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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 Oct 2021 at 01:38 Created: 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 20275 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-10-22

Popp M, Stegemann M, Riemer M, et al (2021)

Antibiotics for the treatment of COVID-19.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 10:CD015025.

BACKGROUND: The effect of antibiotics with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties are being investigated in clinical trials as treatment for COVID-19. The use of antibiotics follows the intention-to-treat the viral disease and not primarily to treat bacterial co-infections of individuals with COVID-19. A thorough understanding of the current evidence regarding effectiveness and safety of antibiotics as anti-viral treatments for COVID-19 based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is required.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotics compared to each other, no treatment, standard of care alone, placebo, or any other active intervention with proven efficacy for treatment of COVID-19 outpatients and inpatients. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (including MEDLINE, Embase,, WHO ICTRP, medRxiv, CENTRAL), Web of Science and WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease to identify completed and ongoing studies to 14 June 2021.

SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs were included that compared antibiotics with each other, no treatment, standard of care alone, placebo, or another proven intervention, for treatment of people with confirmed COVID-19, irrespective of disease severity, treated in the in- or outpatient settings. Co-interventions had to be the same in both study arms. We excluded studies comparing antibiotics to other pharmacological interventions with unproven efficacy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed risk of bias of primary outcomes using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (ROB 2) for RCTs. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the following primary outcomes: 1. to treat inpatients with moderate to severe COVID-19: mortality, clinical worsening defined as new need for intubation or death, clinical improvement defined as being discharged alive, quality of life, adverse and serious adverse events, and cardiac arrhythmias; 2. to treat outpatients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19: mortality, clinical worsening defined as hospital admission or death, clinical improvement defined as symptom resolution, quality of life, adverse and serious adverse events, and cardiac arrhythmias.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies with 11,281 participants with an average age of 54 years investigating antibiotics compared to placebo, standard of care alone or another antibiotic. No study was found comparing antibiotics to an intervention with proven efficacy. All studies investigated azithromycin, two studies investigated other antibiotics compared to azithromycin. Seven studies investigated inpatients with moderate to severe COVID-19 and four investigated mild COVID-19 cases in outpatient settings. Eight studies had an open-label design, two were blinded with a placebo control, and one did not report on blinding. We identified 19 ongoing and 15 studies awaiting classification pending publication of results or clarification of inconsistencies. Of the 30 study results contributing to primary outcomes by included studies, 17 were assessed as overall low risk and 13 as some concerns of bias. Only studies investigating azithromycin reported data eligible for the prioritised primary outcomes. Azithromycin doses and treatment duration varied among included studies. Azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 compared to placebo or standard of care alone in inpatients We are very certain that azithromycin has little or no effect on all-cause mortality at day 28 compared to standard of care alone (risk ratio (RR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.06; 8600 participants; 4 studies; high-certainty evidence). Azithromycin probably has little or no effect on clinical worsening or death at day 28 (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.03; 7311 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence), on clinical improvement at day 28 (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.11; 8172 participants; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence), on serious adverse events during the study period (RR 1.11; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.40; 794 participants; 4 studies; moderate-certainty evidence), and cardiac arrhythmias during the study period (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.15; 7865 participants; 4 studies; moderate-certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard of care alone. Azithromycin may increase any adverse events slightly during the study period (RR 1.20; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.57; 355 participants; 3 studies; low-certainty evidence) compared to standard of care alone. No study reported quality of life up to 28 days. Azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 compared to placebo or standard of care alone in outpatients Azithromycin may have little or no effect compared to placebo or standard of care alone on all-cause mortality at day 28 (RR 1.00 ; 95% CI 0.06 to 15.69; 876 participants; 3 studies; low-certainty evidence), on admission to hospital or death within 28 days (RR 0.94 ; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.56; 876 participants; 3 studies; low-certainty evidence), and on symptom resolution at day 14 (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.12; 138 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether azithromycin increases or reduces serious adverse events compared to placebo or standard of care alone (0 participants experienced serious adverse events; 454 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). No study reported on adverse events, cardiac arrhythmias during the study period or quality of life up to 28 days. Azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 compared to any other antibiotics in inpatients and outpatients One study compared azithromycin to lincomycin in inpatients, but did not report any primary outcome. Another study compared azithromycin to clarithromycin in outpatients, but did not report any relevant outcome for this review.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are certain that risk of death in hospitalised COVID-19 patients is not reduced by treatment with azithromycin after 28 days. Further, based on moderate-certainty evidence, patients in the inpatient setting with moderate and severe disease probably do not benefit from azithromycin used as potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment for COVID-19 regarding clinical worsening or improvement. For the outpatient setting, there is currently low-certainty evidence that azithromycin may have no beneficial effect for COVID-19 individuals. There is no evidence from RCTs available for other antibiotics as antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment of COVID-19. With accordance to the living approach of this review, we will continually update our search and include eligible trials to fill this evidence gap. However, in relation to the evidence for azithromycin and in the context of antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics should not be used for treatment of COVID-19 outside well-designed RCTs.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Akamatsu MA, de Castro JT, Takano CY, et al (2021)

Off balance: Interferons in COVID-19 lung infections.

EBioMedicine, 73:103642 pii:S2352-3964(21)00435-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Interferons are innate and adaptive cytokines involved in many biological responses, in particular, viral infections. With the final response the result of the balance of the different types of Interferons. Cytokine storms are physiological reactions observed in humans and animals in which the innate immune system causes an uncontrolled and excessive release of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules. The excessive and prolonged presence of these cytokines can cause tissue damage, multisystem organ failure and death. The role of Interferons in virus clearance, tissue damage and cytokine storms are discussed, in view of COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The imbalance of Type I, Type II and Type III Interferons during a viral infection contribute to the clinical outcome, possibly together with other cytokines, in particular, TNFα, with clear implications for clinical interventions to restore their correct balance.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Jiang H, Zhang Y, Liu Z, et al (2021)

Advanced applications of mass spectrometry imaging technology in quality control and safety assessments of traditional Chinese medicines.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(21)00989-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have made great contributions to the prevention and treatment of human diseases in China, and especially in cases of COVID-19. However, due to quality problems, the lack of standards, and the diversity of dosage forms, adverse reactions to TCMs often occur. Moreover, the composition of TCMs makes them extremely challenging to extract and isolate, complicating studies of toxicity mechanisms.

AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this paper is therefore to summarize the advanced applications of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technology in the quality control, safety evaluations, and determination of toxicity mechanisms of TCMs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies from the literature have been collected from scientific databases, such as "PubMed", "Scifinder", "Elsevier", "Google Scholar" using the keywords "MSI", "traditional Chinese medicines", "quality control", "metabolomics", and "mechanism".

RESULTS: MSI is a new analytical imaging technology that can detect and image the metabolic changes of multiple components of TCMs in plants and animals in a high throughput manner. Compared to other chemical analysis methods, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), this method does not require the complex extraction and separation of TCMs, and is fast, has high sensitivity, is label-free, and can be performed in high-throughput. Combined with chemometrics methods, MSI can be quickly and easily used for quality screening of TCMs. In addition, this technology can be used to further focus on potential biomarkers and explore the therapeutic/toxic mechanisms of TCMs.

CONCLUSIONS: As a new type of analysis method, MSI has unique advantages to metabolic analysis, quality control, and mechanisms of action explorations of TCMs, and contributes to the establishment of quality standards to explore the safety and toxicology of TCMs.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Khani E, Khiali S, Beheshtirouy S, et al (2021)

Potential pharmacologic treatments for COVID-19 smell and taste loss: A comprehensive review.

European journal of pharmacology pii:S0014-2999(21)00738-X [Epub ahead of print].

The acute loss of taste and smell following COVID-19 are hallmark symptoms that affect 20-85% of patients. However, the pathophysiology and potential treatments of COVID-19 smell and taste loss are not fully understood. We searched the literature to review the potential pathologic pathways and treatment options for COVID-19 smell and taste loss. The interaction of novel coronavirus with ACE-2 receptors expressed on sustentacular cells and taste buds results in direct damage to the olfactory and gustatory systems. Also, the invasion of the virus to the olfactory neurons and consequent local inflammation are other proposed mechanisms. Therefore, COVID-19 patients with smell or taste loss may benefit from neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, or depolarizing agents. Based on the current evidence, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, insulin, and corticosteroids can be promising for the management of COVID-19 smell and taste loss. This review provided crucial information for treating COVID-19-related smell and/or taste loss, urging to perform large clinical trials to find optimum treatment options.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

De Clercq E (2021)

Remdesivir: Quo vadis?.

Biochemical pharmacology pii:S0006-2952(21)00416-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Remdesivir (GS-5734, Veklury®) has remained the only antiviral drug formally approved by the US FDA for the treatment of Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2 infection). Its key structural features are the fact that it is a C-nucleoside (adenosine) analogue, contains a 1'-cyano function, and could be considered as a ProTide based on the presence of a phosphoramidate group. Its antiviral spectrum and activity in animal models have been well established and so has been its molecular mode of action as a delayed chain terminator of the viral RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase). Its clinical efficacy has been evaluated, but needs to be optimized with regard to timing, dosage and duration of treatment, and route of administration. Safety, toxicity and pharmacokinetics need to be further addressed, and so are its potential combinations with other drugs such as corticosteroids (i.e. dexamethasone) and ribavirin.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Parker AM, Brigham E, Connolly B, et al (2021)

Addressing the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multidisciplinary model of care.

The Lancet. Respiratory medicine pii:S2213-2600(21)00385-4 [Epub ahead of print].

As of July 31, 2021, SARS-CoV-2 had infected almost 200 million people worldwide. The growing burden of survivorship is substantial in terms of the complexity of long-term health effects and the number of people affected. Persistent symptoms have been reported in patients with both mild and severe acute COVID-19, including those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Early reports on the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) indicate that fatigue, dyspnoea, cough, headache, loss of taste or smell, and cognitive or mental health impairments are among the most common symptoms. These complex, multifactorial impairments across the domains of physical, cognitive, and mental health require a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to management. Decades of research on the multifaceted needs of and models of care for patients with post-intensive care syndrome provide a framework for the development of PASC clinics to address the immediate needs of both hospitalised and non-hospitalised survivors of COVID-19. Such clinics could also provide a platform for rigorous research into the natural history of PASC and the potential benefits of therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Mohseni Afshar Z, Babazadeh A, Janbakhsh A, et al (2021)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccination recommendations in special populations and patients with existing comorbidities.

Reviews in medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a crucial step in ending the current worldwide pandemic. However, several particularly vulnerable groups in the population were not included in sufficient numbers in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccine trials. Therefore, as science advances, the advice for vaccinating these special populations against Covid-19 will continue to evolve. This focused review provides the latest recommendations and considerations for these special populations (i.e., patients with rheumatologic and autoimmune disorders, cancer, transplant recipients, chronic liver diseases, end-stage renal disease, neurologic disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, human immunodeficiency virus, current smokers, pregnant and breastfeeding women, the elderly, children, and patients with allergic reactions) using the currently available research evidence.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Calabrò L, Rossi G, Covre A, et al (2021)

COVID and Lung Cancer.

Current oncology reports, 23(11):134.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the past year, the fast spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has represented a global health threat, especially for cancer patients, that has required an urgent reorganization of clinical activities. Here, we will critically revise the profound impact that the pandemic has generated in lung cancer patients, as well the most significant challenges that oncologists have to face to maintain the highest possible standards in the management of lung cancer patients in the pandemic era.

RECENT FINDINGS: Evidences suggested a higher susceptibility and mortality of lung cancer patients due to COVID-19. The hard management of this patient population has been also due to the potential cross interference of anti-tumor drugs on SARS-Cov-2 infection and to the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonitis and drug-related pneumonitis. COVID-19 pandemic has generated a profound reshaping of oncological activities and the development of recommendations by the oncology scientific community to prioritize anti-tumor treatments for lung cancer patients.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Major AL, Jumaniyazov K, Yusupova S, et al (2021)

Laparoscopy in Gynecologic and Abdominal Surgery in Regional (Spinal, Peridural) Anesthesia, the Utility of the Technique during COVID-19 Pandemic.

Medicines (Basel, Switzerland), 8(10): pii:medicines8100060.

BACKGROUND: laparoscopic surgery is mainly performed in general anesthesia. Symptomatic patients infected with COVID-19 needing surgery are however at higher risk for COVID-19 complications in general anesthesia than in regional anesthesia. Even so, Covid transfection is a hazard to medical personnel during the intubation procedure and treatment drugs may be in shortage during a pandemic. Recovery and hospital stay are also shorter after laparoscopy. Laparoscopy performed in regional anesthesia may have several advantages in limiting Covid.

METHODS: international literature on the risk of COVID-19 complications development was searched. 3 topics concerning laparoscopic surgery were reviewed: (1) Achievements in laparoscopy; (2) Advantages of regional anesthesia compared to general anesthesia; (3) Feasibility to perform laparoscopy in regional anesthesia in COVID-19 pandemic. The authors reviewed abstracts and full-text articles concerning laparoscopic surgery, gynecology, anesthesia and COVID-19. Studies published in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and found in Google Scholar before 1st FEB, 2021 were retrieved and analyzed.

RESULTS: a total of 83 studies were found, all of them written in English. 17 studies could be found in gynecology and in general surgery about laparoscopy with regional anesthesia. In Covid time only one study compared laparoscopic surgery in general anesthesia to laparotomy and another study laparotomy in general anesthesia to regional anesthesia. Laparoscopy showed no disadvantage compared to laparotomy in Covid pandemic and in another study laparotomy in general anesthesia was associated with higher mortality and more pulmonary complications. Trendelenburg position can be a threat if used by inexperienced personnel and can induce unintended anesthesia of breathing organs. On the other hand Trendelenburg position has advantages for cardiovascular and pulmonary functions. Pneumoperitoneum of low CO2 pressure is well tolerated by patients.

CONCLUSIONS: elective surgery should be postponed in symptomatic Covid patients. In inevitable emergency surgery intubation anesthesia in COVID-19 pandemic is as far as possible to be avoided. In COVID-19 pandemic, regional anesthesia is the preferred choice. The optimum may be the combination of laparoscopic surgery with regional anesthesia. Reducing the pneumoperitoneum is a good compromise for the comfort of patients and surgeons. A special case is gynecology, which needs to be performed in Trendelenburg position to free pelvic organs.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Akter N, Hasan MM, N Pala (2021)

A Review of THz Technologies for Rapid Sensing and Detection of Viruses including SARS-CoV-2.

Biosensors, 11(10): pii:bios11100349.

Virus epidemics such as Ebola virus, Zika virus, MERS-coronavirus, and others have wreaked havoc on humanity in the last decade. In addition, a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and its continuously evolving mutants have become so deadly that they have forced the entire technical advancement of healthcare into peril. Traditional ways of detecting these viruses have been successful to some extent, but they are costly, time-consuming, and require specialized human resources. Terahertz-based biosensors have the potential to lead the way for low-cost, non-invasive, and rapid virus detection. This review explores the latest progresses in terahertz technology-based biosensors for the virus, viral particle, and antigen detection, as well as upcoming research directions in the field.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Saunders D, Liu M, Vandermeer L, et al (2021)

The Rethinking Clinical Trials (REaCT) Program. A Canadian-Led Pragmatic Trials Program: Strategies for Integrating Knowledge Users into Trial Design.

Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.), 28(5):3959-3977 pii:curroncol28050337.

We reviewed patient and health care provider (HCP) surveys performed through the REaCT program. The REaCT team has performed 15 patient surveys (2298 respondents) and 13 HCP surveys (1033 respondents) that have addressed a broad range of topics in breast cancer management. Over time, the proportion of surveys distributed by paper/regular mail has fallen, with electronic distribution now the norm. For the patient surveys, the median duration of the surveys was 3 months (IQR 2.5-7 months) and the median response rate was 84% (IQR 80-91.7%). For the HCP surveys, the median survey duration was 3 months (IQR 1.75-4 months), and the median response rate, where available, was 28% (IQR 21.2-49%). The survey data have so far led to: 10 systematic reviews, 6 peer-reviewed grant applications and 19 clinical trials. Knowledge users should be an essential component of clinical research. The REaCT program has integrated surveys as a standard step of their trials process. The COVID-19 pandemic and reduced face-to-face interactions with patients in the clinic as well as the continued importance of social media highlight the need for alternative means of distributing and responding to surveys.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Arévalos V, Ortega-Paz L, Rodríguez-Arias JJ, et al (2021)

Acute and Chronic Effects of COVID-19 on the Cardiovascular System.

Journal of cardiovascular development and disease, 8(10): pii:jcdd8100128.

COVID-19 has shown significant morbidity with the involvement of multiple systems, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular manifestations in the acute phase can include myocardial injury itself, myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolic events, myocarditis, Takotsubo syndrome, and different arrhythmic events. Myocardial injury defined by the rise of cardiac biomarkers in blood has been found in multiple studies with a prevalence of about 20%. Its presence is related to worse clinical outcomes and in-hospital mortality. The mechanisms of myocardial injury have been the subject of intense research but still need to be clarified. The characterization of the cardiac affectation with echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance has found mixed results in different studies, with a striking incidence of imaging criteria for myocarditis. Regarding post-acute and chronic follow-up results, the persistence of symptoms and imaging changes in recovered COVID-19 patients has raised concerns about the duration and the possible significance of these findings. Even though the knowledge about this disease has increased incredibly in the last year, many aspects are still unclear and warrant further research.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Bossone E, Cademartiri F, AlSergani H, et al (2021)

Preoperative Assessment and Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery: Implementing a Systematic Stepwise Approach during the COVID-19 Pandemic Era.

Journal of cardiovascular development and disease, 8(10): pii:jcdd8100126.

Major adverse cardiac events, defined as death or myocardial infarction, are common causes of perioperative mortality and major morbidity in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Reduction of perioperative cardiovascular risk in relation to non-cardiac surgery requires a stepwise patient evaluation that integrates clinical risk factors, functional status and the estimated stress of the planned surgical procedure. Major guidelines on preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment recommend to establish, firstly, the risk of surgery per se (low, moderate, high) and the related timing (elective vs. urgent/emergent), evaluate the presence of unstable cardiac conditions or a recent coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting), assess the functional capacity of the patient (usually expressed in metabolic equivalents), determine the value of non-invasive and/or invasive cardiovascular testing and then combine these data in estimating perioperative risk for major cardiac adverse events using validated scores (Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) or National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)). This stepwise approach has the potential to guide clinicians in determining which patients could benefit from cardiovascular therapy and/or coronary artery revascularization before non-cardiac surgery towards decreasing the incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Finally, it should be highlighted that there is a need to implement specific strategies in the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to minimize the risk of transmission of COVID-19 infection during the preoperative risk assessment process.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Nair AS (2022)

Perioperative melatonin in COVID-19 patients: benefits beyond sedation and analgesia.

Medical gas research, 12(2):41-43.

Cytokine storm in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients leads to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan dysfunction, shock, and thrombosis thus contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Several agents like steroids, ascorbic acid, vitamins (C, D, E), glutathione, N-acetylcysteine have been used and several studies are underway to identify its efficacy in addressing undesirable effects due to COVID-19 illness. Among several experimental modalities based on expert opinion and anecdotal data, melatonin is one molecule that appears promising. Owing to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, melatonin can be an important agent used as a component of multimodal analgesia in COVID-19 patients, suspected patients, and patients with exposure to positive patients undergoing emergency or urgent surgeries. Further research is required to know the optimal time of initiation, dose, and duration of melatonin as an adjunct.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Yousefi B, Banihashemian SZ, Feyzabadi ZK, et al (2022)

Potential therapeutic effect of oxygen-ozone in controlling of COVID-19 disease.

Medical gas research, 12(2):33-40.

Atmospheric ozone is produced when nitrogen oxides react with volatile organic compounds. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome contains a unique N-terminal fragment in the Spike protein, which allows it to bind to air pollutants in the environment. 'Our approach in this review is to study ozone and its effect on the SARS-CoV-2 virus and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Article data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Ozone therapy has antiviral properties, improves blood flow, facilitates the transfer of oxygen in hypoxemic tissues, and reduces blood coagulation phenomena in COVID-19 patients. Ozone has immunomodulatory effects by modulating cytokines (reduction of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10), induction of interferon-γ, anti-inflammatory properties by modulating NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3, inhibition of cytokine storm (blocking nuclear factor-κB and stimulating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway), stimulates cellular/humoral immunity/phagocytic function and blocks angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. In direct oxygen-ozone injection, oxygen reacts with several biological molecules such as thiol groups in albumin to form ozonoids. Intravenous injection of ozonated saline significantly increases the length of time a person can remain hypoxic. The rectal ozone protocol is rectal ozone insufflation, resulting in clinical improvement in oxygen saturation and biochemical improvement (fibrinogen, D-dimer, urea, ferritin, LDH, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein). In general, many studies have shown the positive effect of ozone therapy as a complementary therapy in the recovery of COVID-19 patients. All the findings indicate that systemic ozone therapy is nontoxic and has no side effects in these patients.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Gungor O, Ulu S, Hasbal NB, et al (2021)

Effects of hormonal changes on sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease: where are we now and what can we do?.

Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle [Epub ahead of print].

Sarcopenia or muscle wasting is a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder involving the accelerated loss of muscle mass and function, often associated with muscle weakness (dynapenia) and frailty. Whereas primary sarcopenia is related to ageing, secondary sarcopenia happens independent of age in the context of chronic disease states such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sarcopenia has become a major focus of research and public policy debate due to its impact on patient's health-related quality of life, health-care expenditure, morbidity, and mortality. The development of sarcopenia in patients with CKD is multifactorial and it may occur independently of weight loss or cachexia including under obese sarcopenia. Hormonal imbalances can facilitate the development of sarcopenia in the general population and is a common finding in CKD. Hormones that may influence the development of sarcopenia are testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, thyroid hormones, and vitamin D. Although the relationship between free testosterone level that is low in uraemic patients and sarcopenia in CKD is not well-defined, functional improvement may be seen. Unlike testosterone, it is known that vitamin D is associated with muscle strength, muscle size, and physical performance in patients with CKD. Outcomes after vitamin D replacement therapy are still controversial. The half-life of growth hormone (GH) is prolonged in patients with CKD. Besides, IGF-1 levels are normal in patients with Stage 4 CKD-a minimal reduction is seen in the end-stage renal disease. Unresponsiveness or resistance of IGF-1 and changes in the GH/IGF-1 axis are the main causes of sarcopenia in CKD. Low serum T3 level is frequent in CKD, but the net effect on sarcopenia is not well-studied. CKD patients develop insulin resistance (IR) from the earliest period even before GFR decline begins. IR reduces glucose utilization as an energy source by hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreasing muscle glucose uptake, impairing intracellular glucose metabolism. This cascade results in muscle protein breakdown. IR and sarcopenia might also be a new pathway for targeting. Ghrelin, oestrogen, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone may be other players in the setting of sarcopenia. In this review, we mainly examine the effects of hormonal changes on the occurrence of sarcopenia in patients with CKD via the available data.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Eisa M, McClave SA, Suliman S, et al (2021)

How Differences in the Disease Process of the COVID-19 Pandemic Pose Challenges to the Delivery of Critical Care Nutrition.

Current nutrition reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique disease process that has caused unprecedented challenges for intensive care specialists. The hyperinflammatory hypermetabolic nature of the disease and the complexity of its management create barriers to the delivery of nutritional therapy. This review identifies the key differences which characterize this pandemic from other disease processes in critical illness and discusses alternative strategies to enhance success of nutritional support.

RECENT FINDINGS: Prolonged hyperinflammation, unlike any previously described pattern of response to injury, causes metabolic perturbations and deterioration of nutritional status. High ventilatory demands, hypercoagulation with the risk of bowel ischemia, and threat of aspiration in patients with little or no pulmonary reserve, thwart initial efforts to provide early enteral nutrition (EN). The obesity paradox is invalidated, tolerance of EN is limited, intensivists are reluctant to add supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN), and efforts to give sufficient nutritional therapy remain a low priority. The nature of the disease and difficulties providing traditional critical care nutrition lead to dramatic deterioration of nutritional status. Institutions should not rely on insufficient gastric feeding alone but focus instead on redoubling efforts to provide postpyloric deep duodenal/jejunal EN or re-examine the role of supplemental PN in this population of patients with such severe critical illness.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Öcal S (2021)

SARS-Cov-2 and Lung Injury: Dysregulation of Immune Response, But Not Hyperimmune Response as in "Cytokine Storm Syndrome".

The clinical respiratory journal [Epub ahead of print].

SARS-CoV-2 infection can present either an asymptomatic or symptomatic; the spectrum of symptomatic infection ranges from mild to critical. A majority of patients have experienced mild symptoms with a good prognosis. But, approximately 14% of them have severe infection presenting with hypoxemia and extensive lung involvement. The current mini-review describes the dysregulation of immune response for SARS-CoV-2 viral pneumonia and virus-induced lung injury. Also, many confounding factors can increase lung injury, in addition to virus-induced lung injury. Especially in critically ill patients, confounding factors can cause the inflammatory cascade, ARDS, and mortality.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Mattey-Mora PP, Begle CA, Owusu CK, et al (2021)

Hospitalised versus outpatient COVID-19 patients' background characteristics and comorbidities: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Reviews in medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to systematically assess COVID-19 patient background characteristics and pre-existing comorbidities associated with hospitalisation status. The meta-analysis included cross-sectional, cohort, and case-series studies with information on hospitalisation versus outpatient status for COVID-19 patients, with background characteristics and pre-existing comorbidities. A total of 1,002,006 patients from 40 studies were identified. Significantly higher odds of hospitalisation were observed in Black individuals (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.70), males (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.43-1.76), and persons with current/past smoking (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.34-1.88). Additionally, individuals with pre-existing comorbidities were more likely to be hospitalised [asthma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45), COPD (OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 2.97-4.55), congestive heart failure (OR = 6.80, 95% CI: 4.97-9.31), coronary heart disease (OR = 4.40, 95% CI: 3.15-6.16), diabetes (OR = 3.90, 95% CI: 3.29-4.63), hypertension (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 3.34-4.54), obesity (OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.59-2.46) and renal chronic disease (OR = 5.84, 95% CI: 4.51-7.56)]. High heterogeneity and low publication bias among all factors were found. Age was not included due to the large variability in the estimates reported. In this systematic review/meta-analysis for patients with COVID-19, Black patients, males, persons who smoke, and those with pre-existing comorbidities were more likely to be hospitalised than their counterparts. Findings provide evidence of populations with higher odds of hospitalisation for COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Tristão RM, Lauand L, Costa KSF, et al (2021)

Olfactory sensory and perceptual evaluation in newborn infants: A systematic review.

Developmental psychobiology, 63(7):e22201.

Fetuses are able to process olfactory stimuli present in the womb and continue to show a preference for these odors for months after birth. Despite the accumulated knowledge about their early ability to perceive odors, there is a lack of validated scales for odor response in newborns. The evaluation of reactions of the olfactory system to environmental stimuli in infants has been defined by methodological theoretical approaches of experimental and clinical assessment tools. These approaches are mainly based on psychophysical approaches and predominantly use behavioral and physiological measures. Examples can be found in studies describing early abilities of newborn babies for behaviors or heart rate variability showing memory of maternal food preferences or mother's breast milk. This systematic review aimed to determine whether validated odor assessment tools can be feasibly used in studies. Particularly in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic and evidence of associated olfactory impairment resulting from SARS-COV-2 infection, the study is also motivated by the need for tools to assess olfactory function in neonates.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Monteleone AM, Cascino G, Barone E, et al (2021)

COVID-19 Pandemic and Eating Disorders: What Can We Learn About Psychopathology and Treatment? A Systematic Review.

Current psychiatry reports, 23(12):83.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review aims to collect evidence regarding the impact of the SarsCov-2 pandemic on people affected by eating disorders (EDs) targeting the following variables: psychopathology changes, mechanisms of vulnerability or resilience, and perception of treatment modifications during the pandemic.

RECENT FINDINGS: Since the beginning of the pandemic, a mental health deterioration has been detected in the general population and especially in people affected by pre-existing psychiatric conditions. Furthermore, mental healthcare has moved toward online treatment. ED people showed a trend toward worsening of ED-specific psychopathology and impairment in general psychopathology. The most common vulnerability mechanisms were social isolation and feelings of uncertainty, while heightened self-care and reduced social pressure were resilience factors. The online treatment, although raising many concerns related to its quality, was considered the best alternative to the face-to-face approach. These findings may support the idea that stressful events contribute to the exacerbation of ED psychopathology and highlight the relevance of internalizing symptoms in EDs. The identification of putative risk and resilience variables as well as of subjective factors affecting online treatment perception may inform healthcare professionals and may promote more personalized approaches.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Kong AP (2021)

COVID-19 and Aphasia.

Current neurology and neuroscience reports, 21(11):61.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aphasia is an acquired neurological language disorder after brain damages. Persons with aphasia (PWA) are more susceptible to behavioral and emotional implications due to inherent communication and/or cognitive difficulties. Currently, little is known regarding the impact of COVID-19 on PWA.

RECENT FINDINGS: There are now growing reports with evidence of neurological and dysexecutive syndromes subsequent to interference of brain functions in acute patients with COVID-19, leading to variable aphasia-like symptoms. COVID-19 affected chronic PWA more in terms of disrupted communication and daily routines, worsened psychosocial well-being, and difficulties getting aphasia services that adequately addressed their needs. Acute versus chronic PWA were disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Recognizing, examining, and managing COVID-19-related neurological and behavioral problems in PWA is not straightforward. As we passed the 1-year mark and approaching the 2-year mark of the onset of COVID-19, more research is necessary to prioritize strategies for improving current evidence-based care and rehabilitation of aphasia.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

de Araujo CM, Guariza-Filho O, Gonçalves FM, et al (2021)

Front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic: what is the effectiveness of using personal protective equipment in health service environments?-a systematic review.

International archives of occupational and environmental health [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in closed environments, similar to waiting or exam rooms of healthcare facilities, in the face of exposure to a bioaerosol.

METHODS: Combinations of words were selected for six electronic databases and for the gray literature. To consider the eligibility of the studies to be included/excluded, the acronym "PECOS" was used: humans and/or experimental models that simulate aerosol (Population); aerosol exposure and the use of masks/respirators (exposition/intervention); controlled or not controlled (comparison); effectiveness of PPE and the receiver exposure (outcomes); and randomized clinical studies or not, observational or laboratory simulation studies (Studies design).

RESULTS: A total of 4820 references were retrieved by the search strategy. Thirty-five articles were selected for complete reading, of which 13 articles were included for qualitative synthesis. A surgical mask or N95 respirator reduced the risk of transmission, even over short distances. The use of masks, even those with less filtering power, when used by all individuals in the same environment is more effective in reducing risk than the use of respirators with high filtering power for only some of the individuals present.

CONCLUSION: The use of mask in closed environments is effective in reducing the risk of transmission and contagion of a contaminated bioaerosol, with greater effectiveness when these devices are used by the source and receiver, regardless of the equipment's filtering power. (PROSPERO 2020 CRD 42020183759).

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Beghi E, Giussani G, Westenberg E, et al (2021)

Acute and post-acute neurological manifestations of COVID-19: present findings, critical appraisal, and future directions.

Journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Acute and post-acute neurological symptoms, signs and diagnoses have been documented in an increasing number of patients infected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we aimed to summarize the current literature addressing neurological events following SARS-CoV-2 infection, discuss limitations in the existing literature and suggest future directions that would strengthen our understanding of the neurological sequelae of COVID-19. The presence of neurological manifestations (symptoms, signs or diagnoses) both at the onset or during SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a more severe disease, as demonstrated by a longer hospital stay, higher in-hospital death rate or the continued presence of sequelae at discharge. Although biological mechanisms have been postulated for these findings, evidence-based data are still lacking to clearly define the incidence, range of characteristics and outcomes of these manifestations, particularly in non-hospitalized patients. In addition, data from low- and middle-income countries are scarce, leading to uncertainties in the measure of neurological findings of COVID-19, with reference to geography, ethnicity, socio-cultural settings, and health care arrangements. As a consequence, at present a specific phenotype that would specify a post-COVID (or long-COVID) neurological syndrome has not yet been identified.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Sahni S, Gupta G, Sarda R, et al (2021)

Impact of metabolic and cardiovascular disease on COVID-19 mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 15(6):102308 pii:S1871-4021(21)00328-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This meta-analysis aims to highlight the impact of cardio-metabolic comorbidities on COVID-19 severity and mortality.

METHODS: A thorough search on major online databases was done for studies describing the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. We used random-effects model to compute pooled estimates for critical or fatal disease.

RESULTS: A total of 20,475 patients from 33 eligible studies were included. Maximum risk of development of critical or fatal COVID-19 disease was seen in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease [OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.65-4.48] followed by chronic lung disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Of the total cases, 64% had one of the four comorbidities with the most prevalent being hypertension with a pooled prevalence of 27%.

CONCLUSIONS: Presence of comorbidities like cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus led to a higher risk of development of critical or fatal COVID-19 disease, with maximum risk seen with underlying cardiovascular disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Salimi-Jeda A, Abbassi S, Mousavizadeh A, et al (2021)

SARS-CoV-2: Current trends in emerging variants, pathogenesis, immune responses, potential therapeutic, and vaccine development strategies.

International immunopharmacology, 101(Pt A):108232 pii:S1567-5769(21)00868-7 [Epub ahead of print].

More than a year after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is still a major global challenge for scientists to understand the different dimensions of infection and find ways to prevent, treat, and develop a vaccine. On January 30, 2020, the world health organization (WHO) officially announced this new virus as an international health emergency. While many biological and mechanisms of pathogenicity of this virus are still unclear, it seems that cytokine storm resulting from an immune response against the virus is considered the main culprit of the severity of the disease. Despite many global efforts to control the SARS-CoV-2, several problems and challenges have been posed in controlling the COVID-19 infection. These problems include the various mutations, the emergence of variants with high transmissibility, the short period of immunity against the virus, the possibility of reinfection in people improved, lack of specific drugs, and problems in the development of highly sensitive and specific vaccines. In this review, we summarized the results of the current trend and the latest research studies on the characteristics of the structure and genome of the SARS-CoV- 2, new mutations and variants of SARS-CoV-2, pathogenicity, immune response, virus diagnostic tests, potential treatment, and vaccine candidate.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Sahebnasagh A, Nabavi SM, Kashani HRK, et al (2021)

Anti-VEGF agents: As appealing targets in the setting of COVID-19 treatment in critically ill patients.

International immunopharmacology, 101(Pt B):108257 pii:S1567-5769(21)00893-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, the medications used for the severe form of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) therapy are of particular interest. In this sense, it has been supposed that anti-VEGF compounds would be good candidates in the face of "cytokine storm" and intussuscepted angiogenesis due to having an appreciable anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, they can be subjected to therapeutic protocols to manage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since the compelling evidence emphasized that VEGFs contribute to the inflammatory process and play a mainstay role in disease pathogenesis, in this review, we aimed to highlight the VEGF's plausible participation in the cytokine storm exacerbation in COVID-19. Next, the recent clinical advances regarding the anti-VEGF medications, including humanized monoclonal antibody, immunosuppressant, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and a cytokine inhibitor, have been addressed in the setting of COVID-19 treatment in critically ill patients. Together, retrieving the increased level of VEGF subsets, as well as antagonizing VEGF related receptors, could be helpful for the treatment of COVID-19, especially in those suffering from ARDS.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Chen Y, Li Z, Gao Y, et al (2021)

Caution in underrepresentation of older adults in clinical trials on COVID-19 vaccines.

Ageing research reviews pii:S1568-1637(21)00233-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We read with great interest the article "Underrepresentation of older adults in clinical trials on COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review" written by Nicola Veronese et al. This important work demonstrated that medications and vaccines commonly used in older adults have not been adequately evaluated. Concerning this systematic review, we shall like to mention some certain points deserved to be attended by the authors.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Ahmad S, Hatmal MM, Lambuk L, et al (2021)

The role of TNFR2+ Tregs in COVID-19: An overview and a potential therapeutic strategy.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(21)01050-X [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 is a multi-faceted disease ranging from asymptomatic to severely ill condition that primarily affects the lungs and could advance to other organs as well. It's causing factor, SARS-CoV-2 is recognized to develop robust cell-mediated immunity that responsible to either control or exaggerate the infection. As an important cell subset that control immune responses and are significantly dysregulated in COVID-19, Tregs is proposed to be considered for COVID-19 management. Among its hallmark, TNFR2 is recently recognized to play important role in the function and survival of Tregs. This review gathers available TNFR2 agonists to directly target Tregs as a potential approach to overcome immune dysregulation that affect the severity in COVID-19. Furthermore, this review performs a rigid body docking of TNF-TNFR2 interaction and such interaction with TNFR2 agonist to predict the optimal targeting approach.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Martins CPV, Xavier CSF, L Cobrado (2021)

Disinfection methods against SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review.

The Journal of hospital infection pii:S0195-6701(21)00362-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The novel SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the most recent pandemic faced by humanity, has become a global crisis causing millions of deaths. The virus is transmitted by inhalation of infectious particles suspended in the air, direct deposition on mucous membranes and indirect contact via contaminated surfaces. Therefore, disinfection methods that can halt such transmission are important in this pandemic and in future viral infections.

AIM: Highlight the efficacy of several disinfection methods against SARS-CoV-2, based on up-to-date evidence found in literature.

METHODS: A research was conducted through two databases to assess the disinfection methods used against SARS-CoV-2. From a total of 1229 studies found, 60 were included. Quality assessment was evaluated by the OHAT risk of bias tool.

FINDINGS: Disinfection methods on environmental surfaces were approached by 28 studies; 16 articles addressed disinfection methods used on biological surfaces; 4 articles presented disinfection methods for airborne coronavirus and 16 studies demonstrated methods used to recondition PPEs.

CONCLUSIONS: Several household and hospital disinfection agents and UV-C irradiation were effective in inactivating SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces. Formulations containing povidone-iodine can provide virucidal action on the skin and mucous membranes. In the case of hand hygiene, typical soap bars and alcohols can inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Air filtration systems incorporated with materials that possess catalytic properties, UV-C devices and heating systems can effectively reduce airborne viral particles. The decontamination of PPEs can be conducted safely by heat and ozone treatment.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Rabbani G, SN Ahn (2021)

Review: Roles of human serum albumin in prediction, diagnoses and treatment of COVID-19.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(21)02254-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) keeps on destroying normal social integrity worldwide, bringing about extraordinary medical services, cultural and financial interruption. Individuals with diabetes have been demonstrated to be at higher risk of complications and even death when exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Regardless of pandemic scale infection, there is presently limited comprehension on the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 on individuals with diabetes. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant circulating plasma protein in human serum and attracted more interest from researchers because most susceptible to non-enzymatic glycation reactions. Albumin down-regulates the expression of ACE2 that is the target receptor of COVID-19. Hypoalbuminemia, coagulopathy, and vascular disease have been connected in COVID-19 and appear to predict outcomes independent of age and morbidity. This review discusses the most recent evidence that the ACE/ACE2 ratio could influence by human serum albumin both the susceptibility of individuals to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the outcome of the COVID-19 disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Yang Z, Wang X, Wan XG, et al (2021)

Pediatric asthma control during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pediatric pulmonology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many experts expected that asthma-associated morbidity because of SARS-CoV-2 infection would dramatically increase. However, some studies suggested that there was no apparent increasing in asthma related morbidity in children with asthma, it is even possible children may have improved outcomes. In order to understand the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and asthma outcomes, we performed this article.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library to find literature from December 2019 to June 2021 related to Covid-19 and children's asthma control, among which results such as abstracts, comments, letters, reviews and case reports were excluded. The level of asthma control during the COVID-19 pandemic was synthesized and discussed by outcomes of asthma exacerbation, emergency room visit, asthma admission and c-ACT.

RESULTS: A total of 22159 subjects were included in 10 studies. Random effect model was used to account for the data. Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, asthma exacerbation reduced(OR=0.26, 95%CI= [0.14,0.48], Z=4.32, P<0.0001), the odds of emergency room visit decreased as well(OR =0.11, 95%CI= [0.04,0.26], Z=4.98, P<0.00001). The outcome of asthma admission showed no significant difference (OR =0.84, 95%CI= [0.32,2.20], Z=0.36, P=0.72). The outcome of c-ACT scores were not analyzed because of the different manifestations used. Overall, c-ACT scores reduced during the pandemic.

CONCLUSION: Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, the level of asthma control has been significantly improved. We need to understand the exact factors leading to these improvements and find methods to sustain it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Manik M, RK Singh (2021)

Role of Toll-like receptors in modulation of cytokine storm signaling in SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

A balanced immune regulation is crucial for recognizing an invading pathogen, its killing and its elimination. TLRs are the key regulators of the innate immune system. It helps in identifying between self and non-self-molecule and eventually eliminates the non-self. Endosomal TLR mainly TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and membrane bound TLR4 has a role in the induction of cytokine storm. TLR7/8 recognize the ssRNA SARS-COV-2 and when it replicates to dsRNA, it is recognized by TLR3 and drive the TRIF mediated inflammatory signaling like NF-κB, MAPK. Such signaling leads to significant transcription and translation of pro-inflammatory genes in, releasing inflammatory molecules into the systemic circulation, causing an imbalance in the system. So, whenever an imbalance occurs, a surge in the pro-inflammatory mediators observed in the blood, including cytokines like IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, TNF-α. IL-6 and IL-1β are one of the driving factors for bringing the cytokine storm into the systemic circulation, which migrate into the other organs, causing multiple organ failure leading to death of the individual with severe illness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Romic I, Silovski H, Mance M, et al (2021)

Psychological Effects of "Double Crisis" (COVID-19 Pandemic and Earthquakes) on Croatian Medical Students.

Psychiatria Danubina, 33(Suppl 10):120-125.

INTRODUCTION: In 2020. the COVID-19 pandemic presented an additional source of stress and anxiety not just to the general population but also to medical students who are, even under normal circumstances, constantly under pressure due to demanding student duties. In addition, they experienced a series of devastating earthquakes in and around the Zagreb region which altogether could have had compromised their psychological well-being. The aim of this review was to evaluate the psychological effects of these two natural disasters on the mental health of Croatian medical students.

RESULTS: According to standardized questionnaires for depression and anxiety evaluation, 75.3% of students were anxious and 65.2% were depressive during the "double crisis". No significant difference of these two outcomes was observed regarding genders, but it was found that first year students had a significantly higher anxiety score than older ones.

CONCLUSION: In such stressful situations, we should emphasize the importance of mental health not just of healthcare workers, but also of medical students in order to prevent serious psychological consequences and to alleviate the negative effects on students' motivation and their educational process.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

De Lucas Ramos P, García-Botella A, García-Lledó A, et al (2021)

Actions and attitudes on the immunized patients against SARS-CoV-2.

Revista espanola de quimioterapia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia [Epub ahead of print].

The access to COVID vaccines by millions of human beings and their high level of protection against the disease, both in its mild and severe forms, together with a plausible decrease in the transmission of the infection from vaccinated patients, has prompted a series of questions from the members of the College of Physicians of Madrid (ICOMEM) and the society. The ICOMEM Scientific Committee on this subject has tried to answer these questions after discussion and consensus among its members. The main answers can be summarized as follows: The occurrence of new SARS-CoV-2 infections in both vaccinated and previously infected patients is very low, in the observation time we already have. When breakthrough infections do occur, they are usually asymptomatic or mild and, purportedly, should have a lower capacity for transmission to other persons. Vaccinated subjects who have contact with a SARS-CoV-2 infected patient can avoid quarantine as long as they are asymptomatic, although this decision depends on variables such as age, occupation, circulating variants, degree of contact and time since vaccination. In countries with a high proportion of the population vaccinated, it is already suggested that fully vaccinated persons could avoid the use of masks and social distancing in most circumstances. Systematic use of diagnostic tests to assess the immune response or the degree of protection against reinfection after natural infection or vaccination is discouraged, since their practical consequences are not known at this time. The existing information precludes any precision regarding a possible need for future revaccination. This Committee considers that when mass vaccination of health care workers and the general population is achieved, SARS-CoV-2 screening tests could be avoided at least in outpatient care and in the case of exploratory procedures that do not require hospitalization.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Choi JY, DM Smith (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern.

Yonsei medical journal, 62(11):961-968.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic first began in December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has continuously evolved with many variants emerging across the world. These variants are categorized as the variant of interest (VOI), variant of concern (VOC), and variant under monitoring (VUM). As of September 15, 2021, there are four SARS-CoV-2 lineages designated as the VOC (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants). VOCs have increased transmissibility compared to the original virus, and have the potential for increasing disease severity. In addition, VOCs exhibit decreased susceptibility to vaccine-induced and infection-induced immune responses, and thus possess the ability to reinfect previously infected and recovered individuals. Given their ability to evade immune responses, VOC are less susceptible to monoclonal antibody treatments. VOCs can also impact the effectiveness of mRNA and adenovirus vector vaccines, although the currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines are still effective in preventing infection and severe disease. Current measures to reduce transmission as well as efforts to monitor and understand the impact of variants should be continued. Here, we review the molecular features, epidemiology, impact on transmissibility, disease severity, and vaccine effectiveness of VOCs.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Caillon A, Trimaille A, Favre J, et al (2021)

Role of neutrophils, platelets and extracellular vesicles and their interactions in Covid-19-associated thrombopathy.

Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 pandemic extended all around the world causing millions of deaths. Beside the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a large number of severe COVID-19 patients develop thrombo-embolic complications associated to multi organ failure and death. Here, we review evidences for the contribution of neutrophils, platelets and extracellular vesicles (EV) to the thromboinflammatory process in COVID-19. We discuss how the immune system, influenced by pro-inflammatory molecules, EVs and neutrophil extra-cellular traps (NETs), can be caught out in patients with severe outcomes. We highlight how the deficient regulation of the innate immune system favors platelet activation and induces a vicious cycle amplifying an immuno-thrombogenic environment associated with platelet/NET interactions. In the light of these considerations, we discuss potential therapeutic strategies underlining the modulation of purinergic signaling as an interesting target.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Liu TFD, Philippou E, Kolokotroni O, et al (2021)

Gut and airway microbiota and their role in COVID-19 infection and pathogenesis: a scoping review.

Infection [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Researchers have been studying the pathogenesis of the virus with the aim to improve our current diagnosis and management strategies. The microbiota have been proposed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

PURPOSE: To investigate and report on the current available evidence on any associations between the gut and/or airway microbiota and the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

METHODS: Using a predefined protocol in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines, a search was conducted on MEDLINE, Science Direct, DOAJ and Cochrane databases on primary research studies assessing the association between COVID-19 infection and the gut and/or airway microbiota.

RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included in the current review; nineteen studies concluded an association between the gut and/or airway dysbiosis and SARS-CoV-2, while 3 studies failed to observe a significant association between the airway microbiome and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specifically, most studies reported a decrease in microbial diversity and therefore development of intestinal dysbiosis in COVID-19-positive patients compared to healthy controls as well as a possible association between increased intestinal dysbiosis and disease severity.

CONCLUSION: During infection with SARS-CoV-2, there are significant changes in the composition of the gut and airway microbiota. Furthermore, the gut microbiota may have a more important role than the airway microbiota in COVID-19 infection. In the future, studies should be more carefully designed to derive more conclusive evidence on the role of the gut and airway microbiota following infection with SARS-CoV-2 which will lead to the formulation of better management strategies in combating COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Ilonze OJ, Ballut K, Rao RS, et al (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart transplant recipients: a systematic literature review of clinical outcomes and immunosuppression strategies.

Heart failure reviews [Epub ahead of print].

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on heart transplant recipients is unknown. Literature is limited to case reports and series. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical features, outcomes, and immunosuppression strategies of heart transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection. A systematic review was conducted using the search term "Coronavirus" or COVID," "SARS-CoV-2," "cardiac transplantation," and "heart transplant." Case reports and retrospective studies were gathered by searching Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science. Thirty-three articles were selected for review. We identified 74 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart transplant and heart-kidney transplant recipients. The mean age was 60.5 ± 15.8 years, and 82.4% were males with median time from transplant of 6.5 years. Commonest symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea, but new left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was rare. Leukocytosis, lymphopenia, elevated inflammatory markers, and bilateral ground-glass opacities were common. Mortality was high, with particularly poor survival in patients who required intensive care unit (ICU) admission and older patients. Immunosuppression involved discontinuation of antimetabolites and steroids. COVID-19 infection in heart transplant (HT) recipients presents similarly to the general population, but new onset of LV dysfunction is uncommon. Immunosuppression strategies include increase in corticosteroids and discontinuation of antimetabolites.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Tang X, F Zheng (2021)

A review of ischemic stroke in COVID-19: currently known pathophysiological mechanisms.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the third type of coronavirus pneumonia after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), is spreading widely worldwide now. This pneumonia causes not only respiratory symptoms but also multiple organ dysfunction, including thrombotic diseases such as ischemic stroke. The purpose of this review is to explore whether COVID-19 is a risk factor for ischemic stroke and its related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the high thrombosis rate and frequent strokes of COVID-19 patients, combined with related laboratory indicators and pathological results, the discussion is mainly from two aspects: nerve invasion and endothelial dysfunction. SARS-CoV-2 can directly invade the CNS through blood-borne and neuronal retrograde pathways, causing cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, the endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 is almost certain. Cytokine storm causes thromboinflammation, and downregulation of ACE2 leads to RAS imbalance, which eventually lead to ischemic stroke.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Burger AL, Kaufmann CC, Jäger B, et al (2021)

Direct cardiovascular complications and indirect collateral damage during the COVID-19 pandemic : A review.

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), puts a heavy strain on healthcare systems around the globe with high numbers of infected patients. Pre-existing cardiovascular disease is a major risk factor for a severe clinical course of COVID-19 and is associated with adverse outcome. COVID-19 may directly exacerbate underlying heart disease and is frequently aggravated by cardiovascular complications, including arterial and venous thromboembolic events, malignant arrhythmia and myocardial injury. In addition to these direct cardiac manifestations of COVID-19, patients with cardiovascular disease face further indirect consequences of the pandemic, as the respective resources in the healthcare systems need to be redirected to cope with the high numbers of infected patients. Consecutively, a substantial decrease in cardiac procedures was reported during the pandemic with lower numbers of coronary angiographies and device implantations worldwide. As a consequence an increased number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, late-comers with subacute myocardial infarction and of patients presenting in cardiogenic shock or preshock were observed. Maintenance of high-quality cardiac care by avoiding a reduction of cardiac services is of utmost importance, especially in times of a pandemic.

RevDate: 2021-10-24

Bram JT, Jia L, Huffman W, et al (2021)

Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program Social Media Presence During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JB & JS open access, 6(4):.

In light of away rotation and in-person interview cancellations for the 2020 to 2021 application cycle, social media has become a popular tool for orthopaedic surgery residency programs to highlight their strengths, curricula, and social life to prospective applicants. The authors sought to explore the proliferation and utilization of 3 popular social media platforms by both orthopaedic surgery departments and residencies.

Methods: Orthopaedic surgery departmental and residency program social media accounts and their creation dates across Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram were identified using a standardized search methodology. Residency Instagram accounts were further evaluated for the number of posts, followers, likes, and comments. Both departments and residency programs were cohorted by affiliation with a US News &World Report (USNWR) top 50 American hospital for orthopaedics or by status as a Doximity top 20 program based on reputation.

Results: Across a total of 192 residency programs included for analysis, Instagram was the most popular social media platform (61.5%), followed by Twitter (19.8%) and Facebook (10.4%). Conversely, orthopaedic departments more frequently used Facebook (33.9%) and Twitter (28.1%) over Instagram (17.2%). Of the 118 residency Instagram accounts, 102 (86.4%) were created after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Larger residency programs (≥6 spots/year) and those programs in the Doximity top 20 or affiliated with USNWR top 50 orthopaedic hospitals had a greater number of followers as well as likes and comments per post (p < 0.05 for all).

Conclusions: Given the recruitment challenges faced by residency programs because of the COVID-19 pandemic, Instagram has rapidly become a prominent platform for attracting orthopaedic surgery applicants. These accounts have a large number of followers, particularly for residency programs with higher Doximity reputation rankings.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Farooq M, Batool M, Kim MS, et al (2021)

Toll-Like Receptors as a Therapeutic Target in the Era of Immunotherapies.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9:756315.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the pattern recognition receptors, which are activated by foreign and host molecules in order to initiate the immune response. They play a crucial role in the regulation of innate immunity, and several studies have shown their importance in bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. The consensus view from an immunological perspective is that TLR agonists can serve either as a possible therapeutic agent or as a vaccine adjuvant toward cancers or infectious diseases and that TLR inhibitors may be a promising approach to the treatment of autoimmune diseases, some cancers, bacterial, and viral infections. These notions are based on the fact that TLR agonists stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and in general, the development of proinflammatory responses. Some of the TLR-based inhibitory agents have shown to be efficacious in preclinical models and have now entered clinical trials. Therefore, TLRs seem to hold the potential to serve as a perfect target in the era of immunotherapies. We offer a perspective on TLR-based therapeutics that sheds light on their usefulness and on combination therapies. We also highlight various therapeutics that are in the discovery phase or in clinical trials.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Thomson C, R Beale (2021)

Is blockchain ready for orthopaedics? A systematic review.

Journal of clinical orthopaedics and trauma, 23:101615.

Introduction: The unique attributes of distributed ledger blockchain systems including robust security, immutability, transparency, and decentralisation, make them highly suitable solutions for many healthcare-related problems. This review examines the potential applications for blockchain technology in the field of orthopaedics, by taking a systematic approach to the evolving blockchain literature and mapping potential use cases against the current needs of orthopaedic practice.

Method: A literature search was performed using Pubmed, EMBASE, OVID and the Cochrane library with the primary aim of identifying detailed accounts of blockchain solutions and use cases in healthcare. These articles were then reviewed and mapped against current orthopaedic practice to illustrate applications specific to that specialty.

Results: One hundred and forty-one papers were identified which described case studies, simulations, or detailed proposals of blockchain solutions in healthcare. Most studies described blockchain solutions at the simulated or prototype testing phase, with only 10 case studies describing blockchains in "real-world" use. The most frequently cited use cases for blockchain technology involved the storage, security and sharing of electronic medical records. Other blockchain solutions focused on the "Internet of Things", research, COVID 19, supply chains and radiology. There were no solutions focusing specifically on orthopaedics. Many of the described blockchain solutions had considerable scope for application in orthopaedic practice however, providing the potential for greater inter-institutional collaboration, cross border data exchange, enhanced patient participation, and more robust and transparent research practices.

Conclusion: Blockchain solutions for healthcare are increasing in number and scope and have multiple applications relevant to orthopaedic practice. The orthopaedic community needs to be aware of this innovative and growing field of computer science so that surgeons can leverage the power of blockchain safely for the future of orthopaedics.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Gold R, Fätkenheuer G, Hartung HP, et al (2021)

Vaccination in multiple sclerosis patients treated with highly effective disease-modifying drugs: an overview with consideration of cladribine tablets.

Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders, 14:17562864211019598.

Infectious diseases are an important consideration in autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Infective episodes may trigger relapses and significantly deteriorate the course of the disease. Some immunotherapies may cause increased rates of infection-related adverse events. Thus, infection and vaccine-related issues should be included in the individualized patient-specific treatment strategy and counseling before starting therapy and regularly on treatment. Clinical and epidemiological studies as well as pharmacovigilance data repeatedly demonstrated the safety of the great majority of vaccines in multiple sclerosis patients. Moreover, studies have shown that vaccinations with killed/inactivated vaccines do not increase the short-term risk of relapse or deterioration in multiple sclerosis, whereas infections have been shown to provoke relapses. The available evidence indicates reduced humoral vaccination efficacy on treatment with MS drugs acting on the S1P receptor, natalizumab, and B-cell depleting therapies. Recent data for cladribine tablets suggest the potential of effective immunization in the interval of the two treatment courses and after completion of therapy. Regardless of treatment, vaccine efficacy may be optimized with proper timing of application. Multiple sclerosis patients receiving highly effective therapies should be vaccinated according to general recommendations for healthy adults. Immunization against COVID-19 is highly recommended for all multiple sclerosis patients regardless of age and comorbidities. Preliminary data show the potential of adequate responses in patients treated with cladribine tablets.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Ntatsoulis K, Karampitsakos T, Tsitoura E, et al (2021)

Commonalities Between ARDS, Pulmonary Fibrosis and COVID-19: The Potential of Autotaxin as a Therapeutic Target.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:687397.

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like hyperinflammation and endothelial dysfunction, that can lead to respiratory and multi organ failure and death. Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and pulmonary fibrosis confer an increased risk for severe disease, while a subset of COVID-19-related ARDS surviving patients will develop a fibroproliferative response that can persist post hospitalization. Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D, largely responsible for the extracellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic signaling lysophospholipid with multiple effects in pulmonary and immune cells. In this review, we discuss the similarities of COVID-19, ARDS and ILDs, and suggest ATX as a possible pathologic link and a potential common therapeutic target.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Shoshan-Barmatz V, Anand U, Nahon-Crystal E, et al (2021)

Adverse Effects of Metformin From Diabetes to COVID-19, Cancer, Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Aging: Is VDAC1 a Common Target?.

Frontiers in physiology, 12:730048.

Metformin has been used for treating diabetes mellitus since the late 1950s. In addition to its antihyperglycemic activity, it was shown to be a potential drug candidate for treating a range of other diseases that include various cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, renal diseases, obesity, inflammation, COVID-19 in diabetic patients, and aging. In this review, we focus on the important aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in energy metabolism and cell death with their gatekeeper VDAC1 (voltage-dependent anion channel 1) as a possible metformin target, and summarize metformin's effects in several diseases and gut microbiota. We question how the same drug can act on diseases with opposite characteristics, such as increasing apoptotic cell death in cancer, while inhibiting it in neurodegenerative diseases. Interestingly, metformin's adverse effects in many diseases all show VDAC1 involvement, suggesting that it is a common factor in metformin-affecting diseases. The findings that metformin has an opposite effect on various diseases are consistent with the fact that VDAC1 controls cell life and death, supporting the idea that it is a target for metformin.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Crow YJ, DB Stetson (2021)

The type I interferonopathies: 10 years on.

Nature reviews. Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

As brutally demonstrated by the COVID-19 pandemic, an effective immune system is essential for survival. Developed over evolutionary time, viral nucleic acid detection is a central pillar in the defensive armamentarium used to combat foreign microbial invasion. To ensure cellular homeostasis, such a strategy necessitates the efficient discrimination of pathogen-derived DNA and RNA from that of the host. In 2011, it was suggested that an upregulation of type I interferon signalling might serve as a defining feature of a novel set of Mendelian inborn errors of immunity, where antiviral sensors are triggered by host nucleic acids due to a failure of self versus non-self discrimination. These rare disorders have played a surprisingly significant role in informing our understanding of innate immunity and the relevance of type I interferon signalling for human health and disease. Here we consider what we have learned in this time, and how the field may develop in the future.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Gattinoni L, Gattarello S, Steinberg I, et al (2021)

COVID-19 pneumonia: pathophysiology and management.

European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society, 30(162): pii:30/162/210138.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is an evolving disease. We will focus on the development of its pathophysiologic characteristics over time, and how these time-related changes determine modifications in treatment. In the emergency department: the peculiar characteristic is the coexistence, in a significant fraction of patients, of severe hypoxaemia, near-normal lung computed tomography imaging, lung gas volume and respiratory mechanics. Despite high respiratory drive, dyspnoea and respiratory rate are often normal. The underlying mechanism is primarily altered lung perfusion. The anatomical prerequisites for PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) to work (lung oedema, atelectasis, and therefore recruitability) are lacking. In the high-dependency unit: the disease starts to worsen either because of its natural evolution or additional patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI). Oedema and atelectasis may develop, increasing recruitability. Noninvasive supports are indicated if they result in a reversal of hypoxaemia and a decreased inspiratory effort. Otherwise, mechanical ventilation should be considered to avert P-SILI. In the intensive care unit: the primary characteristic of the advance of unresolved COVID-19 disease is a progressive shift from oedema or atelectasis to less reversible structural lung alterations to lung fibrosis. These later characteristics are associated with notable impairment of respiratory mechanics, increased arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO2), decreased recruitability and lack of response to PEEP and prone positioning.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Angeli F, Reboldi G, Spanevello A, et al (2021)

Electrocardiographic features of patients with COVID-19: One year of unexpected manifestations.

European journal of internal medicine pii:S0953-6205(21)00336-8 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Fang J, Feng C, Chen W, et al (2021)

Redressing the interactions between stem cells and immune system in tissue regeneration.

Biology direct, 16(1):18.

Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity reflecting the rapid activation and effective differentiation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In the course of muscle regeneration, MuSCs are reprogrammed by immune cells. In turn, MuSCs confer immune cells anti-inflammatory properties to resolve inflammation and facilitate tissue repair. Indeed, MuSCs can exert therapeutic effects on various degenerative and inflammatory disorders based on their immunoregulatory ability, including effects primed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). At the molecular level, the tryptophan metabolites, kynurenine or kynurenic acid, produced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), augment the expression of TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG6) through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In addition, insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) produced by MuSCs can endow maturing macrophages oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent anti-inflammatory functions. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of the immunomodulatory characteristics of MuSCs and the issues related to their potential applications in pathological conditions, including COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Agyei FB, Bayuo J, Baffour PK, et al (2021)

"Surviving to thriving": a meta-ethnography of the experiences of healthcare staff caring for persons with COVID-19.

BMC health services research, 21(1):1131.

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the Coronavirus disease has heightened the experience of emotional burden among healthcare staff. To guide the development of support programmes, this review sought to aggregate and synthesise qualitative studies to establish a comparative understanding of the experiences of healthcare staff caring for persons with the disease.

DESIGN: A meta-ethnography approach was used to aggregate and synthesise primary qualitative studies. Database search was undertaken from January to November 2020. A standardised tool was used to extract data from the identified primary studies. The studies were translated into each other to formulate overarching concepts/ metaphors which formed the basis of undertaking a narrative synthesis.

RESULTS: Eight qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Two overarching metaphors/ concepts were formulated from the primary studies: 1) surviving to thriving in an evolving space and 2) support amid the new normal. The initial phase of entering the space of caring during the outbreak was filled with psychological chaos as healthcare staff struggled to survive within the context of an illness which was not fully understood. Gradually, healthcare staff may transition to a thriving phase characterised by resilience but still experienced heavy workload and physical/ emotional exhaustion predisposing them to burnout and compassion fatigue. Fear persisted throughout their experiences: fear of contracting the disease or infecting one's family members/ loved ones remained a key concern among healthcare staff despite infection precaution measures. Healthcare staff who contracted the disease felt isolated with additional fears of dying alone. The sources of support were varied with a strong emphasis on peer support.

CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare staff caring for persons infected with the Coronavirus disease are at risk of burnout and compassion fatigue and require ongoing mental health support commensurate to their needs. Staff who contract the disease may require additional support to navigate through the illness and recovery. Policies and concerted efforts are needed to strengthen support systems and build resilience among healthcare staff.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Schaurich D, Munhoz OL, Ramos Junior A, et al (2021)

Clinical progression of COVID-19 coinfection in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus: scoping review.

Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 75(2):e20201380 pii:S0034-71672022000200301.

OBJECTIVES: to map the production of scientific knowledge on the clinical progression of COVID-19 coinfection in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

METHODS: scoping review, with search strategies in MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS. Dual independent data extraction and analysis of the material with similarity compilation and narrative synthesis.

RESULTS: sample consisted of 35 articles. Fever, cough, and dyspnea were the most prevalent signs/symptoms. Recurrent complications involved desaturation/worsening of oxygen desaturation and pneumonia. No standard pharmacological treatment was identified, and the main interventions involved the provision of supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation. The studies recommended preventive, care, and pharmacological practices.

CONCLUSIONS: the clinical manifestations, complications, and treatments/assistance care for people coinfected with SARS CoV-2/HIV are similar to those of the general population. Coinfection, overall, does not infer a worse prognosis.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Valente CO, Silva FRD, Mussi FC, et al (2021)

Decision making by health professionals during COVID-19: an integrative review.

Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 75(suppl 1):e20210067 pii:S0034-71672022000300301.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the scientific production on the decision making of health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: Integrative review in the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, WoS, and BVS. Inclusion criteria: original articles available in full, in any language, related to the object investigated.

RESULTS: During this pandemic, health workers have been making decisions based on ethical/bioethical principles (utility, beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice, proportionality, flexibility, clinical prognosis, duration of the need, and fair health attention), values (solidarity, equality, equity, utilitarianism, relational autonomy, reliability, reciprocity, maximization of the benefits and resources, and prioritization of those in worse conditions), beliefs and personal motivation, protocols, directives, tools, algorithms, recommendations, and criteria.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Decision making has never been so necessary as in this pandemic. This article is not a recipe for the professionals, since decision making is based on numerous factors. However, it provides them with a foundation that can be helpful in this difficult process.

RevDate: 2021-10-21
CmpDate: 2021-10-21

Khabreev RU, Bakirova EA, Berseneva EA, et al (2021)

[COVID-19 as a catalyst of development of telemedicine services to rural population].

Problemy sotsial'noi gigieny, zdravookhraneniia i istorii meditsiny, 29(5):1029-1033.

The paper presents a review of publications concerning issues of development of telemedicine in rural health care of the USA during in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic and expediency of extensive application of telemedicine technologies during "post-COVID" period. The issues, aspects, prospects and required conditions for extensive diffusion of telemedicine services to the rural population are considered.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Alius F, Meissner M, VS Eckle (2021)

[Intramuscular injection technique for COVID vaccination: A critical appraisal].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 163(18):54-55.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Reinhardt D (2021)


MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 163(18):30.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

Pimiento JM, W Kraemer (2021)

Dudrick Research Symposium: Expanding the boundaries of cancer care through nutritional support.

JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

The 2020 Dudrick Research Symposium, entitled "Expanding the Boundaries of Cancer Care Through Nutritional Support" was held on March 30, 2020, at the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), 2020 Nutrition Science & Practice Conference, it was scheduled to take place in Tampa, Florida but had to be held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Dudrick Symposium honors the many pivotal and innovative contributions to the development and advancement of parenteral nutrition (PN) made by the late Dr. Stanley J. Dudrick, physician scientist, academic leader, and a founding member of ASPEN. This year, in addition to honor his legacy, we honored his life as we had to endure his loss in the beginning of 2020. As the 2019 recipient of the Dudrick Research Scholar Award, Dr. Jose M Pimiento organized and chaired the symposium. The presentations focused on discussing the history and the present and the future frontiers in the overlapping fields of nutritional support and cancer care. The late Dr. John Daly opened the presentation with a very moving tribute to Dr. Dudrick's life and then spoke about the impact of nutritional support on surgical care and oncologic outcomes for cancer patients. Dr. Pimiento discussed the role of nutraceuticals for cancer chemoprevention, focusing on discussing the level one clinical evidence surrounding this topic. Dr. Kraemer, explored the role of exercise physiology in cancer care for optimal nutrient utilization and the overlap between targeted physical activity and nutritional support to obtain better outcomes on the cancer population. The symposium was closed by Dr. Stephen Hursting who discussed the preclinical and clinical evidence on the impact of obesity in the soaring cancer rates and its relationship with clinical outcomes. In this paper, we cover the presentations by Drs Pimiento and Kraemer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Marongiu L, Valache M, Facchini FA, et al (2021)

How dendritic cells sense and respond to viral infections.

Clinical science (London, England : 1979), 135(19):2217-2242.

The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to sense viral pathogens and orchestrate a proper immune response makes them one of the key players in antiviral immunity. Different DC subsets have complementing functions during viral infections, some specialize in antigen presentation and cross-presentation and others in the production of cytokines with antiviral activity, such as type I interferons. In this review, we summarize the latest updates concerning the role of DCs in viral infections, with particular focus on the complex interplay between DC subsets and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite being initiated by a vast array of immune receptors, DC-mediated antiviral responses often converge towards the same endpoint, that is the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of an adaptive immune response. Nonetheless, the inherent migratory properties of DCs make them a double-edged sword and often viral recognition by DCs results in further viral dissemination. Here we illustrate these various aspects of the antiviral functions of DCs and also provide a brief overview of novel antiviral vaccination strategies based on DCs targeting.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Dirican A, Ildir S, Uzar T, et al (2021)

The role of endotheliitis in COVID-19: Real-world experience of 11 190 patients and literature review for a pathophysiological map to clinical categorisation.

International journal of clinical practice, 75(11):e14843.

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 may yield a variety of clinical pictures, differing from pneumonitis to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome along with vascular damage in the lung tissue, named endotheliitis. To date, no specific treatment strategy was approved for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 in terms of endotheliitis-related comorbidities. Here, we presented our treatment strategies for 11 190 COVID-19 patients depending on categorisation by the severity of both the respiratory and vascular distress and presented the manifestations of endotheliitis in skin, lung and brain tissues according to the different phases of COVID-19.

METHODS: After a retrospective examination, patients were divided into three groups according to their repercussions of vascular distress, which were represented by radiological, histopathological and clinical findings. We presented the characteristics and courses of seven representative and complicated cases which demonstrate different phases of the disease and discussed the treatment strategies in each group.

RESULTS: Among 11 190 patients, 9294 patients met the criteria for Group A, and 1376 patients were presented to our clinics with Group B characteristics. Among these patients, 1896 individuals (Group B and Group C) were hospitalised. While 1220 inpatients were hospitalised within the first 10 days after the diagnosis, 676 of them were worsened and hospitalised 10 days after their diagnosis. Among hospitalised patients, 520 of them did not respond to group A and B treatments and developed hypoxemic respiratory failure (Group C) and 146 individuals needed ventilator support and were followed in the intensive care unit, and 43 (2.2%) patients died.

CONCLUSION: Distinctive manifestations in each COVID-19 patient, including non-respiratory conditions in the acute phase and the emerging risk of long-lasting complications, suggest that COVID-19 has endotheliitis-centred thrombo-inflammatory pathophysiology. Daily evaluation of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of patients and deciding appropriate pathophysiological treatment would help to reduce the mortality rate of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Katsiki N, Gómez-Huelgas R, Mikhailidis DP, et al (2021)

Narrative review on clinical considerations for patients with diabetes and COVID-19: More questions than answers.

International journal of clinical practice, 75(11):e14833.

BACKGROUND-AIM: Diabetes, obesity and hypertension are common comorbidities associated with increased severity and mortality rates from Corona Virus Disease (COVID)-19.

METHODS: In this narrative review (using the PubMed database), we discuss epidemiological data and pathophysiological links between diabetes and COVID-19. The potential effects of glycaemic control and antidiabetic drugs on the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 are also reviewed, as well as the role of telemedicine and diabetes self-management in the post-COVID-19 era.

RESULTS: Diabetes has been linked to COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, although further research is needed to elucidate this association. In the meantime, physicians should be aware of the potential rise in the prevalence of diabetes (due to unhealthy lifestyle changes during the pandemic), its severity and complications and focus on achieving optimal diabetes prevention and management. Telemedicine and diabetes self-management may help towards this direction. Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may affect viral entry and infection, and thus COVID-19 outcomes, as shown in observational studies.

CONCLUSION: Diabetes has been associated with COVID-19 development and progression. Certain antidiabetic drugs may influence COVID-19 prevention and management. The results of ongoing randomized clinical trials will shed more light on this field.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-15

Bobescu E, Marceanu LG, Covaciu A, et al (2021)

Thrombosis, an important piece in the COVID-19 puzzle: From pathophysiology to therapy.

Anatolian journal of cardiology, 25(9):601-608.

A lot of data about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been already published; however, these still form only a part of the pandemic puzzle. Once we have all the pieces of the puzzle, we will be able to successfully treat this disease with its multiple challenges. COVID-19 has a high thrombogenic potential. In this study, we aimed to review published data about COVID-19 associated thrombosis from pathophysiology to treatment and the role in patient evolution. We searched for articles and studies published online through MEDLINE/PubMed database, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library, and Nature Public Health Emergency Collection. We found numerous articles regarding COVID-19 infection but selected only those focused on thrombosis. D-dimers have a predictive value in identifying thrombosis and a high level correlates with the severity of the infection and death. Most patients who were on chronic anticoagulant therapy before contracting the virus had a better prognosis. Heparin has other favorable effects such as a direct antiviral and anti-inflammatory effect in addition to its anticoagulant effect. COVID-19 infections are frequently complicated by thrombotic pathology. High plasma level of D-dimers is a predictive factor for severe prognosis, and the recommended anticoagulant, associated with low mortality, is heparin followed by a direct oral anticoagulant. Randomized studies in large groups of patients and therapeutic guidelines are still needed on this subject.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Miller AE (2021)

An updated review of teriflunomide's use in multiple sclerosis.

Neurodegenerative disease management, 11(5):387-409.

Teriflunomide, a once daily, oral disease-modifying therapy, has demonstrated consistent efficacy, safety and tolerability in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and with a first clinical episode suggestive of MS treated up to 12 years. This review is an update to a previous version that examined data from the teriflunomide core clinical development program and extension studies. Data have since become available from active comparator trials with other disease-modifying therapies, treatment-related changes in brain volume (analyzed using structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy) and real-world evidence including patient-reported outcomes. Initial data on the potential antiviral effects of teriflunomide in patients with MS, including case reports of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), are also presented.

RevDate: 2021-10-21
CmpDate: 2021-10-21

Sorsa T, Sahni V, Buduneli N, et al (2021)

Active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) point-of-care test (POCT) in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Expert review of proteomics, 18(8):707-717.

INTRODUCTION: Active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 utilized in point-of-care testing (POCT) is regarded as a potential biomarker for periodontal and peri-implant diseases. Various host and microbial factors eventually influence the expression, degranulation, levels and activation of aMMP-8. The type of oral fluids (saliva, mouthrinse, gingival crevicular, and peri-implant sulcular fluids [GCF/PISF], respectively) affect the analysis.

AREAS COVERED: With this background, we aimed to review here the recent studies on practical, inexpensive, noninvasive and quantitative mouthrinse and GCF/PISF chair-side POCT lateral flow aMMP-8 immunoassays (PerioSafe and ImplantSafe/ORALyzer) and how they help to detect, predict, monitor the course, treatment and prevention of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. The correlations of aMMP-8 POCT to other independent and catalytic activity assays of MMP-8 are also addressed.

EXPERT OPINION: The mouthrinse aMMP-8 POCT can also detect prediabetes/diabetes and tissue destructive oral side-effects due to the head and neck cancers' radiotherapy. Chlorhexidine and doxycycline can inhibit collagenolytic human neutrophil and GCF aMMP-8. Furthermore, by a set of case-series we demonstrate the potential of mouthrinse aMMP-8 POCT to real-time/online detect periodontitis as a potential risk disease for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical interdisciplinary utilization of aMMP-8 POCT requires additional oral, medical, and interdisciplinary studies.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-15

Treskova-Schwarzbach M, Haas L, Reda S, et al (2021)

Pre-existing health conditions and severe COVID-19 outcomes: an umbrella review approach and meta-analysis of global evidence.

BMC medicine, 19(1):212.

BACKGROUND: This study applies an umbrella review approach to summarise the global evidence on the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with pre-existing health conditions.

METHODS: Systematic reviews (SRs) were identified in PubMed, Embase/Medline and seven pre-print servers until December 11, 2020. Due to the absence of age-adjusted risk effects stratified by geographical regions, a re-analysis of the evidence was conducted. Primary studies were extracted from SRs and evaluated for inclusion in the re-analysis. Studies were included if they reported risk estimates (odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR), relative risk (RR)) for hospitalisation, intensive care unit admission, intubation or death. Estimated associations were extracted from the primary studies for reported pre-existing conditions. Meta-analyses were performed stratified for each outcome by regions of the World Health Organization. The evidence certainty was assessed using GRADE. Registration number CRD42020215846.

RESULTS: In total, 160 primary studies from 120 SRs contributed 464 estimates for 42 pre-existing conditions. Most studies were conducted in North America, European, and Western Pacific regions. Evidence from Africa, South/Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was scarce. No evidence was available from the South-East Asia region. Diabetes (HR range 1.2-2.0 (CI range 1.1-2.8)), obesity (OR range 1.5-1.75 (CI range 1.1-2.3)), heart failure (HR range 1.3-3.3 (CI range 0.9-8.2)), COPD (HR range 1.12-2.2 (CI range 1.1-3.2)) and dementia (HR range 1.4-7.7 (CI range 1.2-39.6)) were associated with fatal COVID-19 in different regions, although the estimates varied. Evidence from Europe and North America showed that liver cirrhosis (OR range 3.2-5.9 (CI range 0.9-27.7)) and active cancer (OR range 1.6-4.7 (CI range 0.5-14.9)) were also associated with increased risk of death. Association between HIV and undesirable COVID-19 outcomes showed regional heterogeneity, with an increased risk of death in Africa (HR 1.7 (CI 1.3-2.2)). GRADE certainty was moderate to high for most associations.

CONCLUSION: Risk of undesirable COVID-19 health outcomes is consistently increased in certain patient subgroups across geographical regions, showing high variability in others. The results can be used to inform COVID-19 vaccine prioritisation or other intervention strategies.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Geravandi S, Mahmoudi-Aznaveh A, Azizi Z, et al (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 and pancreas: a potential pathological interaction?.

Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM, 32(11):842-845.

The widespread extrapulmonary complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have gained momentum; the pancreas is another major target for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we take a closer look into potential pathological interactions. We provide an overview of the current knowledge and understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection of the pancreas with a special focus on pancreatic islets and propose direct, indirect, and systemic mechanisms for pancreas injury as result of the COVID-19-diabetes fatal bidirectional relationship.

RevDate: 2021-10-13
CmpDate: 2021-10-08

Wardropper CB, Dayer AA, Goebel MS, et al (2021)

Conducting conservation social science surveys online.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, 35(5):1650-1658.

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting the environment and conservation research in fundamental ways. Many conservation social scientists are now administering survey questionnaires online, but they must do so while ensuring rigor in data collection. Further, they must address a suite of unique challenges, such as the increasing use of mobile devices by participants and avoiding bots or other survey fraud. We reviewed recent literature on online survey methods to examine the state of the field related to online data collection and dissemination. We illustrate the review with examples of key methodological decisions made during a recent national study of people who feed wild birds, in which survey respondents were recruited through an online panel and a sample generated via a project participant list. Conducting surveys online affords new opportunities for participant recruitment, design, and pilot testing. For instance, online survey panels can provide quick access to large and diverse samples of people. Based on the literature review and our own experiences, we suggest that to ensure high-quality online surveys one should account for potential sampling and nonresponse error, design survey instruments for use on multiple devices, test the instrument, and use multiple protocols to identify data quality problems. We also suggest that research funders, journal editors, and policy makers can all play a role in ensuring high-quality survey data are used to inform effective conservation programs and policies.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Attiq A, Yao LJ, Afzal S, et al (2021)

The triumvirate of NF-κB, inflammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19.

International immunopharmacology, 101(Pt B):108255 pii:S1567-5769(21)00891-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has once again reminded us of the significance of host immune response and consequential havocs of the immune dysregulation. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) inflicts severe complications to the infected host, including cough, dyspnoea, fever, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDs), and multiple organ failure. These manifestations are the consequence of the dysregulated immune system, which gives rise to excessive and unattended production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Elevated circulatory cytokine and chemokine levels are accompanied by spontaneous haemorrhage, thrombocytopenia and systemic inflammation, which are the cardinal features of life-threatening cytokine storm syndrome in advanced COVID-19 diseases. Coronavirus hijacked NF-kappa B (NF-κB) is responsible for upregulating the expressions of inflammatory cytokine, chemokine, alarmins and inducible enzymes, which paves the pathway for cytokine storm. Given the scenario, the systemic approach of simultaneous inhibition of NF-κB offers an attractive therapeutic intervention. Targeted therapies with proteasome inhibitor (VL-01, bortezomib, carfilzomib and ixazomib), bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (acalabrutinib), nucleotide analogue (remdesivir), TNF-α monoclonal antibodies (infliximab and adalimumab), N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroids (dexamethasone), focusing the NF-κB inhibition have demonstrated effectiveness in terms of the significant decrease in morbidity and mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. Hence, this review highlights the activation, signal transduction and cross-talk of NF-κB with regard to cytokine storm in COVID-19. Moreover, the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-κB inhibition are also discussed herein.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Ferrara F, Zoupanou S, Primiceri E, et al (2021)

Beyond liquid biopsy: Toward non-invasive assays for distanced cancer diagnostics in pandemics.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 196:113698 pii:S0956-5663(21)00735-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Liquid biopsy technologies have seen a significant improvement in the last decade, offering the possibility of reliable analysis and diagnosis from several biological fluids. The use of these technologies can overcome the limits of standard clinical methods, related to invasiveness and poor patient compliance. Along with this there are now mature examples of lab-on-chips (LOC) which are available and could be an emerging and breakthrough technology for the present and near-future clinical demands that provide sample treatment, reagent addition and analysis in a sample-in/answer-out approach. The possibility of combining non-invasive liquid biopsy and LOC technologies could greatly assist in the current need for minimizing exposure and transmission risks. The recent and ongoing pandemic outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, indeed, has heavily influenced all aspects of life worldwide. Ordinary tasks have been forced to switch from "in presence" to "distanced", limiting the possibilities for a large number of activities in all fields of life outside of the home. Unfortunately, one of the settings in which physical distancing has assumed noteworthy consequences is the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of diseases. In this review, we analyse biological fluids that are easily collected without the intervention of specialized personnel and the possibility that they may be used -or not-for innovative diagnostic assays. We consider their advantages and limitations, mainly due to stability and storage and their integration into Point-of-Care diagnostics, demonstrating that technologies in some cases are mature enough to meet current clinical needs.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Maganha de Almeida Kumlien AC, González-Villalobos E, JL Balcázar (2021)

Making waves: How does the emergence of antimicrobial resistance affect policymaking?.

Water research, 206:117772 pii:S0043-1354(21)00966-0 [Epub ahead of print].

This article considers current trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) research and knowledge gaps relevant to policymaking in the water sector. Specifically, biological indicators of AMR (antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes) and detection methods that have been used so far are identified and discussed, as well as the problems with and solutions to the collection of AMR data, sewage surveillance lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic, and the financial burden caused by AMR, which could be synergically used to improve advocacy on AMR issues in the water sector. Finally, this article proposes solutions to overcoming existing hurdles and shortening the time it will take to have an impact on policymaking and regulation in the sector.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Low ZY, Yip AJW, SK Lal (2021)

Repositioning Ivermectin for Covid-19 treatment: Molecular mechanisms of action against SARS-CoV-2 replication.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease pii:S0925-4439(21)00227-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Ivermectin (IVM) is an FDA approved macrocyclic lactone compound traditionally used to treat parasitic infestations and has shown to have antiviral potential from previous in-vitro studies. Currently, IVM is commercially available as a veterinary drug but have also been applied in humans to treat onchocerciasis (river blindness - a parasitic worm infection) and strongyloidiasis (a roundworm/nematode infection). In light of the recent pandemic, the repurposing of IVM to combat SARS-CoV-2 has acquired significant attention. Recently, IVM has been proven effective in numerous in-silico and molecular biology experiments against the infection in mammalian cells and human cohort studies. One promising study had reported a marked reduction of 93% of released virion and 99.98% unreleased virion levels upon administration of IVM to Vero-hSLAM cells. IVM's mode of action centres around the inhibition of the cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling of viral proteins by disrupting the Importin heterodimer complex (IMPα/β1) and downregulating STAT3, thereby effectively reducing the cytokine storm. Furthermore, the ability of IVM to block the active sites of viral 3CLpro and S protein, disrupts important machinery such as viral replication and attachment. This review compiles all the molecular evidence to date, in review of the antiviral characteristics exhibited by IVM. Thereafter, we discuss IVM's mechanism and highlight the clinical advantages that could potentially contribute towards disabling the viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, the collective review of recent efforts suggests that IVM has a prophylactic effect and would be a strong candidate for clinical trials to treat SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Tsakiri M, Naziris N, C Demetzos (2021)

Innovative vaccine platforms against infectious diseases: under the scope of the COVID-19 pandemic.

International journal of pharmaceutics pii:S0378-5173(21)01018-8 [Epub ahead of print].

While classic vaccines have proved greatly efficacious in eliminating serious infectious diseases, innovative vaccine platforms open a new pathway to overcome dangerous pandemics via the development of safe and effective formulations. Such platforms play a key role either as antigen delivery systems or as immune-stimulators that induce both innate and adaptive immune responses. Liposomes or lipid nanoparticles, virus-like particles, nano-emulsions, polymeric or inorganic nanoparticles, as well as viral vectors, all belong in the nanoscale and are the main categories of innovative vaccines that are currently on the market or in clinical and pre-clinical phases. In this paper, we review the above formulations used in vaccinology and we discuss their connection with the development of safe and effective prophylactic vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Giacomelli C, Piccarducci R, Marchetti L, et al (2021)

Pulmonary fibrosis from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic interventions: lessons from post-COVID-19 patients.

Biochemical pharmacology pii:S0006-2952(21)00428-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is characterised by several grades of chronic inflammation and collagen deposition in the interalveolar space and is a hallmark of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Recently, infectious agents have emerged as driving causes for PF development; however, the role of viral/bacterial infections in the initiation and propagation of PF is still debated. In this context, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has been associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and PF development. Although the infection by SARS-CoV-2 can be eradicated in most cases, the development of fibrotic lesions cannot be precluded; furthermore, whether these lesions are stable or progressive fibrotic events is still unknown. Herein, an overview of the main molecular mechanisms driving the fibrotic process together with the currently approved and newly proposed therapeutic solutions was given. Then, the most recent data that emerged from post-COVID-19 patients was discussed, in order to compare PF and COVID-19-dependent PF, highlighting shared and specific mechanisms. A better understanding of PF aetiology is certainly needed, also to develop effective therapeutic strategies and COVID-19 pathology is offering one more chance to do it. Overall, the work reported here could help to define new approaches for therapeutic intervention in the diversity of the ILD spectrum.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Korompoki E, Gavriatopoulou M, Fotiou D, et al (2021)

Late Onset Hematological Complications post COVID-19: An Emerging Medical Problem for the Hematologist.

American journal of hematology [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is considered as a multisystemic disease. Several studies have reported persistent symptoms or late-onset complications after acute COVID-19, including post-COVID-19 hematologic disorders. COVID-19- induced coagulopathy, an immunothrombotic state, has been linked to thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. Late onset thrombocytopenia related to immune system dysregulation has been also reported as a rare manifestation post COVID-19. Close monitoring of laboratory dynamics is considered essential to identify timely abnormal values that need further investigation providing supportive care whenever indicated. The role of hematologists is essential in terms of the multidisciplinary approach of long COVID-19. This review summarizes all the available evidence on post-acute COVID-19 hematological complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Morello W, Vianello FA, Proverbio E, et al (2021)

COVID-19 and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children: systematic review of the literature and recommendations from a highly affected area.

Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 has spread from China as a global pandemic, Italy being one of the earliest affected countries. The infection displays a more complicated and often fatal course in adults with a history of kidney disease, while it does not seem to affect children in the same way. Pediatric patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), with or without chronic immunosuppressive therapy, are at greater risk of infections which may also trigger relapses.

OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify all articles on SARS-CoV-2 infections in children with INS in order to describe the severity of all SARS-CoV-2 infections reported in children with INS, to evaluate the risk of new onset and relapses associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to draw recommendations on their management and vaccination. The search was conducted on the following databases: MEDLINE (via Pubmed), Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The search methodology used with the selected free text terms or MesH was ("nephrotic syndrome" OR "idiopathic nephrotic syndrome") and ("covid 19" OR "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" OR "2019-nCoV" OR "SARS-CoV-2").

RESULTS: The literature search provided 36 records. After screening for their relevance to the topic, 11 studies were selected. Two additional publications were identified through the reference list of all included articles and 13 articles were included in the review. A total of 43 cases of children with INS and SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported; the course of the disease was mild for most patients with low need of respiratory support and no death in high income countries. In 5 patients, the infection was complicated by relapse, which anyway showed a good response to steroids. Two children had a new onset of INS during a SARS-CoV-2 infection.

CONCLUSIONS: Children with INS, with or without immunosuppression, are not at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Relapse is a possible complication, but steroid treatment is safe and effective. After summarizing the evidence, we have suggested recommendations for the management of children with INS during the pandemic and the vaccination campaign.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Trapani V, Rosanoff A, Baniasadi S, et al (2021)

The relevance of magnesium homeostasis in COVID-19.

European journal of nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: In less than one and a half year, the COVID-19 pandemic has nearly brought to a collapse our health care and economic systems. The scientific research community has concentrated all possible efforts to understand the pathogenesis of this complex disease, and several groups have recently emphasized recommendations for nutritional support in COVID-19 patients. In this scoping review, we aim at encouraging a deeper appreciation of magnesium in clinical nutrition, in view of the vital role of magnesium and the numerous links between the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and magnesium-dependent functions.

METHODS: By searching PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 to date, we review existing evidence from experimental and clinical studies on the role of magnesium in chronic non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases, and we focus on recent reports of alterations of magnesium homeostasis in COVID-19 patients and their association with disease outcomes. Importantly, we conduct a census on ongoing clinical trials specifically dedicated to disclosing the role of magnesium in COVID-19.

RESULTS: Despite many methodological limitations, existing data seem to corroborate an association between deranged magnesium homeostasis and COVID-19, and call for further and better studies to explore the prophylactic or therapeutic potential of magnesium supplementation.

CONCLUSION: We propose to reconsider the relevance of magnesium, frequently overlooked in clinical practice. Therefore, magnesemia should be monitored and, in case of imbalanced magnesium homeostasis, an appropriate nutritional regimen or supplementation might contribute to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce severity of COVID-19 symptoms and facilitate the recovery after the acute phase.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Selvaraj C, Chandra I, SK Singh (2021)

Artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches for drug design: challenges and opportunities for the pharmaceutical industries.

Molecular diversity [Epub ahead of print].

The global spread of COVID-19 has raised the importance of pharmaceutical drug development as intractable and hot research. Developing new drug molecules to overcome any disease is a costly and lengthy process, but the process continues uninterrupted. The critical point to consider the drug design is to use the available data resources and to find new and novel leads. Once the drug target is identified, several interdisciplinary areas work together with artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) methods to get enriched drugs. These AI and ML methods are applied in every step of the computer-aided drug design, and integrating these AI and ML methods results in a high success rate of hit compounds. In addition, this AI and ML integration with high-dimension data and its powerful capacity have taken a step forward. Clinical trials output prediction through the AI/ML integrated models could further decrease the clinical trials cost by also improving the success rate. Through this review, we discuss the backend of AI and ML methods in supporting the computer-aided drug design, along with its challenge and opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. From the available information or data, the AI and ML based prediction for the high throughput virtual screening. After this integration of AI and ML, the success rate of hit identification has gained a momentum with huge success by providing novel drugs.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Satterfield BA, Bhatt DL, BJ Gersh (2021)

Cardiac involvement in the long-term implications of COVID-19.

Nature reviews. Cardiology [Epub ahead of print].

Throughout 2021, the medical and scientific communities have focused on managing the acute morbidity and mortality caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. With the approval of multiple vaccines, there is a light at the end of this dark tunnel and an opportunity to focus on the future, including managing the long-term sequelae in patients who have survived acute COVID-19. In this Perspectives article, we highlight what is known about the cardiovascular sequelae in survivors of COVID-19 and discuss important questions that need to be addressed in prospective studies to understand and mitigate these lasting cardiovascular consequences, including in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. To provide the greatest benefit to these survivors, prospective studies should begin now, with resources made available to monitor and study this population in the coming years.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Jongkind V, Earnshaw JJ, Bastos Gonçalves F, et al (2021)

Update of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) 2020 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Acute Limb Ischaemia in Light of the COVID-19 Pandemic, Based on a Scoping Review of the Literature.

European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery pii:S1078-5884(21)00688-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To perform a scoping review of how patients with COVID-19 are affected by acute limb ischaemia (ALI) and evaluate the recommendations of the 2020 ESVS ALI Guidelines for these patients.

METHODS: Research questions were defined, and a systematic literature search was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. Abstracts and unpublished literature were not included. The definition of ALI in this review is in accordance with the ESVS guidelines.

RESULTS: Most identified papers were case reports or case series, although population based data and data from randomised controlled trials were also identified. In total, 114 unique and relevant papers were retrieved. Data were conflicting concerning whether the incidence of ALI increased, or remained unchanged, during the pandemic. Case reports and series reported ALI in patients who were younger and healthier than usual, with a greater proportion affecting the upper limb. Whether or not this is coincidental remains uncertain. The proportion of men/women affected seems unchanged. Most reported cases were in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with ALI as their first manifestation of COVID-19 were reported. Patients with ALI have a worse outcome if they have a simultaneous COVID-19 infection. High levels of D-dimer may predict the occurrence of arterial thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19. Heparin resistance was observed. Anticoagulation should be given to hospitalised COVID-19 patients in prophylactic dosage. Most of the treatment recommendations from the ESVS Guidelines remained relevant, but the following were modified regarding patients with COVID-19 and ALI: 1) CTA imaging before revascularisation should include the entire aorta and iliac arteries; 2) there should be a high index of suspicion, early testing for COVID-19 infection and protective measures are advised; and 3) there should be preferential use of local or locoregional anaesthesia during revascularisation.

CONCLUSION: Although the epidemiology of ALI has changed during the pandemic, the recommendations of the ESVS ALI Guidelines remain valid. The above mentioned minor modifications should be considered in patients with COVID-19 and ALI.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Burgoyne RA, Fisher AJ, LA Borthwick (2021)

The Role of Epithelial Damage in the Pulmonary Immune Response.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102763.

Pulmonary epithelial cells are widely considered to be the first line of defence in the lung and are responsible for coordinating the innate immune response to injury and subsequent repair. Consequently, epithelial cells communicate with multiple cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts to promote acute inflammation and normal wound healing in response to damage. However, aberrant epithelial cell death and damage are hallmarks of pulmonary disease, with necrotic cell death and cellular senescence contributing to disease pathogenesis in numerous respiratory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we summarise the literature that demonstrates that epithelial damage plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of the immune response leading to tissue destruction and abnormal remodelling in several chronic diseases. Specifically, we highlight the role of epithelial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and senescence in shaping the immune response and assess their contribution to inflammatory and fibrotic signalling pathways in the lung.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Murdaca G, Di Gioacchino M, Greco M, et al (2021)

Basophils and Mast Cells in COVID-19 Pathogenesis.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102754.

Basophils and mast cells are among the principal inducers of Th2 responses and have a crucial role in allergic and anti-parasitic protective immunity. Basophils can function as antigen-presenting cells that bind antigens on their surface and boost humoral immune responses, inducing Th2 cell differentiation. Their depletion results in lower humoral memory activation and greater infection susceptibility. Basophils seem to have an active role upon immune response to SARS-CoV-2. In fact, a coordinate adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is magnified by basophils. It has been observed that basophil amount is lower during acute disease with respect to the recovery phase and that the grade of this depletion is an important determinant of the antibody response to the virus. Moreover, mast cells, present in a great quantity in the nasal epithelial and lung cells, participate in the first immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Their activation results in a hyperinflammatory syndrome through the release of inflammatory molecules, participating to the "cytokine storm" and, in a longer period, inducing pulmonary fibrosis. The literature data suggest that basophil counts may be a useful prognostic tool for COVID-19, since their reduction is associated with a worse prognosis. Mast cells, on the other hand, represent a possible therapeutic target for reducing the airway inflammation characteristic of the hyperacute phase of the disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Pascolo S (2021)

Vaccines against COVID-19: Priority to mRNA-Based Formulations.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102716.

As of September 2021, twenty-one anti-COVID-19 vaccines have been approved in the world. Their utilization will expedite an end to the current pandemic. Besides the usual vaccine formats that include inactivated viruses (eight approved vaccines) and protein-based vaccines (four approved vaccines), three new formats have been validated: recombinant adenovirus (six approved vaccines), DNA (one approved vaccine), and messenger RNA (mRNA, two approved vaccines). The latter was the fastest (authorized in 2020 in the EU, the USA, and Switzerland). Most Western countries have reserved or use the protein vaccines, the adenovirus vaccines, and mRNA vaccines. I describe here the different vaccine formats in the context of COVID-19, detail the three formats that are chiefly reserved or used in Europe, Canada, and the USA, and discuss why the mRNA vaccines appear to be the superior format.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Sanwlani R, L Gangoda (2021)

Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Cell Death and Inflammation.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102663.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as novel mediators of intercellular communication. They work via delivering the sequestered cargo to cells in the close vicinity, as well as distant sites in the body, regulating pathophysiological processes. Cell death and inflammation are biologically crucial processes in both normal physiology and pathology. These processes are indistinguishably linked with their effectors modulating the other process. For instance, during an unresolvable infection, the upregulation of specific immune mediators leads to inflammation causing cell death and tissue damage. EVs have gained considerable interest as mediators of both cell death and inflammation during conditions, such as sepsis. This review summarizes the types of extracellular vesicles known to date and their roles in mediating immune responses leading to cell death and inflammation with specific focus on sepsis and lung inflammation.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Beghini DG, Horita SI, A Henriques-Pons (2021)

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of COVID-19, a Promising Future.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102588.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have a potent self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into multiple cell types. They also affect the ambient tissue by the paracrine secretion of numerous factors in vivo, including the induction of other stem cells' differentiation. In vitro, the culture media supernatant is named secretome and contains soluble molecules and extracellular vesicles that retain potent biological function in tissue regeneration. MSCs are considered safe for human treatment; their use does not involve ethical issues, as embryonic stem cells do not require genetic manipulation as induced pluripotent stem cells, and after intravenous injection, they are mainly found in the lugs. Therefore, these cells are currently being tested in various preclinical and clinical trials for several diseases, including COVID-19. Several affected COVID-19 patients develop induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This condition causes extensive damage to the lungs and may leave serious post-COVID-19 sequelae. As the disease may cause systemic alterations, such as thromboembolism and compromised renal and cardiac function, the intravenous injection of MSCs may be a therapeutic alternative against multiple pathological manifestations. In this work, we reviewed the literature about MSCs biology, focusing on their function in pulmonary regeneration and their use in COVID-19 treatment.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Laurent A, Abdel-Sayed P, Hirt-Burri N, et al (2021)

Evolution of Diploid Progenitor Lung Cell Applications: From Optimized Biotechnological Substrates to Potential Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Respiratory Tract Regenerative Medicine.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102526.

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Buonaiuto G, Desideri F, Taliani V, et al (2021)

Muscle Regeneration and RNA: New Perspectives for Ancient Molecules.

Cells, 10(10): pii:cells10102512.

The ability of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) to self-replicate, combined with a unique cocktail of chemical properties, suggested the existence of an RNA world at the origin of life. Nowadays, this hypothesis is supported by innovative high-throughput and biochemical approaches, which definitively revealed the essential contribution of RNA-mediated mechanisms to the regulation of fundamental processes of life. With the recent development of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines, the potential of RNA as a therapeutic tool has received public attention. Due to its intrinsic single-stranded nature and the ease with which it is synthesized in vitro, RNA indeed represents the most suitable tool for the development of drugs encompassing every type of human pathology. The maximum effectiveness and biochemical versatility is achieved in the guise of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are emerging as multifaceted regulators of tissue specification and homeostasis. Here, we report examples of coding and ncRNAs involved in muscle regeneration and discuss their potential as therapeutic tools. Small ncRNAs, such as miRNA and siRNA, have been successfully applied in the treatment of several diseases. The use of longer molecules, such as lncRNA and circRNA, is less advanced. However, based on the peculiar properties discussed below, they represent an innovative pool of RNA biomarkers and possible targets of clinical value.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Malarvili MB, Alexie M, Dahari N, et al (2021)

On Analyzing Capnogram as a Novel Method for Screening COVID-19: A Review on Assessment Methods for COVID-19.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 11(10): pii:life11101101.

In November 2019, the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan city, China, and was reported in other countries around the globe. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Strategies such as contact tracing and a vaccination program have been imposed to keep COVID-19 under control. Furthermore, a fast, noninvasive and reliable testing device is needed urgently to detect COVID-19, so that contact can be isolated and ringfenced before the virus spreads. Although the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, this test presents some limitations which cause delays in detecting the disease. The antigen rapid test (ART) test, on the other hand, is faster and cheaper than PCR, but is less sensitive, and may limit SARS-CoV-2 detection. While other tests are being developed, accurate, noninvasive and easy-to-use testing tools are in high demand for the rapid and extensive diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this paper reviews current diagnostic methods for COVID-19. Following this, we propose the use of expired carbon dioxide (CO2) as an early screening tool for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This system has already been developed and has been tested on asthmatic patients. It has been proven that expired CO2, also known as capnogram, can help differentiate between respiratory conditions and, therefore, could be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it causes respiratory tract-related diseases.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Dąbrowska E, Galińska-Skok B, N Waszkiewicz (2021)

Depressive and Neurocognitive Disorders in the Context of the Inflammatory Background of COVID-19.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 11(10): pii:life11101056.

The dysfunctional effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on the nervous system are established. The manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms during and after infection is influenced by the neuroinvasive and neurotrophic properties of SARS-CoV-2 as well as strong inflammation characterised by a specific "cytokine storm". Research suggests that a strong immune response to a SARS-CoV-2 infection and psychological stressors related to the pandemic may cause chronic inflammatory processes in the body with elevated levels of inflammatory markers contributing to the intensification of neurodegenerative processes. It is suggested that neuroinflammation and associated central nervous system changes may significantly contribute to the etiopathogenesis of depressive disorders. In addition, symptoms after a COVID-19 infection may persist for up to several weeks after an acute infection as a post-COVID-19 syndrome. Moreover, previous knowledge indicates that among SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) group antidepressants, fluoxetine is a promising drug against COVID-19. In conclusion, further research, observation and broadening of the knowledge of the pathomechanism of a SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact on potential complications are necessary. It is essential to continue research in order to assess the long-term neuropsychiatric effects in COVID-19 patients and to find new therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Rodean IP, Biriș CI, Halațiu VB, et al (2021)

Is There a Link between COVID-19 Infection, Periodontal Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction?.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 11(10): pii:life11101050.

Both periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are chronic disorders with an inflammatory substrate that leads to alteration of the host's immune response. In PD, inflammation is responsible for bone tissue destruction, while in atherosclerosis, it leads to atheromatous plaque formation. These modifications result from the action of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are secreted both locally at gingival or coronary sites, and systemically. Recently, it was observed that in patients with PD or with cardiovascular disease, COVID-19 infection is prone to be more severe. While the association between PD, inflammation and cardiovascular disease is well-known, the impact of COVID-19-related inflammation on the systemic complications of these conditions has not been established yet. The purpose of this review is to bring light upon the latest advances in understanding the link between periodontal-cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Ly NH, Son SJ, Jang S, et al (2021)

Surface-Enhanced Raman Sensing of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds by Plasmonic Nanostructures.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 11(10): pii:nano11102619.

Facile detection of indoor semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) is a critical issue to raise an increasing concern to current researchers, since their emissions have impacted the health of humans, who spend much of their time indoors after the recent incessant COVID-19 pandemic outbreaks. Plasmonic nanomaterial platforms can utilize an electromagnetic field to induce significant Raman signal enhancements of vibrational spectra of pollutant molecules from localized hotspots. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing based on functional plasmonic nanostructures has currently emerged as a powerful analytical technique, which is widely adopted for the ultra-sensitive detection of SVOC molecules, including phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from household chemicals in indoor environments. This concise topical review gives updated recent developments and trends in optical sensors of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and SERS for effective sensing of SVOCs by functionalization of noble metal nanostructures. Specific features of plasmonic nanomaterials utilized in sensors are evaluated comparatively, including their various sizes and shapes. Novel aptasensors-assisted SERS technology and its potential application are also introduced for selective sensing. The current challenges and perspectives on SERS-based optical sensors using plasmonic nanomaterial platforms and aptasensors are discussed for applying indoor SVOC detection.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Filip R, Anchidin-Norocel L, Gheorghita R, et al (2021)

Changes in Dietary Patterns and Clinical Health Outcomes in Different Countries during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103612.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions ("lockdowns") are implemented.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Borsche L, Glauner B, J von Mendel (2021)

COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103596.

BACKGROUND: Much research shows that blood calcidiol (25(OH)D3) levels correlate strongly with SARS-CoV-2 infection severity. There is open discussion regarding whether low D3 is caused by the infection or if deficiency negatively affects immune defense. The aim of this study was to collect further evidence on this topic.

METHODS: Systematic literature search was performed to identify retrospective cohort as well as clinical studies on COVID-19 mortality rates versus D3 blood levels. Mortality rates from clinical studies were corrected for age, sex, and diabetes. Data were analyzed using correlation and linear regression.

RESULTS: One population study and seven clinical studies were identified, which reported D3 blood levels preinfection or on the day of hospital admission. The two independent datasets showed a negative Pearson correlation of D3 levels and mortality risk (r(17) = -0.4154, p = 0.0770/r(13) = -0.4886, p = 0.0646). For the combined data, median (IQR) D3 levels were 23.2 ng/mL (17.4-26.8), and a significant Pearson correlation was observed (r(32) = -0.3989, p = 0.0194). Regression suggested a theoretical point of zero mortality at approximately 50 ng/mL D3.

CONCLUSIONS: The datasets provide strong evidence that low D3 is a predictor rather than just a side effect of the infection. Despite ongoing vaccinations, we recommend raising serum 25(OH)D levels to above 50 ng/mL to prevent or mitigate new outbreaks due to escape mutations or decreasing antibody activity.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Kakavas S, Karayiannis D, Z Mastora (2021)

The Complex Interplay between Immunonutrition, Mast Cells, and Histamine Signaling in COVID-19.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103458.

There is an ongoing need for new therapeutic modalities against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mast cell histamine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 as a regulator of proinflammatory, fibrotic, and thrombogenic processes. Consequently, mast cell histamine and its receptors represent promising pharmacological targets. At the same time, nutritional modulation of immune system function has been proposed and is being investigated for the prevention of COVID-19 or as an adjunctive strategy combined with conventional therapy. Several studies indicate that several immunonutrients can regulate mast cell activity to reduce the de novo synthesis and/or release of histamine and other mediators that are considered to mediate, at least in part, the complex pathophysiology present in COVID-19. This review summarizes the effects on mast cell histamine of common immunonutrients that have been investigated for use in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Popova S, Dozet D, Shield K, et al (2021)

Alcohol's Impact on the Fetus.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103452.

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a teratogen and prenatal exposure may adversely impact the developing fetus, increasing risk for negative outcomes, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Global trends of increasing alcohol use among women of childbearing age due to economic development, changing gender roles, increased availability of alcohol, peer pressure and social acceptability of women's alcohol use may put an increasing number of pregnancies at risk for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This risk has been exacerbated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in some countries.

METHOD: This literature review presents an overview on the epidemiology of alcohol use among childbearing age and pregnant women and FASD by World Health Organization regions; impact of PAE on fetal health, including FASD; associated comorbidities; and social outcomes.

RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The impact of alcohol on fetal health and social outcomes later in life is enormous, placing a huge economic burden on countries. Prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and early identification of affected individuals should be a global public health priority.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Li Z, Surampudi V, D Heber (2021)

The Impact of Obesity on SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Mortality Risk.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103446.

The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered the increased susceptibility of individuals with obesity to infection and severe disease leading to hospitalization and death. Studies in New York City demonstrated that after advanced age, obesity was the most common risk factor leading to severe disease and death from COVID-19. While the connection has been recognized, there has not been a general recognition of the potential mechanisms for this link between excess body fat and mortality from this viral pandemic including respiratory complications and sequelae of increased activation of the immune system. Despite plans for vaccination of the global population, the risk community spread of COVID-19 and future pandemics will be linked in part to obesity and immunity. This review will detail a number of potential mechanisms through which obesity may contribute to the lethality of this viral infection. These insights will hopefully lead to a greater emphasis on obesity prevention and treatment as part of the global response to this and future pandemic threats.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Hawryłkowicz V, Lietz-Kijak D, Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka K, et al (2021)

Patient Nutrition and Probiotic Therapy in COVID-19: What Do We Know in 2021?.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103385.

BACKGROUND: The main nutritional consequences of COVID-19 include reduced food intake, hypercatabolism, and rapid muscle wasting. Some studies showed that malnutrition is a significant problem among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection, and the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 is strongly associated with their nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to collect useful information about the possible elements of nutritional and probiotic therapy in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

METHODS: A narrative review of the literature, including studies published up to 13 September 2021.

RESULTS: Probiotics may support patients by inhibiting the ACE2 receptor, i.e., the passage of the virus into the cell, and may also be effective in suppressing the immune response caused by the proinflammatory cytokine cascade. In patients' diet, it is crucial to ensure an adequate intake of micronutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids (at 2-4 g/d), selenium (300-450 μg/d) and zinc (30-50 mg/d), and vitamins A (900-700 µg/d), E (135 mg/d), D (20,000-50,000 IU), C (1-2 g/d), B6, and B12. Moreover, the daily calorie intake should amount to ≥1500-2000 with 75-100 g of protein.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the treatment of gut dysbiosis involving an adequate intake of prebiotic dietary fiber and probiotics could turn out to be an immensely helpful instrument for immunomodulation, both in COVID-19 patients and prophylactically in individuals with no history of infection.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Bellerba F, Muzio V, Gnagnarella P, et al (2021)

The Association between Vitamin D and Gut Microbiota: A Systematic Review of Human Studies.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103378.

Recent evidence has shown a number of extra-skeletal functions of Vitamin D (VD), primarily involving the immune system. One of these functions is mediated by the modulation of gut microbiota, whose alterations are linked to many diseases. Our purpose is to contribute to the understanding of existing evidence on the association between VD and gastrointestinal microbiota alterations. A systematic review of studies with human subjects has been conducted up to January 2021. We included publications reporting the association between gut microbiota and VD, including VD supplementation, dietary VD intake and/or level of 25(OH)D. We identified 25 studies: 14 were interventional and 11, observational. VD supplementation was found to be associated with a significant change in microbiome composition, in particular of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. Furthermore, Firmicutes were found to be correlated with serum VD. Concerning alpha and beta diversity, a high nutritional intake of VD seems to induce a shift in bacterial composition and/or affects the species' richness. Veillonellaceae and Oscillospiraceae families, in the Firmicutes phylum, more frequently decreased with both increasing levels of 25(OH)D and vitamin D supplementation. We found evidence of an association, even though the studies are substantially heterogeneous and have some limitations, resulting sometimes in conflicting results. To further understand the role of VD on the modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota, future research should be geared toward well-designed animal-based studies or larger randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Morojele NK, Shenoi SV, Shuper PA, et al (2021)

Alcohol Use and the Risk of Communicable Diseases.

Nutrients, 13(10): pii:nu13103317.

The body of knowledge on alcohol use and communicable diseases has been growing in recent years. Using a narrative review approach, this paper discusses alcohol's role in the acquisition of and treatment outcomes from four different communicable diseases: these include three conditions included in comparative risk assessments to date-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and lower respiratory infections/pneumonia-as well as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of its recent and rapid ascension as a global health concern. Alcohol-attributable TB, HIV, and pneumonia combined were responsible for approximately 360,000 deaths and 13 million disability-adjusted life years lost (DALYs) in 2016, with alcohol-attributable TB deaths and DALYs predominating. There is strong evidence that alcohol is associated with increased incidence of and poorer treatment outcomes from HIV, TB, and pneumonia, via both behavioral and biological mechanisms. Preliminary studies suggest that heavy drinkers and those with alcohol use disorders are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Aside from HIV research, limited research exists that can guide interventions for addressing alcohol-attributable TB and pneumonia or COVID-19. Implementation of effective individual-level interventions and alcohol control policies as a means of reducing the burden of communicable diseases is recommended.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Yamasaki L, ML Moi (2021)

Complexities in Case Definition of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection: Clinical Evidence and Implications in COVID-19 Surveillance and Diagnosis.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(10): pii:pathogens10101262.

Reinfection cases have been reported in some countries with clinical symptoms ranging from mild to severe. In addition to clinical diagnosis, virus genome sequence from the first and second infection has to be confirmed to either belong to separate clades or had significant mutations for the confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. While phylogenetic analysis with paired specimens offers the strongest evidence for reinfection, there remains concerns on the definition of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, for reasons including accessibility to paired-samples and technical challenges in phylogenetic analysis. In light of the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants that are associated with increased transmissibility and immune-escape further understanding of COVID-19 protective immunity, real-time surveillance directed at identifying COVID-19 transmission patterns, transmissibility of emerging variants and clinical implications of reinfection would be important in addressing the challenges in definition of COVID-19 reinfection and understanding the true disease burden.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Cirocchi R, Nascimbeni R, Burini G, et al (2021)

The Management of Acute Colonic Diverticulitis in the COVID-19 Era: A Scoping Review.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 57(10): pii:medicina57101127.

Background and Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health systems worldwide made major changes to their organization, delaying diagnosis and treatment across a broad spectrum of pathologies. Concerning surgery, there was an evident reduction in all elective and emergency activities, particularly for benign pathologies such as acute diverticulitis, for which we have identified a reduction in emergency room presentation with mild forms and an increase with more severe forms. The aim of our review was to discover new data on emergency presentation for patients with acute diverticulitis during the Covid-19 pandemic and their current management, and to define a better methodology for surgical decision-making. Method: We conducted a scoping review on 25 trials, analyzing five points: reduced hospital access for patients with diverticulitis, the preferred treatment for non-complicated diverticulitis, the role of CT scanning in primary evaluation and percutaneous drainage as a treatment, and changes in surgical decision-making and preferred treatment strategies for complicated diverticulitis. Results: We found a decrease in emergency access for patients with diverticular disease, with an increased incidence of complicated diverticulitis. The preferred treatment was conservative for non-complicated forms and in patients with COVID-related pneumonia, percutaneous drainage for abscess, or with surgery delayed or reserved for diffuse peritonitis or sepsis. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic we observed an increased number of complicated forms of diverticulitis, while the total number decreased, possibly due to delay in hospital or ambulatory presentation because of the fear of contracting COVID-19. We observed a greater tendency to treat these more severe forms by conservative means or drainage. When surgery was necessary, there was a preference for an open approach or a delayed operation.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )