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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 22 Feb 2024 at 01:42 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 44107 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Rafique S, Jabeen Z, Pervaiz T, et al (2024)

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV) review by continent.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1325346.

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus responsible for substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide by causing a highly contagious respiratory disease. The virus can spread quickly through contact, contaminated equipment, aerosols, and personal-to-person contact. We highlight the prevalence and geographic distribution of all nine genotypes, as well as the relevant symptoms and economic impact, by extensively analyzing the current literature. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was performed using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA-6), which provided insights into the global molecular diversity and evolution of IBV strains. This review highlights that IBV genotype I (GI) is prevalent worldwide because sporadic cases have been found on many continents. Conversely, GII was identified as a European strain that subsequently dispersed throughout Europe and South America. GIII and GV are predominant in Australia, with very few reports from Asia. GIV, GVIII, and GIX originate from North America. GIV was found to circulate in Asia, and GVII was identified in Europe and China. Geographically, the GVI-1 lineage is thought to be restricted to Asia. This review highlights that IBV still often arises in commercial chicken flocks despite immunization and biosecurity measures because of the ongoing introduction of novel IBV variants and inadequate cross-protection provided by the presently available vaccines. Consequently, IB consistently jeopardizes the ability of the poultry industry to grow and prosper. Identifying these domains will aid in discerning the pathogenicity and prevalence of IBV genotypes, potentially enhancing disease prevention and management tactics.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Khalil AM, Nogales A, Martínez-Sobrido L, et al (2024)

Antiviral responses versus virus-induced cellular shutoff: a game of thrones between influenza A virus NS1 and SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1357866.

Following virus recognition of host cell receptors and viral particle/genome internalization, viruses replicate in the host via hijacking essential host cell machinery components to evade the provoked antiviral innate immunity against the invading pathogen. Respiratory viral infections are usually acute with the ability to activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in/on host cells, resulting in the production and release of interferons (IFNs), proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) to reduce virus fitness and mitigate infection. Nevertheless, the game between viruses and the host is a complicated and dynamic process, in which they restrict each other via specific factors to maintain their own advantages and win this game. The primary role of the non-structural protein 1 (NS1 and Nsp1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) and the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), respectively, is to control antiviral host-induced innate immune responses. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the genesis, spatial structure, viral and cellular interactors, and the mechanisms underlying the unique biological functions of IAV NS1 and SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 in infected host cells. We also highlight the role of both non-structural proteins in modulating viral replication and pathogenicity. Eventually, and because of their important role during viral infection, we also describe their promising potential as targets for antiviral therapy and the development of live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Conclusively, both IAV NS1 and SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 play an important role in virus-host interactions, viral replication, and pathogenesis, and pave the way to develop novel prophylactic and/or therapeutic interventions for the treatment of these important human respiratory viral pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

SeyedAlinaghi S, Mehraeen E, Afzalian A, et al (2024)

Ocular manifestations of COVID-19: A systematic review of current evidence.

Preventive medicine reports, 38:102608.

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, commonly presents with symptoms such as fever and shortness of breath but can also affect other organs. There is growing evidence pointing to potential eye complications. In this article, we aim to systematically review the ocular manifestations of COVID-19.

METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to explore the ocular manifestations of COVID-19. We searched online databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science up to September 4, 2023. After a two-stage screening process and applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, eligible articles were advanced to the data extraction phase. The PRISMA checklist and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) were used for quality and bias risk assessments.

RESULTS: We selected and extracted data from 42 articles. Most of the studies were cross-sectional (n = 33), with the highest number conducted in Turkey (n = 10). The most frequent ocular manifestation was conjunctivitis, reported in 24 articles, followed by photophobia, burning, chemosis, itching, and ocular pain. Most studies reported complete recovery from these manifestations; however, one study mentioned visual loss in two patients.

CONCLUSION: In general, ocular manifestations of COVID-19 appear to resolve either spontaneously or with supportive treatments. For more severe cases, both medical treatment and surgery have been employed, with the outcomes suggesting that complete recoveries are attainable.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Li Z, Zhang Z, Rosen ST, et al (2024)

Function and mechanism of bispecific antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2.

Cell insight, 3(2):100150.

As the dynamic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 led to reduced efficacy in monoclonal neutralizing antibodies and emergence of immune escape, the role of bispecific antibodies becomes crucial in bolstering antiviral activity and suppressing immune evasion. This review extensively assesses a spectrum of representative bispecific antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2, delving into their characteristics, design formats, mechanisms of action, and associated advantages and limitations. The analysis encompasses factors influencing the selection of parental antibodies and strategies for incorporating added benefits in bispecific antibody design. Furthermore, how different classes of parental antibodies contribute to augmenting the broad-spectrum neutralization capability within bispecific antibodies is discussed. In summary, this review presents analyses and discussions aimed at offering valuable insights for shaping future strategies in bispecific antibody design to effectively confront the challenges posed by SARS-CoV-2 and propel advancements in antiviral therapeutic development.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Serhan M, Psihogios A, Kabir N, et al (2024)

A scoping review of active, participant centred, digital adverse events following immunization (AEFI) surveillance of WHO approved COVID-19 vaccines: A Canadian immunization Research Network study.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 20(1):2293550.

This scoping review examines the role of digital solutions in active, participant-centered surveillance of adverse events following initial release of COVID-19 vaccines. The goals of this paper were to examine the existing literature surrounding digital solutions and technology used for active, participant centered, AEFI surveillance of novel COVID-19 vaccines approved by WHO. This paper also aimed to identify gaps in literature surrounding digital, active, participant centered AEFI surveillance systems and to identify and describe the core components of active, participant centered, digital surveillance systems being used for post-market AEFI surveillance of WHO approved COVID-19 vaccines, with a focus on the digital solutions and technology being used, the type of AEFI detected, and the populations under surveillance. The findings highlight the need for customized surveillance systems based on local contexts and the lessons learned to improve future vaccine monitoring and pandemic preparedness.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Lippi G, Mattiuzzi C, EJ Favaloro (2024)

Diagnostic value of D-dimer in differentiating Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) from Kawasaki disease: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

Diagnosis (Berlin, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with thrombo inflammation, which can predispose to developing of life-threatening conditions in children such as the multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and Kawasaki disease. Because of the consistent overlap in pathogenesis and symptoms, identifying laboratory tests that may aid in the differential diagnosis of these pathologies becomes crucial. We performed an electronic search in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, without date or language restrictions, to identify all possible studies reporting D-dimer values in separate cohorts of children with MIS-C or Kawasaki disease. Three multicenter cohort studies were included in our analysis, totaling 487 patients (270 with MIS-C and 217 with Kawasaki disease). In this meta-analysis, significantly higher D-dimer values were found in MIS-C compared to Kawasaki disease in all three studies, yielding an SMD of 1.5 (95 % CI, 1.3-1.7) mg/L. Thus, very high D-dimer values early in the course of disease should raise the clinical suspicion of MIS-C rather than Kawasaki disease. Further studies should be planned to identify harmonized D-dimer diagnostic thresholds that may help discriminate these conditions.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Holt RIG, Cockram CS, Ma RCW, et al (2024)

Diabetes and infection: review of the epidemiology, mechanisms and principles of treatment.

Diabetologia [Epub ahead of print].

An association between diabetes and infection has been recognised for many years, with infection being an important cause of death and morbidity in people with diabetes. The COVID-19 pandemic has re-kindled an interest in the complex relationship between diabetes and infection. Some infections occur almost exclusively in people with diabetes, often with high mortality rates without early diagnosis and treatment. However, more commonly, diabetes is a complicating factor in many infections. A reciprocal relationship occurs whereby certain infections and their treatments may also increase the risk of diabetes. People with diabetes have a 1.5- to 4-fold increased risk of infection. The risks are the most pronounced for kidney infection, osteomyelitis and foot infection, but are also increased for pneumonia, influenza, tuberculosis, skin infection and general sepsis. Outcomes from infection are worse in people with diabetes, with the most notable example being a twofold higher rate of death from COVID-19. Hyperglycaemia has deleterious effects on the immune response. Vascular insufficiency and neuropathy, together with altered skin, mucosal and gut microbial colonisation, contribute to the increased risk of infection. Vaccination is important in people with diabetes although the efficacy of certain immunisations may be compromised, particularly in the presence of hyperglycaemia. The principles of treatment largely follow those of the general population with certain notable exceptions.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Hao X, Li S, Yang Y, et al (2024)

Association of dietary inflammatory index and the SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence, severity and mortality of COVID-19: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Nutrition journal, 23(1):21.

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, severity or mortality of COVID-19, however, the outcomes remain controversial.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether a dose-response association of DII and SARS-CoV-2 infection exists.

DESIGN: A dose-response meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association of DII and SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science up to March 15th, 2023. The odds ratios (OR) of DII and COVID-19 risk and severity were computed.

RESULTS: Totally, 5 studies were included (1 from UK and 4 from Iran), consisting of 197,929 participants with 12,081 COVID-19 cases. Although there was heterogeneity among studies, the results indicated that higher DII was independently related to higher SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.17) and COVID-19 severity (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.15) but not COVID-19 mortality (risk ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.27). The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection increased by 31% for each 1-point increase in the E-DII (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.43).

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that an elevated DII score is associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infectious risk and severity of COVID-19. There were not enough studies on COVID-19 mortality. Further large prospective studies in different countries are warranted to validate our results.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Chen Y, Liu C, Fang Y, et al (2024)

Developing CAR-immune cell therapy against SARS-CoV-2: Current status, challenges and prospects.

Biochemical pharmacology, 222:116066 pii:S0006-2952(24)00049-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-immune cell therapy has revolutionized the anti-tumor field, achieving efficient and precise tumor clearance by directly guiding immune cell activity to target tumors. In addition, the use of CAR-immune cells to influence the composition and function of the immune system and ultimately achieve virus clearance and immune system homeostasis has attracted the interest of researchers. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, the rapidly mutating SARS-CoV-2 continues to challenge existing therapies and has raised public concerns regarding reinfection. In patients with COVID-19, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the immune system influences the course of the disease, and the coexistence of over-activated immune system components, such as macrophages, and severely compromised immune system components, such as natural killer cells, reveals a dysregulated immune system. Dysregulated immune-induced inflammation may impair viral clearance and T-cell responses, causing cytokine storms and ultimately leading to patient death. Here, we summarize the research progress on the use of CAR-immune cells against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility, challenges and prospect of CAR-immune cells as a new immune candidate therapy against SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Ma B, Tao M, Li Z, et al (2024)

Mucosal vaccines for viral diseases: Status and prospects.

Virology, 593:110026 pii:S0042-6822(24)00047-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Virus-associated infectious diseases are highly detrimental to human health and animal husbandry. Among all countermeasures against infectious diseases, prophylactic vaccines, which developed through traditional or novel approaches, offer potential benefits. More recently, mucosal vaccines attract attention for their extraordinary characteristics compared to conventional parenteral vaccines, particularly for mucosal-related pathogens. Representatively, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), further accelerated the research and development efforts for mucosal vaccines by thoroughly investigating existing strategies or involving novel techniques. While several vaccine candidates achieved positive progresses, thus far, part of the current COVID-19 mucosal vaccines have shown poor performance, which underline the need for next-generation mucosal vaccines and corresponding platforms. In this review, we summarized the typical mucosal vaccines approved for humans or animals and sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these successful cases. In addition, mucosal vaccines against COVID-19 that are in human clinical trials were reviewed in detail since this public health event mobilized all advanced technologies for possible solutions. Finally, the gaps in developing mucosal vaccines, potential solutions and prospects were discussed. Overall, rational application of mucosal vaccines would facilitate the establishing of mucosal immunity and block the transmission of viral diseases.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Rosen AO, Bergam L, Holmes AL, et al (2024)

Efficacy of behavioral interventions to increase engagement in sexual health services among LatinX youth in the United States: A meta-analysis for post-pandemic implications.

International journal of adolescent medicine and health [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: LatinX youth in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs, commonly attributed to a lack of diagnostic testing and regular physician consultations to address sexual health. These disparities have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This meta-analysis seeks to assess the efficacy of behavioral interventions among LatinX youth in the U.S. that aim to increase engagement in sexual health services (i.e., STI/HIV testing, physician consultations).

CONTENT: Following PRISMA guidelines, seven electronic databases were searched. We systematically extracted data with a coding form, and effect sizes were obtained from each study on HIV/STI testing outcomes and physician consultation. Moderator analyses were run for demographic and intervention characteristics.

SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK: Of nine included studies, the interventions created a small-to-moderate effect on increased engagement of sexual health services (d +=0.204, 95 % CI=0.079, 0.329). Moderator analyses showed that interventions including the following characteristics were most efficacious at facilitating care services: community-based or online setting, access to diagnostic testing, social media/remote components, parental involvement, and longer session duration. This meta-analysis provides informative results regarding behavioral interventions that have proven efficacious in facilitating engagement in sexual health services among LatinX youth. Most prominently, interventions that are remote or through social media, community-based, and incorporated parents had large positive effects. These findings prove useful for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation and provide guidance for targeting LatinX youth to engage them in sexual health services as primary and secondary STI and HIV prevention.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Soni SK, Marya T, Sharma A, et al (2024)

A systematic overview of metal nanoparticles as alternative disinfectants for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Archives of microbiology, 206(3):111.

Coronaviruses are a diverse family of viruses, and new strains can emerge. While the majority of coronavirus strains cause mild respiratory illnesses, a few are responsible for severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, is an example of a coronavirus that has led to a pandemic. Coronaviruses can mutate over time, potentially leading to the emergence of new variants. Some of these variants may have increased transmissibility or resistance to existing vaccines and treatments. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in the recent past has sparked innovation in curbing virus spread, with sanitizers and disinfectants taking center stage. These essential tools hinder pathogen dissemination, especially for unvaccinated or rapidly mutating viruses. The World Health Organization supports the use of alcohol-based sanitizers and disinfectants globally against pandemics. However, there are ongoing concerns about their widespread usage and their potential impact on human health, animal well-being, and ecological equilibrium. In this ever-changing scenario, metal nanoparticles hold promise in combating a range of pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, as well as other viruses such as norovirus, influenza, and HIV-1. This review explores their potential as non-alcoholic champions against SARS-CoV-2 and other pandemics of tomorrow. This extends beyond metal nanoparticles and advocates a balanced examination of pandemic control tools, exploring their strengths and weaknesses. The manuscript thus involves the evaluation of metal nanoparticle-based alternative approaches as hand sanitizers and disinfectants, providing a comprehensive perspective on this critical issue.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Smith DJ, Lambrou A, P Patel (2023)

SARS-CoV-2 Rebound With and Without Use of COVID-19 Oral Antivirals.

MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 72(51):1357-1364.

Early treatment with a first-line therapy (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir [Paxlovid] or remdesivir) or second-line therapy (molnupiravir) prevents hospitalization and death among patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who are at risk for severe disease and is recommended by the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. On May 25, 2023, the Food and Drug Administration approved nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for treatment of adults at high risk for severe disease. Although antiviral therapies are widely available, they are underutilized, possibly because of reports of SARS-CoV-2 rebound after treatment. To enhance current understanding of rebound, CDC reviewed SARS-CoV-2 rebound studies published during February 1, 2020- November 29, 2023. Overall, seven of 23 studies that met inclusion criteria, one randomized trial and six observational studies, compared rebound for persons who received antiviral treatment with that for persons who did not receive antiviral treatment. In four studies, including the randomized trial, no statistically significant difference in rebound rates was identified among persons receiving treatment and those not receiving treatment. Depending on the definition used, the prevalence of rebound varied. No hospitalizations or deaths were reported among outpatients who experienced rebound, because COVID-19 signs and symptoms were mild. Persons receiving antiviral treatment might be at higher risk for rebound compared with persons not receiving treatment because of host factors or treatment-induced viral suppression early in the course of illness. The potential for rebound should not deter clinicians from prescribing lifesaving antiviral treatments when indicated to prevent morbidity and mortality from COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Maybin JA, Watters M, Rowley B, et al (2024)

COVID-19 and abnormal uterine bleeding: potential associations and mechanisms.

Clinical science (London, England : 1979), 138(4):153-171.

The impact of COVID-19 on menstruation has received a high level of public and media interest. Despite this, uncertainty exists about the advice that women and people who menstruate should receive in relation to the expected impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection, long COVID or COVID-19 vaccination on menstruation. Furthermore, the mechanisms leading to these reported menstrual changes are poorly understood. This review evaluates the published literature on COVID-19 and its impact on menstrual bleeding, discussing the strengths and limitations of these studies. We present evidence consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection and long COVID having an association with changes in menstrual bleeding parameters and that the impact of COVID vaccination on menstruation appears less significant. An overview of menstrual physiology and known causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is provided before discussing potential mechanisms which may underpin the menstrual disturbance reported with COVID-19, highlighting areas for future scientific study. Finally, consideration is given to the effect that menstruation may have on COVID-19, including the impact of the ovarian sex hormones on acute COVID-19 severity and susceptibility and reported variation in long COVID symptoms across the menstrual cycle. Understanding the current evidence and addressing gaps in our knowledge in this area are essential to inform public health policy, direct the treatment of menstrual disturbance and facilitate development of new therapies, which may reduce the severity of COVID-19 and improve quality of life for those experiencing long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Tan KW, Ji P, Zhou H, et al (2024)

Further accelerating biologics development from DNA to IND: the journey from COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 programs.

Antibody therapeutics, 7(1):96-104.

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has spurred adoption of revolutionary initiatives by regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical industry worldwide to deliver therapeutic COVID-19 antibodies to patients at unprecedented speed. Among these, timeline of chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC), which involves process development and manufacturing activities critical for the assurance of product quality and consistency before first-in-human clinical trials, was greatly reduced from typically 12-15 months (using clonal materials) to approximately 3 months (using non-clonal materials) in multiple cases. In this perspective, we briefly review the acceleration approaches published for therapeutic COVID-19 antibodies and subsequently discuss the applicability of these approaches to achieve investigational new drug (IND) timelines of ≤10 months in over 60 COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 programs performed at WuXi Biologics. We are of the view that, with demonstrated product quality and consistency, innovative approaches used for COVID-19 can be widely applied in all disease areas for greater speed to clinic.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Zhang X, Li Y, Z Zhou (2024)

Lipid Nanoparticle-Based Delivery System-A Competing Place for mRNA Vaccines.

ACS omega, 9(6):6219-6234.

mRNA, as one of the foci of biomedical research in the past decade, has become a candidate vaccine solution for various infectious diseases and tumors and for regenerative medicine and immunotherapy due to its high efficiency, safety, and effectiveness. A stable and effective delivery system is needed to protect mRNAs from nuclease degradation while also enhancing immunogenicity. The success of mRNA lipid nanoparticles in treating COVID-19, to a certain extent, marks a milestone for mRNA vaccines and also promotes further research on mRNA delivery systems. Here, we explore mRNA vaccine delivery systems, especially lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), considering the current research status, prospects, and challenges of lipid nanoparticles, and explore other mRNA delivery systems.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Tomassetti S, Ciani L, Luzzi V, et al (2024)

Utility of bronchoalveolar lavage for COVID-19: a perspective from the Dragon consortium.

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1259570.

Diagnosing COVID-19 and treating its complications remains a challenge. This review reflects the perspective of some of the Dragon (IMI 2-call 21, #101005122) research consortium collaborators on the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in COVID-19. BAL has been proposed as a potentially useful diagnostic tool to increase COVID-19 diagnosis sensitivity. In both critically ill and non-critically ill COVID-19 patients, BAL has a relevant role in detecting other infections or supporting alternative diagnoses and can change management decisions in up to two-thirds of patients. BAL is used to guide steroid and immunosuppressive treatment and to narrow or discontinue antibiotic treatment, reducing the use of unnecessary broad antibiotics. Moreover, cellular analysis and novel multi-omics techniques on BAL are of critical importance for understanding the microenvironment and interaction between epithelial cells and immunity, revealing novel potential prognostic and therapeutic targets. The BAL technique has been described as safe for both patients and healthcare workers in more than a thousand procedures reported to date in the literature. Based on these preliminary studies, we recognize that BAL is a feasible procedure in COVID-19 known or suspected cases, useful to properly guide patient management, and has great potential for research.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Manoharan S, L Ying Ying (2024)

Baricitinib statistically significantly reduced COVID-19-related mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of five phase III randomized, blinded and placebo-controlled clinical trials.

Biology methods & protocols, 9(1):bpae002.

Due to high heterogeneity and risk of bias (RoB) found in previously published meta-analysis (MA), a concrete conclusion on the efficacy of baricitinib in reducing mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients was unable to form. Hence, this systematic review and MA were conducted to analyse whether RoB, heterogeneity, and optimal sample size from placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are still the problems to derive a concrete conclusion. Search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and other sources like preprints and reference lists were searched with appropriate keywords. The RoB and MA were conducted using RevMan 5.4. The grading of the articles was conducted using the GRADEPro Guideline Development Tool. Ten RCTs were included in the current systematic review. Only five low RoB articles are Phase III placebo-controlled RCTs with a high certainty level based on the GRADE grading system. For the MA, based on five low RoB articles, baricitinib statistically significantly reduced mortality where the risk ratio (RR) = 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56-0.82; P < 0.0001; I[2] = 0%; P = 0.85]. The absolute mortality effect (95% CI) based on the grading system was 35 fewer mortalities per 1000 COVID-19 patients, whereas in the baricitinib and control groups, the mortality was 7.4% and 10.9%, respectively. With the presence of an optimal sample size of 3944 from five low RoB-placebo-controlled RCTs, which represent a minimum of 300 million population of people and with the presence of 0% heterogeneity from MA, the effectiveness of baricitinib in reducing the mortality in COVID-19 patients is concretely proven.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Youssef A, L Ulloa (2024)

Ethical and Legal Debates on Vaccine Infodemics.

Cureus, 16(1):e52566.

Over the course of three and a half years, the global toll of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has claimed the lives of millions of individuals. Scientific breakthroughs, exemplified by mRNA vaccines, have emerged as crucial tools in saving numerous lives and fortifying our defenses against future pandemics. However, the battle against the virus has been complicated by the dissemination of misleading political and ethical information, resulting in avoidable fatalities. Recognizing this phenomenon, the term 'infodemics' has been coined to denote the proliferation of false or misleading information that hinders effective social responses. Given the historical prevalence of infodemics surrounding vaccinations, this discussion delves into the ongoing ethical and legal deliberations concerning vaccination mandates, an indispensable health intervention in the face of pandemics. Governments bear the responsibility of safeguarding their citizens, acknowledging the social requirements imposed by the collective well-being. The protection of both citizens and healthcare workers becomes paramount, considering the potential risks of infection and mortality associated with individuals refusing vaccination. Historically, governments have played a pivotal role in eradicating pandemics through the implementation of vaccine mandates. However, the contemporary landscape is marked by the infusion of political and misleading misinformation, presenting new challenges. Governments are now confronted with an ethical duty to ensure that citizens possess the necessary information to make informed decisions and safeguard their well-being. While grappling with the realization that extraordinary circumstances demand extraordinary responses, the lessons from past pandemics underscore the imperative of prioritizing public health, especially in the context of the high numbers of casualties worldwide. This discourse explores the ethical and legal dimensions surrounding vaccine mandates, with particular emphasis on their relevance to healthcare workers.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Asmorojati AW, Suyadi , Nuryana Z, et al (2024)

Systematic literature review of postponed elections during COVID-19: Campaigns, regulations, and budgets.

Heliyon, 10(4):e25699.

The postponement of elections during the COVID-19 pandemic reflects a decline in global democracy. The policy of postponing elections due to health concerns, regulatory changes, and economic crises lacks empirical evidence. Several studies suggest that holding elections in countries that proceed with them does not significantly impact the spread of COVID-19. The acceleration of COVID-19 transmission is not limited to countries holding elections; it affects all countries, including those postponing them. Moreover, countries that continue to hold elections have turned this challenge into a COVID-19 mitigation strategy. This study aimed to analyze the findings of original research on election execution during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on campaign activities, regulatory changes, and election budgeting. It employed systematic literature review using 12 articles from the Web of Science and Scopus databases. The results show that conducting elections during the COVID-19 pandemic does not contribute to the spread of the virus. This is evident through the adoption of blended campaign strategies by the candidates. Election committees have adjusted voting procedures, including increasing the number of polling stations, tightly scheduling voter arrivals, and visiting red zone lockdown areas to prevent mass mobilization. The increase in election budgets during an economic crisis is not solely for the elections themselves but also for reinforcing health protocols. This research recommends a reconsideration of election postponements and advocates for conducting elections during the COVID-19 pandemic to uphold democracy. Furthermore, future research should explore the social and political implications, as well as the long-term consequences for democracy, which result from the implementation of soft campaign strategies and voting system modifications on a global scale, all in the pursuit of preserving democracy.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Ganguly RK, SK Chakraborty (2024)

Plastic waste management during and post Covid19 pandemic: Challenges and strategies towards circular economy.

Heliyon, 10(4):e25613.

Global petroleum consumption suffered drastically as lockdowns were put in place to contain the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a result, oil costs dropped, making virgin plastics more cost-effective than recycled plastics. The usage of plastic has increased as a result of lifestyle modifications, cost-based incentives, and other factors, further obscuring the issue. The utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the pandemic had resulted in a significant surge in the quantity of plastic waste. The plastic packaging industry achieved a revenue milestone of US$ 909.2 billion in 2021, boosting a compound annual growth rate of 5.5 %. The escalating dependence on plastics imposed additional pressure on waste management systems, which were proven to be ineffective and insufficient in addressing the issue. This situation exacerbated the problem and contributed to environmental pollution. Globally, 40 % of plastic waste ended up in landfills, 25 % was incinerated, 16 % was recycled, and the remaining 19 % infiltrated within the environment. By investing in circular technologies like feedstock recycling and enhancing infrastructural and environmental conditions, it expected to become viable to manage plastic waste flows during such a period of crisis. Investing in valorization strategies that transform plastic waste into value-added goods, such as fuels and building materials, receives a compelling macroeconomic signal when both plastic waste and plastic demand are on the rise. A robust circular economy can be accomplished by finalising the life cycle of plastic waste. The concept of Plastic Waste Footprint (PWF) aims to assess the environmental impact of plastic products throughout their intended usage period. In the midst of the emerging challenges in waste management during and post pandemic period, this research study has been conducted to explore the challenges and strategies associated with plastic waste in the environment.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Ashique S, Mishra N, Mohanto S, et al (2024)

Application of artificial intelligence (AI) to control COVID-19 pandemic: Current status and future prospects.

Heliyon, 10(4):e25754.

The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the everyday livelihood of people has been monumental and unparalleled. Although the pandemic has vastly affected the global healthcare system, it has also been a platform to promote and develop pioneering applications based on autonomic artificial intelligence (AI) technology with therapeutic significance in combating the pandemic. Artificial intelligence has successfully demonstrated that it can reduce the probability of human-to-human infectivity of the virus through evaluation, analysis, and triangulation of existing data on the infectivity and spread of the virus. This review talks about the applications and significance of modern robotic and automated systems that may assist in spreading a pandemic. In addition, this study discusses intelligent wearable devices and how they could be helpful throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Wu C, Zhang F, Wang J, et al (2024)

[Advances in the coronavirus nonstructural protein 13].

Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 40(2):419-433.

Coronaviruses pose significant threats to animal and human health, leading to the development of various infectious diseases. It is critical to develop effective vaccines and antiviral medicines to prevent and treat these diseases. The coronavirus genome encodes several types of proteins, including structural, nonstructural, and accessory proteins. Among them, nonstructural protein 13 (NSP13) helicase plays a crucial role in regulating viral replication and the innate immune response of the host. Therefore, it serves as a vital target for the development of anti-coronavirus drugs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of NSP13 research, covering its source, structure, sequence conservation, unwinding mechanism, enzyme inhibitors, protein interaction, and immune regulation. Additionally, the paper analyzes the current challenges in NSP13 research and aims to provide a theoretical foundation for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs targeting NSP13.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Mir S, M Mir (2024)

The mRNA vaccine, a swift warhead against a moving infectious disease target.

Expert review of vaccines [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The rapid development of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has revolutionized vaccinology, offering hope for swift responses to emerging infectious diseases. Initially met with skepticism, mRNA vaccines have proven effective and safe, reducing vaccine hesitancy amid the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that the time required to modify mRNA vaccines to counter new mutant strains is significantly shorter than the time it takes for pathogens to mutate and generate new variants that can thrive in vaccinated populations. This highlights the notion that mRNA vaccine technology appears to be outpacing viruses in the ongoing evolutionary race.

AREAS COVERED: This review article offers valuable insights into several crucial aspects of mRNA vaccine development and deployment, including the fundamentals of mRNA vaccine design and synthesis, the utilization of delivery systems, considerations regarding vaccine safety, the longevity of the immune response, strategies for modifying the original mRNA vaccine to address emerging mutant strains, as well as addressing vaccine hesitancy and potential approaches to mitigate reluctance.

EXPERT OPINION: Challenges such as stability, storage, manufacturing complexities, production capacity, allergic reactions, long-term effects, accessibility, and misinformation must be addressed. Despite these hurdles, mRNA vaccine technology holds promise for revolutionizing future vaccination strategies.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Luvira V, P Pitisuttithum (2024)

Effect of homologous or heterologous vaccine booster over two initial doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine.

Expert review of vaccines [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Inactivated vaccines had been delivered to low- and middle-income countries during the early pandemics of COVID-19. Currently, more than 10 inactivated COVID-19 vaccines have been developed. Most inactivated vaccines contain an inactivated whole cell index SARS-CoV-2 strain with adjuvant. Whole virion inactivated with aluminum hydroxide vaccines were among the most commonly used. However, with the emerging of COVID-19 variants and waning of the immunity of two doses of after three months, WHO and many local governments have recommended the booster dose program especially with heterologous platform vaccine.

AREA COVERED: This review was conducted through a literature search of the MEDLINE database to identify articles published from 2020 to 2023 covered the inactivated COVID-19 vaccines primary series with homologous and heterologous booster focusing on safety, immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness.

EXPERT OPINION: The inactivated vaccines especially whole virion inactivated in aluminum hydroxide appeared to be safe and had good priming effects. Immune responses generated after one dose of heterologous boost were high and able to preventing severity of disease and symptomatic infection. New approach of inactivated vaccine has been developed using inactivating recombinant vector virus-NDV-HXP-S vaccine.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Vinther A, Ramnarine E, Gastineau T, et al (2024)

Approaches to Design an Efficient, Predictable Global Post-approval Change Management System that Facilitates Continual Improvement and Drug Product Availability.

Therapeutic innovation & regulatory science [Epub ahead of print].

The complexity and inter-connectedness of operating in a global world for drug product supply has become an undeniable reality, further underscored by the COVID-19 pandemic. For Post-Approval Changes (PACs) that are an inevitable part of a product's commercial life, the impact of the growing global regulatory complexity and related drug shortages has brought the Global PAC Management System to an inflection point in particular for companies that have their products marketed in many countries.This paper illustrates through data analyzed for the first time from 145,000 + PACs for 156 countries, collected by 18 global pharma companies over a 3-year period (2019-2021), how severe the problem of global regulatory complexity is. Only PACs requiring national regulatory agency (NRA) approval prior to implementation were included in the data set. 1 of the 156 country NRAs approved all submitted PACs within a period of 6 months. The 6-month timeline was chosen because it is the recommended review timeline for major changes in the WHO guidance for vaccines and biotherapeutic products. 10 out of the 156 (6%) countries had no more than 10% of the PACs reviewed and approved in > 6 months. In 33 (22%) countries more than half of the PACs took > 6 months for approval. It is rare that the same PAC is approved globally within 6 months as individual NRAs take from a few months to years (in some cases > 5 years) for their review.The global PAC management complexity has steadily grown over the past 20 years. Attempts thus far to solve this problem have not made any meaningful difference. Senior leaders and decision-makers across the interdependent components of the complex Global PAC Management System (industry and regulators) must come together and collaboratively manage the problem holistically with the objective of ensuring global drug product availability instead of continuing with distinct stakeholder or country-focused solutions, which can tend to worsen the problem.In this paper, the Chief Quality Officers (CQOs) from 18 of the largest innovator pharma companies (see Acknowledgements) are speaking with One-Voice-of-Quality for PACs (1VQ for PACs Initiative). They are recommending a set of 8 approaches to activate a holistic transformation of the Global PAC Management System. This article presents their view on the problem of global regulatory complexity for managing PACs, it's impact on continual improvement and the risk to drug product supply, as well as approaches that can help alleviate the problem.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Tam EH, Peng Y, Yan Cheah MX, et al (2024)

Neutralizing antibodies to block viral entry and for identification of entry inhibitors.

Antiviral research pii:S0166-3542(24)00042-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are naturally produced by our immune system to combat viral infections. Clinically, neutralizing antibodies with potent efficacy and high specificity have been extensively used to prevent and treat a wide variety of viral infections, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Dengue Virus (DENV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). An overwhelmingly large subset of clinically effective NAbs operates by targeting viral envelope proteins to inhibit viral entry into host cell. Binding of viral envelope protein with host receptor is a critical rate limiting step triggering a cascade of downstream events, including endocytosis, membrane fusion and pore formation to allow viral entry. In recent years, improved structural knowledge on these processes allowed researchers to also leverage NAbs as an indispensable tool in guiding discovery of novel antiviral entry inhibitors, providing drug candidates with high efficacy and pan-genus specificity. This review will summarize the latest progresses on the applications of NAbs as effective entry inhibitors and as important tools to develop antiviral therapeutics by high-throughput drug screenings, rational design of peptidic entry inhibitor mimicking NAbs and in silico computational modeling approaches.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Ali A, Kumar M, Azeem MB, et al (2024)

Comment on: Insights into Covid-19 Mortality: A Comprehensive Study of Cardiovascular Sensitivity, Gender, Race, and Geography Trends in the United States (2020-2023).

Current problems in cardiology pii:S0146-2806(24)00104-X [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Wang F, Zhong J, Zhang R, et al (2024)

Zinc and COVID-19: Immunity, Susceptibility, Severity and Intervention.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 64(7):1969-1987.

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and continuing emergence of viral mutants, there has been a lack of effective treatment methods. Zinc maintains immune function, with direct and indirect antiviral activities. Zinc nutritional status is a critical factor in antiviral immune responses. Importantly, COVID-19 and zinc deficiency overlap in high-risk population. Hence, the potential effect of zinc as a preventive and adjunct therapy for COVID-19 is intriguing. Here, this review summarizes the immune and antiviral function of zinc, the relationship between zinc levels, susceptibility, and severity of COVID-19, and the effect of zinc supplementation on COVID-19. Existing studies have confirmed that zinc deficiency was associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Zinc supplementation plays a potentially protective role in enhancing immunity, decreasing susceptibility, shortening illness duration, and reducing the severity of COVID-19. We recommend that zinc levels should be monitored, particularly in COVID-19 patients, and zinc as a preventive and adjunct therapy for COVID-19 should be considered for groups at risk of zinc deficiency to reduce susceptibility and disease severity.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Lee JE, Kang DH, Kim SY, et al (2024)

Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of Older patients with COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review.

Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases pii:trd.2023.0157 [Epub ahead of print].

The consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are particularly severe in older adults with a disproportionate number of severe and fatal outcomes. Therefore, this integrative review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical characteristics, management approaches, and prognosis of older patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Common clinical presentations in older patients include fever, cough, and dyspnea. Additionally, preexisting comorbidities, especially diabetes and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, were frequently observed and associated with adverse outcomes. Management strategies varied, however, early diagnosis, vigilant monitoring, and multidisciplinary care were identified as key factors for enhancing patient outcomes. Nonetheless, the prognosis remains guarded for older patients, with increased rates of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and mortality. However, timely therapeutic interventions, especially antiviral and supportive treatments, have demonstrated some efficacy in mitigating the severe consequences in this age group. In conclusion, while older adults remain highly susceptible to severe outcomes from COVID-19, early intervention, rigorous monitoring, and comprehensive care can play a pivotal role in improving their clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Neil-Sztramko SE, Belita E, Traynor RL, et al (2024)

What is the specific role of schools and daycares in COVID-19 transmission? A final report from a living rapid review.

The Lancet. Child & adolescent health pii:S2352-4642(23)00312-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to rapidly evolving conditions, the question of how to safely operate schools and daycares remained a top priority throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to growing and changing evidence, the National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools in Canada maintained a living rapid review on the role of schools and daycares in COVID-19 transmission to guide evidence-informed decision making. This Review presents the final iteration of this living rapid review. 31 sources were searched until Oct 17, 2022. In the final version, eligible studies reported data from Jan 1, 2021 onward on transmission of COVID-19 in school or daycare settings, the effect of infection prevention and control measures on transmission, or the effect of operating schools or daycares on community-level COVID-19 rates. As a rapid review, titles and abstracts were screened by a single reviewer with artificial intelligence integrated into later versions. Full-text screening, data extraction, and critical appraisal were completed by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. The Johanna Briggs Institute tools were used for critical appraisal. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, and results were synthesised narratively. Three citizen partners provided input for the final interpretation. This final update includes 73 primary studies. Secondary attack rates were low within school settings when infection prevention and control measures were in place (moderate certainty). Masks might reduce transmission, test-to-stay policies might not increase transmission risk compared with mandatory quarantine, cohorting and hybrid learning might make little to no difference in transmission (low certainty), and the effect of surveillance testing within schools remained inconclusive (very low certainty). Findings indicate that school settings do not substantially contribute to community incidence, hospitalisations, or mortality (low certainty). This living review provides a synthesis of global evidence for the role of schools and daycares during COVID-19, which might be helpful in future pandemics.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Scarpetti G, Shadowen H, Williams GA, et al (2024)

A comparison of social prescribing approaches across twelve high-income countries.

Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 142:104992 pii:S0168-8510(24)00002-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Social prescribing connects patients with community resources to improve their health and well-being. It is gaining momentum globally due to its potential for addressing non-medical causes of illness while building on existing resources and enhancing overall health at a relatively low cost. The COVID-19 pandemic further underscored the need for policy interventions to address health-related social issues such as loneliness and isolation.

AIM: This paper presents evidence of the conceptualisation and implementation of social prescribing schemes in twelve countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, England, Finland, Germany, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, the Netherlands, the United States and Wales.

METHODS: Twelve countries were identified through the Health Systems and Policy Monitor (HSPM) network and the EuroHealthNet Partnership. Information was collected through a twelve open-ended question survey based on a conceptual model inspired by the WHO's Health System Framework.

RESULTS: We found that social prescribing can take different forms, and the scale of implementation also varies significantly. Robust evidence on impact is scarce and highly context-specific, with some indications of cost-effectiveness and positive impact on well-being.

CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides insights into social prescribing in various contexts and may guide countries interested in holistically tackling health-related social factors and strengthening community-based care. Policies can support a more seamless integration of social prescribing into existing care, improve collaboration among sectors and training programs for health and social care professionals.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Xiao MT, Ellsworth CR, X Qin (2024)

Emerging role of complement in COVID-19 and other respiratory virus diseases.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 81(1):94.

The complement system, a key component of innate immunity, provides the first line of defense against bacterial infection; however, the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that it may also engender severe complications in the context of viral respiratory disease. Here, we review the mechanisms of complement activation and regulation and explore their roles in both protecting against infection and exacerbating disease. We discuss emerging evidence related to complement-targeted therapeutics in COVID-19 and compare the role of the complement in other respiratory viral diseases like influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. We review recent mechanistic studies and animal models that can be used for further investigation. Novel knockout studies are proposed to better understand the nuances of the activation of the complement system in respiratory viral diseases.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Di Laudo F, Mainieri G, F Provini (2024)

Parasomnias During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Sleep medicine clinics, 19(1):177-187.

COVID-19 had a massive impact on sleep, resulting in overall increase of sleep disturbances. During lockdown many factors contributed to sleep disturbances, in particular changes in sleep-wake habits and stress. This article will describe the frequency and features of the principal parasomnias and the impact of the pandemic and the government restriction measures on sleep. Among different pathophysiological hypotheses, we will discuss the role of stress, considered as an expression of the allostatic load. Finally, during the pandemic, parasomnias were mainly investigated by questionnaires, with controversial results; video-polysomnographic studies are crucial to obtain a definitive diagnosis, even in critical conditions.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Moon TS (2024)

Earth: Extinguishing Anthropogenic Risks Through Harmonization.

New biotechnology pii:S1871-6784(24)00004-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Human diseases can kill one person at a time, but the COVID-19 pandemic showed massacres could be possible. The climate crisis could be even worse, potentially leading to a bigger number of deaths of the human species and all living systems on Earth. I urge us to change our human-focused mindset to solve many problems, including the climate crisis, which humans caused to the entire ecosystems due to our arrogance: humans own this world. In this perspective article, I propose four recommendations to address climate issues through paradigm change and safe and sustainable technologies.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Yao Z, Zhang L, Duan Y, et al (2024)

Molecular Insights into the Adaptive Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.

The Journal of infection pii:S0163-4453(24)00055-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has substantially damaged the global economy and human health. The spike (S) protein of coronaviruses plays a pivotal role in viral entry by binding to host cell receptors. Additionally, it acts as the primary target for neutralizing antibodies in those infected and is the central focus for currently utilized or researched vaccines. During the virus's adaptation to the human host, the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 has undergone significant evolution. As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded, new mutations have arisen and vanished, giving rise to distinctive amino acid profiles within VOC strains of SARS-CoV-2. Notably, many of these changes in the S protein have been positively selected, leading to substantial alterations in viral characteristics, such as heightened transmissibility and immune evasion capabilities. This review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of the structural implications associated with key amino acid changes in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. These research findings shed light on the intricate and dynamic nature of viral evolution, underscoring the importance of continuous monitoring and analysis of viral genomes. Through these molecular-level investigations, we can attain deeper insights into the virus's adaptive evolution, offering valuable guidance for designing vaccines and developing antiviral drugs to combat the ever-evolving viral threats.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Delphin M, Mohammed KS, Downs LO, et al (2024)

Under-representation of the WHO African region in clinical trials of interventions against hepatitis B virus infection.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology pii:S2468-1253(23)00315-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The WHO African region bears a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and accounts for an estimated 70% of new HBV infections worldwide. We investigated the extent to which HBV clinical trials represented populations in this region by searching the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for interventional clinical trials published in English between database inception and May 29, 2023, using the search term "Hepatitis B". We identified 1804 unique clinical trials, of which 18 (1·0%) recorded involvement of the WHO African region. There is no evidence that the number of HBV clinical trials in this region has improved over time. The diversity of new interventions and industry sponsorship in the WHO African region were low, with trials of HBV comparing poorly with those of other endemic infectious diseases (eg, malaria, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2). HBV research and clinical trial investigations have neglected the WHO African region, leading to profound health inequities. HBV clinical trials are urgently needed to evaluate the efficacy of newly discovered therapeutics and to ensure that interventions can be equitably distributed and deployed as they become available.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Cooke GS, Flower B, Cunningham E, et al (2024)

Progress towards elimination of viral hepatitis: a Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission update.

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology pii:S2468-1253(23)00321-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The top 20 highest burdened countries (in disability-adjusted life years) account for more than 75% of the global burden of viral hepatitis. An effective response in these 20 countries is crucial if global elimination targets are to be achieved. In this update of the Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission on accelerating the elimination of viral hepatitis, we convene national experts from each of the top 20 highest burdened countries to provide an update on progress. Although the global burden of diseases is falling, progress towards elimination varies greatly by country. By use of a hepatitis elimination policy index conceived as part of the 2019 Commission, we measure countries' progress towards elimination. Progress in elimination policy has been made in 14 of 20 countries with the highest burden since 2018, with the most substantial gains observed in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan, and Russia. Most improvements are attributable to the publication of formalised national action plans for the elimination of viral hepatitis, provision of publicly funded screening programmes, and government subsidisation of antiviral treatments. Key themes that emerged from discussion between national commissioners from the highest burdened countries build on the original recommendations to accelerate the global elimination of viral hepatitis. These themes include the need for simplified models of care, improved access to appropriate diagnostics, financing initiatives, and rapid implementation of lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Shaikh SB, Prabhu A, Akarsha B , et al (2024)

Lung as a target for COVID-19: Mechanistic insights and probable candidate molecules for cure.

Journal of infection and public health, 17(4):573-578 pii:S1876-0341(24)00020-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Novel coronavirus (SARS nCoV2), belonging to the family coronaviridae, remains a dreadful pathogen affecting the respiratory tract and lungs. COVID-19 declared a global pandemic by WHO, has become a serious cause of concern for clinicians and researchers, who need to understand the significant biology and pathogenicity of this virus to design better treatment modalities. Existing antiretroviral drugs remain partially ineffective in critical subjects with associated co-morbidities. This review provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms by which SARS-CoV2 targets the lungs leading to ARDS in severe cases. This also addresses the possible drug targets and certain anti-inflammatory natural compounds that can be looked upon as promising adjuvant therapeutics for COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Huang W, Liu W, Yu T, et al (2024)

Effect of anti-COVID-19 drugs on patients with cancer.

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 268:116214 pii:S0223-5234(24)00094-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The clinical treatment of patients with cancer who are also diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been a challenging issue since the outbreak of COVID-19. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the effects of commonly used drugs for treating COVID-19 in patients with cancer. Hence, this review aims to provide a reference for the clinical treatment of patients with cancer to minimize the losses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we also focused on the relationship between COVID-19, commonly used drugs for treating COVID-19, and cancer. We specifically investigated the effect of these drugs on tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. The potential mechanisms of action of these drugs were discussed and evaluated. We found that most of these drugs showed inhibitory effects on tumors, and only in a few cases had cancer-promoting effects. Furthermore, inappropriate usage of these drugs may lead to irreversible kidney and heart damage. Finally, we have clarified the use of different drugs, which can provide useful guidance for the clinical treatment of cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Torres-Macho J, Macasaet R, et al (2024)

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in COVID-19 survivors with post-COVID symptoms: a systematic review of the literature.

Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Viral persistence is one of the main hypotheses explaining the presence of post-COVID symptoms. This systematic review investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma, stool, urine, and nasal/oral swab samples in individuals with post-COVID symptomatology.

CONTENT: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science databases, as well as medRxiv/bioRxiv preprint servers were searched up to November 25th, 2023. Articles investigating the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma, stool, urine or nasal/oral swab samples in patients with post-COVID symptoms were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale or Cochrane's Risk of Bias (Rob) tool.

SUMMARY: From 322 studies identified, six studies met all inclusion criteria. The sample included 678 COVID-19 survivors (52 % female, aged from 29 to 66 years). The methodological quality was moderate in 88 % of the studies (n=5/6). Three papers investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma, three studies in nasal/oral swabs, two studies in stool samples, one in urine and one in saliva. The follow-up was shorter than two months (<60 days after) in 66 % of the studies (n=4/6). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA ranged from 5 to 59 % in patients with post-COVID symptoms the first two months after infection, depending on the sample tested, however, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was also identified in COVID-19 survivors without post-COVID symptoms (one study).

OUTLOOK: Available evidence can suggest the presence of persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA in post-COVID patients in the short term, although the biases within the studies do not permit us to make firm assumptions. The association between post-COVID symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the samples tested is also conflicting. The lack of comparative group without post-COVID symptoms limits the generalizability of viral persistence in post-COVID-19 condition.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Chaturvedi A, Sharma S, R Shukla (2024)

Drug Nanocrystals: A Delivery Channel for Antiviral Therapies.

AAPS PharmSciTech, 25(3):41.

Viral infections represent a significant threat to global health due to their highly communicable and potentially lethal nature. Conventional antiviral interventions encounter challenges such as drug resistance, tolerability issues, specificity concerns, high costs, side effects, and the constant mutation of viral proteins. Consequently, the exploration of alternative approaches is imperative. Therefore, nanotechnology-embedded drugs excelled as a novel approach purporting severe life-threatening viral disease. Integrating nanomaterials and nanoparticles enables ensuring precise drug targeting, improved drug delivery, and fostered pharmacokinetic properties. Notably, nanocrystals (NCs) stand out as one of the most promising nanoformulations, offering remarkable characteristics in terms of physicochemical properties (higher drug loading, improved solubility, and drug retention), pharmacokinetics (enhanced bioavailability, dose reduction), and optical properties (light absorptivity, photoluminescence). These attributes make NCs effective in diagnosing and ameliorating viral infections. This review comprises the prevalence, pathophysiology, and resistance of viral infections along with emphasizing on failure of current antivirals in the management of the diseases. Moreover, the review also highlights the role of NCs in various viral infections in mitigating, diagnosing, and other NC-based strategies combating viral infections. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies evident for the effectiveness of NCs against viral pathogens are also discussed.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Bashir MA, Awoonor-Williams JK, F Amponsah-Manu (2024)

Prevalence of fever and its associated risk factors among patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Eastern Regional Hospital, Koforidua, Ghana.

PloS one, 19(2):e0296134.

BACKGROUND: In Ghana, temperature check at various points of entry was adopted as a means of screening people for coronavirus disease 2019 without taking into consideration data on the local prevalence of fever associated with the disease. Our objective was to assess fever prevalence and its associated risk factors among patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 at the Eastern Regional Hospital, Koforidua in Ghana.

METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 301 coronavirus disease 2019 patients who were admitted at the Eastern Regional Hospital, Koforidua between May 5, 2020, and August 31, 2021. Data collected on a pre-designed extraction sheet was processed, entered and analysed using Microsoft excel 2019 and Stata/IC version 16.1 software. Prevalence of fever was estimated and a multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to establish risk factors associated with fever among hospitalised coronavirus disease 2019 patients. A relationship was accepted to be significant at 5% level of significance.

RESULTS: The prevalence of fever among hospitalised coronavirus disease 2019 patients was 21.6% (95% CI, 17.1%-26.7%). Risk factors associated with fever were age group [0-19 years (AOR, 5.75; 95% CI, 1.46-22.68; p = 0.013); 20-39 years (AOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.42-7.29; p = 0.005)], comorbidity (AOR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.04-4.59; p = 0.040), and disease severity [moderate (AOR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.44-10.49; p = 0.007); severe (AOR, 4.08; 95% CI, 1.36-12.21; p = 0.012); critical (AOR, 4.85; 95% CI, 1.03-22.85; p = 0.046)].

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of fever was low among hospitalised coronavirus disease 2019 patients at the Eastern Regional Hospital, Koforidua. However, there was an increasing risk of fever as the disease severity progresses. Fever screening may be utilised better in disease of higher severity; it should not be used alone especially in mild disease.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Nguyen TT, Nguyen Thi YV, DT Chu (2024)

RNA therapeutics: Molecular mechanisms, and potential clinical translations.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 203:65-82.

RNA therapies involve the utilization of natural and artificial RNA molecules to control the expression and function of cellular genes and proteins. Initializing from 1990s, RNA therapies now show the rapid growth in the development and application of RNA therapeutics for treating various conditions, especially for undruggable diseases. The outstanding success of recent mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 infection again highlighted the important role of RNA therapies in future medicine. In this review, we will first briefly provide the crucial investigations on RNA therapy, from the first pieces of discovery on RNA molecules to clinical applications of RNA therapeutics. We will then classify the mechanisms of RNA therapeutics from various classes in the treatment of diseases. To emphasize the huge potential of RNA therapies, we also provide the key RNA products that have been on clinical trials or already FDA-approved. With comprehensive knowledge on RNA biology, and the advances in analysis, technology and computer-aid science, RNA therapies can bring a promise to be more expanding to the market in the future.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Farias LABG, Caminha I, Perdigão Neto LV, et al (2024)

Human Rabies during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights into Rabies Worldwide and Brazil.

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 57:e003002024 pii:S0037-86822024000100300.

Human Rabies (HR) is a fatal zoonotic disease caused by lyssaviruses, with the rabies virus (RABV) identified as the causative agent. While the incidence of HR transmitted by dogs has decreased in Latin America, there has been a corresponding rise in transmission via wild animals. Given the lack of effective treatments and specific therapies, the management of HR relies on the availability of post-exposure prophylaxis and animal control measures. This review examines the dynamics and spread of HR during the global pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Estapé Senti M, García Del Valle L, RM Schiffelers (2024)

mRNA delivery systems for cancer immunotherapy: Lipid nanoparticles and beyond.

Advanced drug delivery reviews, 206:115190.

mRNA-based vaccines are emerging as a promising alternative to standard cancer treatments and the conventional vaccines. Moreover, the FDA-approval of three nucleic acid based therapeutics (Onpattro, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) has further increased the interest and trust on this type of therapeutics. In order to achieve a significant therapeutic efficacy, the mRNA needs from a drug delivery system. In the last years, several delivery platforms have been explored, being the lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) the most well characterized and studied. A better understanding on how mRNA-based therapeutics operate (both the mRNA itself and the drug delivery system) will help to further improve their efficacy and safety. In this review, we will provide an overview of what mRNA cancer vaccines are and their mode of action and we will highlight the advantages and challenges of the different delivery platforms that are under investigation.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Alipour Z, Zarezadeh S, AA Ghotbi-Ravandi (2024)

The Potential of Anti-coronavirus Plant Secondary Metabolites in COVID-19 Drug Discovery as an Alternative to Repurposed Drugs: A Review.

Planta medica, 90(3):172-203.

In early 2020, a global pandemic was announced due to the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause COVID-19. Despite worldwide efforts, there are only limited options regarding antiviral drug treatments for COVID-19. Although vaccines are now available, issues such as declining efficacy against different SARS-CoV-2 variants and the aging of vaccine-induced immunity highlight the importance of finding more antiviral drugs as a second line of defense against the disease. Drug repurposing has been used to rapidly find COVID-19 therapeutic options. Due to the lack of clinical evidence for the therapeutic benefits and certain serious side effects of repurposed antivirals, the search for an antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2 with fewer side effects continues. In recent years, numerous studies have included antiviral chemicals from a variety of plant species. A better knowledge of the possible antiviral natural products and their mechanism against SARS-CoV-2 will help to develop stronger and more targeted direct-acting antiviral agents. The aim of the present study was to compile the current data on potential plant metabolites that can be investigated in COVID-19 drug discovery and development. This review represents a collection of plant secondary metabolites and their mode of action against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Smith A, Buchanan R, Parkes J, et al (2024)

Barriers and facilitators experienced in delivering alcohol screening and brief interventions in community pharmacy: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

The International journal of pharmacy practice, 32(1):5-20.

BACKGROUND: Following increases in deaths due to alcohol during the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been renewed calls to increase resources in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI). Research has shown that community pharmacy could be a promising setting for SBI. This review aimed to investigate the barriers and facilitators to SBI delivery in community pharmacy to inform its further development.

METHODS: A systematic search of four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) was conducted in October 2021 to identify relevant published qualitative or mixed-method studies. Relevant qualitative data were extracted from the included studies and a framework synthesis was performed using the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model.

RESULTS: Two thousand two hundred and ten articles were screened and nine studies were included in the review (seven in the United Kingdom and two in Australia). Identified barriers and facilitators to delivering SBI corresponded to all components of the COM-B model. Facilitators included non-confrontational communication skills, aligning SBI with existing pharmacy services and pharmacist role legitimacy. Barriers included multiple demands on staff time, a lack of staff experience with screening tools, and staff concerns of causing offence. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), we propose five elements of a pharmacy SBI to address identified barriers.

CONCLUSIONS: Research into SBI in community pharmacy is limited in comparison to other healthcare settings and this review provides an understanding of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery of SBI in community pharmacy from a behavioural perspective. Through the use of COM-B and BCW, our findings could inform the development of future pharmacy-based SBI.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

O'Neil LM, O'Neill M, Whelan F, et al (2024)

Novel ENT live telehealth and live video-otoscopy clinics in remote Australia: outcomes and comparisons to traditional clinic models.

The Journal of laryngology and otology, 138(3):253-257.

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 challenged the delivery of healthcare in Australia, disproportionately impacting vulnerable patients, including Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples and those living in remote regions. The otolaryngology service provided to remote Western Australia adapted to these barriers by altering clinical consultations to a digital model.

METHODS: A review was undertaken of patients in regional Western Australia. Demographics and clinical outcomes from 20 live telehealth clinics were retrospectively reviewed and compared to 16 face-to-face clinics.

RESULTS: The demographics of patients reviewed in both live telehealth and face-to-face clinics were similar, except for a larger proportion of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander patients utilising telehealth. The outcomes of patients reviewed through each model of care were comparable. Live video-otoscopy provided diagnostic quality images in 92 per cent of cases.

CONCLUSION: The findings of our review suggest that, despite its limitations, a large proportion of ENT patients may be safely assessed through a live telehealth model.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Jiang IW, Huang JJM, Shah PR, et al (2024)

Intracranial Hypertension Following COVID Vaccination in a Teenager: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 44(1):e96-e98.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Faramarzi A, Norouzi S, Dehdarirad H, et al (2024)

The global economic burden of COVID-19 disease: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

Systematic reviews, 13(1):68.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a considerable threat to the economics of patients, health systems, and society.

OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively assess the global economic burden of COVID-19.

METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to identify studies examining the economic impact of COVID-19. The selected studies were classified into two categories based on the cost-of-illness (COI) study approach: top-down and bottom-up studies. The results of top-down COI studies were presented by calculating the average costs as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) and health expenditures. Conversely, the findings of bottom-up studies were analyzed through meta-analysis using the standardized mean difference.

RESULTS: The implemented search strategy yielded 3271 records, of which 27 studies met the inclusion criteria, consisting of 7 top-down and 20 bottom-up studies. The included studies were conducted in various countries, including the USA (5), China (5), Spain (2), Brazil (2), South Korea (2), India (2), and one study each in Italy, South Africa, the Philippines, Greece, Iran, Kenya, Nigeria, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results of the top-down studies indicated that indirect costs represent 10.53% of GDP, while the total estimated cost accounts for 85.91% of healthcare expenditures and 9.13% of GDP. In contrast, the bottom-up studies revealed that the average direct medical costs ranged from US $1264 to US $79,315. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the medical costs for COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) were approximately twice as high as those for patients in general wards, with a range from 0.05 to 3.48 times higher.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a significant economic burden worldwide, with varying degrees of impact across countries. The findings of our study, along with those of other research, underscore the vital role of economic consequences in the post-COVID-19 era for communities and families. Therefore, policymakers and health administrators should prioritize economic programs and accord them heightened attention.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Beaudoin-Bussières G, A Finzi (2024)

Deciphering Fc-effector functions against SARS-CoV-2.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(24)00005-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Major efforts were deployed to study the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 have been extensively studied in the context of infections, vaccinations, and breakthrough infections. Antibodies, however, are pleiotropic proteins that have many functions in addition to neutralization. These include Fc-effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Although important to combat viral infections, these Fc-effector functions were less studied in the context of SARS-CoV-2 compared with binding and neutralization. This is partly due to the difficulty in developing reliable assays to measure Fc-effector functions compared to antibody binding and neutralization. Multiple assays have now been developed and can be used to measure different Fc-effector functions. Here, we review these assays and what is known regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 Fc-effector functions. Overall, this review summarizes and updates our current state of knowledge regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 Fc-effector functions.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Sourani A, Vahdat N, Bowers CA, et al (2024)

SARS-CoV-2 and spinal cord ischemia, a systematic review on clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society pii:S1529-9430(24)00076-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal cord ischemia is a rare but ominous clinical situation with high levels of disability. There are emerging reports on COVID-19 and spinal cord ischemic events.

PURPOSE: To investigate the cardinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 associated spinal cord ischemia, review treatment paradigms, and follow outcomes.

STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review.

METHODS: The current study was conducted under Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for studies published up to February 12, 2023, on spinal cord ischemia and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data on patient demographics, study methods, medical records, interventions, and outcomes were extracted from eligible articles. For each data set, the authors performed pooled estimates examining 3 factors of interest, which were 1) predisposing factors 2) treatment regimens, and 3) neurological rehabilitation outcomes. Neurological status was reported as the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale reported by data sets.

RESULTS: Six data sets were identified. The mean age of the study population was 50 years old, with 66.6% male predominance. Sixty-six percent of the patients had severe COVID-19. Five data sets reported pre-existing coagulopathy. ASIA A and B were the most prevalent primary neurological status (80%). The mean interval between COVID-19 and the first neurological deficit was 13 days. Anterior spinal artery lesions were the most prevalent ischemic pattern. The most common treatment regimens were heparin and steroid therapy. Physical rehabilitation showed poor functional outcomes.

CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 is associated with spinal cord ischemia through multiple neuropathological mechanisms. Proper coagulation profile control and aggressive rehabilitation may play a promising role in the prevention and recovery of spinal cord infarction in SARS-CoV-2 patients.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Crawley AW, Mercy K, Shivji S, et al (2024)

An indicator framework for the monitoring and evaluation of event-based surveillance systems.

The Lancet. Global health pii:S2214-109X(24)00034-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Event-based surveillance (EBS) systems have been implemented globally to support early warning surveillance across human, animal, and environmental health in diverse settings, including at the community level, within health facilities, at border points of entry, and through media monitoring of internet-based sources. EBS systems should be evaluated periodically to ensure that they meet the objectives related to the early detection of health threats and to identify areas for improvement in the quality, efficiency, and usefulness of the systems. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive framework to guide the monitoring and evaluation of EBS systems; this absence of standardisation has hindered progress in the field. The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have collaborated to develop an EBS monitoring and evaluation indicator framework, adaptable to specific country contexts, that uses measures relating to input, activity, output, outcome, and impact to map the processes and expected results of EBS systems. Through the implementation and continued refinement of these indicators, countries can ensure the early detection of health threats and improve their ability to measure and describe the impacts of EBS systems, thus filling the current evidence gap regarding their effectiveness.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Fang Y, Xing X, Wang S, et al (2024)

Post-COVID highlights: Challenges and solutions of artificial intelligence techniques for swift identification of COVID-19.

Current opinion in structural biology, 85:102778 pii:S0959-440X(24)00005-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019, there has been a concerted effort to develop cost-effective, non-invasive, and rapid AI-based tools. These tools were intended to alleviate the burden on healthcare systems, control the rapid spread of the virus, and enhance intervention outcomes, all in response to this unprecedented global crisis. As we transition into a post-COVID era, we retrospectively evaluate these proposed studies and offer a review of the techniques employed in AI diagnostic models, with a focus on the solutions proposed for different challenges. This review endeavors to provide insights into the diverse solutions designed to address the multifaceted challenges that arose during the pandemic. By doing so, we aim to prepare the AI community for the development of AI tools tailored to address public health emergencies effectively.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Trivedi R, Elshafie S, Tackett R, et al (2024)

Effectiveness and Feasibility of Telehealth-Based Dietary Interventions Targeting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of medical Internet research, 26:e49178 pii:v26i1e49178.

BACKGROUND: Telehealth-based dietary interventions were recommended for cardiovascular disease (CVD) management during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, data regarding their effectiveness and feasibility are limited.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine (1) the effectiveness of telehealth-based dietary interventions in improving clinical CVD risk factors and (2) the feasibility of these interventions among individuals with CVD.

METHODS: To conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 2 investigators searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases based on predetermined search terms and included English-language RCTs published between January 2000 and July 2022. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess RCT quality. To evaluate intervention effectiveness, weight, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood glucose were compared postintervention in telehealth and usual care (UC) groups. Feasibility was determined through the number of participants retained in intervention and UC groups. Pooled data for each CVD outcome were analyzed using a random effects model. Mean difference (MD), standardized MD, or risk ratio were calculated using R software.

RESULTS: A total of 13 RCTs with 3013 participants were included in the analysis to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of telehealth-based dietary interventions among individuals with CVD. Participants had a mean age of 61.0 (SD 3.7) years, and 18.5% (n=559) were women. Approximately one-third of RCTs were conducted in the United States (n=4, 31%). Included studies used telephone, app, text, audio-visual media, or website-based interventions. Of the 13 included studies, 3 were of high quality, 9 were of moderate quality, and only 1 was of low quality. Pooled estimates showed systolic blood pressure (MD -2.74, 95% CI -4.93 to -0.56) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (standardized MD -0.11, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.03) to be significantly improved among individuals with CVD as a result of telehealth-based dietary interventions compared to UC. No significant difference in effectiveness was detected for weight, BMI, and levels of diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides between telehealth-based dietary interventions and UC among those with CVD. There was no significant difference between the feasibility of telehealth-based dietary interventions versus UC. Significant I[2] indicated moderate to considerable heterogeneity.

CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth-based dietary interventions show promise in addressing CVD risk factors.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Bashary NZ, MH Levine (2024)

Teaching strategy adaptations in undergraduate dental education during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal of dental education [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, dental institutions were challenged to rapidly adapt to the inability of teaching in-person lectures and pre-clinical simulations. Strategies had to be quickly developed to guarantee the safety of faculty and students, while also adhering to national guidelines to ensure that educational standards were met and students' graduations and entrance into residency programs were not delayed. This literature review assesses the novel strategies that dental schools created and implemented to teach in a distance-learning platform and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. In addition, this review talks about the lessons learned during the pandemic and the incorporation of successful strategies after the pandemic ended.

METHODS: This review evaluated the literature using PubMed and ScienceDirect with the following keywords: "teaching strategies," "dental education," and "COVID-19." The search strategy yielded 15 articles that assessed relevant teaching strategies that were implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RESULTS: The literature described the swift response of dental institutions in implementing teaching strategies in response to the inability of continuing in-person teaching. An overwhelming majority of institutions moved their didactic lectures to online platforms. Several institutions implemented online simulations with virtual reality models, videos and discussion boards, standardized patient actors, and case-based discussions.

CONCLUSION: Many of the teaching strategies that were implemented as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic were highly effective. Dental schools were able to satisfy Commission on Dental Accreditation standards and meet students' requirements for graduation during the pandemic despite the rapid and unplanned shift away from in-person instruction and simulation secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Kirk NM, Liang Y, H Ly (2024)

Pathogenesis and virulence of coronavirus disease: Comparative pathology of animal models for COVID-19.

Virulence, 15(1):2316438.

Animal models that can replicate clinical and pathologic features of severe human coronavirus infections have been instrumental in the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the pathologic features that can be observed in several currently available animal models. Knowledge gained from studying these animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection can help inform appropriate model selection for disease modelling as well as for vaccine and therapeutic developments.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Enright C, Gilbourne C, Kiersey R, et al (2024)

Efficacy of facemasks in preventing transmission of COVID-19 in non-healthcare settings: A scoping review.

Journal of infection prevention, 25(1-2):24-32.

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an abundance of literature relating to the efficacy of face masks on reducing transmission of COVID-19 in non-healthcare settings emerged.

AIM/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scoping review was to allow the identification of: types of evidence conducted in this area; knowledge gaps and common concepts relating to mask efficacy in non-healthcare settings.

METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase and the Irish Management Institute bibliographic database on December 15th, 2021. All types of face masks were included. Of 722 records, 16 were included after full text screening.

FINDINGS/RESULTS: Themes from an adapted model of Howard et al. framework were used to group results and identify common concepts. The grouped thematic results were then applied to the socio-ecological model. This illustrated the multifactorial elements determining the efficacy of masks themselves while also illustrating how other factors such as individual behaviours, social interactions, settings and national policy can influence the degree of the protective effect.

DISCUSSION: The findings from this scoping review indicate that an abundance of experimental literature is available indicating that masks are effective at preventing COVID-19 transmission but their degree of efficacy is impacted by external factors. This review highlights that the quality of the evidence available is low.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Shahrin L, Nowrin I, Afrin S, et al (2024)

Monitoring and evaluation practices and operational research during public health emergencies in southeast Asia region (2012-2022) - a systematic review.

The Lancet regional health. Southeast Asia, 21:100340.

This systematic review aimed to explore the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and operational research (OR) practices during public health emergencies (PHE) in the southeast Asian region (SEAR) over the last decade. We searched electronic databases and grey literature sources for studies published between 2012 and 2022. The studies written in English were included, and a narrative synthesis was undertaken. A total of 29 studies were included in this review. Among these 25 studies documented M&E and four studies documented OR practices. The majority of the studies were from India and Bangladesh, with no evidence found from Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Timor-Leste. M&E of surveillance programs were identified among which PHE due to COVID-19 was most prevalent. M&E was conducted in response to COVID-19, cholera, Nipah, Ebola, Candida auris, and hepatitis A. OR practice was minimal and reported from India and Indonesia. India conducted OR on COVID-19 and malaria, whereas Indonesia focused on COVID-19 and influenza. While most SEAR countries have mechanisms for conducting M&E, there is a noticeable limitation in OR practices. There is a compelling need to develop a standard framework for M&E. Additionally, enhancing private sector engagement is crucial for strengthening preparedness against PHE. Furthermore, there is a necessity to increase awareness about the importance of conducting M&E and OR during PHE.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Dichtl S, Posch W, D Wilflingseder (2024)

The breathtaking world of human respiratory in vitro models: Investigating lung diseases and infections in 3D models, organoids, and lung-on-chip.

European journal of immunology [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic illustrated an urgent need for sophisticated, human tissue models to rapidly test and develop effective treatment options against this newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Thus, in particular, the last 3 years faced an extensive boost in respiratory and pulmonary model development. Nowadays, 3D models, organoids and lung-on-chip, respiratory models in perfusion, or precision-cut lung slices are used to study complex research questions in human primary cells. These models provide physiologically relevant systems for studying SARS-CoV-2 and, of course, other respiratory pathogens, but they are, too, suited for studying lung pathologies, such as CF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma, in more detail in terms of viral infection. With these models, the cornerstone has been laid for further advancing the organs by, for example, inclusion of several immune cell types or humoral immune components, combination with other organs in microfluidic organ-on-chip devices, standardization and harmonization of the devices for reliable and reproducible drug and vaccine testing in high throughput.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Kakavandi S, Hajikhani B, Azizi P, et al (2024)

COVID-19 in patients with anemia and haematological malignancies: risk factors, clinical guidelines, and emerging therapeutic approaches.

Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 22(1):126.

Extensive research in countries with high sociodemographic indices (SDIs) to date has shown that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be directly associated with more severe outcomes among patients living with haematological disorders and malignancies (HDMs). Because individuals with moderate to severe immunodeficiency are likely to undergo persistent infections, shed virus particles for prolonged periods, and lack an inflammatory or abortive phase, this represents an overall risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. In cases suffering from HDMs, further investigation is needed to achieve a better understanding of triviruses and a group of related variants in patients with anemia and HDMs, as well as their treatment through vaccines, drugs, and other methods. Against this background, the present study aimed to delineate the relationship between HDMs and the novel COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Besides, effective treatment options for HDM cases were further explored to address this epidemic and its variants. Therefore, learning about how COVID-19 manifests in these patients, along with exploiting the most appropriate treatments, may lead to the development of treatment and care strategies by clinicians and researchers to help patients recover faster. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Wong LP, Lee HY, Alias H, et al (2024)

Cost-based COVID-19 vaccination and willingness to pay: A post-pandemic review.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 20(1):2313860.

The primary objective of this paper is to serve as a valuable resource for policymakers who are confronted with the evolving landscape of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), considering both free and cost-based vaccination approaches. The potential consequences of shifting from free to cost-based vaccination are explored, encompassing its impact on global vaccine equity and prioritization, economic well-being, healthcare systems and delivery, public health policies, and vaccine distribution strategies. Examining past studies on willingness to pay for the initial COVID-19 vaccine dose and booster shots provides insights into how individuals value COVID-19 vaccinations and underscores the significance of addressing issues related to affordability. If COVID-19 vaccinations incur expenses, using effective communication strategies that emphasize the importance of vaccination and personal health benefits can increase willingness to pay. Making COVID-19 vaccines accessible through public health programs or health insurance can help alleviate financial barriers and increase vaccination rates.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Shang Q, Xu K, Ji H, et al (2024)

Changes in prevalence of anxiety and depression among COVID-19 patients during a two-year recovery period: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of psychosomatic research, 178:111602 pii:S0022-3999(24)00014-X [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trend of anxiety and depression prevalences up to 2 years of follow-up for COVID-19 patients during the recovery period and to compare regional differences.

METHODS: We performed a systematic review from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP using keywords such as "COVID-19", "anxiety", "depression", and "cohort study". Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled prevalence of anxiety and depression at five follow-up time intervals. Subgroup analyses were conducted by different regions.

RESULTS: 34 cohort studies were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled anxiety prevalence rates at 0-1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-12 months and 12-24 months were 18% (95% CI: 11% to 28%), 18% (95% CI: 12% to 28%), 22% (95% CI: 16% to 29%), 15% (95% CI: 11% to 21%), and 10% (95% CI: 0.05% to 20%), respectively, and the pooled depression prevalence rates were 22% (95%CI: 15% to 33%), 19% (95% CI: 13% to 29%), 21% (95% CI: 15% to 28%), 15% (95% CI: 11% to 20%), and 9% (95% CI: 0.4% to 21%) respectively. The prevalence of depression in Asian and non-Asian countries was statistically different at 0-1 month (χ[2] = 15.248, P < 0.001) and 1-3 months (χ[2] = 28.298, P < 0.001), and prevalence of anxiety was statistically different at 3-6 months (χ[2] = 9.986, P = 0.002) and 6-12 months (χ[2] = 7.378, P = 0.007).

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety and depression in COVID-19 patients generally tends to decrease after 2 years of recovery, but may temporarily increase at 3-6 months. There are regional differences in the changes in prevalence of anxiety and depression.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Scendoni R, Fedeli P, Tomassini L, et al (2024)

Medical ethics questions of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant and lactating women in East Asia and Oceania.

La Clinica terapeutica, 175(1):68-72.

We aimed to investigate some of the medical ethics issues that characterize the COVID-19 vaccination phase in pregnancy and breast-feeding. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, focusing mainly on the countries of East Asia and Oceania. Vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding appears to help protect babies from COVID-19 by enabling antibodies to pass from mother to baby. However, individual countries of the same continent may adopt conflicting policy positions. Not only that, indications on the type of vaccine sometimes vary, depending on whether a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding. In this review we have taken into considerationp the policy positions on pregnancy and lactation by country and type of Covid-19 vaccine in East Asia and Oceania. Ten out of the 18 countries considered (representing more than two thirds of the population of East Asia and Oceania) provide different vaccine indications for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Can this diversity of recommendations be seen as a form of optimal protection for women in these categories, or does it suggest that some countries have taken a defensive position to avoid compensation claims in the event of complications? Is it ethically correct to leave questions concerning informed consent open? Misin-formation during a health crisis leaves people without protection and with increased vaccine hesitancy, especially for vulnerable populations in hard-to-reach areas of East Asia and Oceania.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Rivera-Espinosa L, Castellanos-Carrizal C, S Montes (2024)

Pediatric tuberculosis in Mexico and the COVID-19 phenomenon: Past and present.

Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica [Epub ahead of print].

In endemic regions, tuberculosis in children constitutes a bigger fraction of total cases as compared to those in low endemic regions, regardless of the implications, this phenomenon has been historically neglected. Pediatric tuberculosis has an insidious onset and quickly develops into disseminated disease and the young are at a special risk for dissemination. Some studies suggest that measures to contain adult tuberculosis are not enough to manage tuberculosis in children, meaning that pediatric tuberculosis needs dedicated attention. Children are harder to diagnose than adults, because collecting samples is difficult, and their bacterial yield is low. In endemic countries, such as Mexico, where contact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is common, immunological tests are inconsistent, especially in immunocompromised children. With the disruption of Mexican healthcare services by the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an uncertainty of how the situation has evolved, current data about tuberculosis indicates a drop in the national report of cases: 15.4 per 100,000 persons in 2021, compared with pre-COVID 2019 17.7 per 100,000 persons, a small increase in mortality: 1.7 per 100,000 in 2021 compared with 2019 1.6 per 100,000, a drop in treatment success: 80.4% in 2021 compared with 85.4% in 2019, and a decrease in national vaccination rates: an estimate of 86.6% children between 1 and 2 years-old were vaccinated in 2021 compared with 97.3% reported national rate in 2018-2019. There is a need for new research on regions with high tuberculosis incidence, to clarify the current situation of pediatric tuberculosis and improve epidemiological surveillance.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Wechsler K, Griemsmann S, Weber B, et al (2024)

The impact of remote work using mobile information and communication technologies on physical health: a systematic review.

Ergonomics [Epub ahead of print].

Remote e-working with information and communication technology (ICT) has long been on the rise, with its implementation accelerated by mandatory working from home regulations during the COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic literature review summarises the influencing factors of ICT-based remote e-working (device types, duration of use, user interfaces, etc.) on the physical health (musculoskeletal system and eyes) of knowledge workers. A search in four electronic databases and a manual search in four German journals resulted in 21 articles being included in this review. A bias analysis was conducted for all articles. Unfavourable postures, inappropriate working devices and certain environmental factors may cause a range of physical complaints, even after comparably short periods of time. Mostly, these complaints are greater compared to those experienced when working on a fully equipped stationary computer. Therefore, remote e-working requires careful planning, awareness, and the willingness to embrace working situations that counteract these problems.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Kumar A, Singh N, Anvikar AR, et al (2024)

Monkeypox virus: insights into pathogenesis and laboratory testing methods.

3 Biotech, 14(3):67.

The monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a zoonotic pathogen that transmits between monkeys and humans, exhibiting clinical similarities with the smallpox virus. Studies on the immunopathogenesis of MPXV revealed that an initial strong innate immune response is elicited on viral infection that subsequently helps in circumventing the host defense. Once the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a global public health emergency in July 2022, it became essential to clearly demarcate the MPXV-induced symptoms from other viral infections. We have exhaustively searched the various databases involving Google Scholar, PubMed, and Medline to extract the information comprehensively compiled in this review. The primary focus of this review is to describe the diagnostic methods for MPXV such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serological assays, along with developments in viral isolation, imaging techniques, and next-generation sequencing. These innovative technologies have the potential to greatly enhance the accuracy of diagnostic procedures. Significant discoveries involving MPXV immunopathogenesis have also been highlighted. Overall, this will be a knowledge repertoire that will be crucial for the development of efficient monitoring and control strategies in response to the MPXV infection helping clinicians and researchers in formulating healthcare strategies.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Olanrewaju YA, Oladunni AA, David KB, et al (2023)

Covid-19 and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa: a narrative review.

African health sciences, 23(3):412-421.

Coronavirus disease 2019 popularly known as COVID-19 is the current pandemic ravaging the world. It has disrupted so many aspects of humans' life including the healthcare systems of all countries. While governments have instituted preventive measures such as social distancing, self-isolation and lockdown in a bid to control the spread of the virus, the absence of vaccine can lead to poor management of key risk factors (including unhealthy diets and physical inactivity) associated with NCDs and limited access to preventive health services can further contribute to development and progression of NCDs. This study provides a review of available evidences from PubMed, google scholar, online databases, and papers from other sources on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on NCDs in Africa and emphasizes lessons from past pandemics that can be adopted to reduce the burden of the disease.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Vandelli V, Palandri L, Coratza P, et al (2024)

Conditioning factors in the spreading of Covid-19 - Does geography matter?.

Heliyon, 10(3):e25810.

There is evidence in literature that the spread of COVID-19 can be influenced by various geographic factors, including territorial features, climate, population density, socioeconomic conditions, and mobility. The objective of the paper is to provide an updated literature review on geographical studies analysing the factors which influenced COVID-19 spreading. This literature review took into account not only the geographical aspects but also the COVID-19-related outcomes (infections and deaths) allowing to discern the potential influencing role of the geographic factors per type of outcome. A total of 112 scientific articles were selected, reviewed and categorized according to subject area, aim, country/region of study, considered geographic and COVID-19 variables, spatial and temporal units of analysis, methodologies, and main findings. Our literature review showed that territorial features may have played a role in determining the uneven geography of COVID-19; for instance, a certain agreement was found regarding the direct relationship between urbanization degree and COVID-19 infections. For what concerns climatic factors, temperature was the variable that correlated the best with COVID-19 infections. Together with climatic factors, socio-demographic ones were extensively taken into account. Most of the analysed studies agreed that population density and human mobility had a significant and direct relationship with COVID-19 infections and deaths. The analysis of the different approaches used to investigate the role of geographic factors in the spreading of the COVID-19 pandemic revealed that the significance/representativeness of the outputs is influenced by the scale considered due to the great spatial variability of geographic aspects. In fact, a more robust and significant association between geographic factors and COVID-19 was found by studies conducted at subnational or local scale rather than at country scale.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Moshawih S, Jarrar Q, Bahrin AA, et al (2024)

Evaluating NSAIDs in SARS-CoV-2: Immunomodulatory mechanisms and future therapeutic strategies.

Heliyon, 10(3):e25734.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely recognized for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Amidst the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the role of NSAIDs in modulating viral and bacterial infections has become a critical area of research, sparking debates and necessitating a thorough review. This review examines the multifaceted interactions between NSAIDs, immune responses, and infections. Focusing on the immunomodulatory mechanisms of NSAIDs in SARS-CoV-2 and their implications for other viral and bacterial infections, we aim to provide clarity and direction for future therapeutic strategies. NSAIDs demonstrate a dual role in infectious diseases. They reduce inflammation by decreasing neutrophil recruitment and cytokine release, yet potentially compromise antiviral defense mechanisms. They also modulate cytokine storms in SARS-CoV-2 and exhibit the potential to enhance anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting tumor-induced COX-2/PGE2 signaling. Specific NSAIDs have shown efficacy in inhibiting viral replication. The review highlights NSAIDs' synergy with other medications, like COX inhibitors and immunotherapy agents, in augmenting therapeutic effects. Notably, the World Health Organization's analysis found no substantial link between NSAIDs and the worsening of viral respiratory infections. The findings underscore NSAIDs' complex role in infection management. Understanding these interactions is crucial for optimizing therapeutic approaches in current and future pandemics. However, their dual nature warrants cautious application, particularly in vulnerable populations. NSAIDs present a paradoxical impact on immune responses in viral and bacterial infections. While offering potential benefits, their usage in infectious diseases, especially SARS-CoV-2, demands a nuanced understanding to balance therapeutic advantages against possible adverse effects.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Belland K, Garcia D, DeJohn C, et al (2024)

Safety and Effectiveness Assessment of Ultraviolet-C Disinfection in Aircraft Cabins.

Aerospace medicine and human performance, 95(3):147-157.

INTRODUCTION: Aircraft cabins, susceptible to disease transmission, require effective strategies to minimize the spread of airborne diseases. This paper reviews the James Reason Swiss Cheese Theory in mitigating these risks, as implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also evaluates the use of airborne ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as an additional protective measure.METHODS: Our approach involved a thorough literature review by experts and a detailed risk-vs.-benefit analysis. The review covered existing research to understand the scientific foundation, while the analysis used established techniques to assess the impact of influenza and COVID-19 in terms of infections, deaths, and economic costs.RESULTS: Integrating UV-C light in aircraft cabins, when applied with appropriate scientific understanding and engineering safeguards, has the potential to reduce in-flight disease transmission. This additional mitigation strategy can work synergistically with existing measures.DISCUSSION: The research and risk-vs.-benefit analysis present strong evidence for the safety and effectiveness of continuous UV-C disinfection in aircraft cabins. It suggests that UV-C light, maintained below exposure limits, can be a valuable addition to existing measures against disease transmission during flights.Belland K, Garcia D, DeJohn C, Allen GR, Mills WD, Glaudel SP. Safety and effectiveness assessment of ultraviolet-C disinfection in aircraft cabins. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2024; 95(3):147-157.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Staunton C, Shabani M, Mascalzoni D, et al (2024)

Ethical and social reflections on the proposed European Health Data Space.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the benefits of international data sharing. Data sharing enabled the health care policy makers to make decisions based on real-time data, it enabled the tracking of the virus, and importantly it enabled the development of vaccines that were crucial to mitigating the impact of the virus. This data sharing is not the norm as data sharing needs to navigate complex ethical and legal rules, and in particular, the fragmented application of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The introduction of the draft regulation for a European Health Data Space (EHDS) in May 2022 seeks to address some of these legal issues. If passed, it will create an obligation to share electronic health data for certain secondary purposes. While there is a clear need to address the legal complexities involved with data sharing, it is critical that any proposed reforms are in line with ethical principles and the expectations of the data subjects. In this paper we offer a critique of the EHDS and offer some recommendations for this evolving regulatory space.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Luo C, Chen W, Cai J, et al (2024)

The mechanisms of milder clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in children compared to adults.

Italian journal of pediatrics, 50(1):28.

In stark contrast to adult patients, children who contract Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) typically manifest milder symptoms or remain asymptomatic. However, the precise underlying mechanisms of this pathogenesis remain elusive. In this review, we primarily retrospect the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, and explore the factors that may contribute to the typically milder clinical presentation in pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients compare with adults patients with COVID-19. The pathophysiological mechanisms that mitigate lung injury in children are as follows: the expression level of ACE2 receptor in children is lower; the binding affinity between ACE2 receptors and viral spike proteins in children was weaker; children have strong pre-activated innate immune response and appropriate adaptive immune response; children have more natural lymphocytes; children with COVID-19 can produce higher levels of IgM, IgG and interferon; children infected with SARS-CoV-2 can produce lower levels of IL-6 and IL-10; children have fewer underlying diseases and the lower risk of worsening COVID-19; children are usually exposed to other respiratory viruses and have an enhanced cross-reactive immunity. Comprehending the relative contributions of these processes to the protective phenotype in the developing lungs can help in the diagnosis, treatment and research pertaining to children with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-02-14

Montenegro AFL, Clementino MAF, JNU Yaochite (2024)

TYPE I INTERFERON PATHWAY GENETIC VARIANTS IN SEVERE COVID-19.

Virus research pii:S0168-1702(24)00032-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there have been over 760 million reported cases and over 6 million deaths caused by this disease worldwide. The severity of COVID-19 is based on symptoms presented by the patient and is divided as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and critical. The manifestations are interconnected with genetic variations. The innate immunity is the quickest response mechanism of an organism against viruses. Type I interferon pathway plays a key role in antiviral responses due to viral replication inhibition in infected cells and adaptive immunity stimulation induced by interferon molecules. Thus, variants in type I interferon pathway's genes are being studied in different COVID-19 manifestations. This review summarizes the role of variants in type I interferon pathway's genes on prognosis and severity progression of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-02-14

Doherty TM, Pasquale AD, Finnegan G, et al (2024)

Sustaining the momentum for adult vaccination post-COVID-19 to leverage the global uptake of life-course immunisation: a scoping review.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(24)00031-6 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Adult vaccination strategies struggle against complacency/disinterest amongst target population and competing budgetary priorities. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed adult vaccination landscape, possibly permanently. We reviewed the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on adult vaccination programmes.

OBJECTIVES: PubMed was searched for studies on adult / life-course vaccination between 1 January 2020 until 8 November 2022.

RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were identified and observations summarised as positive developments/impediments to life-course immunisation, and areas needing policy and structural reform. Unprecedented funding, international co-operation and technical advances led to COVID-19 vaccines authorised in record time. Investments in infrastructure and an expanded healthcare workforce streamlined vaccine delivery to adults. Constant media coverage and targeted messaging have improved health literacy. Conversely, the speed of vaccine development was perceived as a safety risk, and an 'infodemic' of misinformation propagated through social media negatively influenced vaccine uptake. Vaccine access and affordability remains inequitable among older adults and minority groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The COVID pandemic led to an opportunity to permanently change policies, attitudes, and systems for vaccine delivery to adults to establish a global life-course approach to immunisation. Addressing inequalities, improving health literacy and optimally using social media are critical to sustain adult vaccinations in post-COVID-19 era.

RevDate: 2024-02-14

Shbeer AM (2024)

Mystery of COVID 19: Focusing on important ncRNAs and effective signaling pathways.

Pathology, research and practice, 255:155155 pii:S0344-0338(24)00066-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This article provides a thorough investigation of the essential role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the context of COVID-19, emphasizing their impact on the complex molecular dynamics of the viral infection. By conducting a systematic review of existing literature, we identify key ncRNAs involved in different stages of the viral life cycle, modulation of host immune response, and disease progression. The importance of microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and other ncRNA types emerges as influential factors in shaping the interaction between the host and the virus. Additionally, the study delves into the effective signaling pathways linked to COVID-19 pathogenesis, uncovering intricate molecular cascades that govern viral entry, replication, and host cell response. This exploration encompasses established pathways such as IL-6/JAK/STAT signaling, highlighting their interplay within the context of COVID-19. By synthesizing this knowledge, our aim is not only to enhance our understanding of the molecular complexities of COVID-19 but also to reveal potential therapeutic targets. Through elucidating the interaction between ncRNAs and signaling pathways, our article seeks to contribute to ongoing efforts in developing targeted interventions against COVID-19, ultimately advancing our ability to address this global health crisis.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Nuvolari-Duodo I, Brambilla A, Ricciardi GE, et al (2024)

New Requirements for post-COVID-19 Hospital Inpatient Wards: Evidence, Design Recommendations and Assessment Tools.

Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita, 36(2):182-193.

BACKGROUND: The evolution of hospital infrastructures highlights the need of its physical space to respond to new technological, societal and epidemiological transformations such as those following the COVID-19 pandemic experience. Although the new emerged needs of user-centeredness, comfort and wellbeing within specific functional areas, there is still a lack of measurable indications for addressing these challenges in-patient wards.

STUDY DESIGN: The objective of this study is therefore to provide specific guidelines for the design of the in-patient ward, through measurable criteria and indicators based on evidence from the scientific literature, and to develop an assessment tool for its evaluation.

METHODS: A five-step process has been followed: (i) performing a literature review about hospital wards and wellbeing strategies, (ii) conducting a best practice analysis and comparison of a selection of international contemporary healthcare facilities, (iii) defining some dimensional requirements from the comparison, (iv) developing an assessment tool based on extracted criteria, (v) testing the tool on an existing project.

RESULTS: Amongst the criteria, several aspects have been highlighted ranging from qualitative indicators, as the clarity of wayfinding or the level of privacy, to quantitative values, as the percentage of single inpatient rooms or the distance between rooms and nursing stations. The assessment tool is composed by 20 indicators, associated to thematic areas and referred to three environmental units of the inpatient ward. Two types of scoring system are proposed.

CONCLUSIONS: Starting from those considerations and tool wider applications, the future design of hospital wards could follow guidelines addressing user-centeredness, comfort and wellbeing.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Sanchez E, Krantz EM, Yoke L, et al (2024)

Clinical outcomes and frequency of persistent infection among immunosuppressed patients treated with bebtelovimab for COVID-19 infection at an ambulatory cancer center.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society, 26(1):e14223.

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on clinical outcomes associated with the use of bebtelovimab for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among cancer patients. We aimed to define the clinical characteristics and outcomes among patients receiving bebtelovimab as part of the COVID-19 therapeutics program at our cancer center.

METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of immunosuppressed adult patients who received bebtelovimab at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center between March 2022, and November 2022. We reviewed medical records to capture the date of the first positive COVID-19 test, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and follow-up COVID-19 testing for 60 days after the first positive. Persistent infection was defined as a positive test beyond day 30; these patients were reviewed beyond day 60.

RESULTS: Among 93 patients who received bebtelovimab, 64 (69%) had hematologic malignancy. Sixty-nine (74%) patients received bebtelovimab within 2 days after diagnosis. Two (2%) patients were hospitalized, none required ICU care, and one patient died on day 52; although it is unknown if death was directly related to COVID-19. Ten (11%) patients had persistent COVID-19 infection; of these, four received additional COVID-19 therapy with either nirmatrelvir/ritonavir or remdesivir, and five out of six patients with sequencing data available had spike protein mutations associated with bebtelovimab resistance.

CONCLUSION: A coordinated systems-based approach led to prompt initiation of bebtelovimab within two days of testing positive in most patients. We observed few hospitalizations or deaths. Persistent infection was noted in 11% of patients with four requiring additional therapies, highlighting a need for novel strategies to manage immunosuppressed patients.

RevDate: 2024-02-14

Alnaqbi KA, Abunamous N, T Saleem (2024)

A rare twist: COVID-19 infection masquerading as IgA vasculitis in a hemophilia a patient.

Clinical rheumatology [Epub ahead of print].

Hemophilia A and B are one of the most common hereditary bleeding disorders. Patients are predisposed to bleeding spontaneously or after minor trauma in different areas such as the skin, gastrointestinal, or joints. COVID-19 infection has been associated with various clinical manifestations and complications including rarely triggering IgA vasculitis. We report a 23-year-old man who was previously diagnosed with severe hereditary hemophilia A. He presented to our hospital with classic symptoms of IgA vasculitis, complaining of petechiae and purpura in his limbs, fatigue, body aches, poor oral intake, abdominal pain, and watery non-bloody diarrhea. He did not present with respiratory symptoms or fever typical of COVID-19 infection. Abnormal blood tests were mildly elevated C-reactive protein, elevated d-dimers, and low Factor VIII activity. Extensive immunological tests were negative. CT abdomen with contrast was unremarkable. A skin biopsy strongly indicated IgA vasculitis. COVID-19 test came back positive. The patient was managed symptomatically and with glucocorticosteroids which significantly improved his symptoms. The available literature on clinical features, laboratory tests, and management of COVID-19-associated IgA vasculitis is discussed. However, there is no case reported on the associations between hemophilia, COVID-19 infection, and IgA vasculitis. This is the first case of atypical COVID-19 infection masquerading as de novo IgA vasculitis in an adult patient with underlying hemophilia. Our case contributes to the growing body of literature about hemophilia being a possible predisposing factor that a COVID-19 virus relies on to amplify immune dysregulation resulting in IgA vasculitis.

RevDate: 2024-02-15
CmpDate: 2024-02-15

Sulimov AV, Ilin IS, Tashchilova AS, et al (2024)

Docking and other computing tools in drug design against SARS-CoV-2.

SAR and QSAR in environmental research, 35(2):91-136.

The use of computer simulation methods has become an indispensable component in identifying drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. There is a huge body of literature on application of molecular modelling to predict inhibitors against target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. To keep our review clear and readable, we limited ourselves primarily to works that use computational methods to find inhibitors and test the predicted compounds experimentally either in target protein assays or in cell culture with live SARS-CoV-2. Some works containing results of experimental discovery of corresponding inhibitors without using computer modelling are included as examples of a success. Also, some computational works without experimental confirmations are also included if they attract our attention either by simulation methods or by databases used. This review collects studies that use various molecular modelling methods: docking, molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics, machine learning, and others. Most of these studies are based on docking, and other methods are used mainly for post-processing to select the best compounds among those found through docking. Simulation methods are presented concisely, information is also provided on databases of organic compounds that can be useful for virtual screening, and the review itself is structured in accordance with coronavirus target proteins.

RevDate: 2024-02-15
CmpDate: 2024-02-15

Railton J, Volonté M, Isoletta E, et al (2024)

Psoriasis and biological drugs at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a mini review outlining risk of infection, seroprevalence, and safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1354729.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the life of patients with psoriasis on biologic therapy during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the relevance of frailty within this context, reviewing studies that describe the course and severity of infection in patients with psoriasis on biologics, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, and the safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine in these patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The keywords "Psoriasis," "Biologics," "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," and "BNT162b2 Vaccine" were used in various combinations on database engines to find relevant articles on this topic.

RESULTS: A total of 36 articles were found, with 20 concerning the course, severity, and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with psoriasis on biologic therapy and 16 concerning safety and efficacy of BNT162b2 in these patients.

DISCUSSION: Patients with psoriasis on biologic therapy did not have increased seroprevalence compared with the general population, indicating that they were not at an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with the general population. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive action of biologics may be protective, as patients on biologic therapy had better outcomes and less risk of severe infection. The seroconversion rate against SARS-CoV-2 from the BNT162b2 vaccine was similar in both patients with psoriasis on biologics and the general population, indicating that efficacy is not hindered by the biologic therapy. However, the cellular response in population with psoriasis was significantly less intense, and the humoral immune response was weaker than that in the general population, demonstrating that the possibility of tighter vaccination schedules and additional doses may be advantageous in these patients.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Pan W, Shi H, Zang Z, et al (2024)

Research progress on classical traditional Chinese medicine formula Baihe Zhimu (Lilium lancifolium bulb and Anemarrhena asphodeloides rhizome) decoction in the treatment of depression.

Heliyon, 10(3):e25171.

Depression is considered to be an "emotional disease" in ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine. Its clinical features are similar to those of "Lily disease" in the ancient Chinese medicine book Synopsis of the Golden Chamber written by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han Dynasty. Baihe Zhimu (Lilium lancifolium bulb and Anemarrhena asphodeloides rhizome) decoction (LBRAD) is the first prescription of "Lily Disease" in this book. It is also a special remedy for "Lily disease" after sweating. The classic recipe LBRAD consists of two herbs, fresh lily bulbs and dried Rhizoma Anemarrhena slice. It has the effect of supplementing nutrition and clearing heat, nourishing Yin and moistening. After more than two thousand years of clinical practice, it has been currently widely used in clinical treatment of depression. In this paper, the relationship between LBRAD and depression was systematically reviewed from both clinical and experimental studies, as well as the preparation, the clinical application, the pharmacological mechanism and the effective material basis for the treating depression of LBRAD. The core targets and biological processes of the depression treatment were explored through network pharmacological analysis, so as to speculate its potential mechanism. Finally, the association between LBRAD and post-COVID-19 depression was discussed. We concluded with a summary and future prospects. This review may provide a theoretical basis for the expansion of the clinical application of LBRAD and the development of new drugs for the treatment of depression, as well as new ideas for the secondary development of classical prescriptions.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Hadhiah K, Alhashim A, Al-Dandan HA, et al (2024)

Guillain-Barré syndrome post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: a systematic review and data analysis on its clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological, and radiological features.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1332364.

INTRODUCTION: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare disease that affects almost 0.8-1.9 cases per 100,000 people worldwide every year. This is the most prevalent cause of subacute flaccid paralyzing illness today. It is a subacute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy; the typical scenario involves ascending symmetrical flaccid paralysis, but in some circumstances, sensory, autonomic, and cranial neuropathy may also be involved. Several vaccines have been found to have complications since the previous century. Numerous case reports of GBS in the literature have been reported following COVID-19 vaccines in recent times.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive examination of GBS cases that have been reported after COVID-19 vaccines; to analyze the descriptive statistical analysis of data gathered regarding clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological, and radiological characteristics; to discuss, based on the available evidence, whether the disease has a preference for a particular vaccine type; and to speculate on the potential pathogenesis.

METHODOLOGY: This review has been carried out by recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

RESULT: Reviewing 60 case reports illustrated that most of them are from the USA (18.1%) and the majority of affected individuals were males (60%). The results favored the association between vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, particularly AstraZeneca vaccine, and the GBS. The mean of symptoms onset is 11.4 days. The results of diagnostic tests such as LP are consistent mostly with albumin-cytological dissociation (81.81%), where brain and spine MRI was unremarkable in 59.52%. Regarding electrodiagnostic tests, AIDP is the most common variant (61.81%). The management was not consistent among the case reports. However, IVIG is the most frequent way of treating these patients (68.33%). The functional outcome was documented in 47 patients; 65% improved with medical management.

CONCLUSION: This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of reported cases of GBS following COVID-19 vaccines and descriptive statistical analysis of collected data on clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological, and radiological features, to discuss, based on available results, whether the disease has a predilection to a specific vaccine type and to speculate the potential pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-02-15
CmpDate: 2024-02-15

Zhou X, Liu X, Zhao H, et al (2024)

Research advances in microfluidic collection and detection of virus, bacterial, and fungal bioaerosols.

Mikrochimica acta, 191(3):132.

Bioaerosols are airborne suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles containing biological substances such as viruses, bacteria, cellular debris, fungal spores, mycelium, and byproducts of microbial metabolism. The global Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the previous emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and influenza have increased the need for reliable and effective monitoring tools for bioaerosols. Bioaerosol collection and detection have aroused considerable attention. Current bioaerosol sampling and detection techniques suffer from long response time, low sensitivity, and high costs, and these drawbacks have forced the development of novel monitoring strategies. Microfluidic technique is considered a breakthrough for high performance analysis of bioaerosols. In recent years, several emerging methods based on microfluidics have been developed and reported for collection and detection of bioaerosols. The unique advantages of microfluidic technique have enabled the integration of bioaerosol collection and detection, which has a higher efficiency over conventional methods. This review focused on the research progress of bioaerosol collection and detection methods based on microfluidic techniques, with special attention on virus aerosols and bacterial aerosols. Different from the existing reviews, this work took a unique perspective of the targets to be collected and detected in bioaerosols, which would provide a direct index of bioaerosol categories readers may be interested in. We also discussed integrated microfluidic monitoring system for bioaerosols. Additionally, the application of bioaerosol detection in biomedicine was presented. Finally, the current challenges in the field of bioaerosol monitoring are presented and an outlook given of future developments.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

Ebrahimi R, Nasri F, T Kalantari (2024)

Coagulation and Inflammation in COVID-19: Reciprocal Relationship between Inflammatory and Coagulation Markers.

Annals of hematology [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), formerly known as 2019-nCoV. Numerous cellular and biochemical issues arise after COVID-19 infection. The severe inflammation that is caused by a number of cytokines appears to be one of the key hallmarks of COVID-19. Additionally, people with severe COVID-19 have coagulopathy and fulminant thrombotic events. We briefly reviewed the COVID-19 disease at the beginning of this paper. The inflammation and coagulation markers and their alterations in COVID-19 illness are briefly discussed in the parts that follow. Next, we talked about NETosis, which is a crucial relationship between coagulation and inflammation. In the end, we mentioned the two-way relationship between inflammation and coagulation, as well as the factors involved in it. We suggest that inflammation and coagulation are integrated systems in COVID-19 that act on each other in such a way that not only inflammation can activate coagulation but also coagulation can activate inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

Eltayeb A, Al-Sarraj F, Alharbi M, et al (2024)

Intrinsic factors behind long COVID: IV. Hypothetical roles of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and its liquid-liquid phase separation.

Journal of cellular biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

When the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects humans, it leads to a condition called COVID-19 that has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from no symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The virus initiates damage by attaching to the ACE-2 protein on the surface of endothelial cells that line the blood vessels and using these cells as hosts for replication. Reactive oxygen species levels are increased during viral replication, which leads to oxidative stress. About three-fifths (~60%) of the people who get infected with the virus eradicate it from their body after 28 days and recover their normal activity. However, a large fraction (~40%) of the people who are infected with the virus suffer from various symptoms (anosmia and/or ageusia, fatigue, cough, myalgia, cognitive impairment, insomnia, dyspnea, and tachycardia) beyond 12 weeks and are diagnosed with a syndrome called long COVID. Long-term clinical studies in a group of people who contracted SARS-CoV-2 have been contrasted with a noninfected matched group of people. A subset of infected people can be distinguished by a set of cytokine markers to have persistent, low-grade inflammation and often self-report two or more bothersome symptoms. No medication can alleviate their symptoms efficiently. Coronavirus nucleocapsid proteins have been investigated extensively as potential drug targets due to their key roles in virus replication, among which is their ability to bind their respective genomic RNAs for incorporation into emerging virions. This review highlights basic studies of the nucleocapsid protein and its ability to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. We hypothesize that this ability of the nucleocapsid protein for phase separation may contribute to long COVID. This hypothesis unlocks new investigation angles and could potentially open novel avenues for a better understanding of long COVID and treating this condition.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

Mink S, Reimann P, P Fraunberger (2024)

Prognostic value of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies: a systematic review.

Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Globally, over 772 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported. New variants of interest with corresponding spikes in case numbers continue to be identified. Vulnerable patients, including older adults or patients with severe comorbidities, continue to be at risk. A large body of evidence has been accumulated regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibodies and COVID-19 but the usefulness of antibody measurements remains unclear. This systematic review aims to assess the prognostic value of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibodies and their usefulness for guiding booster vaccinations.

METHODS: Studies in English and published between January 2020 and October 2023 were included. Studies that relied on multiparameter-models or comprised fewer than 100 participants were excluded. PubMed and via the WHO COVID-19 research database, Embase and Medline databases were searched. Study selection and quality assessment was conducted independently by two researchers.

RESULTS: After screening 1,160 studies, 33 studies comprising >30 million individuals were included. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibodies were strongly associated with reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2-infection and better outcomes, including mortality. Risk of infection and COVID-19 severity decreased with increasing antibody levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibodies are useful for early identification of high-risk patients and timely adjustment of therapy. Protective thresholds may be applied to advise booster vaccinations but verification in separate cohorts is required.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

Hsu CJ, Ayres A, L Payne (2024)

Evaluating outcomes following adolescent and youth mental health inpatient admissions: A systematic review.

Early intervention in psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Increasing rates of mental illness among young people, exacerbated by the negative impacts of COVID-19, has resulted in growing pressure on available psychiatric resources to meet increasing demand. Inpatient units provide specialist care for young people with the most severe and complex mental disorders but are one of the most expensive models of psychiatric care. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of adolescent and youth mental health inpatient units in improving outcomes to inform the most efficacious use of psychiatric resources.

METHODS: Systematic searches of PubMed, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science were conducted for studies published in English between January 2011 to May 2022. Criteria for selection included participants aged 12-25 years who had been admitted to amental health inpatient unit. Studies were excluded if set in substance abuse or disability specific units, outpatient or forensic settings, or assessed novel interventions.

RESULTS: 23 studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria, with most (n = 19) utilizing a pre-post observational design and reporting improvement across various domains following inpatient treatment. A total of 24 different outcome measures or methods were used meaning a meta-analysis of results was not possible. There was also a lack of consistency across models of care, lengths of stay, admission policies, and interventions provided.

CONCLUSION: Inpatient units provide positive outcomes for consumers however a clear understanding of clinical significance and comparison to other treatment settings is lacking.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Cangelosi G, Acito M, Grappasonni I, et al (2024)

Yoga or Mindfulness on Diabetes: Scoping Review for Theoretical Experimental Framework.

Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita, 36(2):153-168.

BACKGROUND: About one in 11 adults worldwide suffers from diabetic disease with constantly increasing prevalence; from the 529 million patients registered in 2021, the number of people with diabetes was predicted to rise to approximately 1.31 billion in 2050. In Italy, 5.9% of the population is diabetic, with a higher prevalence with increasing age and in the South of the country. Yoga and Mindfulness could represent a valid support for the care of diabetic subjects especially in a stressful caring context such as the Covid-19 pandemic.

STUDY DESIGN: A scoping review was conducted to achieve the goals of the study. Yoga or Mindfulness interventions on diabetic subjects were specifically analyzed and qualitative-quantitative data collected in the selected randomized controlled trials were extensive for possible meta-analysis.

METHODS: The review was conducted by two independent practitioners and a third one was consulted in case of conflict. The PRISMA method was used for both the selection and reporting of the studies to be included. Specific PICOS and search strategies have been developed on PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases. Included in the review were: randomised controlled trials, full dissertation articles and papers in English with a time limit on May 31, 2022.

RESULTS: The Review included 22 studies; 12 on Mindfulness, 9 on Yoga and one about both disciplines; among these, one studied patients with Type 1 Diabetes, 14 with Type 2 Diabetes, 6 with both and one with Gestational Diabetes. Only one paper studied adolescent subjects while the other 21 focused on a range of adult subjects. The studies showed that Yoga and Mindfulness have strong potential not only on stress management, but also on clinical-metabolic parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: The recent Covid-19 pandemic has certainly redesigned a new way of treating and managing chronic diseases, such as diabetes. An increasingly fragile population, and with the growing need to reduce overall stress levels, could find alternative practices in Yoga and Mindfulness to support conventional therapies.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Pennisi F, Odelli S, Borlini S, et al (2024)

Impact of the Covid pandemic on timely cancer diagnosis across European healthcare settings: a scoping review.

Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita, 36(2):194-214.

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic presented unprecedented challenges to European healthcare systems. The study aimed to review the available evidence on the impact of the pandemic on the timely diagnosis of cancer across European countries. The primary objective was to examine changes in diagnostic pathways and stage at diagnosis during the pandemic, compared to the pre-pandemic period, across European countries, taking healthcare system characteristics and COVID-19 policies into account.

METHODS: We conducted a review of the impact of the pandemic on cancer diagnosis in Europe, analyzing primary studies from 2018 to 2023 using both quantitative and qualitative methods through searches in PubMed and Scopus databases. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The main explanatory factors analyzed were grouped into two categories: Covid-policies (government responses, using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker and its stringency index as key metrics) and healthcare characteristics (healthcare system models, expenditure and resources, including hospital beds and the ratio of medical doctors).

STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review.

RESULTS: Overall, 127 papers were screened, 80 retrieved for full-text evaluation and 50 articles were included in the review. The studies encompassed a total of 509,753 patients from 17 European countries. The pandemic period was characterised by worse process and outcome measures for all examined cancers, except for lung cancer, compared to the pre-pandemic period. Group-ing countries based on government actions and policy responses (stringency index) did not show any differences in timely cancer diagnosis. Countries with lower healthcare expenditure (per capita expenditure <2,000 euros) or lower investments in prevention reported more cancer diagnostic delays during the pandemic. Countries with >20% of General Practitioners over the total number of physicians and with more hospital beds per population experienced fewer diagnostic delays during the pandemic.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the review suggests that diagnostic pathways and cancer stage at diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic varied across Europe, with countries' healthcare expenditure, investments in prevention, the proportion of General Practitioners and the number of hospital beds per population possibly playing a role. This analysis can inform healthcare policies aimed at addressing post-pandemic challenges and formulating resilience plans for future emergencies.

RevDate: 2024-02-15
CmpDate: 2024-02-15

Aghetti A, Amsellem T, Hervé D, et al (2024)

Border-Zone Cerebral Infarcts Associated with COVID-19 in CADASIL: A Report of 3 Cases and Literature Review.

Cerebrovascular diseases extra, 14(1):1-8.

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common inherited cerebral small vessel disease and is a cause of early onset ischemic lacunar stroke. COVID-19 infection may lead, in addition to acute respiratory syndrome, to vascular complications including stroke. Herein, we report three CADASIL patients presenting with cerebral border-zone infarcts concomitant to COVID-19 infection and summarize similar cases previously published in literature.

METHODS: Clinical and radiological features of the 3 patients were collected and described. A narrative review of literature was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar by the end of 2022 using the "CADASIL" AND "COVID-19" AND "stroke" terms.

RESULTS: In our 3 patients, aged 40-58 years, stroke symptoms occurred one to 11 days after the first COVID-19 manifestations. Pulmonary symptoms were mild or absent. One patient presented with hemodynamic failure presumably related to acute cardiomyopathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed in all cases, ischemic lesions within border-zone areas in both cerebral hemispheres, lesions in the genu of the corpus callosum or in the medium cerebellar peduncles in two cases. The watershed pattern of ischemic lesions was detected in two cases despite any blood pressure drop or severe respiratory dysfunction. Seven CADASIL patients presenting with acute brain infarcts (multiple in 4/7) in context of SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified in literature, despite no fall in blood pressure except for one of them.

CONCLUSION: Our observations, in line with previous reports, further suggest that COVID-19 infection may alter blood flow autoregulation in the deepest cerebral white matter in CADASIL patients. The thrombocytopathy and endotheliopathy developing during COVID-19 infection may participate to the underlying vascular processes.

RevDate: 2024-02-15

Sevinc Ozdemir N, Belyaev D, Castro MN, et al (2024)

Advances in In Vitro Blood-Air Barrier Models and the Use of Nanoparticles in COVID-19 Research.

Tissue engineering. Part B, Reviews, 30(1):82-96.

Respiratory infections caused by coronaviruses (CoVs) have become a major public health concern in the past two decades as revealed by the emergence of SARS-CoV in 2002, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. The most severe clinical phenotypes commonly arise from exacerbation of immune response following the infection of alveolar epithelial cells localized at the pulmonary blood-air barrier. Preclinical rodent models do not adequately represent the essential genetic properties of the barrier, thus necessitating the use of humanized transgenic models. However, existing monolayer cell culture models have so far been unable to mimic the complex lung microenvironment. In this respect, air-liquid interface models, tissue engineered models, and organ-on-a-chip systems, which aim to better imitate the infection site microenvironment and microphysiology, are being developed to replace the commonly used monolayer cell culture models, and their use is becoming more widespread every day. On the contrary, studies on the development of nanoparticles (NPs) that mimic respiratory viruses, and those NPs used in therapy are progressing rapidly. The first part of this review describes in vitro models that mimic the blood-air barrier, the tissue interface that plays a central role in COVID-19 progression. In the second part of the review, NPs mimicking the virus and/or designed to carry therapeutic agents are explained and exemplified.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

La Vecchia G, Del Buono MG, Bonaventura A, et al (2024)

Cardiac Involvement in Patients With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults.

Journal of the American Heart Association [Epub ahead of print].

Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in adults is a hyperinflammatory condition following (within 4-12 weeks) SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, the dysregulation of the immune system leads to a multiorgan involvement often affecting the heart. Cardiac involvement in multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in adults has been described mainly in young men without other comorbidities and may present with different clinical scenarios, including acute heart failure, life-threatening arrhythmias, pericarditis, and myocarditis, with a nonnegligible risk of mortality (up to 7% of all cases). The heterogeneity of its clinical features and the absence of a clear case definition make the differential diagnosis with other postinfectious (eg, infective myocarditis) and hyperinflammatory diseases (eg, adult Still disease and macrophage activation syndrome) challenging. Moreover, the evidence on the efficacy of specific treatments targeting the hyperinflammatory response underlying this clinical condition (eg, glucocorticoids, immunoglobulins, and other immunomodulatory agents) is sparse and not supported by randomized clinical trials. In this review article, we aim to provide an overview of the clinical features and the diagnostic workup of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in adults with cardiac involvement, highlighting the possible pathogenetic mechanisms and the therapeutic management, along with remaining knowledge gaps in this field.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

Fadila W, Rahardja MB, Prasetyoputra P, et al (2024)

Family's socioeconomic and demographic factors on elements of children's dental and oral health: A scoping review.

Clinical and experimental dental research [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Family plays a significant role in children's dental and oral health (DOH) elements, such as children's DOH knowledge and practice, the development of children's dental fear and anxiety (DFA), children's dental visits, and children's DOH status. The study aims to address the interrelationship of these elements based on individual and familial socioeconomic and demographic (SED) attributes.

METHODS: Given the possibility that the COVID-19 epidemic might alter oral health and disrupt dental care, a systematic literature search from the Scopus and Web of Science library database was limited to the 2017-2019 peer-reviewed published literature, which includes quantitative studies that investigated at whether SED status contributed to children's DOH elements. Four sets of keywords are combined in both library database literature searches. Using the PRISMA-ScR Checklist as a reference, we conduct this scoping review.

RESULTS: A total of 15 studies were included. Studies were from Brazil, Iran, China, India, Indonesia, Peru, Portugal, and UK. The socioeconomic characteristics include parental education, income, employment, assets and home ownership, type of residence, and health insurance coverage. The demographic characteristics include parent's age, children's age, the number of family members, and family type. There were 13 studies observing parent's education, seven examining family income, four identifying parental employment, three measuring family assets, six assessing the type of residence, and one recording health insurance coverage. Few studies assessed socioeconomic proxies such as school type, free school lunches, and social networks. In addition, race, the number of household members, the number of children, and family type were measured in at least one of the literature.

CONCLUSION: Family SED characteristics may define a pathway to children's DOH elements.

RevDate: 2024-02-14

Rangel K, SG De-Simone (2024)

Treatment and Management of Acinetobacter Pneumonia: Lessons Learned from Recent World Event.

Infection and drug resistance, 17:507-529.

Acinetobacter pneumonia is a significant healthcare-associated infection that poses a considerable challenge to clinicians due to its multidrug-resistant nature. Recent world events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have highlighted the need for effective treatment and management strategies for Acinetobacter pneumonia. In this review, we discuss lessons learned from recent world events, particularly the COVID-19 pandemic, in the context of the treatment and management of Acinetobacter pneumonia. We performed an extensive literature review to uncover studies and information pertinent to the topic. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the importance of infection control measures in healthcare settings, including proper hand hygiene, isolation protocols, and personal protective equipment use, to prevent the spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens like Acinetobacter. Additionally, the pandemic highlighted the crucial role of antimicrobial stewardship programs in optimizing antibiotic use and curbing the emergence of resistance. Advances in diagnostic techniques, such as rapid molecular testing, have also proven valuable in identifying Acinetobacter infections promptly. Furthermore, due to the limited availability of antibiotics for treating infections caused A. baumannii, alternative strategies are needed like the use of antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages and their enzymes, nanoparticles, photodynamic and chelate therapy. Recent world events, particularly the COVID-19 pandemic, have provided valuable insights into the treatment and management of Acinetobacter pneumonia. These lessons emphasize the significance of infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and early diagnostics in combating this challenging infection.

RevDate: 2024-02-14

Zarowski B, Giokaris D, O Green (2024)

Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on University Students' Mental Health: A Literature Review.

Cureus, 16(2):e54032.

This review aims to focus on the effects of COVID-19 on university students' mental health and deepen our understanding of it. The conclusions are based on the review of 32 studies conducted during the pandemic. This review confirms that university students were at high risk for mental health disorders, heightened stress, and increased sleep comorbidities both pre-pandemic and during the pandemic. This literature review confirmed a few universal trends, i.e., increased stress, anxiety, and depression, during the pandemic. The rates of insomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and suicidal ideation also went up. Overall, female students are at a disadvantage in the development of mental health issues. Male students coped better but may be at higher risk for lethality in suicidal ideation. Students with a history of mental health issues and other comorbidities prior to the pandemic had worse outcomes compared to healthy individuals. The study points to a strong positive correlation between fear and increased rates of stress, anxiety, and insomnia. There is also a positive correlation between declining mental health and online learning. A strong negative correlation was present between physical activity and depressive symptoms. These findings are universal across many countries and regions where the studies occurred.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

Xu Y, Parkin JA, N Cunningham (2024)

The impact of COVID-19 on clinical forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry: A literature review.

Medicine, science, and the law [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose:The COVID-19 pandemic prompted significant challenges in clinical forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry and emphasised the need for sustainable service delivery. Both fields faced difficulties in maintaining services due to COVID-19 precautions and limited referrals. This review examined the changes in forensic practices, aiming to understand their impact and learn from them to inform future strategies. Methods: A search was conducted across Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Ovid Emcare and PubMed, and webpages of governments and other organisations. Studies were included if they assessed any change that occurred in clinical forensic medicine or forensic psychiatry during the pandemic. A narrative review with a systematic approach was undertaken. Results: A total of 27 articles were included. There was a notable decrease in the volume of forensic assessments in early 2020. The numbers gradually rebounded with the easing of restrictions yet have not fully returned to pre COVID-19 levels. Telemedicine and COVID-19 precautions were widely incorporated into forensic services, which were seen to disrupt the patient-doctor dynamics, restrict the setting of examinations and complicate work processes and sample handling steps. Conclusion: This is the first review that describes the pandemic-driven changes in clinical forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry in respect of case trends and incorporation of COVID-19 precautions. The pandemic emphasised the need for adaptability and adoption of new assessment approaches in forensic services. Technology, like telemedicine, emerged as a valuable tool, enhancing accessibility for individuals in remote or high-risk areas. It is necessary to review the changes and re-evaluate their impacts in the post COVID-19 era.

RevDate: 2024-02-12

Mueller JK, WE Müller (2024)

Multi-target drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairment and fatigue in post-COVID syndrome: focus on Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea.

Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) [Epub ahead of print].

Cognitive impairment, depression and (mental) fatigue represent the most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms of the post-COVID syndrome. Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been identified as common pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Attempts to treat post-COVID-associated cognitive impairment and fatigue with different drugs available for other diseases have not yet been successful. One probable explanation could be that these drugs work by one specific mechanism of action only and not in a broad multi-target way. Therefore, they will not address the broad pathophysiological spectrum possibly responsible for cognitive impairment, depression and fatigue in post-COVID syndrome. Notably, nearly all drugs currently under investigation for fatigue in post-COVID syndrome are rather addressing one single target instead of the several pathomechanisms underlying this condition. Contrary to this approach, herbal drugs often consist of many different ingredients with different pharmacological properties and pharmacological targets. Therefore, these drugs might be a promising approach for the treatment of the broad symptomatic presentation and the pathophysiological mechanisms of cognitive impairment and fatigue following a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these herbal drugs, extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea probably are the best investigated candidates. Their broad pharmacological spectrum in vitro and in vivo includes anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant as well as properties reducing cognitive impairment and fatigue. In several studies, both drugs showed positive effects on physical and mental fatigue and impaired cognition. Moreover, depressive symptoms were also reduced in some studies. However, even if these results are promising, the data are still preliminary and require additional proof by further studies.

RevDate: 2024-02-12

Lui DTW, Lee CH, Woo YC, et al (2024)

Thyroid dysfunction in COVID-19.

Nature reviews. Endocrinology [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected over 772 million people globally. While lung damage is the major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of this disease, the involvement of multiple organs, including the endocrine glands, has been reported. This Review aims to provide an updated summary of evidence regarding COVID-19 and thyroid dysfunction, incorporating highlights of recent advances in the field, particularly in relation to long COVID and COVID-19 vaccination. Since subacute thyroiditis following COVID-19 was first reported in May 2020, thyroid dysfunction associated with COVID-19 has been increasingly recognized, secondary to direct and indirect effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Here, we summarize the epidemiological evidence, pattern and clinical course of thyroid dysfunction following COVID-19 and examine radiological, molecular and histological evidence of thyroid involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Beyond acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is also timely to examine the course and implication of thyroid dysfunction in the context of long COVID owing to the large population of survivors of COVID-19 worldwide. This Review also analyses the latest evidence on the relationship between the therapeutics and vaccination for COVID-19 and thyroid dysfunction. To conclude, evidence-based practice recommendations for thyroid function testing during and following COVID-19 and concerning COVID-19 vaccination are proposed.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.

Timelines

ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )