)

CORDITE: The Curated CORona Drug InTERactions Database for SARS-CoV-2.

iScience, 23(7):101297 pii:S2589-0042(20)30484-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the outbreak in 2019, researchers are trying to find effective drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus based on de novo drug design and drug repurposing. The former approach is very time consuming and needs extensive testing in humans, whereas drug repurposing is more promising, as the drugs have already been tested for side effects, etc. At present, there is no treatment for COVID-19 that is clinically effective, but there is a huge amount of data from studies that analyze potential drugs. We developed CORDITE to efficiently combine state-of-the-art knowledge on potential drugs and make it accessible to scientists and clinicians. The web interface also provides access to an easy-to-use API that allows a wide use for other software and applications, e.g., for meta-analysis, design of new clinical studies, or simple literature search. CORDITE is currently empowering many scientists across all continents and accelerates research in the knowledge domains of virology and drug design.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Lim KH, Yang S, Kim SH, et al (2020)

Elevation of Ace2 as a SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor gene expression in Alzheimer's disease.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Batisse D, Benech N, Botelho-Nevers E, et al (2020)

Clinical recurrences of COVID-19 symptoms after recovery: viral relapse, reinfection or inflammatory rebound?.

For the first 3 months of COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 was expected to be an immunizing non-relapsing disease. We report a national case series of 11 virologically-confirmed COVID-19 patients having experienced a second clinically- and virologically-confirmed acute COVID-19 episode. According to the clinical history, we discuss either re-infection or reactivation hypothesis. Larger studies including further virological, immunological and epidemiologic data are needed to understand the mechanisms of these recurrences.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Giannis D, IA Ziogas (2020)

Letter in Response to Article in Journal of Infection: "Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis".

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Semple JL, GWK Moore (2020)

High Levels of Ambient Ozone (O3) May Impact COVID-19 in High Altitude Mountain Environments.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Martin-Playa P, Calzacorta-Muñoz P, Aparicio Elizalde L, et al (2020)

An overview of the situation of hand surgery in Spain during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic.

Hand surgery & rehabilitation pii:S2468-1229(20)30123-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the first cases were detected in China in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly, collapsing many healthcare systems, and forcing them to adapt. Hand surgery has been indirectly affected by this scenario. This article aims to provide an overview on how Spanish hand surgeons have modified their daily practice. Based on a survey conducted nationwide, we observed a decrease in the number of emergency cases and cancellation of elective cases, shift to a more conservative treatment approach, use of personal protective equipment, and decrease in the number of outpatient visits and tests. Without definitive evidence at this point, knowing how we have dealt with the situation so far will help us adopt the needed measures to ensure both the patient's and surgeon's safety and manage available resources in future pandemics.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Marinho EM, Batista de Andrade Neto J, Silva J, et al (2020)

Virtual screening based on molecular docking of possible inhibitors of Covid-19 main protease.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(20)30731-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is an enveloped RNA virus that is diversely found in humans and that has now been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapies and vaccines against this disease. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate in silico the molecular interactions of drugs with therapeutic indications for treatment of COVID-19 (Azithromycin, Baricitinib and Hydroxychloroquine) and drugs with similar structures (Chloroquine, Quinacrine and Ruxolitinib) in docking models from the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M-pro) protein. The results showed that all inhibitors bound to the same enzyme site, more specifically in domain III of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Therefore, this study allows proposing the use of baricitinib and quinacrine, in combination with azithromycin; however, these computer simulations are just an initial step for conceiving new projects for the development of antiviral molecules.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Pak JS, Sayegh CI, Smigelski MB, et al (2020)

A Urology Department's Experience at the Epicenter of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Andino JJ, Lingaya MA, Daignault-Newton S, et al (2020)

VIDEO VISITS AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR UROLOGICAL CLINIC VISITS.

Urology pii:S0090-4295(20)30788-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether video visits were being used as substitutes to clinic visits prior to COVID-19 at our institution's outpatient urology centers.

METHODS: We reviewed 600 established patient video visits completed by 13 urology providers at a tertiary academic center in southeast Michigan. We compared these visits to a random, stratified sample of established patient clinic visits. We assessed baseline demographics and visit characteristics for both groups. We defined our primary outcome ("revisit rate") as the proportion of additional healthcare evaluation (i.e., office, emergency room, hospitalization) by a urology provider within 30 days of the initial encounter.

RESULTS: Patients seen by video visit tended to be younger (51 vs 61 years, p<0.001), would have to travel further for a clinic appointment (82 vs 68 miles, p<0.001), and were more likely to be female (36 vs 28%, p=0.001). The most common diagnostic groups evaluated through video visits were nephrolithiasis (40%), oncology (18%) and andrology (14.3%). While the 30-day revisit rates were higher for clinic visits (4.3% vs 7.5%, p=0.01) primarily due to previously scheduled appointments, revisits due to medical concerns were similar across both groups (0.5% vs 0.67%; p=0.60).

CONCLUSIONS: Video visits can be used to deliver care across a broad range of urologic diagnoses and can serve as a substitute for clinic visits.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Messner CB, Demichev V, Wendisch D, et al (2020)

Ultra-High-Throughput Clinical Proteomics Reveals Classifiers of COVID-19 Infection.

Cell systems pii:S2405-4712(20)30197-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global challenge, and point-of-care diagnostic classifiers are urgently required. Here, we present a platform for ultra-high-throughput serum and plasma proteomics that builds on ISO13485 standardization to facilitate simple implementation in regulated clinical laboratories. Our low-cost workflow handles up to 180 samples per day, enables high precision quantification, and reduces batch effects for large-scale and longitudinal studies. We use our platform on samples collected from a cohort of early hospitalized cases of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and identify 27 potential biomarkers that are differentially expressed depending on the WHO severity grade of COVID-19. They include complement factors, the coagulation system, inflammation modulators, and pro-inflammatory factors upstream and downstream of interleukin 6. All protocols and software for implementing our approach are freely available. In total, this work supports the development of routine proteomic assays to aid clinical decision making and generate hypotheses about potential COVID-19 therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Thomas EY, Anurudran A, Robb K, et al (2020)

Spotlight on child abuse and neglect response in the time of COVID-19.

The Lancet. Public health, 5(7):e371.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Lim WY, P Wong (2020)

Supraglottic airways in the management of COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Joshi SR, AJM Boulton (2020)

Diabetes and COVID 19 in South-East Asia.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Anonymous (2020)

Introductions to the Community: Early-Career Researchers in the Time of COVID-19.

Cell stem cell, 27(1):13-14.

COVID-19 has unfortunately halted lab work, conferences, and in-person networking, which is especially detrimental to researchers just starting their labs. Through social media and our reviewer networks, we met some early-career stem cell investigators impacted by the closures. Here, they introduce themselves and their research to our readers.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Welch TR, Long SS, Madan RP, et al (2020)

COVID-19 and the Editorial Process: Reflections from The Journal of Pediatrics.

The Journal of pediatrics pii:S0022-3476(20)30831-3 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Harahsheh AS, Dahdah N, Newburger JW, et al (2020)

Reply.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Anonymous (2020)

Science in the Wake of the Pandemic: How Will COVID-19 Change the Way We Do Research?.

Molecular cell, 79(1):9-10.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Kwok KO, Lai F, Wei VWI, et al (2020)

Comparing the impact of various interventions to control the spread of COVID-19 in 12 countries.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Dodd RH, Cvejic E, Bonner C, et al (2020)

Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 in Australia.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Abbas M, D Pittet (2020)

Surfing the COVID-19 scientific wave.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

O'Sullivan JM, Gonagle DM, Ward SE, et al (2020)

Endothelial cells orchestrate COVID-19 coagulopathy.

The Lancet. Haematology pii:S2352-3026(20)30215-5 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Goshua G, Pine AB, Meizlish ML, et al (2020)

Endotheliopathy in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy: evidence from a single-centre, cross-sectional study.

The Lancet. Haematology pii:S2352-3026(20)30216-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: An important feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pathogenesis is COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, characterised by increased thrombotic and microvascular complications. Previous studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell injury in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. To determine whether endotheliopathy is involved in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy pathogenesis, we assessed markers of endothelial cell and platelet activation in critically and non-critically ill patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19.

METHODS: In this single-centre cross-sectional study, hospitalised adult (≥18 years) patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were identified in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) or a specialised non-ICU COVID-19 floor in our hospital. Asymptomatic, non-hospitalised controls were recruited as a comparator group for biomarkers that did not have a reference range. We assessed markers of endothelial cell and platelet activation, including von Willebrand Factor (VWF) antigen, soluble thrombomodulin, soluble P-selectin, and soluble CD40 ligand, as well as coagulation factors, endogenous anticoagulants, and fibrinolytic enzymes. We compared the level of each marker in ICU patients, non-ICU patients, and controls, where applicable. We assessed correlations between these laboratory results with clinical outcomes, including hospital discharge and mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to further explore the association between biochemical markers and survival.

FINDINGS: 68 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study from April 13 to April 24, 2020, including 48 ICU and 20 non-ICU patients, as well as 13 non-hospitalised, asymptomatic controls. Markers of endothelial cell and platelet activation were significantly elevated in ICU patients compared with non-ICU patients, including VWF antigen (mean 565% [SD 199] in ICU patients vs 278% [133] in non-ICU patients; p<0·0001) and soluble P-selectin (15·9 ng/mL [4·8] vs 11·2 ng/mL [3·1]; p=0·0014). VWF antigen concentrations were also elevated above the normal range in 16 (80%) of 20 non-ICU patients. We found mortality to be significantly correlated with VWF antigen (r = 0·38; p=0·0022) and soluble thrombomodulin (r = 0·38; p=0·0078) among all patients. In all patients, soluble thrombomodulin concentrations greater than 3·26 ng/mL were associated with lower rates of hospital discharge (22 [88%] of 25 patients with low concentrations vs 13 [52%] of 25 patients with high concentrations; p=0·0050) and lower likelihood of survival on Kaplan-Meier analysis (hazard ratio 5·9, 95% CI 1·9-18·4; p=0·0087).

INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that endotheliopathy is present in COVID-19 and is likely to be associated with critical illness and death. Early identification of endotheliopathy and strategies to mitigate its progression might improve outcomes in COVID-19.

FUNDING: This work was supported by a gift donation from Jack Levin to the Benign Hematology programme at Yale, and the National Institutes of Health.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Hewitt J, Carter B, Vilches-Moraga A, et al (2020)

The effect of frailty on survival in patients with COVID-19 (COPE): a multicentre, European, observational cohort study.

The Lancet. Public health pii:S2468-2667(20)30146-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented strain on health-care systems. Frailty is being used in clinical decision making for patients with COVID-19, yet the prevalence and effect of frailty in people with COVID-19 is not known. In the COVID-19 in Older PEople (COPE) study we aimed to establish the prevalence of frailty in patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital and investigate its association with mortality and duration of hospital stay.

METHODS: This was an observational cohort study conducted at ten hospitals in the UK and one in Italy. All adults (≥18 years) admitted to participating hospitals with COVID-19 were included. Patients with incomplete hospital records were excluded. The study analysed routinely generated hospital data for patients with COVID-19. Frailty was assessed by specialist COVID-19 teams using the clinical frailty scale (CFS) and patients were grouped according to their score (1-2=fit; 3-4=vulnerable, but not frail; 5-6=initial signs of frailty but with some degree of independence; and 7-9=severe or very severe frailty). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality (time from hospital admission to mortality and day-7 mortality).

FINDINGS: Between Feb 27, and April 28, 2020, we enrolled 1564 patients with COVID-19. The median age was 74 years (IQR 61-83); 903 (57·7%) were men and 661 (42·3%) were women; 425 (27·2%) had died at data cutoff (April 28, 2020). 772 (49·4%) were classed as frail (CFS 5-8) and 27 (1·7%) were classed as terminally ill (CFS 9). Compared with CFS 1-2, the adjusted hazard ratios for time from hospital admission to death were 1·55 (95% CI 1·00-2·41) for CFS 3-4, 1·83 (1·15-2·91) for CFS 5-6, and 2·39 (1·50-3·81) for CFS 7-9, and adjusted odds ratios for day-7 mortality were 1·22 (95% CI 0·63-2·38) for CFS 3-4, 1·62 (0·81-3·26) for CFS 5-6, and 3·12 (1·56-6·24) for CFS 7-9.

INTERPRETATION: In a large population of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, disease outcomes were better predicted by frailty than either age or comorbidity. Our results support the use of CFS to inform decision making about medical care in adult patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19.

FUNDING: None.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Jaiswal A, Gianchandani N, Singh D, et al (2020)

Classification of the COVID-19 infected patients using DenseNet201 based deep transfer learning.

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics [Epub ahead of print].

Deep learning models are widely used in the automatic analysis of radiological images. These techniques can train the weights of networks on large datasets as well as fine tuning the weights of pre-trained networks on small datasets. Due to the small COVID-19 dataset available, the pre-trained neural networks can be used for diagnosis of coronavirus. However, these techniques applied on chest CT image is very limited till now. Hence, the main aim of this paper to use the pre-trained deep learning architectures as an automated tool to detection and diagnosis of COVID-19 in chest CT. A DenseNet201 based deep transfer learning (DTL) is proposed to classify the patients as COVID infected or not i.e. COVID-19 (+) or COVID (-). The proposed model is utilized to extract features by using its own learned weights on the ImageNet dataset along with a convolutional neural structure. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of the propose DTL model on COVID-19 chest CT scan images. Comparative analyses reveal that the proposed DTL based COVID-19 classification model outperforms the competitive approaches.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Grenga L, Gallais F, Pible O, et al (2020)

Shotgun proteomics analysis of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and how it can optimize whole viral particle antigen production for vaccines.

Emerging microbes & infections [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic and is continuing to spread rapidly around the globe. No effective vaccine is currently available to prevent COVID-19, and intense efforts are being invested worldwide into vaccine development. In this context, all technology platforms must overcome several challenges resulting from the use of an incompletely characterized new virus. These include finding the right conditions for virus amplification for the development of vaccines based on inactivated or attenuated whole viral particles. Here, we describe a shotgun tandem mass spectrometry workflow, the data produced can be used to guide optimization of the conditions for viral amplification. In parallel, we analysed the changes occurring in the host cell proteome following SARS-CoV-2 infection to glean information on the biological processes modulated by the virus that could be further explored as potential drug targets to deal with the pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Foong WS, Teo HLT, Wang DHB, et al (2020)

Challenges and adaptations in training during pandemic COVID-19: observations by an orthopedic resident in Singapore.

Acta orthopaedica [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Ambrosino P, Di Minno A, Maniscalco M, et al (2020)

COVID-19 and venous thromboembolism: current insights and prophylactic strategies.

The rapidly increasing number of studies on the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) indicate that this viral agent can cause the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a syndrome with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from a mild disease with flu-like symptoms to a life-threatening condition that requires specialized management at Intensive Care Units (ICU). Critical patients with COVID-19 have a high risk of thromboembolic complications, as expressed by a Padua prediction score always ≥4. Moreover, a number of clinical factors may increase the risk of major bleedings in these patients during ICU stay. Overall, literature data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection can rapidly develop into a severe condition with renal, pulmonary and hepatic complications, potentially increasing both thrombotic and haemorrhagic risk. Failure of prevention and interventional strategies for the haemostatic imbalance of severe COVID-19 patients may dramatically impact their prognosis. The role of thromboprophylaxis in this clinical setting is discussed. Key messagesSevere patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a high risk of thromboembolic complications, as expressed by a Padua prediction score always ≥4.A number of clinical factors may also increase the risk of major bleedings in this clinical setting.A patient-tailored strategy with a case-by-case approach is needed when prescribing prophylactic anticoagulation to severe COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Tang N, Bai H, Xiong D, et al (2020)

Specific coagulation markers may provide more therapeutic targets in COVID-19 patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulant.

I read with interest the recent published article from Professor Robert L. Medcalf, entitled "Fibrinolysis and COVID-19: a plasmin paradox" [1]. As an indirect marker of thrombin and plasmin activation, D-dimer has been suggested to guide anticoagulant treat in COVID-19 patients [2, 3]. However, D-dimer may not be able to reflect accurate fibrinolysis status of COVID-19 patients, and therefore can't guide the possible antifibrinolysis or thrombolytic therapy in different stages of COVID-19, as Professor Robert L. Medcalf discussed. Hence, we speculated that measuring direct markers of thrombin, plasmin and so on, may provide more therapeutic targets in COVID-19 patients with coagulopathy.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Devreese KMJ, Linskens EA, Benoit D, et al (2020)

Antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with COVID-19: a relevant observation?.

Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: High incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients indicates a hypercoagulable state. Hence, exploring the involvement of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in these patients is of interest.

OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the incidence of criteria (lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anticardiolipin (aCL) IgG/IgM, antibeta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) IgG/IgM) and non-criteria (anti-prothrombin/phosphatidyl serine (aPS/PT), aCL and aβ2GPI IgA) aPL in a consecutive cohort of critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, their association with thrombosis, antibody profile and titers of aPL.

PATIENTS/METHODS: Thirty one consecutive confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit were included. aPL were measured at one time point, with part of the aPL positive patients retested after one month.

RESULTS: Sixteen patients were single LAC positive, two triple positive, one double positive, one single aCL and three aCL IgG and LAC positive. Seven out of 9 thrombotic patients had at least one aPL. 16 out of 22 patients without thrombosis were aPL positive, amongst them two triple positives. Nine out of ten retested LAC positive patients were negative on a second occasion, as well as the double positive patient. Seven patients were aPS/PT positive associated to LAC. Three patients were aCL and aβ2GPI IgA positive.

CONCLUSION: Our observations support the frequent single LAC positivity during (acute phase) observed in COVID-19 infection, however not clearly related to thrombotic complications. Triple aPL positivity and high aCL/aβ2GPI titers are rare. Repeat testing suggests aPL to be mostly transient. Further studies and international registration of aPL should improve understanding the role of aPL in thrombotic COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Mayurasakorn K, Pinsawas B, Mongkolsucharitkul P, et al (2020)

School closure, COVID-19 and lunch programme: Unprecedented undernutrition crisis in low-middle income countries.

Journal of paediatrics and child health [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has affected nearly 70% of children and teenagers around the world due to school closure policies. School closure is implemented widely in order to prevent viral transmission and its impact on the broader community, based on preliminary recommendations and evidence from influenza. However, there is debate with regard to the effectiveness of school closures. Growing evidence suggests that a child's SARS-CoV-2 infection is often mild or asymptomatic and that children may not be major SARS-CoV-2 transmitters; thus, it is questionable if school closures prevent transmission significantly. This question is important as a majority of children in low- and middle-income countries depend on free school meals; unexpected long-term school closure may adversely impact nutrition and educational outcomes. Food insecurity is expected to be higher during the pandemic. In this viewpoint, we argue for a more thorough exploration of potential adverse impacts of school closures in low- and middle-income countries and recommend actions to ensure that the health and learning needs of vulnerable populations are met in this time of crisis.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Mills M, MB Allen (2020)

Notes on cost benefit of COVID-19 lockdown.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Nic Dhonncha E, M Murphy (2020)

Learning New Ways of Teaching and Assessment - The Impact of Covid-19 on Undergraduate Dermatology Education.

Covid-19 has resulted in unprecedented global disruption. As this global pandemic persists with no end in sight, we must not ignore its impact on undergraduate medical education. Dermatology undergraduate exposure is variable, limited and often suboptimal. It has been shown that medical students and qualified doctors are not adequately confident in their ability to assess and manage skin conditions, and many feel that their undergraduate dermatology teaching was not satisfactory.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Ulm JW, SF Nelson (2020)

COVID-19 drug repurposing: Summary statistics on current clinical trials and promising untested candidates.

Transboundary and emerging diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Repurposing of existing antiviral drugs, immunological modulators, and supportive therapies represents a promising path toward rapidly developing new control strategies to mitigate the devastating public health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. A comprehensive text-mining and manual curation approach was used to comb and summarize the most pertinent information from existing clinical trials and previous efforts to develop therapies against related betacoronaviruses, particularly SARS and MERS. In contrast to drugs in current trials, which have been derived overwhelmingly from studies on taxonomically unrelated RNA viruses, a number of untested small molecule antivirals had previously demonstrated remarkable in vitro specificity for SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV, with high selectivity indices, EC50 , and/or IC50 . Due to the rapid containment of the prior epidemics, however, these were generally not followed up with in vivo animal studies or clinical investigations, and thus largely overlooked as treatment prospects in the current COVID-19 trials. This brief review summarizes and tabulates core information on recent or ongoing drug repurposing-focused clinical trials, while detailing the most promising untested candidates with prior documented success against the etiologic agents of SARS and/or MERS.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Iacobellis G, Malavazos AE, T Ferreira (2020)

COVID-19 rise in Younger adults with Obesity: Visceral Adiposity can predict the Risk.

Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) [Epub ahead of print].

A concerning rise in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has been recently reported, particularly in the USA. The causes of this increase are likely multifactorial and the object of an ongoing health and socio-economic debate. However, preliminary data indicate that the new COVID-19 cases are increasing among younger and obese adults. Considering this recent spike, the timing of the paper by Deng et al is of particular importance (1). Deng et al not only confirmed that obesity is a major and independent risk factor for COVID-19 complications in young adults (2), they pointed out ectopic and visceral fat depots as new markers of that risk. The authors found that computed tomography (CT) imaging of fatty liver and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were significantly higher in severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients under 40 years old as compared to those with milder disease.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Viviani F, Ferrari T, Mussi M, et al (2020)

Dermatology residents and COVID-19: life behind the frontlines.

the CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak in Italy completely changed patients' access to healthcare systems and therefore the doctor-patient relationship, in particular during the national lockdown (from March 11th to May 18th).

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Liu Y (2020)

Letter to the Editors: Additional Factors to Consider When Studying Liver Injury Indicators and Mortality in COVID-19 Patients.

In a recent issue of Hepatology, Lei et al.(1) conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 5,771 adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Hubei Province. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationships between liver injury indicators (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and total bilirubin [TBIL]) and mortality in COVID-19 patients. The authors considered the possibility that elevated liver injury indicators, particularly AST, are strongly associated with mortality risk. However, the association between liver injury indicators and mortality in COVID-19 patients should be interpreted cautiously in light of the following issues.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Mortazavi S, Kefayat A, J Cai (2020)

Low dose radiation as a treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia: a threat or real opportunity?.

Medical physics [Epub ahead of print].

Low-dose radiation is known to induce anti-inflammatory responses and has been historically used for treating infectious diseases such as pneumonia. As the outbreak of COVID-19 continues globally and effective treatment methods are lacking, low-dose radiation has drawn increasing attention recently. While some are optimistic about the clinical adoption of low-dose radiation for the treatment of COVID-19, others have significant concerns about its effectiveness and safety. This is the premise debated in this month's Point/Counterpoint.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Hansson E, Albin M, Rasmussen M, et al (2020)

[Large differences in excess mortality in March-May 2020 by country of birth in Sweden].

Lakartidningen, 117: pii:20113.

The Swedish strategy for dealing with covid-19 has been criticized for not accounting for difficulties of conducting voluntary social distancing in settings with household overcrowding, dependence on public transport and large proportion of service sector workers. In such neighbourhoods there is typically a larger proportion of immigrants. We compared all-cause-mortality data in Sweden by country of origin from 2020 and 2016-2019 and found large disparities. The number of deaths among persons born in countries from which many refugees have migrated to Sweden in the last decades was 220% higher in March-May 2020 compared to the mean in 2016-2019. In contrast, there was no increased mortality among persons aged 40-64 years and a 19% increased number of deaths of those aged above 65 years born in Sweden, EU or North America during these three months. These observations further illustrate the need for a dedicated and more diverse strategy in dealing with the covid-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Plebani M, Padoan A, Sciacovelli L, et al (2020)

Towards the rational utilization of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Iftikhar A, Jabeen F, Manzoor M, et al (2020)

Passive immunization: Paradoxical and traditional method for new pandemic challenge COVID-19.

Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica [Epub ahead of print].

World has been suffering from pandemic caused by mysterious Coronavirus. The novel member of Coronaviridae causing COVID-19 disease is named as SARS-Cov-2. Its first case was reported in China by the end of 2019, but its exponential spread has wrapped entire globe, suspended and is penalizing mankind. A retrospective meta-analysis study showed that outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and SARS-Cov-1 (Coronaviridae), influenza infection H1N1 and West-African Ebola caused lower mortality than this new pandemic COVID-19. Virus has appeared as a new human pathogen so to counter COVID-19 no specific vaccine, monoclonal antibodies have been manufactured till day. The outbreak of novel Coronavirus is treated with antimicrobial drugs but they have their own mild side effects. But the drastic spread of COVID-19 compels us also to use other ways to counter pandemic. Thus, passive immunization can be opted to hold back this mysterious virus. Passive immunization has been in use since early 20th century and showed its effectiveness against all previous infectious outbreaks including MERS and SARS-Cov-1 members of Coronaviridae. The review argues that convalescent plasma is an explicit option for containment of COVID-19 disease.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Halalau A, Ditkoff J, Hamilton J, et al (2020)

Emergency Center Curbside Screening during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JMIR public health and surveillance [Epub ahead of print].

UNSTRUCTURED: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that has placed a significant burden on the healthcare systems. Michigan has been one of the top states affected by COVID-19. We described the curbside testing procedure implemented at Beaumont Hospital, a large hospital in Royal Oak, Michigan. We aimed at evaluating its safety and efficiency. We reported on time to medical decision, time spent documenting electronic medical records (EMR), overall time of screening, and emergency center return evaluations. Because of the large volume of patients and testing that was required near the beginning of this pandemic, curbside screening became a safe and efficient way of delivering SARS-CoV-2 testing as it allowed for a medical decision within a median of 15 minutes from arrival. Less than 10% of these patients returned to the emergency center for evaluation at a minimum of 7 days follow up. Our curbside testing model encourages the incorporation of this model at other high-volume facilities during an infectious disease pandemic.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Idrees M, Khan S, Memon NH, et al (2020)

Effect of the Phytochemical Agents Against the SARS-CoV and Selected Some of them for Application to COVID-19: A Mini-Review.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology pii:CPB-EPUB-107892 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present review is to provide basic knowledge about the treatment of Coronavirus via medicinal plants. Coronavirus (COVID-19, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV) as a viral pneumonia causative agent, infects thousands of people in China and worldwide. There is currently no specific medicine or vaccine available and it is considered a threat to develop effective novel drug or anti-coronavirus vaccine treatment. However, natural compounds to treat coronaviruses are the most alternative and complementary therapies due to their diverse range of biological and therapeutic properties.

METHODS: We performed an open-ended, English restricted search of Scopus database, Web of Science, and Pubmed for all available literature from Jan-March, 2020, using terms related to phytochemical compounds, medicinal plants and coronavirus.

RESULTS: The view on anti-coronavirus (anti-CoV) activity in the plant derived phytochemicals and medicinal plants give the strong base to develop a novel treatment of corona virus activity. Various phytochemicals and medicinal plant extracts have been revised and considered to be the potential anti-CoV agents for effective control and future drug development. We discuss some important plants (Scutellaria baicalensis, Psorothamnus arborescens, Glycyrrhiza radix, Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Lycoris radiate, Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Hyptis atrorubens Poit, Fraxinus sieboldiana, Erigeron breviscapus, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Amaranthus tricolor, Phaseolus vulgaris, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma longa and Myrica cerifera) emerged to have broad spectrum antiviral activity.

CONCLUSION: Nigella sativa has potent anti-SARS-CoV activity and it might be useful souce for developing novel antiviral therapies for coronaviruses.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Sasidharan S, Selvaraj C, Singh SK, et al (2020)

Bacterial protein azurin and derived peptides as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents: insights from molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics [Epub ahead of print].

The current pandemic SARS-CoV-2 has wreaked havoc in the world, and neither drugs nor vaccine is available for the treatment of this disease. Thus, there is an immediate need for novel therapeutics that can combat this deadly infection. In this study, we report the therapeutic assessment of azurin and its peptides: p18 and p28 against the viral structural S-protein and non-structural 3CLpro and PLpro proteins. Among the analyzed complexes, azurin docked relatively well with the S2 domain of S-protein compared to the other viral proteins. The derived peptide p18 bound to the active site domain of the PLpro protein; however, in other complexes, lesser interactions were recorded. The second azurin derived peptide p28, fared the best among the docked proteins. p28 interacted with all the three viral proteins and the host ACE-2 receptor by forming several electrostatic and hydrogen bonds with the S-protein, 3CLpro, and PLpro. MD simulations indicated that p28 exhibited a strong affinity to S-protein and ACE-2 receptor, indicating a possibility of p28 as a protein-protein interaction inhibitor. Our data suggest that the p28 has potential as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent and can be further exploited to establish its validity in the treatment of current and future SARS-CoV crisis.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Bernstein DN, Greene N, IO Ibrahim (2020)

The personal and professional impact of COVID-19 on orthopedic surgery trainees: reflections from an incoming intern, current intern, and chief resident.

Acta orthopaedica [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Schmidt U, T Rein (2020)

Novel treatment targets for COVID-19: Contribution from molecular psychiatry.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Bhatnager R, Bhasin M, Arora J, et al (2020)

Epitope based peptide vaccine against SARS-COV2: an immune-informatics approach.

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics [Epub ahead of print].

World is witnessing exponential growth of SARS-CoV2 and fatal outcomes of COVID 19 has proved its pandemic potential already by claiming more than 3 lakhs deaths globally. If not controlled, this ongoing pandemic can cause irreparable socio-economic and psychological impact worldwide. Therefore a safe and effective vaccine against COVID 19 is exigent. Recent advances in immunoinformatics approaches could potentially decline the attrition rate and accelerate the process of vaccine development in these unprecedented times. In the present study, a multivalent subunit vaccine targeting S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV2 S glycoprotein has been designed using open source, immunoinformatics tools. Designed construct comprises of epitopes capable of inducing T cell, B cell (Linear and discontinuous) and Interferon γ. physiologically, vaccine construct is predicted to be thermostable, antigenic, immunogenic, non allergen and non toxic in nature. According to population coverage analysis, designed multiepitope vaccine covers 99.26% population globally. 3D structure of vaccine construct was designed, validated and refined to obtain high quality structure. Refined structure was docked against Toll like receptors to confirm the interactions between them. Vaccine peptide sequence was reverse transcribed, codon optimized and cloned in pET vector. Our in-silico study suggests that proposed vaccine against fusion domain of virus has the potential to elicit an innate as well as humoral immune response in human and restrict the entry of virus inside the cell. Results of the study offer a framework for in-vivo analysis that may hasten the process of development of therapeutic tools against COVID 19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Cure E, MC Cure (2020)

COVID-19 May Predispose to Thrombosis by Affecting Both Vascular Endothelium and Platelets.

Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, 26:1076029620933945.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Sahu KK, Siddiqui AD, Rezaei N, et al (2020)

Challenges for Management of Immune Thrombocytopenia during COVID-19 Pandemic.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

It is almost six months since novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started as a local outbreak in Wuhan, China(1) For hematologists and patients suffering from hematological disorders, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought challenges with regards to the diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, office visits, and so on. (2,3) We hereby discuss the current challenges for management of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) during COVID-19 pandemic, based on our practical experience and interim expert recommendations suggested by the hematology societies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Yao H, Xiao G, Li F, et al (2020)

Management of surgery in the era of COVID-19: preliminary data from 11 medical centres in Beijing.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Philips CA, Ahamed R, P Augustine (2020)

Letter to the Editor: COVID-19-Related Liver Injury and Clinical Outcomes: Does It Really Exist?.

We read with interest the study by Lei and colleagues on the association between markers of liver injury and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. The authors have painstakingly collated data from a large number of COVID-19 patients from multiple centers across Wuhan. They found that an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and its dynamicity correlated with COVID-19-related liver injury and patient outcomes. They concluded that the dynamic patterns of liver injury indicators, represented by AST, correspond with COVID-19-related liver injury.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Zhou X, Wang G, Chen L, et al (2020)

Clinical Characteristics of Hematological Patients Concomitant with COVID-19.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

The rapid spread of COVID-19 represented the most serious issue to public health globally. Hematological patients as immunocompromised hosts are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is rare information available regarding the clinical features of hematological patients concomitant with COVID-19. In this study, 9 concomitant patients were analyzed for their clinical manifestations, the laboratory data, radiological findings and immunologic features. The median age was 50 years (range, 17-68) and 6 patients were male. 7 patients were infected via hospital-associated transmission and other 2 via community-associated transmission. Onset of COVID-19 in all patients occurred during routine treatments for their hematological diseases. 8 patients were classified as moderate and 1 patient as critically ill COVID-19. 4 patients died, 1 from leukemia progression, 2 from life-threatening secondary infection and the other one from respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. Abruptly elevated level of cytokines was often correlated with progressive hematological disease or concurrent bacterial infections. 2 patients had the atypical CT imaging findings of COVID-19. The median interval from the first CT scan imaging to improvement in survivors was 40 days (range 14-51 days). 4 out of 5 survivors had negative serological tests one month after symptoms onset. Positive viral load in 4 survivors lasted longer than 45 days. Our result indicated concomitant patients formed a distinct subgroup characterized by atypical clinical features, defective viral clearance and lower level of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Targeted therapies that impair host humoral immunity should be avoided. These findings will be helpful to tailor appropriate management for the concomitant patients.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Przydzial P, Tchomobe G, Amin K, et al (2020)

When COVID-19 Crosses Paths with AIDS in the Homeless.

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created new challenges and magnified existing ones for immunocompromised individuals who may be at risk for worse clinical outcomes. Severe COVID-19 has been associated with a hyperimmune response characterized by a surge in cytokine release defined as a cytokine release syndrome (CRS) (1). Among immunocompromised patients, the inability to mount an immune response may be protective against a poor outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Burgueño JF, MT Abreu (2020)

Reply to the Letter to the Editor: The Incidence and Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients With IBD: A Rapid Review and Meta-Analysis.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5866907 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Grossberg LB, Pellish RS, Cheifetz AS, et al (2020)

Review of Societal Recommendations Regarding Management of Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5866902 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

McClure ES, Vasudevan P, Bailey Z, et al (2020)

Racial Capitalism within Public Health: How Occupational Settings Drive COVID-19 Disparities.

American journal of epidemiology pii:5866668 [Epub ahead of print].

Epidemiology of the U.S. COVID-19 outbreak focuses on individuals' biology and behaviors, despite centrality of occupational environments in the viral spread. This demonstrates collusion between epidemiology and racial capitalism because it obscures structural influences, absolving industries of responsibility for worker safety. In an empirical example, we analyze economic implications of race-based metrics widely used in occupational epidemiology. In the U.S., White adults have better average lung function and worse hearing than Black adults. Both impaired lung function and hearing are criteria for Worker's compensation, which is ultimately paid by industry. Compensation for respiratory injury is determined using a race-specific algorithm. For hearing, there is no race adjustment. Selective use of race-specific algorithms for workers' compensation reduces industries' liability for worker health, illustrating racial capitalism operating within public health. Widespread and unexamined belief in inherent physiological inferiority of Black Americans perpetuates systems that limit industry payouts for workplace injuries. We see a parallel in the epidemiology of COVID-19 disparities. We tell stories of industries implicated in the outbreak and review how they exemplify racial capitalism. We call on public health professionals to: critically evaluate who is served and neglected by data analysis; and center structural determinants of health in etiological evaluation.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Aziz M, Fatima R, Haghbin H, et al (2020)

The Incidence and Outcomes of COVID-19 in IBD Patients: A Rapid Review and Meta-analysis.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5866906 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Hashash JG, Jabak S, Francis FF, et al (2020)

Should We Be Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in IBD Patients Before Initiation of Biologic Therapy?.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5866905 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Dixit RA, Hurst S, Adams KT, et al (2020)

Case Report: Rapid Development of Visualization Dashboards to Enhance Situation Awareness of COVID-19 Telehealth Initiatives at a Multi-Hospital Healthcare System.

Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA pii:5866982 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid expansion of telehealth services as healthcare organizations aim to mitigate community transmission while providing safe patient care. As technology adoption rapidly increases, operational telehealth teams must maintain awareness of critical information such as patient volumes and wait times, patient and provider experience, and telehealth platform performance. Using a model of situation awareness as a conceptual foundation and a user-centered design approach we describe our process for rapidly developing and disseminating dashboard visualizations to support telehealth operations. We used a five-step process to gain domain knowledge, identify user-needs, identify data sources, design and develop visualizations, and iteratively refine these visualizations. Through this process we identified three distinct stakeholder groups and designed and developed visualization dashboards to meet their needs. Feedback from users demonstrated the dashboards support situation awareness and informed important operational decisions. Lessons learned are shared to provide other organizations with insights from our process.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Fox ER (2020)

Budgeting in the time of COVID-19.

American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists pii:5866893 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Hu P, Jansen JO, Uhlich R, et al (2020)

Early Comprehensive Testing for COVID-19 is Essential to Protect Trauma Centers.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents a threat to healthcare systems worldwide. Trauma centers may be uniquely impacted, given the need for rapid invasive interventions in severely injured and the growing incidence of community infection. We discuss the impact that SARS-CoV-2 has had in our trauma center and our steps to limit the potential exposures.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective evaluation of the trauma service, from March 16-30, following the appearance of SARS-CoV-2 in our state. We recorded the daily number of trauma patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the presence of clinical symptoms or radiological signs of COVID-19, and the results of verbal symptom screen (for new admissions). The number of trauma activations, admissions, and census, as well as staff exposures and infections, was recorded daily.

RESULTS: Over the 14-day evaluation period, we tested 85 trauma patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 21 (25%) were found to be positive. Sixty percent of the patients in the trauma/burn ICU were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Positive verbal screen results, presence of ground glass opacities on admission chest CT, and presence of clinical symptoms were not significantly different in patients with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection (p > 0.05). Many infected patients were without clinical symptoms (9/21, 43%) or radiological signs on admission (18/21, 86%) of COVID-19.

CONCLUSIONS: 45% of trauma patients are asymptomatic at the time of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Respiratory symptoms as well as verbal screening (recent fevers, shortness of breath, cough, international travel, and close contact with known SARS-CoV-2 carriers) are inaccurate in the trauma population. These findings demonstrate the need for comprehensive rapid testing of all trauma patients upon presentation to the trauma bay.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Diagnostic Tests or Criteria.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Qasim Z, Sjoholm LO, Volgraf J, et al (2020)

Trauma center activity and surge response during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic - the Philadelphia story.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Asmar S, Kulvatunyou N, Davis K, et al (2020)

Virtual Interviews For Surgical Critical Care Fellowships and Acute Care Fellowships Amid The COVID-19 Pandemic: The Show Must Still Go On.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Andrea C, Mari G, Confalonieri M, et al (2020)

Surgery in the COVID-19 Phase 2 Italian scenario: lessons learned in Northern Italy spoke hospitals.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Tebala GD, Lami M, G Bond-Smith (2020)

LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY AND THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A WORD FROM A DIFFERENT HYMN SHEET.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Pata F, Cuccurullo D, Khan M, et al (2020)

Laparoscopy and Covid-19: an off-key song?.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Kurihara H, Bisagni P, Faccincani R, et al (2020)

Reply to Letter to the Editor: Surgery in the COVID-19 Phase 2 Italian scenario: lessons learned in Northern Italy spoke hospitals.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Palmas G, Moriondo M, Trapani S, et al (2020)

NASAL SWAB AS PREFERRED CLINICAL SPECIMEN FOR COVID-19 TESTING IN CHILDREN.

The Pediatric infectious disease journal [Epub ahead of print].

The first pediatric study demonstrating significantly higher positivity rate of nasal (mid-turbinate) swab testing over oropharyngeal swab testing in detecting SARS-CoV-2 (Fisher exact test 0.046, Cohen K 0.43, confidence interval 95%, 0.014-0.855). Benefits might include lower collection-related hazard for healthcare workers. We recommend it as preferred choice for swab-based SARS-CoV-2 testing in children.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Xu CLH, Raval M, Schnall JA, et al (2020)

Duration of Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Viral Shedding in Children With SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Data.

The Pediatric infectious disease journal [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are more likely to have mild or no symptoms compared to adults and may represent important vectors for transmitting the virus. Little is known about the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding in children with COVID-19.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the average shedding times of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children.

METHODS: We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies reporting real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) results in children with COVID-19, then extracted and synthesized data on duration of viral shedding from symptom onset in respiratory and gastrointestinal samples.

RESULTS: Based on data compiled from 69 pediatric cases, the duration of viral shedding through the respiratory tract is up to 24 days from symptom onset with a mean of 11.1 ± 5.8 days. Of the children who underwent testing with stool PCR, rectal swab or anal swab, 86% returned a positive result. The mean duration of viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract was 23.6 ± 8.8 days from symptom onset. In 89% of cases, viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract persisted after nasopharyngeal or throat swabs became negative, for as long as 4 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to systematically review the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients. These findings may have important implications for infection control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )