Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: covid-19

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 24 Jun 2024 at 06:03 Created: 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 45937 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-06-24
CmpDate: 2024-06-24

Wang H, C Wang (2024)

Review of the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the employment of college graduates in China and countermeasures to it.

Frontiers in public health, 12:1390055.

The employment of college graduates has always been the focus issue of the whole society. Affected by the COVID-19, college graduates are facing a severe employment situation. In the present study, we explore the impacts of the COVID-19 on the employment of college graduates. We explore the employment promotion measures introduced by Chinese government and colleges and universities through a quick review and illustrate the difficulties that college graduates face. Furthermore, the present study explores the impacts of the COVID-19 on five aspects of the employment of college graduates: recruitment demand reduce, employment competition rise, employment channels change, psychological anxiety increase and employment structural contradiction intensify. In addition, we conclude that the employment promotion measures introduced by Chinese government and colleges and universities in respond to the impacts of the COVID-19 on the employment of college graduates have significantly promoted the employment of college graduates to a large extent and we provide implications based on the application of the study. The findings of the present study are of great significance for all countries worldwide to better cope with various similar emergency events, to alleviate employment pressure and to promote better and fuller employment of college graduates.

RevDate: 2024-06-24

Tolu-Akinnawo O, Ezekwueme F, T Awoyemi (2024)

Telemedicine in Cardiology: Enhancing Access to Care and Improving Patient Outcomes.

Cureus, 16(6):e62852.

Telemedicine has gained significant recognition, particularly since the COVID-19 pandemic. However, its roots date back to its significant role during major epidemic outbreaks such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1 and H7N9 influenza, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), where alternate means of accessing healthcare were adopted to combat the outbreak while limiting the spread of the virus. In Sub-Saharan Africa, telemedicine has supported healthcare delivery, patient and professional health education, disease prevention, and surveillance, starting with its first adoption in Ethiopia in 1980. In the United States, telemedicine has significantly impacted cardiology, particularly at-home monitoring programs, which have proven highly effective for patients with abnormal heart rhythms. Devices such as Holter monitors, blood pressure monitors, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have reduced mortality rates and hospital readmissions while improving healthcare efficiency by saving healthcare costs. However, the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of telemedicine, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in telemedicine visits at institutions like New York University (NYU) Langone Health during and post-COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, telemedicine has also facilitated cardiac rehabilitation and improved access to specialized cardiology care in rural and underserved areas, reducing disparities in cardiovascular health outcomes. As technology advances, telemedicine is poised to play an increasingly significant role in cardiology and healthcare at large, enhancing patient management, healthcare efficiency, and cost reduction. This review underscores the significance of telemedicine in cardiology, its challenges, and future directions.

RevDate: 2024-06-24
CmpDate: 2024-06-24

Carvajal JJ, García-Castillo V, Cuellar SV, et al (2024)

New insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1363572.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the respiratory distress condition known as COVID-19. This disease broadly affects several physiological systems, including the gastrointestinal, renal, and central nervous (CNS) systems, significantly influencing the patient's overall quality of life. Additionally, numerous risk factors have been suggested, including gender, body weight, age, metabolic status, renal health, preexisting cardiomyopathies, and inflammatory conditions. Despite advances in understanding the genome and pathophysiological ramifications of COVID-19, its precise origins remain elusive. SARS-CoV-2 interacts with a receptor-binding domain within angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This receptor is expressed in various organs of different species, including humans, with different abundance. Although COVID-19 has multiorgan manifestations, the main pathologies occur in the lung, including pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, and secondary bacterial pneumonia. In the post-COVID-19 period, different sequelae may occur, which may have various causes, including the direct action of the virus, alteration of the immune response, and metabolic alterations during infection, among others. Recognizing the serious adverse health effects associated with COVID-19, it becomes imperative to comprehensively elucidate and discuss the existing evidence surrounding this viral infection, including those related to the pathophysiological effects of the disease and the subsequent consequences. This review aims to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the impact of COVID-19 and its long-term effects on human health.

RevDate: 2024-06-24

Thorp JA, Thorp MM, Thorp EM, et al (2024)

Global COVID-19 Pandemic Outcomes: A Cross-Country Comparison Study of Policy Strategies.

Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 23(2):46-53.

This paper explores global COVID-19 treatment and containment strategies in 108 countries worldwide, specifically the correlation between COVID-19 deaths and the countries' vaccination rates. Comparison of data across states, provinces, territories, and countries relied upon a common method to evaluate data regarding the impact of COVID-19 policies in the last three years. Data from nine different databases were analyzed to determine if there were correlations between the percentage of countrywide COVID-19 deaths/population and countries' percent vaccinated. Secondary outcome measures include the effect of other variables on COVID-19 death rates per country population, including health expenditures and annual income per capita, COVID-19 tests per 1000 people, stringency index (a measure of each country's containment strategies), hydroxychloroquine/ivermectin scores (measure country use), hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and geographic locations. COVID-19 vaccination rates ranged from 0-99% in 108 countries. Bivariate analysis demonstrates the following independent variables to correlate with COVID-19 deaths/population (Spearman correlation coefficient, p value): countrywide COVID-19 vaccination rates (moderate relationship, r=0.39, P < .001); healthcare expenditures per capita per annum (US dollars) (moderate relationship, r=0.46, P < .001), net annual income per capita (moderate relationship, r=0.50, P < .001), COVID-19 tests per 1000 country population (moderate relationship, r=0.36, P < .003); stringency index per country (moderate relationship, r=0.28, P < .003); hydroxychloroquine index (negative relationship, r= 0.15, P = .125); and ivermectin index (negative relationship, r=0.23 P = .018). The authors found that the higher the percentage of a country's vaccination rate, stringent containment strategies, mass testing, etc., moderately correlated with higher COVID-19 death rates/population. Future studies are required to explore the findings of this study fully.

RevDate: 2024-06-24

Katsuta N (2022)

Mental Health of Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Juntendo Iji zasshi = Juntendo medical journal, 68(1):25-30.

On January 16, 2020, the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan was reported. In the spring of the same year, the shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as surgical masks became a significant issue. In addition, the medical staff had to encounter discrimination during this period. Thus, the mental health of these staff has been greatly affected by the social situation, the media coverage of the COVID-19 epidemic, and the shortage of PPE in hospitals. Various factors make it difficult for the medical staff to seek professional help for mental well-being. Therefore, self-care plays an important role in the prevention of depression and anxiety disorders among healthcare workers. When the healthcare workers face problems in their work environment, they should coordinate with the hospital to promptly improve the system. COVID-19 resulted in new societal norms and changed our lifestyles significantly. Insomnia is a particular issue among healthcare workers. Lifestyle analysis is thus necessary if insomnia needs to be addressed. Because the opportunities for communication are reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, conscious communication is essential. During this difficult time, the staff may not receive sufficient guidance from their superiors at work, for example for guidance received by resident doctors from their seniors. This will also provide opportunities to communicate vital information about matters such as infection control. Therefore, quality communication and accurate information should be directed toward all healthcare workers.

RevDate: 2024-06-24

Hernandez GN, Francis AJ, P Hamid (2024)

Enhancing Survival in Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Plasma Exchange Therapy.

Cureus, 16(5):e60947.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's immune response to infection becomes unregulated, causing organ dysfunction and a heightened risk of mortality. Despite increased awareness campaigns, its prevalence escalates, annually afflicting over 1.7 million adults in the United States. This research explores the potential of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in septic shock management, aiming to highlight its capacity to improve patient outcomes and reduce mortality. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, our comprehensive search across 51,534 studies, using keywords such as plasmapheresis, plasma exchange therapy, therapeutic plasma exchange, septic shock, and reduction in mortality integrated with medical subject headings terms, led to the meticulous selection of six pivotal studies. Through rigorous evaluation with tools such as the revised Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and Assessment of Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews, we extracted strong evidence supporting TPE's significant impact on decreasing mortality in septic shock patients compared to standard care, as demonstrated in three randomized controlled trials and one cohort study, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26-0.72). Additionally, two meta-analyses further validate TPE's effectiveness, showing a mortality reduction with an OR of 0.30 (95% CI = 0.20-0.46). This advantage also extends to critically ill COVID-19 patients, underscoring TPE's crucial role in modulating the coagulation cascade, decreasing sepsis-related complications, and reducing the risk of bleeding and organ failure. Nevertheless, the benefits of TPE must be carefully balanced against potential risks such as hypocalcemia, hypotension, and citrate toxicity, especially in patients with underlying renal or liver issues, emphasizing the importance of shared decision-making. While TPE emerges as a promising therapy, its formal integration into standard care protocols awaits further confirmation, highlighting the critical need for more in-depth research to conclusively determine its efficacy and safety in septic shock management.

RevDate: 2024-06-24

Poland DCW, CM Cobbaert (2024)

Blood self-sampling devices: innovation, interpretation and implementation in total lab automation.

Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The introduction of the vacuum tube in 1949 revolutionized blood collection, significantly improving sample quality and patient comfort. Over the past 75 years, laboratory diagnostics have evolved drastically, from manual to automated processes, reducing required test volumes by over 1,000 times. Despite these advancements, venous blood collection presents logistical challenges, including centralized scheduling and a large volume of biological waste due to the imbalance between the needed blood volume (often very little) and the collected volume (often in excess). The COVID-19 pandemic further emphasized the need for decentralized healthcare solutions and patient empowerment. Capillary blood collection, widely used in point-of-care testing, offers a promising alternative, particularly for patients facing frequently, or difficulties with, venous sampling. The Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands experienced a 15 % reduction in volume of laboratory tests during and after the pandemic, attributed to patient preference for local blood collection and testing. To address these challenges, self-sampling devices are emerging, empowering patients and streamlining sample logistics. However, challenges such as cost, transportation regulations, and sample volume adequacy persists. Robust devices tailored for total lab automation and sustainable practices are crucial for widespread adoption. Despite hurdles, the integration of self-sampling into diagnostic processes is inevitable, heralding a shift towards patient-centered, proactive healthcare. Practical recommendations include robust device design, ease of use, affordability, sustainability, sufficient quality and acceptability by seamless integration into laboratory workflows. Although obstacles remain, self-sampling represents the future of laboratory diagnostics, offering convenience, cost-effectiveness, interoperability and patient empowerment.

RevDate: 2024-06-22
CmpDate: 2024-06-22

Hill R, Stentiford GG, Walker DI, et al (2024)

Realising a global One Health disease surveillance approach: insights from wastewater and beyond.

Nature communications, 15(1):5324.

One Health is a recognition of the shared environment inhabited by humans, animals and plants, and the impact of their interactions on the health of all organisms. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for a framework of pathogen surveillance in a tractable One Health paradigm to allow timely detection and response to threats to human and animal health. We present case studies centered around the recent global approach to tackle antimicrobial resistance and the current interest in wastewater testing, with the concept of "one sample many analyses" to be further explored as the most appropriate means of initiating this endeavor.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Peter AS, Hoffmann DS, Klier J, et al (2024)

Strategies of rational and structure-driven vaccine design for Arenaviruses.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases pii:S1567-1348(24)00077-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 outbreak has highlighted the importance of pandemic preparedness for the prevention of future health crises. One virus family with high pandemic potential are Arenaviruses, which have been detected almost worldwide, particularly in Africa and the Americas. These viruses are highly understudied and many questions regarding their structure, replication and tropism remain unanswered, making the design of an efficacious and molecularly-defined vaccine challenging. We propose that structure-driven computational vaccine design will contribute to overcome these challenges. Computational methods for stabilization of viral glycoproteins or epitope focusing have made progress during the last decades and particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and have proven useful for rational vaccine design and the establishment of novel diagnostic tools. In this review, we summarize gaps in our understanding of Arenavirus molecular biology, highlight challenges in vaccine design and discuss how structure-driven and computationally informed strategies will aid in overcoming these obstacles.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Hernandez AV, Liu A, Roman YM, et al (2024)

Efficacy and safety of ivermectin for treatment of non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials with 7,035 participants.

International journal of antimicrobial agents pii:S0924-8579(24)00166-3 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: We systematically assessed benefits and harms of the use of ivermectin in non-hospitalized patients with early COVID-19.

METHODS: Five databases were searched until October 17, 2023, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adult patients with COVID-19 treated with ivermectin against standard of care (SoC), placebo, or active drug. Primary outcomes were hospitalization, all-cause mortality, and adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes included mechanical ventilation (MV), clinical improvement, clinical worsening, viral clearance, and severe adverse events (SAEs). Random effects meta-analyses were performed, with quality of evidence (QoE) evaluated using GRADE methods. Pre-specified subgroup analyses (ivermectin dose, control type, risk of bias, follow-up, and country income) and trial sequential analysis (TSA) were performed.

RESULTS: Twelve RCTs (n=7,035) were included. The controls were placebo in nine RCTs, SoC in two RCTs, and placebo or active drug in one RCT. Ivermectin did not reduce hospitalization (relative risk [RR], 0.81, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.64-1.03; 8 RCTs, low QoE), all-cause mortality (RR 0.98, 95%CI 0.73-1.33; 9 RCTs, low QoE), or AEs (RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.75-1.07; 9 RCTs, very low QoE) vs. controls. Ivermectin did not reduce MV, clinical worsening, or SAEs and did not increase clinical improvement and viral clearance vs. controls (very low QoE for secondary outcomes). Subgroup analyses were mostly consistent with main analyses, and TSA-adjusted risk for hospitalization was similar to main analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: In non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ivermectin did not have effect on clinical, non-clinical or safety outcomes versus controls. Ivermectin should not be recommended as treatment in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Chang E, Jeon K, Lee N, et al (2024)

Clinical performance of the Roche Cobas Liat SARS-CoV-2 & influenza A/B assay: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 174:105706 pii:S1386-6532(24)00068-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Respiratory tract infections caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses are persistent and critical. The Cobas Liat SARS-CoV-2 & influenza A/B assay (Multiplex Liat), the FDA-authorized point-of-care reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, has a turnaround time of 20 min and high accuracy. This study evaluates the pooled performance of this assay to provide practical information. This meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42023467579). A systematic literature search was conducted within PubMed, Ovid-EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for articles evaluating the accuracy of the Multiplex Liat assay through September 2023. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled diagnostic values with real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) as a reference test. A total of 4,705 samples from eight studies were included in the primary meta-analysis. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity of Multiplex Liat were 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 96.7 %-100.0 %) and 99.7 % (95 % CI = 98.7 %-99.9 %), respectively. The presence of variants of concern or in-house rRT-PCR assays as reference standards did not significantly affect the pooled diagnostic performance of the Multiplex Liat. When 5,333 samples from nine studies were assessed for sensitivity, the pooled sensitivity was 100.0 % (95 % CI = 85.8 %-100.0 %) without a significant difference. This meta-analysis demonstrates the usefulness of Multiplex Liat for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 based on pooled diagnostic values. These practical findings may facilitate appropriate settings for the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory tract infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Molinero M, Perez-Pons M, González J, et al (2024)

Decoding viral and host microRNA signatures in airway-derived biosamples: Insights for biomarker discovery in viral respiratory infections.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 177:116984 pii:S0753-3322(24)00868-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The global public health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the global concern regarding viral respiratory tract infections. Despite their considerable impact on health, society and the economy, effective management of these conditions remains a significant challenge. Integrating high-throughput analyses is pivotal for early detection, prognostication of adverse outcomes, elucidating pathogenetic pathways and developing therapeutic approaches. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs), a subset of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), have emerged as promising tools for molecular phenotyping. Current evidence suggests that miRNAs could serve as innovative biological markers, aiding in informed medical decision-making. The cost-effective quantification of miRNAs in standardized samples using techniques routinely employed in clinical laboratories has become feasible. In this context, samples obtained from the airways represent a valuable source of information due to their direct exposure to the infectious agent and host response within the respiratory tract. This review explores viral and host miRNA profiling in airway-derived biosamples as a source of molecular information to guide patient management, with a specific emphasis on SARS-CoV-2 infection.

RevDate: 2024-06-23
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Moss SJ, Sriskandarajah C, Brundin-Mather R, et al (2024)

Well-being approaches targeted to improve child and youth health post-COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review.

BMC health services research, 24(1):758.

BACKGROUND: Our previous work synthesized published studies on well-being interventions during COVID-19. As we move into a post-COVID-19 pandemic period there is a need to comprehensively review published strategies, approaches, and interventions to improve child and youth well-being beyond deleterious impacts experienced during COVID-19.

METHODS: Seven databases were searched from inception to January 2023. Studies were included if they: (1) presented original data on an approach (i.e., approach applied) or (2) provided recommendations to inform development of a future approach (i.e., approach suggested), (3) targeted to mitigate negative impacts of COVID-19 on child and youth (≤18 year) well-being, and (4) published on or after December 2019.

RESULTS: 39 studies (n = 4/39, 10.3% randomized controlled trials) from 2021 to 2023 were included. Twenty-two studies applied an approach (n = 22/39, 56.4%) whereas seventeen studies (n = 17/39, 43.6%) suggested an approach; youth aged 13-18 year (n = 27/39, 69.2%) were most frequently studied. Approach applied records most frequently adopted an experimental design (n = 11/22, 50.0%), whereas approach suggested records most frequently adopted a cross-sectional design (n = 13/22, 59.1%). The most frequently reported outcomes related to good health and optimum nutrition (n = 28/39, 71.8%), followed by connectedness (n = 22/39, 56.4%), learning, competence, education, skills, and employability (n = 18/39, 46.1%), and agency and resilience (n = 16/39, 41.0%).

CONCLUSIONS: The rapid onset and unpredictability of COVID-19 precluded meaningful engagement of children and youth in strategy development despite widespread recognition that early engagement can enhance usefulness and acceptability of interventions. Published or recommended strategies were most frequently targeted to improve connectedness, belonging, and socialization among children and youth.

RevDate: 2024-06-23
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Salehi Z, Askari M, Jafari A, et al (2024)

Dietary patterns and micronutrients in respiratory infections including COVID-19: a narrative review.

BMC public health, 24(1):1661.

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by nCoV-2019, a new beta-coronavirus from Wuhan, China, that mainly affects the respiratory system and can be modulated by nutrition.

METHODS: This review aims to summarize the current literature on the association between dietary intake and serum levels of micronutrients, malnutrition, and dietary patterns and respiratory infections, including flu, pneumonia, and acute respiratory syndrome, with a focus on COVID-19. We searched for relevant articles in various databases and selected those that met our inclusion criteria.

RESULTS: Some studies suggest that dietary patterns, malnutrition, and certain nutrients such as vitamins D, E, A, iron, zinc, selenium, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids, and fiber may have a significant role in preventing respiratory diseases, alleviating symptoms, and lowering mortality rates. However, the evidence is not consistent and conclusive, and more research is needed to clarify the mechanisms and the optimal doses of these dietary components. The impact of omega-3 and fiber on respiratory diseases has been mainly studied in children and adults, respectively, and few studies have examined the effect of dietary components on COVID-19 prevention, with a greater focus on vitamin D.

CONCLUSION: This review highlights the potential of nutrition as a modifiable factor in the prevention and management of respiratory infections and suggests some directions for future research. However, it also acknowledges the limitations of the existing literature, such as the heterogeneity of the study designs, populations, interventions, and outcomes, and the difficulty of isolating the effects of single nutrients from the complex interactions of the whole diet.

RevDate: 2024-06-21
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Lees JA, Russell TW, Shaw LP, et al (2024)

Recent approaches in computational modelling for controlling pathogen threats.

Life science alliance, 7(9):.

In this review, we assess the status of computational modelling of pathogens. We focus on three disparate but interlinked research areas that produce models with very different spatial and temporal scope. First, we examine antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many mechanisms of AMR are not well understood. As a result, it is hard to measure the current incidence of AMR, predict the future incidence, and design strategies to preserve existing antibiotic effectiveness. Next, we look at how to choose the finite number of bacterial strains that can be included in a vaccine. To do this, we need to understand what happens to vaccine and non-vaccine strains after vaccination programmes. Finally, we look at within-host modelling of antibody dynamics. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic produced huge amounts of antibody data, prompting improvements in this area of modelling. We finish by discussing the challenges that persist in understanding these complex biological systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-23
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Wang P (2024)

Potential Usefulness of IgA for the Early Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Comparison With IgM.

Polish journal of microbiology, 73(2):123-130.

Serological testing can be a powerful complementary approach to achieve timely diagnosis of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, along with nucleic acid detection. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies are less frequently utilized to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection than IgM and IgG antibodies, even though IgA antibodies play an important role in protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses the differences in kinetics and assay performance between IgA and IgM antibodies and the factors influencing antibody responses. It highlights the potential usefulness of analyzing IgA antibodies for the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The early appearance of IgA and the high sensitivity of IgA-based immunoassays can aid in diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019. However, because of cross-reactivity, it is important to recognize the only moderate specificity of the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgA antibodies against spike antigens. Either the analysis of antibodies targeting the nucleocapsid antigen or a combination of antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike antigens may strengthen the accuracy of serological evaluation.

RevDate: 2024-06-21
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Rocker J, C Weiss (2024)

COVID-19, MIS-C, and long COVID in pediatric patients: an update.

Pediatric emergency medicine practice, 21(7):1-28.

COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has been disruptive worldwide. It was primarily a respiratory disease that affected many of the medically vulnerable, but the true impact of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), which has been demonstrated to involve all organ systems, is now coming to light. In addition, a new disease entity emerged, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which has had significant morbidity and mortality associated with it. This issue reviews the presentation, evaluation, and management of patients with COVID-19, MIS-C, and PASC. Additionally, the current literature supporting public health measures, as well as COVID-19 vaccinations and their complications are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-06-21
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Klimiuk KB, ŁW Balwicki (2024)

What is infodemiology? An overview and its role in public health.

Przeglad epidemiologiczny, 78(1):81-89.

The exponential increase in internet use and the consequent surge in data generation present both opportunities and challenges for public health. Infodemiology, an emerging field at the intersection of information science and public health, seeks to harness the vast amounts of health-related data generated online for public health benefits. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of infodemiology, examining its development, methodologies, and potential to address public health challenges. We discuss the role of infodemiology in identifying and mitigating the spread of misinformation, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which underscored the dangers of the "infodemic" - an overabundance of information, both accurate and not, that complicates public health responses. Through both demand and supply-based studies, infodemiology offers unique insights into health trends, misinformation dynamics, and the digital behaviors of health information seekers. Tools such as sentiment analysis are highlighted as essential in navigating the vast digital landscape for real-time health data analysis. Despite the potential of infodemiology, challenges such as data overload or misinformation. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration, the development of advanced analytical tools, and the need for guidelines to maximize the field's impact on public health policy and practice.

RevDate: 2024-06-21
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Fiegler-Rudol J, Lau DNMK, DHNMJ Kasperczyk (2024)

Public health threat of novel zoonotic diseases: literature review.

Przeglad epidemiologiczny, 78(1):69-80.

Zoonoses, diseases transmitted from animals to humans, continue to challenge public health despite advancements in controlling infectious diseases. The intricate link between human, animal, and environmental health is emphasised by the fact that zoonoses contribute to 60% of emerging human infections. Wet markets, wildlife hunting, intensive wildlife farming, and interactions between domestic animals and humans are key transmission sources. Historical examples like the bubonic plague and English Sweats illustrate the longstanding impact of zoonotic diseases. With new transmission patterns emerging, it is necessary to use new techniques to predict disease spread. This article delves into the emergence of new zoonoses, such as the Nipah virus and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, emphasizing the importance of understanding zoonotic aspects for outbreak prevention. Re-emerging zoonoses, like tuberculosis and vaccine-preventable diseases, present challenges, exacerbated by factors like globalized human activities and disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health implications are explored, including economic losses, antibiotic resistance, and the disruption of international trade.

RevDate: 2024-06-22
CmpDate: 2024-06-21

Wang Y, Wei X, Liu Y, et al (2024)

Towards broad-spectrum protection: the development and challenges of combined respiratory virus vaccines.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1412478.

In the post-COVID-19 era, the co-circulation of respiratory viruses, including influenza, SARS-CoV-2, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), continues to have significant health impacts and presents ongoing public health challenges. Vaccination remains the most effective measure for preventing viral infections. To address the concurrent circulation of these respiratory viruses, extensive efforts have been dedicated to the development of combined vaccines. These vaccines utilize a range of platforms, including mRNA-based vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and subunit vaccines, providing opportunities in addressing multiple pathogens at once. This review delves into the major advancements in the field of combined vaccine research, underscoring the strategic use of various platforms to tackle the simultaneous circulation of respiratory viruses effectively.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Maggio MG, Tartarisco G, Cardile D, et al (2024)

Exploring ChatGPT's potential in the clinical stream of neurorehabilitation.

Frontiers in artificial intelligence, 7:1407905.

In several medical fields, generative AI tools such as ChatGPT have achieved optimal performance in identifying correct diagnoses only by evaluating narrative clinical descriptions of cases. The most active fields of application include oncology and COVID-19-related symptoms, with preliminary relevant results also in psychiatric and neurological domains. This scoping review aims to introduce the arrival of ChatGPT applications in neurorehabilitation practice, where such AI-driven solutions have the potential to revolutionize patient care and assistance. First, a comprehensive overview of ChatGPT, including its design, and potential applications in medicine is provided. Second, the remarkable natural language processing skills and limitations of these models are examined with a focus on their use in neurorehabilitation. In this context, we present two case scenarios to evaluate ChatGPT ability to resolve higher-order clinical reasoning. Overall, we provide support to the first evidence that generative AI can meaningfully integrate as a facilitator into neurorehabilitation practice, aiding physicians in defining increasingly efficacious diagnostic and personalized prognostic plans.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Hagiya H (2024)

Thoughts on and Proposal for the Education, Training, and Recruitment of Infectious Disease Specialists.

Acta medica Okayama, 78(3):205-213.

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has underscored the significance of establishing and sustaining a practical and efficient infection control system for the benefit and welfare of society. Infectious disease (ID) specialists are expected to take on leadership roles in enhancing organizational infrastructures for infection prevention and control (IPC) at the hospital, community, and national levels. However, due to an absolute shortage and an uneven distribution, many core hospitals currently lack the ID specialists. Given the escalating global risk of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases as well as antimicrobial resistance pathogens, the education and training of ID specialists constitutes an imperative concern. As demonstrated by historical changes in the healthcare reimbursement system, the establishment and enhancement of IPC measures is pivotal to ensuring medical safety. The existing structure of academic society-driven certification and training initiatives for ID specialists, contingent upon the discretionary decisions of individual physicians, possesses both quantitative and qualitative shortcomings. In this article, I first address the present situations and challenges related to ID specialists and then introduce my idea of securing ID specialists based on the new concepts and platforms; (i) ID Specialists as National Credentials, (ii) Establishment of the Department of Infectious Diseases in Medical and Graduate Schools, (iii) Endowed ID Educative Courses Funded by Local Government and Pharmaceutical Companies, and (iv) Recruitment of Young Physicians Engaged in Healthcare Services in Remote Areas. As clarified by the COVID-19 pandemic, ID specialists play a crucial role in safeguarding public health. Hopefully, this article will advance the discussion and organizational reform for the education and training of ID specialists.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Roohi A, S Gharagozlou (2024)

Vitamin D supplementation and calcium: Many-faced gods or nobody in fighting against Corona Virus Disease 2019.

Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 62:172-184.

In December 2019, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified and designated as a pandemic in March 2020 due to rapid spread of the virus globally. At the beginning of the pandemic, only a few treatment options, mainly focused on supportive care and repurposing medications, were available. Due to its effects on immune system, vitamin D was a topic of interest during the pandemic, and researchers investigated its potential impact on COVID-19 outcomes. However, the results of studies about the impact of vitamin D on the disease are inconclusive. In the present narrative review, different roles of vitamin D regarding the COVID-19 have been discussed to show that vitamin D supplementation should be recommended carefully.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Paul S, Kaushik R, Chawla P, et al (2024)

Vitamin-D as a multifunctional molecule for overall well-being: An integrative review.

Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 62:10-21.

Vitamin D is amongst the most important biomolecules to regularize and help in sustainable health, however, based on the studies, deficiency of this multifunctional vitamin is common. Vitamin D, besides playing a role in the form of vitamins, also acts as a multifunctional hormone (steroid). Vitamin D is synthesized inside the body through various steps starting from ultraviolet radiation exposure and comes from limited food sources, however, vitamin D-fortified food products are still among the major sources of vitamin D. Current review, focused on how vitamin D acts as a multifunctional molecule by effecting different functions in the body in normal or specific conditions and how it is important in fortification and how it can be managed from the available literature till date. During the Covid pandemic, people were aware of vitamin D and took supplementation, fortified foods, and sat under sunlight. As COVID prevalence decreases, people start forgetting about vitamin D. Vitamin D is very crucial for overall well-being as it has protective effects against a broad range of diseases as it can reduce inflammation, cancer cell growth and helps in controlling infection, increase metabolism, muscle, and bone strength, neurotransmitter expression, etc. Therefore, the present review is to provoke the population, and fulfillment of the vitamin D recommended dietary allowance daily must be confirmed.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Song R, Chen Z, Xiao H, et al (2024)

The CRISPR-Cas system in molecular diagnostics.

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 561:119820 pii:S0009-8981(24)02072-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Robust, sensitive, and rapid molecular detection tools are essential prerequisites for disease diagnosis and epidemiological control. However, the current mainstream tests necessitate expensive equipment and specialized operators, impeding the advancement of molecular diagnostics. The CRISPR-Cas system is an integral component of the bacterial adaptive immune system, wherein Cas proteins recognize PAM sequences by binding to CRISPR RNA, subsequently triggering DNA or RNA cleavage. The discovery of the CRISPR-Cas system has invigorated molecular diagnostics. With further in-depth research on this system, its application in molecular diagnosis is flourishing. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of recent research progress on the CRISPR-Cas system, specifically focusing on its application in molecular diagnosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Song MH, Sun Y, XB Qiu (2024)

Hijacking autophagy for infection by flaviviruses.

Virus research, 347:199422 pii:S0168-1702(24)00115-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway, which regulates the homeostasis of eukaryotic cells. This pathway can degrade misfolded or aggregated proteins, clear damaged organelles, and eliminate intracellular pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. But, not all types of viruses are eliminated by autophagy. Flaviviruses (e.g., Yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Hepatitis C, Dengue, Zika, and West Nile viruses) are single-stranded and enveloped RNA viruses, and transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of arthropods, leading to severe and widespread illnesses. Like the coronavirus SARS-CoV-II, flaviviruses hijack autophagy for their infection and escape from host immune clearance. Thus, it is possible to control these viral infections by inhibiting autophagy. In this review, we summarize recent research progresses on hijacking of autophagy by flaviviruses and discuss the feasibility of antiviral therapies using autophagy inhibitors.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Grøntved S, Jørgine Kirkeby M, Paaske Johnsen S, et al (2024)

Towards reliable forecasting of healthcare capacity needs: A scoping review and evidence mapping.

International journal of medical informatics, 189:105527 pii:S1386-5056(24)00190-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the critical importance of robust healthcare capacity planning and preparedness for emerging crises. However, healthcare systems must also adapt to more gradual temporal changes in disease prevalence and demographic composition over time. To support proactive healthcare planning, statistical capacity forecasting models can provide valuable information to healthcare planners. This systematic literature review and evidence mapping aims to identify and describe studies that have used statistical forecasting models to estimate healthcare capacity needs within hospital settings.

METHOD: Studies were identified in the databases MEDLINE and Embase and screened for relevance before items were defined and extracted within the following categories: forecast methodology, measure of capacity, forecast horizon, healthcare setting, target diagnosis, validation methods, and implementation.

RESULTS: 84 studies were selected, all focusing on various capacity outcomes, including number of hospital beds/ patients, staffing, and length of stay. The selected studies employed different analytical models grouped in six items; discrete event simulation (N = 13, 15 %), generalized linear models (N = 21, 25 %), rate multiplication (N = 15, 18 %), compartmental models (N = 14, 17 %), time series analysis (N = 22, 26 %), and machine learning not otherwise categorizable (N = 12, 14 %). The review further provides insights into disease areas with infectious diseases (N = 24, 29 %) and cancer (N = 12, 14 %) being predominant, though several studies forecasted healthcare capacity needs in general (N = 24, 29 %). Only about half of the models were validated using either temporal validation (N = 39, 46 %), cross-validation (N = 2, 2 %) or/and geographical validation (N = 4, 5 %).

CONCLUSION: The forecasting models' applicability can serve as a resource for healthcare stakeholders involved in designing future healthcare capacity estimation. The lack of routine performance validation of the used algorithms is concerning. There is very little information on implementation and follow-up validation of capacity planning models.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Horner SM, JV Reaves (2024)

Recent insights into N[6]-methyladenosine during viral infection.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 87:102213 pii:S0959-437X(24)00062-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The RNA modification of N[6]-methyladenosine (m[6]A) controls many aspects of RNA function that impact biological processes, including viral infection. In this review, we highlight recent work that shapes our current understanding of the diverse mechanisms by which m[6]A can regulate viral infection by acting on viral or cellular mRNA molecules. We focus on emerging concepts and understanding, including how viral infection alters the localization and function of m[6]A machinery proteins, how m[6]A regulates antiviral innate immunity, and the multiple roles of m[6]A in regulating specific viral infections. We also summarize the recent studies on m[6]A during SARS-CoV-2 infection, focusing on points of convergence and divergence. Ultimately, this review provides a snapshot of the latest research on m[6]A during viral infection.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Cyrkler M, Czerwiak KZ, Drabik A, et al (2024)

A New Pandemic of the XXIst Century: The Growing Crisis of Adolescent Depression in the Digital Age.

Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 30:e944838 pii:944838.

In a reality dominated by social media and affected by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the mental health of people in various age groups has undoubtedly suffered, especially among young people. Statistics confirm that adolescent depression is a significant health problem and is the most common cause of disability in this age group. Research shows the multifactorial basis of this disease entity, placing particular emphasis on the genetic, environmental, and biological background. A family history of depression can increase the risk of developing depression by 4-fold. A teenager, being part of many systems, such as family, school community, and social media co-user, is exposed to many stressors. Maturing youth have a very demanding educational plan to implement, and depression causes a decline in cognitive functions, which are so important in acquiring knowledge. Among many patients, an additional risk is self-harm and suicide, which are part of the clinical picture of depressive disorders. Suicide accounts for about one-third of mortality among youth. We draw attention to the need to increase educational and psychoeducational impacts on adolescent depression, as it is a huge health problem that has an impact on all areas of a young person's life. The trend of depression among adolescents is constantly increasing. The aim of this article is to review the global causes and consequences of the growing number of cases of depression, self-harm, and suicide among children and adolescents, as well as contemporary approaches to management.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Sunami Y, Sugaya K, K Takahashi (2024)

G protein-coupled receptors related to autoimmunity in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

Immunological medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is characterized by exaggerated orthostatic tachycardia in the absence of orthostatic hypotension. The pathophysiology of POTS may involve hypovolemia, autonomic neuropathy, a hyperadrenergic state, and cardiovascular deconditioning, any of which can co-occur in the same patient. Furthermore, there is growing evidence of the role of autoimmunity in a subset of POTS cases. In recent years, investigators have described an increased rate of autoimmune comorbidities as evidenced by the finding of several types of neural receptor autoantibody and non-specific autoimmune marker in patients with POTS. In particular, the association of the disease with several types of anti-G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antibodies and POTS has frequently been noted. A previous study reported that autoantibodies to muscarinic AChRs may play an important role in POTS with persistent, gastrointestinal symptoms. To date, POTS is recognized as one of the sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its frequency and pathogenesis are still largely unknown. Multiple autoantibody types occur in COVID-related, autonomic disorders, suggesting the presence of autoimmune pathology in these disorders. Herein, we review the association of anti-GPCR autoantibodies with disorders of the autonomic nervous system, in particular POTS, and provide a new perspective for understanding POTS-related autoimmunity.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Wu J, Zheng Y, Zhang LN, et al (2024)

Advanced nanomedicines and immunotherapeutics to treat respiratory diseases especially COVID-19 induced thrombosis.

World journal of clinical cases, 12(16):2704-2712.

Immunotherapy and associated immune regulation strategies gained huge attraction in order to be utilized for treatment and prevention of respiratory diseases. Engineering specifically nanomedicines can be used to regulate host immunity in lungs in the case of respiratory diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. COVID-19 causes pulmonary embolisms, thus new therapeutic options are required to target thrombosis, as conventional treatment options are either not effective due to the complexity of the immune-thrombosis pathophysiology. In this review, we discuss regulation of immune response in respiratory diseases especially COVID-19. We further discuss thrombosis and provide an overview of some antithrombotic nanoparticles, which can be used to develop nanomedicine against thrombo-inflammation induced by COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases. We also elaborate the importance of immunomodulatory nanomedicines that can block pro-inflammatory signalling pathways, and thus can be recommended to treat respiratory infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Valaparla VL, Rane SP, Patel C, et al (2024)

Guillain-Barre syndrome and link with COVID-19 infection and vaccination: a review of literature.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1396642.

BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease associated with significant morbidity. A wide variety of infectious and non-infectious triggers have been identified to be associated with GBS. COVID-19 has gained attention in recent years for its role in GBS pathogenesis. Our study aims to review the literature on GBS and its epidemiological and pathophysiological association with COVID-19.

DESCRIPTION: Recent literature on GBS associated with COVID-19 infections, such as case reports, case series, systematic reviews, and large-scale epidemiological studies, were reviewed. We also reviewed studies that included vaccines against COVID-19 in association with GBS. Studies that focused on understanding the pathobiology of GBS and its association with infectious agents including COVID-19 were reviewed.

CONCLUSION: Despite a lack of consensus, GBS is strongly associated with COVID-19 infection. The exact pathophysiological mechanism regarding COVID-19 as a causative agent of GBS is unknown. Mechanisms, such as the proinflammatory state, triggering of autoimmunity, and direct viral invasion, are postulated and remain to be investigated. Adenovirus vector vaccines are most likely associated with GBS, and the consensual reports clearly suggest mRNA vaccines are associated with low risk and may be protective against GBS by reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Mostafa A (2024)

Insights into the sustainability of liquid chromatographic methods for favipiravir bioanalysis: a comparative study.

RSC advances, 14(28):19658-19679.

The introduction of favipiravir as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, particularly in treating influenza and exploring its potential against COVID-19, emphasizes the necessity for efficient analytical methods. Liquid chromatography has emerged as a commonly utilized technique for quantifying favipiravir in biological fluids. However, the environmental and health concerns linked to classical analytical methods mean a transition toward green analytical chemistry is required. This study investigates the environmental impact of 19 liquid chromatographic methods utilized in the bioanalysis of favipiravir. Recognizing the importance of eco-friendly practices in pharmaceutical analysis, the study employs three widely accepted greenness assessment tools: Analytical Eco-Scale (AES), Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI), and Analytical Greenness Calculator (AGREE). Moreover, it incorporates a comprehensive evaluation on a global scale utilizing the whiteness assessment tool Red-Green-Blue 12 (RGB 12). The comprehensive evaluation aims to extend beyond traditional validation criteria and considerations of green chemistry, providing insights into the development of practically efficient, eco-friendly and economical analytical methods for favipiravir determination. This study emphasizes the necessity of planning for the environmental impact and overall sustainability of analytical methods before laboratory trials. Additionally, the integration of greenness/whiteness evaluation in method validation protocols is strongly advocated, emphasizing the importance of critical and global evaluations in analytical chemistry.

RevDate: 2024-06-22
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Shao HH, RX Yin (2024)

Pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular damage in COVID-19.

Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), 30(1):92.

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Since the outbreak in December 2019, it has caused an unprecedented world pandemic, leading to a global human health crisis. Although SARS CoV-2 mainly affects the lungs, causing interstitial pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, a number of patients often have extensive clinical manifestations, such as gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiovascular damage and renal dysfunction.

PURPOSE: This review article discusses the pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular damage in COVID-19 patients and provides some useful suggestions for future clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

METHODS: An English-language literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science databases up to 12th April, 2024 for the terms "COVID-19", "SARS CoV-2", "cardiovascular damage", "myocardial injury", "myocarditis", "hypertension", "arrhythmia", "heart failure" and "coronary heart disease", especially update articles in 2023 and 2024. Salient medical literatures regarding the cardiovascular damage of COVID-19 were selected, extracted and synthesized.

RESULTS: The most common cardiovascular damage was myocarditis and pericarditis, hypertension, arrhythmia, myocardial injury and heart failure, coronary heart disease, stress cardiomyopathy, ischemic stroke, blood coagulation abnormalities, and dyslipidemia. Two important pathogenic mechanisms of the cardiovascular damage may be direct viral cytotoxicity as well as indirect hyperimmune responses of the body to SARS CoV-2 infection.

CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular damage in COVID-19 patients is common and portends a worse prognosis. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular damage related to COVID-19 are not completely clear, two important pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular damage may be the direct damage of the SARSCoV-2 infection and the indirect hyperimmune responses.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Barreras F, DJ Watts (2024)

The exciting potential and daunting challenge of using GPS human-mobility data for epidemic modeling.

Nature computational science [Epub ahead of print].

Large-scale GPS location datasets hold immense potential for measuring human mobility and interpersonal contact, both of which are essential for data-driven epidemiology. However, despite their potential and widespread adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic, there are several challenges with these data that raise concerns regarding the validity and robustness of its applications. Here we outline two types of challenges-some related to accessing and processing these data, and some related to data quality-and propose several research directions to address them moving forward.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

White R, Lam P, Lu N, et al (2024)

Statistical considerations for cardiovascular clinical trials straddling the continuum of pandemic phases.

Cardiovascular revascularization medicine : including molecular interventions pii:S1553-8389(24)00538-4 [Epub ahead of print].

In 2020, the NIH and FDA issued guidance documents that laid the foundation for human subject research during an unprecedented pandemic. To bridge these general considerations to actual applications in cardiovascular interventional device trials, the PAndemic Impact on INTErventional device ReSearch (PAIINTERS) Working Group was formed in early 2021 under the Predictable And Sustainable Implementation Of National CardioVascular Registries (PASSION CV Registries). The PAIINTER's Part I report, published by Rymer et al. [5], provided a comprehensive overview of the operational impact on interventional studies during the first year of the Pandemic. PAIINTERS Part II focused on potential statistical issues related to bias, variability, missing data, and study power when interventional studies may start and end in different pandemic phases. Importantly, the paper also offers practical mitigation strategies to adjust or minimize the impact for both SATs and RCTs, providing a valuable resource for researchers and professionals involved in cardiovascular clinical trials.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Tureck F, Chioro A, Tofani LFN, et al (2024)

Innovations produced in Primary Health Care during the COVID-19 pandemic: an integrative literature review.

Ciencia & saude coletiva, 29(6):e07022023.

Primary Health Care (PHC) proved to be an important part of the prevention, control and treatment measures against COVID-19, a situation in which it was challenged to keep up its provision of regular services as well. This article identifies the main arrangements made to provide PHC care in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. An integrative literature review of articles found in PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases was performed using the descriptors "Primary Health Care" and "COVID-19". Findings were analyzed considering three questions: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Organizations of Work Processes and Non-COVID Chronic Diseases. The use of different forms of ICT to provide PHC is highlighted regarding patients with respiratory symptoms and chronic patients. Changes in team composition, service flows, physical spaces and working hours were also introduced. Although strategies aimed at monitoring chronic patients and at remote care may have helped minimize deterioration of their health, the decrease in the number of visits performed during this period could have resulted in an increased demand for PHC in post-pandemic years.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Huang X, Ma Y, Ma G, et al (2024)

Unlocking the Therapeutic Applicability of LNP-mRNA: Chemistry, Formulation, and Clinical Strategies.

Research (Washington, D.C.), 7:0370.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as an innovative therapeutic modality, offering promising avenues for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. The tremendous success of mRNA vaccines in effectively combatting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) evidences the unlimited medical and therapeutic potential of mRNA technology. Overcoming challenges related to mRNA stability, immunogenicity, and precision targeting has been made possible by recent advancements in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). This review summarizes state-of-the-art LNP-mRNA-based therapeutics, including their structure, material compositions, design guidelines, and screening principles. Additionally, we highlight current preclinical and clinical trends in LNP-mRNA therapeutics in a broad range of treatments in ophthalmological conditions, cancer immunotherapy, gene editing, and rare-disease medicine. Particular attention is given to the translation and evolution of LNP-mRNA vaccines into a broader spectrum of therapeutics. We explore concerns in the aspects of inadequate extrahepatic targeting efficacy, elevated doses, safety concerns, and challenges of large-scale production procedures. This discussion may offer insights and perspectives on near- and long-term clinical development prospects for LNP-mRNA therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Liu Y, Su Y, X Li (2024)

Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on infertile patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PsyCh journal [Epub ahead of print].

The present study aimed to examine the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on infertile patients. We adopted a comparison design and searched articles published from 1 September 2016 to 31 December 2019 as the control group, while articles published from 1 January 2020 to 31 April 2023 were treated as the pandemic group. Specifically, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, PsycArticle, CNKI and PsycINFO were searched to identify potential eligible records. Risk of bias was assessed, and random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of specific mental health problems. Forty studies with a total of 19,480 participants were included in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of anxiety in the pandemic group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The depression and stress prevalence in the pandemic group was higher than that in the control group, yet did not reach statistical significance. A subgroup analysis revealed region differences with developed countries exhibiting higher rates of anxiety and depression in the pandemic group, but the result was the opposite in the control group. Physiological factors, psychological factors and social factors correlated with infertile patients' mental health were identified. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on infertile patients' mental health, emphasizing the importance of ways to mitigate the risks during the pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Zheng HY, Song TZ, YT Zheng (2024)

Immunobiology of COVID-19: Mechanistic and therapeutic insights from animal models.

Zoological research, 45(4):747-766.

The distribution of the immune system throughout the body complicates in vitro assessments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunobiology, often resulting in a lack of reproducibility when extrapolated to the whole organism. Consequently, developing animal models is imperative for a comprehensive understanding of the pathology and immunology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This review summarizes current progress related to COVID-19 animal models, including non-human primates (NHPs), mice, and hamsters, with a focus on their roles in exploring the mechanisms of immunopathology, immune protection, and long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as their application in immunoprevention and immunotherapy of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Differences among these animal models and their specific applications are also highlighted, as no single model can fully encapsulate all aspects of COVID-19. To effectively address the challenges posed by COVID-19, it is essential to select appropriate animal models that can accurately replicate both fatal and non-fatal infections with varying courses and severities. Optimizing animal model libraries and associated research tools is key to resolving the global COVID-19 pandemic, serving as a robust resource for future emerging infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Geny M, Andres E, Talha S, et al (2024)

Liability of Health Professionals Using Sensors, Telemedicine and Artificial Intelligence for Remote Healthcare.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 24(11):.

In the last few decades, there has been an ongoing transformation of our healthcare system with larger use of sensors for remote care and artificial intelligence (AI) tools. In particular, sensors improved by new algorithms with learning capabilities have proven their value for better patient care. Sensors and AI systems are no longer only non-autonomous devices such as the ones used in radiology or surgical robots; there are novel tools with a certain degree of autonomy aiming to largely modulate the medical decision. Thus, there will be situations in which the doctor is the one making the decision and has the final say and other cases in which the doctor might only apply the decision presented by the autonomous device. As those are two hugely different situations, they should not be treated the same way, and different liability rules should apply. Despite a real interest in the promise of sensors and AI in medicine, doctors and patients are reluctant to use it. One important reason is a lack clear definition of liability. Nobody wants to be at fault, or even prosecuted, because they followed the advice from an AI system, notably when it has not been perfectly adapted to a specific patient. Fears are present even with simple sensors and AI use, such as during telemedicine visits based on very useful, clinically pertinent sensors; with the risk of missing an important parameter; and, of course, when AI appears "intelligent", potentially replacing the doctors' judgment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the liability of the health professional in the context of the use of sensors and AI tools in remote healthcare, analyzing four regimes: the contract-based approach, the approach based on breach of duty to inform, the fault-based approach, and the approach related to the good itself. We will also discuss future challenges and opportunities in the promising domain of sensors and AI use in medicine.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Song X, Song W, Cui L, et al (2024)

A Comprehensive Review of the Global Epidemiology, Clinical Management, Socio-Economic Impacts, and National Responses to Long COVID with Future Research Directions.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(11):.

Background: Long COVID, characterized by a persistent symptom spectrum following SARS-CoV-2 infection, poses significant health, social, and economic challenges. This review aims to consolidate knowledge on its epidemiology, clinical features, and underlying mechanisms to guide global responses; Methods: We conducted a literature review, analyzing peer-reviewed articles and reports to gather comprehensive data on long COVID's epidemiology, symptomatology, and management approaches; Results: Our analysis revealed a wide array of long COVID symptoms and risk factors, with notable demographic variability. The current understanding of its pathophysiology suggests a multifactorial origin yet remains partially understood. Emerging diagnostic criteria and potential therapeutic strategies were identified, highlighting advancements in long COVID management; Conclusions: This review highlights the multifaceted nature of long COVID, revealing a broad spectrum of symptoms, diverse risk factors, and the complex interplay of physiological mechanisms underpinning the condition. Long COVID symptoms and disorders will continue to weigh on healthcare systems in years to come. Addressing long COVID requires a holistic management strategy that integrates clinical care, social support, and policy initiatives. The findings underscore the need for increased international cooperation in research and health planning to address the complex challenges of long COVID. There is a call for continued refinement of diagnostic and treatment modalities, emphasizing a multidisciplinary approach to manage the ongoing and evolving impacts of the condition.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Chagas ALD, Araújo JCDS, Serra JCP, et al (2024)

Co-Infection of SARS-CoV-2 and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(11):.

The study aimed to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 and Klebsiella spp. coinfection across continents. Conducted following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review utilized PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases, searching for literature in English published from December 2019 to December 2022, using specific Health Sciences descriptors. A total of 408 records were identified, but only 50 were eligible, and of these, only 33 were included. Thirty-three references were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between COVID-19 and Klebsiella spp. infections. The tabulated data represented a sample group of 8741 coinfected patients. The findings revealed notable disparities in co-infection rates across continents. In Asia, 23% of individuals were infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae, while in Europe, the proportion of co-infected patients stood at 15%. Strikingly, on the African continent, 43% were found to be infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae, highlighting significant regional variations. Overall, the proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae co-infections among COVID-positive individuals were determined to be 19%. Particularly concerning was the observation that 1 in 6 ICU coinfections was attributed to Klebsiella pneumoniae, indicating its substantial impact on patient outcomes and healthcare burden. The study underscores the alarming prevalence of co-infection between COVID-19 and Klebsiella pneumoniae, potentially exacerbating the clinical severity of patients and posing challenges to treatment strategies. These findings emphasize the importance of vigilant surveillance and targeted interventions to mitigate the adverse effects of bacterial coinfections in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Rayman MP, Schomburg L, Zhang J, et al (2024)

Comment on Ambra et al. Could Selenium Supplementation Prevent COVID-19? A Comprehensive Review of Available Studies. Molecules 2023, 28, 4130.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 29(11):.

The authors of this Comment are longstanding selenium investigators with a total of 200 or more published articles on selenium; the corresponding author (Margaret P [...].

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Wang Y, Chen J, Yang Z, et al (2024)

Advances in Nucleic Acid Assays for Infectious Disease: The Role of Microfluidic Technology.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 29(11):.

Within the fields of infectious disease diagnostics, microfluidic-based integrated technology systems have become a vital technology in enhancing the rapidity, accuracy, and portability of pathogen detection. These systems synergize microfluidic techniques with advanced molecular biology methods, including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), have been successfully used to identify a diverse array of pathogens, including COVID-19, Ebola, Zika, and dengue fever. This review outlines the advances in pathogen detection, attributing them to the integration of microfluidic technology with traditional molecular biology methods and smartphone- and paper-based diagnostic assays. The cutting-edge diagnostic technologies are of critical importance for disease prevention and epidemic surveillance. Looking ahead, research is expected to focus on increasing detection sensitivity, streamlining testing processes, reducing costs, and enhancing the capability for remote data sharing. These improvements aim to achieve broader coverage and quicker response mechanisms, thereby constructing a more robust defense for global public health security.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Fernández-Galván A, Rodríguez-Jiménez P, González-Sixto B, et al (2024)

Topical and Intralesional Immunotherapy for the Management of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers, 16(11):.

Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of cancer among the white population. Individuals with fair skin have an average lifetime risk of around 30% for developing BCC, and there is a noticeable upward trend in its incidence rate. The principal treatment objectives for BCC involve achieving the total excision of the tumor while maximizing the preservation of function and cosmesis. Surgery is considered the treatment of choice for BCC for two main reasons: it allows for the highest cure rates and facilitates histological control of resection margins. However, in the subgroup of patients with low-risk recurrence or medical contraindications for surgery, new non-surgical treatment alternatives can provide an excellent oncological and cosmetic outcome. An evident and justified instance of these local therapies occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, a period when surgical interventions carried out in hospital settings were not a viable option.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Tsampasian V, Androulakis E, Catumbela R, et al (2024)

Prevalence of Abnormal Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Findings in Athletes Recovered from COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of clinical medicine, 13(11):.

Background: Competitive sports and high-level athletic training result in a constellation of changes in the myocardium that comprise the 'athlete's heart'. With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been concerns whether elite athletes would be at higher risk of myocardial involvement after infection with the virus. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the prevalence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) findings in elite athletes recovered from COVID-19 infection. Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were systematically search from inception to 15 November 2023. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings, including the pathological presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), abnormal T1 and T2 values and pericardial enhancement, in athletes who had recovered from COVID-19 infection. Results: Out of 3890 records, 18 studies with a total of 4446 athletes were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of pathological LGE in athletes recovered from COVID-19 was 2.0% (95% CI 0.9% to 4.4%, I[2] 90%). The prevalence of elevated T1 and T2 values was 1.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 3.6%, I[2] 87%) and 1.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 3.7%, I[2] 89%), respectively, and the pooled prevalence of pericardial involvement post COVID-19 infection was 1.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 2.5%, I[2] 85%). The prevalence of all abnormal CMR findings was much higher among those who had a clinical indication of CMR. Conclusions: Among athletes who have recently recovered from COVID-19 infection, there is a low prevalence of abnormal CMR findings. However, the prevalence is much higher among athletes with symptoms and/or abnormal initial cardiac screening. Further studies and longer follow up are needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to ascertain if they are associated with adverse events.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

T'ng K, Kenardy J, A Hartanto (2024)

Evaluating Mental Health Outcomes in COVID-19 ICU Survivors: A Scoping Review of Measurement Tools.

Journal of clinical medicine, 13(11):.

Objective: The objective of this scoping review was to map the range of measurement tools used to study the prevalence of common mental health conditions in COVID-19 ICU survivors. Introduction: Increased rates of admission to and survivorship from intensive care units (ICUs) have been observed in recent years, particularly during the global pandemic. ICU patients are at a higher risk of developing depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Due to the high burden of disease, an accurate understanding of long-term mental health challenges for this population is key. Unfortunately, there is significant variability in reported prevalence rates. Heterogeneity in measurement tools potentially contribute to this. Inclusion criteria: Studies were eligible if they (a) reported mental health outcomes of adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to an ICU, (b) used standardised mental health outcome measures, and (3) were peer-reviewed. Methods: Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus. The initial search retrieved 1234 publications. After de-duplication and title and abstract screening, 72 full-text articles were examined for eligibility and 44 articles were excluded, leaving 28 eligible studies. Reference lists of the eligible studies were screened, and four other studies were added. 32 studies were ultimately included in this review. Results: Significant heterogeneity of measurement tools and clinical thresholds were observed. Only 6.25% of the studies compared changes in mental health outcomes to baseline measurements. Between five and nine unique measurement tools were used to study depression, anxiety, and PTSD, respectively. Studies were also observed to use up to 19 different thresholds to establish the prevalence of PTSD. Conclusions: The heterogeneity of measurement tools and thresholds continues to confound prevalence rate estimations of mental health complications post-ICU admission. Future research will benefit from consistency in the use of recommended outcome measures and the use of psychometrically comparable cut-off points between key measures.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Aerts M, Rosseel Z, E De Waele (2024)

The Evolution in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients' Profile and the Associated Sustainable Challenges: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.

Nutrients, 16(11):.

The prevalence and incidence of NAFLD is rising due to the obesity pandemic, caused by the widespread availability of ultra-processed foods and the decrease of physical activity. Factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity and geographical location are associated with NAFLD, with lower SES correlating with higher incidence, particularly in regions like America or Europe. Beside the quality of food, the quantity also plays a crucial role. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a Mediterranean diet with a balanced energy intake. Since no hard medical treatment is available for NAFLD, lifestyle adjustments are key. Patient empowerment by providing relevant information and co-ownership of the therapy will increase the implementation rate and enhance the quality of medical follow-up and medication adherence, as studies report a good adherence to medication among patients who are well-aware of the severity of their disease. Regarding sustainability, patients with NAFLD have a high load of ambulatory follow-up, which, since the COVID-19 pandemic, can be partially provided by teleconsulting. Both patients' lifestyle modifications and healthcare practitioners' therapeutical strategy can decrease the carbon footprint.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Jurek JM, J Castro-Marrero (2024)

A Narrative Review on Gut Microbiome Disturbances and Microbial Preparations in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Implications for Long COVID.

Nutrients, 16(11):.

Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), and long COVID are complex, multisystemic and long-term disabling conditions characterized by debilitating post-exertional malaise and other core symptoms related to immune dysregulation resultant from post-viral infection, including mitochondrial dysfunction, chronic neuroinflammation and gut dysbiosis. The reported associations between altered microbiota composition and cardinal symptoms of ME/CFS and long COVID suggest that the use of microbial preparations, such as probiotics, by restoring the homeostasis of the brain-immune-gut axis, may help in the management of symptoms in both conditions. Therefore, this review aims to investigate the implications of alerted gut microbiome and assess the evidence supporting use of microbial-based preparations, including probiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics alone and/or in combination with other nutraceuticals in the management of fatigue, inflammation and neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal symptoms among patients with ME/CFS and long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Gambadauro A, Galletta F, Li Pomi A, et al (2024)

Immune Response to Respiratory Viral Infections.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(11):.

The respiratory system is constantly exposed to viral infections that are responsible for mild to severe diseases. In this narrative review, we focalized the attention on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, responsible for high morbidity and mortality in the last decades. We reviewed the human innate and adaptive immune responses in the airways following infection, focusing on a particular population: newborns and pregnant women. The recent Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted how our interest in viral pathologies must not decrease. Furthermore, we must increase our knowledge of infection mechanisms to improve our future defense strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Paroli M, Gioia C, Accapezzato D, et al (2024)

Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Infection in Fibromyalgia: A Narrative Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(11):.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain of unknown etiology. The condition is commonly associated with other symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment, and depression. For this reason, FM is also referred to as FM syndrome. The nature of the pain is defined as nociplastic according to the latest international classification and is characterized by altered nervous sensitization both centrally and peripherally. Psychosocial conditions have traditionally been considered critical in the genesis of FM. However, recent studies in animal models and humans have provided new evidence in favor of an inflammatory and/or autoimmune pathogenesis. In support of this hypothesis are epidemiological data of an increased female prevalence, similar to that of autoimmune diseases, and the frequent association with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. In addition, the observation of an increased incidence of this condition during long COVID revived the hypothesis of an infectious pathogenesis. This narrative review will, therefore, discuss the evidence supporting the immune-mediated pathogenesis of FM in light of the most current data available in the literature.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Moore GJ, Ridway H, Gadanec LK, et al (2024)

Structural Features Influencing the Bioactive Conformation of Angiotensin II and Angiotensin A: Relationship between Receptor Desensitization, Addiction, and the Blood-Brain Barrier.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(11):.

The N-terminal portion of the octapeptide angiotensin II (DRVYIHPF; AngII), a vasopressor peptide that favorably binds to, and activates, AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R), has an important role in maintaining bioactive conformation. It involves all three charged groups, namely (i) the N-terminal amino group cation, (ii) the Asp sidechain anion and (iii) the Arg guanidino cation. Neutralization of any one of these three charged groups results in a substantial reduction (<5%) in bioactivity, implicating a specialized function for this cluster. In contrast, angiotensin A (ARVYIHPF; AngA) has reduced bioactivity at AT1R; however, replacement of Asp in AngII with sarcosine (N-methyl-glycine) not only restores bioactivity but increases the activity of agonist, antagonist, and inverse agonist analogues. A bend produced at the N-terminus by the introduction of the secondary amino acid sarcosine is thought to realign the functional groups that chaperone the C-terminal portion of AngII, allowing transfer of the negative charge originating at the C-terminus to be transferred to the Tyr hydroxyl-forming tyrosinate anion, which is required to activate the receptor and desensitizes the receptor (tachyphylaxis). Peptide (sarilesin) and nonpeptide (sartans) moieties, which are long-acting inverse agonists, appear to desensitize the receptor by a mechanism analogous to tachyphylaxis. Sartans/bisartans were found to bind to alpha adrenergic receptors resulting in structure-dependent desensitization or resensitization. These considerations have provided information on the mechanisms of receptor desensitization/tolerance and insights into possible avenues for treating addiction. In this regard sartans, which appear to cross the blood-brain barrier more readily than bisartans, are the preferred drug candidates.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Kuznetsova TV, Kudryavtseva VA, LL Kapranova (2024)

Increasing Risks to the Health of the Invertebrates-Balancing between Harm and Benefit.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(11):.

The article discusses the issue of extensive use of detergents and sanitizers in the time of new challenges associated with the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. These agents could pose threats to the existence of free-living invertebrates as essential components of the ecosystem. The biological effects of the mentioned classes of substances, their metabolites, and combined effects in the mixture have not been studied enough. The main challenges in trying to balance the threats and benefits of using such substances are the lack of knowledge of the biological effects of these products, the gaps in testing invertebrates' responses, and changes in environment-related regulations to minimize risks to animals and humans. Numerous studies in this field still leave research gaps, particularly concerning the combined toxicity of well-known and widely used disinfectants, surfactants, and heavy metals, posing potential future challenges. Additionally, the review identified the need for additional testing of invertebrates for their sensitivity to disinfectants and surfactants of different compositions, including improved (non-invasive) methods, studies for early life stages, and comparative studies of species resilience.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Jiang C, Chen Z, Liao W, et al (2024)

The Medicinal Species of the Lycium Genus (Goji Berries) in East Asia: A Review of Its Effect on Cell Signal Transduction Pathways.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(11):.

Natural plants contain numerous chemical compounds that are beneficial to human health. The berries from the Lycium genus are widely consumed and are highly nutritious. Moreover, their chemical constituents have attracted attention for their health-promoting properties. In East Asia, there are three varieties of the Lycium genus (Lycium barbarum L., Lycium chinense Miller, and L. ruthenicum Murray) that possess medicinal value and are commonly used for treating chronic diseases and improving metabolic disorders. These varieties are locally referred to as "red Goji berries" or "black Goji berries" due to their distinct colors, and they differ in their chemical compositions, primarily in terms of carotenoid and anthocyanin content. The pharmacological functions of these berries include anti-aging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-exercise fatigue effects. This review aims to analyze previous and recent studies on the active ingredients and pharmacological activities of these Lycium varieties, elucidating their signaling pathways and assessing their impact on the gut microbiota. Furthermore, the potential prospects for using these active ingredients in the treatment of COVID-19 are evaluated. This review explores the potential targets of these Lycium varieties in the treatment of relevant diseases, highlighting their potential value in drug development.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Haimi M, A Lerner (2024)

Utilizing Telemedicine Applications in Celiac Disease and Other Gluten-Free-Diet-Dependent Conditions: Insights from the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11):.

BACKGROUND: Globally, approximately 1.4% of people have celiac disease (CD), induced by gluten sensitivity. If left untreated, it causes small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy, which can result in failure to thrive, anemia, osteoporosis, malabsorption, and even malignancy. The only treatment option available is a gluten-free diet (GFD). Few studies have looked at the role and perception of telehealth in relation to CD and selective nutrition both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

AIM: Our goal was to screen and investigate the research conducted both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic concerning the utilization of telehealth applications and solutions in CD and other GFD-dependent circumstances.

METHODS: We employed a narrative review approach to explore articles that were published in scholarly journals or organizations between the years 2000 and 2024. Only English-language publications were included. PubMed and Google Scholar searches were mainly conducted using the following keywords: telemedicine, telehealth, telecare, eHealth, m-health, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, celiac disease, and gluten-free diet (GFD). Manual searches of the references in the acquired literature were also carried out, along with the authors' own personal contributions of their knowledge and proficiency in this field.

RESULTS: Only a few studies conducted prior to the COVID-19 outbreak examined the viewpoints and experiences of adult patients with CD with relation to in-person clinic visits, as well as other options such as telehealth. The majority of patients believed that phone consultations were appropriate and beneficial. Video conferencing and telemedicine became more popular during the COVID-19 pandemic, demonstrating the effectiveness of using these technologies for CD on a global basis. In recent years, urine assays for gluten identification have become accessible for use at home. These tests could be helpful for CD monitoring with telemedicine assistance.

CONCLUSIONS: The extended knowledge gathered from the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to complement pre-COVID-19 data supporting the usefulness of telemedicine even after the emergent pandemic, encouraging its wider adoption in standard clinical practice. The monitoring and follow-up of CD patients and other GFD-dependent conditions can greatly benefit from telemedicine.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Cavanna AE, Spini L, Ferrari S, et al (2024)

Functional Tic-like Behaviors: From the COVID-19 Pandemic to the Post-Pandemic Era.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11):.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been multiple reports about an unforeseen surge in adolescents and young adults exhibiting sudden onset functional tic-like behaviors. This phenomenon has been mainly associated with the female gender and occasionally after exposure to social media content featuring similar patterns of functional tic-like behaviors. A significant portion of these individuals have been directed to specialist clinics for movement disorders with initial misdiagnoses of late-onset refractory Tourette syndrome. Distinguishing between rapid onset functional tic-like behaviors and neurodevelopmental tics as part of Tourette syndrome can be challenging; however, the differential diagnosis is facilitated by focusing on specific clinical and demographic factors, which we have explored in a systematic literature review. Compared to neurodevelopmental tics, functional tic-like behaviors typically present with a more abrupt and intense manifestation of symptoms, onset at a later age, higher prevalence among females, inability to suppress tics, coexisting anxiety and depression, and sometimes a history of exposure to social media content portraying tic-like behaviors of a similar nature. This novel manifestation of a functional neurological disorder may thus be viewed as an emerging neuropsychiatric condition potentially triggered/exacerbated by the psychosocial repercussions of the COVID-19 crisis.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Mukhatayev Z, Adilbayeva A, J Kunz (2024)

CTHRC1: An Emerging Hallmark of Pathogenic Fibroblasts in Lung Fibrosis.

Cells, 13(11):.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, irreversible lung disease characterized by fibrotic scarring in the lung parenchyma. This condition involves the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) due to the aberrant activation of myofibroblasts in the alveolar environment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial driver of fibrogenesis because it promotes excessive ECM deposition, thereby leading to scar formation and lung damage. A primary target of TGF-β signaling in fibrosis is Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1), a secreted glycoprotein that plays a pivotal role in ECM deposition and wound repair. TGF-β transcriptionally regulates CTHRC1 in response to tissue injury and controls the wound healing response through functional activity. CTHRC1 may also play an essential role in re-establishing and maintaining tissue homeostasis after wound closure by modulating both the TGF-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. This dual function suggests that CTHRC1 regulates tissue remodeling and homeostasis. However, deregulated CTHRC1 expression in pathogenic fibroblasts has recently emerged as a hallmark of fibrosis in multiple organs and tissues. This review highlights recent studies suggesting that CTHRC1 can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, systemic sclerosis, and post-COVID-19 lung fibrosis. Notably, CTHRC1 expression is responsive to antifibrotic drugs that target the TGF-β pathway, such as pirfenidone and bexotegrast, indicating its potential as a biomarker of treatment success. These findings suggest that CTHRC1 may present new opportunities for diagnosing and treating patients with lung fibrosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Zhou F, Ma Z, Rashwan AK, et al (2024)

Exploring the Interplay of Food Security, Safety, and Psychological Wellness in the COVID-19 Era: Managing Strategies for Resilience and Adaptation.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 13(11):.

The global population surge presents a dual challenge and opportunity in the realms of food consumption, safety, and mental well-being. This necessitates a projected 70% increase in food production to meet growing demands. Amid this backdrop, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic exacerbates these issues, underscoring the need for a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between food consumption patterns and mental health dynamics during this crisis. Mitigating the spread of COVID-19 hinges upon rigorous adherence to personal hygiene practices and heightened disease awareness. Furthermore, maintaining stringent food quality and safety standards across both public and private sectors is imperative for safeguarding public health and containing viral transmission. Drawing upon existing research, this study delves into the pandemic's impact on mental health, food consumption habits, and food safety protocols. Through a comprehensive analysis, it aims to elucidate the nuanced relationship among food, food safety, and mental well-being amid the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting synergistic effects and dynamics that underpin holistic human welfare. Our study offers a novel approach by integrating psychological wellness with food security and safety. In conceiving this review, we aimed to comprehensively explore the intricate interplay among food security, safety, and psychological wellness amid the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our review is structured to encompass a thorough examination of existing research, synthesizing insights into the multifaceted relationships among food consumption patterns, mental health dynamics, and food safety protocols during the crisis. Our findings provide valuable insights and practical recommendations for enhancing food security and psychological well-being, thus supporting both academic research and real-world applications in crisis management and policy development.

RevDate: 2024-06-21
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Lei L, Pan W, Shou X, et al (2024)

Nanomaterials-assisted gene editing and synthetic biology for optimizing the treatment of pulmonary diseases.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 22(1):343.

The use of nanomaterials in gene editing and synthetic biology has emerged as a pivotal strategy in the pursuit of refined treatment methodologies for pulmonary disorders. This review discusses the utilization of nanomaterial-assisted gene editing tools and synthetic biology techniques to promote the development of more precise and efficient treatments for pulmonary diseases. First, we briefly outline the characterization of the respiratory system and succinctly describe the principal applications of diverse nanomaterials in lung ailment treatment. Second, we elaborate on gene-editing tools, their configurations, and assorted delivery methods, while delving into the present state of nanomaterial-facilitated gene-editing interventions for a spectrum of pulmonary diseases. Subsequently, we briefly expound on synthetic biology and its deployment in biomedicine, focusing on research advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary conditions against the backdrop of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Finally, we summarize the extant lacunae in current research and delineate prospects for advancement in this domain. This holistic approach augments the development of pioneering solutions in lung disease treatment, thereby endowing patients with more efficacious and personalized therapeutic alternatives.

RevDate: 2024-06-21
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Ortiz-Ortigosa L, Gálvez-Álvarez P, Viñolo-Gil MJ, et al (2024)

Effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes and/or respiratory muscle training in patients with post-COVID conditions: a systematic review.

Respiratory research, 25(1):248.

BACKGROUND: The term "post-COVID-19 condition" refers to the symptomatology that appears between four to twelve weeks after Covid-19 infection. These symptoms can persist for weeks or even months, significantly diminishing the quality of life for affected individuals. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation programs and/or respiratory muscle training on respiratory sequelae in patients with post-COVID condition.

METHODS: The literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, PEDro, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science. Randomized clinical trials were included in which participants were aged 18 years or older. Articles were excluded if at least one of the therapies did not involve pulmonary rehabilitation or respiratory muscle training, if the participants were COVID positive, if studies lacked results, and finally, if interventions were conducted without supervision or at home. This review only encompasses supervised non-virtual interventions. This study adheres to the PRISMA statement and has been registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42023433843).

RESULTS: The outcomes obtained in the included studies are assessed across the following variables: Exercise capacity using the 6-minute walk test, Dyspnea, fatigue, Pulmonary function, Maximum inspiratory pressure, and Quality of life.

CONCLUSION: Despite the absence of a specific treatment at present, it was evident from this review that a well-structured pulmonary rehabilitation program that incorporates both aerobic and muscular strength exercises along with techniques and inspiratory muscle exercises was the most effective form of treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Debuysschere C, Nekoua MP, Alidjinou EK, et al (2024)

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Nature reviews. Endocrinology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental factors, in particular viral infections, are thought to have an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The COVID-19 pandemic reinforced this hypothesis as many observational studies and meta-analyses reported a notable increase in the incidence of T1DM following infection with SARS-CoV-2 as well as an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the risk of new-onset T1DM. Experimental evidence suggests that human β-cells express SARS-CoV-2 receptors and that SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in β-cells, resulting in structural or functional alterations of these cells. These alterations include reduced numbers of insulin-secreting granules, impaired pro-insulin (or insulin) secretion, and β-cell transdifferentiation or dedifferentiation. The inflammatory environment induced by local or systemic SARS-CoV-2 infection might result in a set of signals (such as pro-inflammatory cytokines) that lead to β-cell alteration or apoptosis or to a bystander activation of T cells and disruption of peripheral tolerance that triggers autoimmunity. Other mechanisms, such as viral persistence, molecular mimicry and activation of endogenous human retroviruses, are also likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of T1DM following SARS-CoV-2 infection. This Review addresses the issue of the involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the development of T1DM using evidence from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Motsoeneng BM, Bhiman JN, Richardson SI, et al (2024)

SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity in people living with HIV-1.

Trends in immunology pii:S1471-4906(24)00119-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The effect of COVID-19 on the high number of immunocompromised people living with HIV-1 (PLWH), particularly in Africa, remains a critical concern. Here, we identify key areas that still require further investigation, by examining COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, and understanding antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in comparison with people without HIV-1 (PWOH). We also assess the potential impact of pre-existing immunity against endemic human coronaviruses on SARS-CoV-2 responses in these individuals. Lastly, we discuss the consequences of persistent infection in PLWH (or other immunocompromised individuals), including prolonged shedding, increased viral diversity within the host, and the implications on SARS-CoV-2 evolution in Africa.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Kola NS, Patel D, A Thakur (2024)

RNA-Based Vaccines and Therapeutics Against Intracellular Pathogens.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2813:321-370.

RNA-based vaccines have sparked a paradigm shift in the treatment and prevention of diseases by nucleic acid medicines. There has been a notable surge in the development of nucleic acid therapeutics and vaccines following the global approval of the two messenger RNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. This growth is fueled by the exploration of numerous RNA products in preclinical stages, offering several advantages over conventional methods, i.e., safety, efficacy, scalability, and cost-effectiveness. In this chapter, we provide an overview of various types of RNA and their mechanisms of action for stimulating immune responses and inducing therapeutic effects. Furthermore, this chapter delves into the varying delivery systems, particularly emphasizing the use of nanoparticles to deliver RNA. The choice of delivery system is an intricate process involved in developing nucleic acid medicines that significantly enhances their stability, biocompatibility, and site-specificity. Additionally, this chapter sheds light on the current landscape of clinical trials of RNA therapeutics and vaccines against intracellular pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Dadachova E, DEN Rangel (2024)

Recent Advancements in Radiopharmaceuticals for Infection Imaging.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2813:205-217.

COVID-19 pandemic has heightened the interest toward diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Nuclear medicine, with its powerful scintigraphic, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging modalities, has always played an important role in diagnosis of infections and distinguishing them from the sterile inflammation. In addition to the clinically available radiopharmaceuticals, there has been a decades-long effort to develop more specific imaging agents with some examples being radiolabeled antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides for bacterial imaging, radiolabeled antifungals for fungal infections imaging, radiolabeled pathogen-specific antibodies, and molecular engineered constructs. In this chapter, we discuss some examples of the work published in the last decade on developing nuclear imaging agents for bacterial, fungal, and viral infections to generate more interest among nuclear medicine community toward conducting clinical trials of these novel probes, as well as toward developing novel radiotracers for imaging infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Moïsi L, Mino JC, Guidet B, et al (2024)

Frailty assessment in critically ill older adults: a narrative review.

Annals of intensive care, 14(1):93.

Frailty, a condition that was first defined 20 years ago, is now assessed via multiple different tools. The Frailty Phenotype was initially used to identify a population of "pre-frail" and "frail" older adults, so as to prevent falls, loss of mobility, and hospitalizations. A different definition of frailty, via the Clinical Frailty Scale, is now actively used in critical care situations to evaluate over 65 year-old patients, whether it be for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions, limitation of life-sustaining treatments or prognostication. Confusion remains when mentioning "frailty" in older adults, as to which tools are used, and what the impact or the bias of using these tools might be. In addition, it is essential to clarify which tools are appropriate in medical emergencies. In this review, we clarify various concepts and differences between frailty, functional autonomy and comorbidities; then focus on the current use of frailty scales in critically ill older adults. Finally, we discuss the benefits and risks of using standardized scales to describe patients, and suggest ways to maintain a complex, three-dimensional, patient evaluation, despite time constraints. Frailty in the ICU is common, involving around 40% of patients over 75. The most commonly used scale is the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), a rapid substitute for Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). Significant associations exist between the CFS-scale and both short and long-term mortality, as well as long-term outcomes, such as loss of functional ability and being discharged home. The CFS became a mainstream tool newly used for triage during the Covid-19 pandemic, in response to the pressure on healthcare systems. It was found to be significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. The improper use of scales may lead to hastened decision-making, especially when there are strains on healthcare resources or time-constraints. Being aware of theses biases is essential to facilitate older adults' access to equitable decision-making regarding critical care. The aim is to help counteract assessments which may be abridged by time and organisational constraints.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Kammarchedu V, Asgharian H, Zhou K, et al (2024)

Recent advances in graphene-based electroanalytical devices for healthcare applications.

Nanoscale [Epub ahead of print].

Graphene, with its outstanding mechanical, electrical, and biocompatible properties, stands out as an emerging nanomaterial for healthcare applications, especially in building electroanalytical biodevices. With the rising prevalence of chronic diseases and infectious diseases, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the demand for point-of-care testing and remote patient monitoring has never been greater. Owing to their portability, ease of manufacturing, scalability, and rapid and sensitive response, electroanalytical devices excel in these settings for improved healthcare accessibility, especially in resource-limited settings. The development of different synthesis methods yielding large-scale graphene and its derivatives with controllable properties, compatible with device manufacturing - from lithography to various printing methods - and tunable electrical, chemical, and electrochemical properties make it an attractive candidate for electroanalytical devices. This review article sheds light on how graphene-based devices can be transformative in addressing pressing healthcare needs, ranging from the fundamental understanding of biology in in vivo and ex vivo studies to early disease detection and management using in vitro assays and wearable devices. In particular, the article provides a special focus on (i) synthesis and functionalization techniques, emphasizing their suitability for scalable integration into devices, (ii) various transduction methods to design diverse electroanalytical device architectures, (iii) a myriad of applications using devices based on graphene, its derivatives, and hybrids with other nanomaterials, and (iv) emerging technologies at the intersection of device engineering and advanced data analytics. Finally, some of the major hurdles that graphene biodevices face for translation into clinical applications are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Basak SS, A Adak (2024)

Physicochemical methods for disinfection of contaminated surfaces - a way to control infectious diseases.

Journal of environmental health science & engineering, 22(1):53-64.

UNLABELLED: This paper represents the reviews of recent advancements in different physicochemical methods for disinfecting contaminated surfaces, which are considered to be responsible for transmitting different bacterial, viral, and fungal infectious diseases. Surface disinfection can be achieved by applying chemicals, UV-based processes, ionization radiation (gamma-ray, X-ray and electron beam), application of self-disinfecting surfaces, no-touch room disinfection methods, and robotic disinfection methods for built-in settings. Application of different chemicals, such as alcohols, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, quaternary ammonium salts, phenol, and iodine solution, are common and economical. However, the process is time-consuming and less efficient. The use of UVC light (wavelength: 200-280 nm, generated by low vapor mercury lamps or pulse xenon light) has gained much attention for disinfecting fomites worldwide. In recent times, the combination of UV and H2O2, based on the principle of the advanced oxidation process, has been applied for disinfecting inanimate surfaces. The process is very efficient and faster than chemical and UV processes. Heavy metals like copper, silver, zinc, and other metals can inactivate microbes and are used for surface modification to produce self-disinfecting surfaces and used in healthcare facilities. In combination with UVB (280-315 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm), titanium oxide has been utilized for disinfecting contaminated surfaces. Ionization radiation, one of the advanced methods, can be used in disinfecting medical devices and drugs. Post-COVID-19 pandemic, the no-touch and robotic disinfection methods utilizing chemicals or UVC lights have received much importance in built-in settings. Among these methods, surface disinfection by applying chemicals by fogging/vaporization and UV radiation methods has been widely reported in the literature compared to other methods.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40201-024-00893-2.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Cheyne I, Gopinath VS, Muppa N, et al (2024)

The Neurological Implications of COVID-19: A Comprehensive Narrative Review.

Cureus, 16(5):e60376.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 revealed a huge number of problems as well as discoveries in medicine, notably, regarding the effects of the virus on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). This paper is a narrative review that takes a deep dive into the complex interactions between COVID-19 and the NS. Therefore, this paper explains the broad range of neurological manifestations and neurodegenerative diseases caused by the virus. It carefully considers the routes through which SARS-CoV-2 reaches the NS, including the olfactory system and of course, the hematogenous route, which are also covered when discussing the virus's direct and indirect mechanisms of neuropathogenesis. Besides neurological pathologies such as stroke, encephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis, the focus area is also given to the challenges of making diagnosis, treatment, and management of these conditions during the pandemic. The review also examines the strategic and interventional approaches utilized to prevent these disorders, as well as the ACE2 receptors implicated in the mediation of neurological effects caused by COVID-19. This detailed overview, which combines research outputs with case data, is directed at tackling this pandemic challenge, with a view toward better patient care and outcomes in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Karmali S, Saxena S, Richards O, et al (2024)

What was the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on unintentional injuries, in Canada and globally? A scoping review investigating how lockdown measures impacted the global burden of unintentional injury.

Frontiers in public health, 12:1385452.

BACKGROUND: Injuries are among the leading causes for hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits. COVID-19 restrictions ensured safety to Canadians, but also negatively impacted health outcomes, including increasing rates of certain injuries. These differences in trends have been reported internationally however the evidence is scattered and needs to be better understood to identify opportunities for public education and to prepare for future outbreaks.

OBJECTIVE: A scoping review was conducted to synthesize evidence regarding the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on unintentional injuries in Canada, compared to other countries.

METHODS: Studies investigating unintentional injuries among all ages during COVID-19 from any country, published in English between December 2019 and July 2021, were included. Intentional injuries and/or previous pandemics were excluded. Four databases were searched (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus), and a gray literature search was also conducted.

RESULTS: The search yielded 3,041 results, and 189 articles were selected for extraction. A total of 41 reports were included from the gray literature search. Final studies included research from: Europe (n = 85); North America (n = 44); Asia (n = 32); Oceania (n = 12); Africa (n = 8); South America (n = 4); and multi-country (n = 4). Most studies reported higher occurrence of injuries/trauma among males, and the average age across studies was 46 years. The following mechanisms of injury were reported on most frequently: motor vehicle collisions (MVCs; n = 134), falls (n = 104), sports/recreation (n = 65), non-motorized vehicle (n = 31), and occupational (n = 24). Injuries occurring at home (e.g., gardening, home improvement projects) increased, and injuries occurring at schools, workplaces, and public spaces decreased. Overall, decreases were observed in occupational injuries and those resulting from sport/recreation, pedestrian-related, and crush/trap incidents. Decreases were also seen in MVCs and burns, however the severity of injury from these causes increased during the pandemic period. Increases were observed in poisonings, non-motorized vehicle collisions, lacerations, drownings, trampoline injuries; and, foreign body ingestions.

IMPLICATIONS: Findings from this review can inform interventions and policies to identify gaps in public education, promote safety within the home, and decrease the negative impact of future stay-at-home measures on unintentional injury among Canadians and populations worldwide.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Taherian M, Bayati P, N Mojtabavi (2024)

Stem cell-based therapy for fibrotic diseases: mechanisms and pathways.

Stem cell research & therapy, 15(1):170.

Fibrosis is a pathological process, that could result in permanent scarring and impairment of the physiological function of the affected organ; this condition which is categorized under the term organ failure could affect various organs in different situations. The involvement of the major organs, such as the lungs, liver, kidney, heart, and skin, is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality across the world. Fibrotic disorders encompass a broad range of complications and could be traced to various illnesses and impairments; these could range from simple skin scars with beauty issues to severe rheumatologic or inflammatory disorders such as systemic sclerosis as well as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Besides, the overactivation of immune responses during any inflammatory condition causing tissue damage could contribute to the pathogenic fibrotic events accompanying the healing response; for instance, the inflammation resulting from tissue engraftment could cause the formation of fibrotic scars in the grafted tissue, even in cases where the immune system deals with hard to clear infections, fibrotic scars could follow and cause severe adverse effects. A good example of such a complication is post-Covid19 lung fibrosis which could impair the life of the affected individuals with extensive lung involvement. However, effective therapies that halt or slow down the progression of fibrosis are missing in the current clinical settings. Considering the immunomodulatory and regenerative potential of distinct stem cell types, their application as an anti-fibrotic agent, capable of attenuating tissue fibrosis has been investigated by many researchers. Although the majority of the studies addressing the anti-fibrotic effects of stem cells indicated their potent capabilities, the underlying mechanisms, and pathways by which these cells could impact fibrotic processes remain poorly understood. Here, we first, review the properties of various stem cell types utilized so far as anti-fibrotic treatments and discuss the challenges and limitations associated with their applications in clinical settings; then, we will summarize the general and organ-specific mechanisms and pathways contributing to tissue fibrosis; finally, we will describe the mechanisms and pathways considered to be employed by distinct stem cell types for exerting anti-fibrotic events.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Kourgiantakis T, Vicknarajah R, Logan J, et al (2024)

Understanding youth and young adult cannabis use in Canada post-legalization: a scoping review on a public health issue.

Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 19(1):30.

BACKGROUND: Canada legalized recreational cannabis in 2018, and one of the primary objectives of the Cannabis Act was to protect youth by reducing their access to cannabis and providing public education. Canada has the highest prevalence of cannabis use worldwide, particularly among youth and young adults under the age of 25. Cannabis use is linked with many adverse effects for youth and young adults including psychosis, anxiety, depression, respiratory distress, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, and impaired cognitive performance. Despite the high prevalence of cannabis use and the evolution of policies in Canada and globally, significant knowledge and research gaps remain regarding youth and young adult cannabis use. The aim of this scoping review is to map the extent, nature, and range of evidence available on youth and young adult cannabis use in Canada since its legalization, in order to strengthen policies, services, treatments, training, and public education strategies.

METHODS: Using a scoping review framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley, along with the PRISMA-ScR guidelines, we conducted a rigorous search in five academic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, APA PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science Core Collection. We included empirical studies that collected data in Canada after the legalization of recreational cannabis (October 2018) and focused on youth or young adults < 30. Two reviewers independently screened articles in two stages and extracted relevant information from articles meeting the inclusion criteria.

RESULTS: Of the 47 articles meeting our inclusion criteria, 92% used quantitative methods, 6% were qualitative, and 2% used a mixed-methods approach. Over two-thirds (68%) used secondary data. These studies were categorized into six focus areas: (1) prevalence, patterns, and trends, (2) cannabis-related injuries and emergency department (ED) visits, (3) rates and patterns during the pandemic, (4) perceptions of cannabis use, (5) prevention tools, and (6) cannabis-related offenses. Key findings from the studies reviewed include an increase in cannabis use among 18-24-year-olds post-legalization, with mixed results for youth under 18. ED visits for intentional and unintentional cannabis-related injuries have increased in young children and teens. Perception studies show a mix of concern and normalization of cannabis use. Though limited, prevention studies are promising in raising awareness. A decline in cannabis-related offenses was noted by one study. The review highlights several research gaps, including the need for more qualitative data, disaggregation of demographic data, intervention research, and comprehensive studies on the physical and mental health impacts of cannabis use among youth and young adults.

CONCLUSION: Maintaining a public health approach is critical, with a focus on reducing the high prevalence of cannabis use among youth and young adults. This involves implementing prevention strategies to minimize harms, enhancing public education, minimizing commercialization, reducing youth access to cannabis, promoting guidelines for lower-risk cannabis use and harm reduction strategies, and increasing training for healthcare providers.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Eshraghi R, Bahrami A, Karimi Houyeh M, et al (2024)

JN.1 and the ongoing battle: unpacking the characteristics of a new dominant COVID-19 variant.

Pathogens and global health [Epub ahead of print].

In the fourth year of the COVID-19 occurrence, a new COVID-19 variant, JN.1, has emerged and spread globally and become the dominant strain in several regions. It has some specific mutations in its spike proteins, empowering it with higher transmissibility. Regarding the significance of the issue, understanding the clinical and immunological traits of JN.1 is critical for enhancing health strategies and vaccination efforts globally, with the ultimate goal of bolstering our collective response to the pandemic. In this study, we take a look at the latest findings of JN.1 characteristics and mutations as well as its consequences on bypassing immune system. We demonstrate the importance of continual surveillance and strategic adaptation within healthcare frameworks along with the significance of wastewater sampling for the rapid identification of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Chawla M, R Schmunis (2024)

pandemic preparedness.

Journal of global health, 14:03026.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Kim JI, G Kim (2024)

Evaluation of health factors on artificial intelligence and the internet of things-based older adults healthcare programmes.

Digital health, 10:20552076241258663.

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates Artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things-based older adults' healthcare programmes (AI·IoT-OAHPs), which offer non-face-to-face and face-to-face health management to older adults for health promotion.

METHODS: The study involved 146 participants, adults over 60 who had registered in AI·IoT-OAHPs. This study assessed the health factors as the outcome of pre- and post-health screening and health management through AI·IoT-OAHPs for six months.

RESULTS: Preand post-health screening and management through AI·IoT-OAHPs were evaluated as significant outcomes in 14 health factors. Notably, the benefits of post-cognitive function showed a twofold increase in older female adults through AI·IoT-OAHPs. Adults over 70 showed a fourfold increase in post-walking days, a threefold in post-dietary practice, and a twofold in post-cognitive function in the post-effects compared with pre via AI·IoT-OAHPs.

CONCLUSIONS: AI·IoT-OAHPs seem to be an effective program in the realm of face-to-face and non-face-to-face AI·IoT-based older adults' healthcare initiatives in the era of COVID-19. Consequently, the study suggests that AI·IoT-OAHPs contribute to the upgrade in health promotion of older adults. In future studies, the effectiveness of AI·IoT-OAHPs can be evaluated as a continuous project every year in the short term and every two years in the long term.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Dhamayanti M, Andriyani R, Moenardi S, et al (2024)

Vaccine hesitancy in adolescents regarding COVID-19 vaccination: A literature review.

Vaccine: X, 18:100477.

BACKGROUND: Previous reviews on the cause of vaccine hesitancy (VH) have not included vaccine hesitancy related to the COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents, which is necessary for minimizing disruptions to education and the maintenance of their overall well-being, health, and safety. This review aims to provide an overview of vaccine-hesitant perspectives on the COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents and the factors that influence them.

METHODS: This review followed the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis for Literature Review (PRISMA). Searches were carried out in the PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. Following data extraction, a thematic analysis of vaccine hesitancy in adolescents regarding COVID-19 vaccines was conducted.

RESULTS: Seven articles were included. Nine areas were identified as factors influencing vaccine hesitancy, namely gender identity, parental roles, vaccine safety and effectiveness, perceptions of COVID-19 as a disease, medical professionals' recommendations, health behavior, vaccination experience, adolescent ignorance, and religious concerns. Our findings suggest that the scientific knowledge of vaccines and the size of clinical trials during their development reduce vaccine hesitancy.

CONCLUSION: Our findings build on those of previous research to suggest specific information that may help address vaccine hesitancy among adolescents.

RevDate: 2024-06-21
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Yip L (2024)

Anti-aging trends in Australia.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, 38 Suppl 4:45-52.

Anti-aging trends in Australia have changed considerably since the country emerged from the lockdowns associated with the SARS-Cov2 pandemic. People now rely on social media influencers for skin care advice and skin care products, including professional skin care treatments that can be purchased on Internet platforms. The quest for the perfect 'zoom face' led to a 300% rise in cosmetic procedures across Australia in the year to April 2021. People now want to use less products on their skin, while looking healthy and natural (termed 'skin minimalism'). The popularity of retinoid derivatives for preventing wrinkles has been superseded by non-irritating actives like hyaluronic acid (HA) and niacinamide that provide skin barrier protection, skin hydration, plumping and anti-inflammatory effects. Botulinum toxin injections remain the most popular non-surgical cosmetic procedure, followed by HA fillers, and biostimulators that promote the synthesis of collagen and give longer lasting but more gradual results than HA fillers. Laser resurfacing is widely used for epidermal resurfacing and skin tightening, as well as non-ablative lasers, intense pulsed light and radiofrequency or ultrasound skin tightening devices. Superficial chemical peels are still popular because they are relatively gentle, inexpensive, and require no downtime, whereas medium-to-deep chemical peels have largely been superseded by laser technology. However, the most efficient approach to prevent skin aging is adopting a healthy lifestyle and taking action against all factors of the skin aging exposome.

RevDate: 2024-06-21

Al-Tawfiq JA (2024)

Developments in treatment for middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

Expert review of respiratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: An important respiratory pathogen that has led to multiple hospital outbreaks both inside and outside of the Arabian Peninsula is the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Given the elevated case fatality rate, there exists a pressing requirement for efficacious therapeutic agents.

AREAS COVERED: This is an updated review of the developments in MERS treatment approaches. Using databases like PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Google Scholar, a thorough search was carried out utilizing keywords like 'MERS,' 'MERS-CoV,' and 'Middle East respiratory syndrome' in conjunction with 'treatment' or 'therapy' from Jan 2012 to Feb 2024.

EXPERT OPINION: MERS-CoV is a highly pathogenic respiratory infection that emerged in 2012 and continues to pose a significant public health threat. Despite ongoing efforts to control the spread of MERS-CoV, there is currently no specific antiviral treatment available. While many agents have been tested both in vivo and in vitro, none of them have been thoroughly examined in extensive clinical trials. Only case reports, case series, or cohort studies have been made available as clinical studies. However, there is a limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Because cases are irregular and sporadic, conducting a large prospective randomized trials for establishing an efficacious treatment might be difficult.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Kaur T, Pangtey GS, Vyas S, et al (2024)

Exploring the Labyrinth: Imaging in Systemic Vasculitis.

The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 72(4):59-67.

Systemic vasculitis is an immune-mediated group of disorders broadly classified based on the involved vessel type. It has myriad clinical presentations, adding to the challenge of timely diagnosis and management. Thus, imaging has taken center stage in the diagnosis of these disorders as there is a lack of definitive clinical diagnostic markers. Various available imaging modalities can be used for diagnosis and follow-up on these patients. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has added a new dimension to the already existing problem of vasculitis. The virus has shown great affinity for the vascular endothelium, leading to multisystem organ vasculitis. There has been a spike in vasculitis cases in the COVID-19 pandemic era, thus necessitating more research and studies in this field for a better understanding of the disease. In this review, we wish to summarize the various imaging spectrums of classical systemic vasculitis along with the new addition of COVID-19-related vasculitis to the already long list.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Astakhova EA, Morozov AA, Vavilova JD, et al (2024)

Antigenic Cartography of SARS-CoV-2.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 89(5):862-871.

Antigenic cartography is a tool for interpreting and visualizing antigenic differences between virus variants based on virus neutralization data. This approach has been successfully used in the selection of influenza vaccine seed strains. With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants escaping vaccine-induced antibody response, adjusting COVID-19 vaccines has become essential. This review provides information on the antigenic differences between SARS-CoV-2 variants revealed by antigenic cartography and explores a potential of antigenic cartography-based methods (e.g., building antibody landscapes and neutralization breadth gain plots) for the quantitative assessment of the breadth of the antibody response. Understanding the antigenic differences of SARS-CoV-2 and the possibilities of the formed humoral immunity aids in the prompt modification of preventative vaccines against COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Grotewold N, RL Albin (2024)

Update: Protective and risk factors for Parkinson disease.

Parkinsonism & related disorders, 125:107026 pii:S1353-8020(24)01038-1 [Epub ahead of print].

We review the epidemiologic literature on potential protective and risk factors in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Prior research identified numerous possible protective and risk factors. Potential protective factors include tobacco abuse, physical activity, urate levels, NSAID use, calcium channel blocker use, statin use, and use of some α1-adrenergic antagonists. Some potential protective factors could be products of reverse causation, including increased serum urate, tobacco abuse, and coffee-tea-caffeine consumption. Potential risk factors include traumatic brain injury, pesticide exposure, organic solvent exposure, lead exposure, air pollution, Type 2 Diabetes, some dairy products, cardiovascular disease, and some infections including Hepatitis C, H. pylori, and COVID-19. Potential non-environmental risk factors include bipolar disorder, essential tremor, bullous pemphigoid, and inflammatory bowel disease. There is an inverse relationship with PD and risk of most cancers. Though many potential protective and risk factors for PD were identified, research has not yet led to unique, rigorous prevention trials or successful disease-modifying interventions. While efforts to reduce exposure to some industrial toxicants are well justified, PD incidence might be most effectively reduced by mitigation of risks, such as Type 2 Diabetes, air pollution, traumatic brain injury, or physical inactivity, that are general public health intervention targets.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Hatef E, Wilson RF, Zhang A, et al (2024)

Effectiveness of telehealth versus in-person care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review.

NPJ digital medicine, 7(1):157.

In this systematic review, we compared the effectiveness of telehealth with in-person care during the pandemic using PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from March 2020 to April 2023. We included English-language, U.S.-healthcare relevant studies comparing telehealth with in-person care conducted after the onset of the pandemic. Two reviewers independently screened search results, serially extracted data, and independently assessed the risk of bias and strength of evidence. We identified 77 studies, the majority of which (47, 61%) were judged to have a serious or high risk of bias. Differences, if any, in healthcare utilization and clinical outcomes between in-person and telehealth care were generally small and/or not clinically meaningful and varied across the type of outcome and clinical area. For process outcomes, there was a mostly lower rate of missed visits and changes in therapy/medication and higher rates of therapy/medication adherence among patients receiving an initial telehealth visit compared with those receiving in-person care. However, the rates of up-to-date labs/paraclinical assessment were also lower among patients receiving an initial telehealth visit compared with those receiving in-person care. Most studies lacked a standardized approach to assessing outcomes. While we refrain from making an overall conclusion about the performance of telehealth versus in-person visits the use of telehealth is comparable to in-person care across a variety of outcomes and clinical areas. As we transition through the COVID-19 era, models for integrating telehealth with traditional care become increasingly important, and ongoing evaluations of telehealth will be particularly valuable.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Hung YP, Lee CC, Chen YW, et al (2024)

Incidence and co-infection with COVID-19 of dengue during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi pii:S0929-6646(24)00283-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The co-infection of dengue and COVID-19 has been regarded as a public health issue for dengue-endemic countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Travel restrictions might decrease the chance of mosquitoes biting and, thus, reduce the risk of dengue transmission. However, the spread of dengue was reported to increase with the policies of lockdowns and social distancing in specific areas due to delayed interventions in dengue transmission. Of cases experiencing dengue and COVID-19 co-infection, most recovered after receiving supportive care and/or steroid therapy. However, some episodes of severe or fatal diseases in specific individuals, such as pregnant women, have been reported, and the clinical course of this co-infection is unrecognized or unpredictable. Accordingly, it is crucial to promptly identify predictors of developing severe viral diseases among co-infection patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Mallah N, Urbieta AD, Rivero-Calle I, et al (2024)

New Vaccines for Chronic Respiratory Patients.

Archivos de bronconeumologia pii:S0300-2896(24)00190-X [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) are responsible for more than four million deaths worldwide and have become especially prevalent in developed countries. Although the current therapies help manage daily symptoms and improve patients' quality of life, there is a major need to prevent exacerbations triggered mainly by respiratory infections. Therefore, CRD patients are a prime target for vaccination against infectious agents. In the present manuscript we review the state of the art of available vaccines specifically indicated in patients with CRDs. In addition to pneumococcus, influenza, pertussis, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, recently added immunization options like vaccines and monoclonal antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus, are particularly interesting in CRD patients. As new products reach the market, health authorities must be agile in updating immunization recommendations and in the programming of the vaccination of vulnerable populations such as patients with CRDs. Organizational and educational strategies might prove useful to increase vaccine uptake by CRD patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Soroudi S, Jaafari MR, L Arabi (2024)

Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) mediated mRNA delivery in cardiovascular diseases: Advances in genome editing and CAR T cell therapy.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 372:113-140 pii:S0168-3659(24)00371-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of global mortality among non-communicable diseases. Current cardiac regeneration treatments have limitations and may lead to adverse reactions. Hence, innovative technologies are needed to address these shortcomings. Messenger RNA (mRNA) emerges as a promising therapeutic agent due to its versatility in encoding therapeutic proteins and targeting "undruggable" conditions. It offers low toxicity, high transfection efficiency, and controlled protein production without genome insertion or mutagenesis risk. However, mRNA faces challenges such as immunogenicity, instability, and difficulty in cellular entry and endosomal escape, hindering its clinical application. To overcome these hurdles, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), notably used in COVID-19 vaccines, have a great potential to deliver mRNA therapeutics for CVDs. This review highlights recent progress in mRNA-LNP therapies for CVDs, including Myocardial Infarction (MI), Heart Failure (HF), and hypercholesterolemia. In addition, LNP-mediated mRNA delivery for CAR T-cell therapy and CRISPR/Cas genome editing in CVDs and the related clinical trials are explored. To enhance the efficiency, safety, and clinical translation of mRNA-LNPs, advanced technologies like artificial intelligence (AGILE platform) in RNA structure design, and optimization of LNP formulation could be integrated. We conclude that the strategies to facilitate the extra-hepatic delivery and targeted organ tropism of mRNA-LNPs (SORT, ASSET, SMRT, and barcoded LNPs) hold great prospects to accelerate the development and translation of mRNA-LNPs in CVD treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Russell SJ, Parker K, Lehoczki A, et al (2024)

Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (Long COVID) in older adults.

GeroScience [Epub ahead of print].

Long COVID, also known as PASC (post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2), is a complex infection-associated chronic condition affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. Many aspects of this condition are incompletely understood. Among them is how this condition may manifest itself in older adults and how it might impact the older population. Here, we briefly review the current understanding of PASC in the adult population and examine what is known on its features with aging. Finally, we outline the major gaps and areas for research most germane to older adults.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Bouazzaoui A, AAH Abdellatif (2024)

Vaccine delivery systems and administration routes: Advanced biotechnological techniques to improve the immunization efficacy.

Vaccine: X, 19:100500.

Since the first use of vaccine tell the last COVID-19 pandemic caused by spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, the use of advanced biotechnological techniques has accelerated the development of different types and methods for immunization. The last pandemic showed that the nucleic acid-based vaccine, especially mRNA, has an advantage in terms of development time; however, it showed a very critical drawback namely, the higher costs when compared to other strategies, and its inability to protect against new variants. This showed the need of more improvement to reach a better delivery and efficacy. In this review we will describe different vaccine delivery systems including, the most used viral vector, and also variable strategies for delivering of nucleic acid-based vaccines especially lipid-based nanoparticles formulation, polymersomes, electroporation and also the new powerful tools for the delivery of mRNA, which is based on the use of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). Additionally, we will also discuss the main challenges associated with each system. Finlay, the efficacy and safety of the vaccines depends not only on the formulations and delivery systems, but also the dosage and route of administration are also important players, therefore we will see the different routes for the vaccine administration including traditionally routes (intramuscular, Transdermal, subcutaneous), oral inhalation or via nasal mucosa, and will describe the advantages and disadvantage of each administration route.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Hashemi Toroghi H, Denney F, AV Simpson (2024)

Cultivating staff equality, diversity, and inclusion in higher education in the post-pandemic era: an organizational compassion perspective.

Frontiers in sociology, 9:1378665.

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing challenges faced by academic staff in UK higher education and drawn attention to issues of Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI). Amidst global competitiveness and workplace pressures, challenges such as managerialism, increased workload, and inequalities have worsened, significantly impacting mental health. This paper presents a conceptual analysis connecting EDI with organizational compassion within the context of Higher Education. The prioritization of organizational compassion is presented as a means to enhance sensitivity to EDI in the reconstruction of post-pandemic learning environments. Anchored in the organizational compassion theory and the NEAR Mechanisms Model, our study contributes to the intersection of the organizational compassion, EDI and higher education literatures by exploring how fostering compassion relations can contribute to enhancing EDI. This offers a new perspective to creating a more humane and supportive higher education environment.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Fernández-Honorio IF, Angulo-Altamirano E, Atuncar-Deza SM, et al (2024)

COVID-19: The association between knowledge, practice, and attitude of tuberculosis infection in the university population.

Journal of clinical tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases, 36:100452.

OBJECTIVE: The study focused on the association between knowledge, practice and attitude towards tuberculosis in the university population during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: Used Jean Watson's theory of caring in mindfulness practice and surveyed 187 nursing surveyed 187 nursing interns from three universities. The instruments (knowledge, practice and attitude questionnaires) were validated and showed high reliability (Cronbach's α reliability Cronbach's α = 0.814).

RESULTS: A strong correlation was found between knowledge and practice of tuberculosis (r = 0.996, p < 0.05), indicating a significant association. However, the association between knowledge and attitude was weaker (r = 0.160, p < 0.05). The majority had knowledge (61.2 %), a neutral practice (52.2 %) and an acceptable attitude towards TB (85.4 %).

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the need to strengthen anti-TB strategies, especially in times of pandemic. The inclusion of Watson's humanistic approach can improve the well-being of inmates and the care of patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Haan BJ, Blackmon SN, Cobb AM, et al (2024)

Corticosteroids in critically ill patients: A narrative review.

Pharmacotherapy [Epub ahead of print].

Corticosteroids have been utilized in modern medicine for decades. Many indications have been investigated across various treatment settings with both benefit and harm observed. Given the instability of critically ill patients, the increased risk of corticosteroid-related complications, and the pervasive comorbidities, patients who receive corticosteroids must be carefully managed. Common critical care disease states in which corticosteroids have been studied and are routinely utilized include acute respiratory distress syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, angioedema, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, community-acquired pneumonia, coronavirus disease 2019, septic shock, and spinal cord injury. Benefits of corticosteroids include an improvement in disease state-specific outcomes, decreased hospital length of stay, decreased mechanical ventilatory support, and decreased mortality. The harm of corticosteroids is well documented through adverse effects that include, but are not limited to, hyperglycemia, tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, delirium, anxiety, immunosuppression, gastrointestinal bleeding, fluid retention, and muscle weakness. Furthermore, corticosteroids are associated with increased health care costs through adverse effects as well as drug acquisition and administration costs. Given the assortment of agents, dosing, benefits, risks, and utilization in the critical care setting, there may be difficulty with identifying the appropriate places for use of corticosteroids in therapy. There currently exists no comprehensive report detailing the use of corticosteroids in the aforementioned disease states within the critical care setting. This narrative review sets out to describe these in detail.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Navhaya LT, Blessing DM, Yamkela M, et al (2024)

A comprehensive review of the interaction between COVID-19 spike proteins with mammalian small and major heat shock proteins.

Biomolecular concepts, 15(1): pii:bmc-2022-0027.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel disease that had devastating effects on human lives and the country's economies worldwide. This disease shows similar parasitic traits, requiring the host's biomolecules for its survival and propagation. Spike glycoproteins severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 spike protein) located on the surface of the COVID-19 virus serve as a potential hotspot for antiviral drug development based on their structure. COVID-19 virus calls into action the chaperonin system that assists the attacker, hence favoring infection. To investigate the interaction that occurs between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human molecular chaperons (HSPA8 and sHSP27), a series of steps were carried out which included sequence attainment and analysis, followed by multiple sequence alignment, homology modeling, and protein-protein docking which we performed using Cluspro to predict the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human molecular chaperones of interest. Our findings depicted that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein consists of three distinct chains, chains A, B, and C, which interact forming hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and electrostatic interactions with both human HSPA8 and HSP27 with -828.3 and -827.9 kcal/mol as binding energies for human HSPA8 and -1166.7 and -1165.9 kcal/mol for HSP27.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Mendell MJ, Chen W, Ranasinghe DR, et al (2024)

Carbon dioxide guidelines for indoor air quality: a review.

Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The importance of building ventilation to protect health has been more widely recognized since the COVID-19 pandemic. Outdoor air ventilation in buildings dilutes indoor-generated air pollutants (including bioaerosols) and reduces resulting occupant exposures. Many countries and organizations have advisory guidelines or mandatory standards for minimum ventilation rates (VRs) to maintain indoor air quality (IAQ). Because directly measuring VRs is often difficult, many IAQ guidelines instead specify indoor concentration limits for carbon dioxide (CO2), using CO2 exhaled by building occupants as an indicator of VR. Although indoor CO2 guidelines are common, the evidence basis for the various CO2 limits has not been clear.

OBJECTIVE: To review current indoor CO2 guidelines worldwide and the supportive evidence provided.

METHODS: We identified worldwide CO2-based guidelines for IAQ or ventilation, along with any supportive evidence provided. We excluded occupational guidelines for CO2 levels ≥5000 ppm.

RESULTS: Among 43 guidelines identified, 35 set single CO2 concentration limits and eight set multi-tiered limits; 16 mentioned no specific human effect to be controlled, 19 specified only odor dissatisfaction, five specified non-infectious health effects, and three specified airborne infectious disease transmission. The most common indoor CO2 limit was 1000 ppm. Thirteen guidelines specified maximum CO2 limits as extended time-weighted averages, none with evidence linking averaged limits to occupant effects. Of only 18 guidelines citing evidence to support limits set, we found this evidence persuasive for eight. Among these eight guidelines, seven set limits to control odor perception. One provided 17 scientifically-based CO2 limits, for specific example space uses and occupancies, to control long-range COVID-19 transmission indoors.

IMPACT: Many current indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) guidelines for indoor air quality specified no adverse effects intended for control. Odor dissatisfaction was the effect mentioned most frequently, few mentioned health, and three mentioned control of infectious disease. Only one CO2 guideline was developed from scientific models to control airborne transmission of COVID-19. Most guidelines provided no supportive evidence for specified limits; few provided persuasive evidence. No scientific basis is apparent for setting one CO2 limit for IAQ across all buildings, setting a CO2 limit for IAQ as an extended time-weighted average, or using a one-time CO2 measurement to verify a desired VR.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Safia A, Elhadi UA, Karam M, et al (2024)

A meta-analysis of the prevalence and risk of mental health problems in allergic rhinitis patients.

Journal of psychosomatic research pii:S0022-3999(24)00225-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR), a prevalent global health concern, is increasingly recognized for its impact beyond physical symptoms, affecting mental health. This research examined the extent of AR's psychological burden and sleep disturbances.

METHODS: A systematic search of four databases yielded 49 studies reporting mental health problems in 18,269,265 individuals (15,151,322 AR patients and 3,117,943 controls). The primary outcomes included all mental health problems in AR patients. Subgroup analyses based on outcome and AR severity, country, AR diagnosis, recruitment setting, and age were performed. Secondary outcomes included the risk of these problems compared to controls (healthy or without AR).

RESULTS: In AR, depression (25%), anxiety (25%), stress (65%), distress (57%), suicidal thoughts (14%) and attempts (4%), poor sleep quality (48%), insomnia (36%), sleep impairment (33%), and insufficient sleep duration <7 h (59%) were prevalent. The severity of these outcomes differed significantly. Patients' country, AR diagnostic method, recruitment method/setting, and age group were significant effect modifiers. Compared to controls, AR resulted in significantly higher risk of depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal attempts and thoughts, insomnia, and sleep impairment.

CONCLUSION: AR patients had significantly lower sleep duration. Mental health problems are very common among AR patients, further exacerbating their sleep quality and duration and intention to suicide.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Shi J, Yu-Wei Chen R, L Wang (2024)

Hospital at Home programs: Decentralized inpatient care but centralized laboratory testing?.

Clinical biochemistry, 129:110779 pii:S0009-9120(24)00073-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The Hospital at Home (HaH) program has experienced accelerated growth in major Canadian provinces, driven in part by technological advancements and evolving patient needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. As an increasing number of hospitals pilot or implement these innovative programs, substantial resources have been allocated to support clinical teams. However, it is crucial to note that the vital roles played by clinical laboratories remain insufficiently acknowledged. This mini review aims to shed light on the diverse functions of clinical laboratories, spanning the preanalytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases within the HaH program context. Additionally, the review will explore recent advancements in clinical testing and the potential benefits of integrating new technologies into the HaH framework. Emphasizing the integral role of clinical laboratories, the discussion will address the current barriers hindering their active involvement, accompanied by proposed solutions. The capacity and efficiency of the HaH program hinge on sustained collaborative efforts from various teams, with clinical laboratories as crucial team players. Recognizing and addressing the specific challenges faced by clinical laboratories is essential for optimizing the overall performance and impact of the HaH initiative.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Kroneman M, Williams GA, Winkelmann J, et al (2024)

Personal protective equipment for healthcare workers during COVID-19: Developing and applying a questionnaire and assessing associations between infection rates and shortages across 19 countries.

Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 146:105097 pii:S0168-8510(24)00107-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to assess the preparedness of European countries regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) for health and care workers (HCWs), the COVID-19 infection rates of HCWs compared to the general working age population, and the association between these. We developed a PPE-preparedness scale based on responses to a questionnaire from experts in the Health Systems and Policy Monitor network, with a response rate of 19 out of 31 countries. COVID-19 infection data were retrieved form the European center for Disease Prevention and Control. Shortages of PPE were found in most countries, in particular in home care and long-term care. HCW infection rates, compared to the general population, varied strongly between countries, influenced by different testing regimes. We found no relationships between HCW infection rates, PPE preparedness and shortages of PPE. Improved surveillance in the population as well as for HCWS are needed to be able to better assess these relationships.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Jia R, Coupland C, Vinogradova Y, et al (2024)

Mental health conditions and COVID-19 vaccine outcomes: A scoping review.

Journal of psychosomatic research, 183:111826 pii:S0022-3999(24)00238-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Research shows that people with a history of mental health conditions were at increased risk of COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, and mortality. However, the relationship between mental health conditions and COVID-19 vaccine outcomes such as vaccine intention, uptake and vaccine breakthrough is not yet well-understood.

METHODS: We conducted a systematic search on the topics of COVID-19 vaccine intentions, vaccine uptake, and vaccine breakthrough, in relation to mental health conditions (e.g., depression, schizophrenia), in four databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and PsychINFO, and the publication lists of Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), The Health Improvement Network (THIN), OpenSAFELY, and QResearch. Inclusion criteria focussed on studies reporting any of the aforementioned COVID-19 vaccine outcomes among people with mental health conditions.

RESULTS: Of 251 publications initially identified, 32 met our inclusion criteria. Overall, the evidence is inconclusive regarding the levels of intention to accept COVID-19 vaccines among people with mental health conditions. People with mental health conditions were more likely to have lower uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, compared to people without. Common barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake included concerns about the safety, effectiveness, and side effects of the vaccines. Limited evidence also suggests that vaccine breakthrough may be a particular risk for those with substance use disorder.

CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for the association between COVID-19 vaccine intentions and mental health conditions is mixed. Vaccine uptake might be lower in people with mental health conditions compared to people without, yielding interventions to encourage vaccine uptake in this population. Our understanding of COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough in this population also needs enhancing.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

El-Tallawy SN, Pergolizzi JV, Vasiliu-Feltes I, et al (2024)

Innovative Applications of Telemedicine and Other Digital Health Solutions in Pain Management: A Literature Review.

Pain and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare systems are facing extraordinary challenges. Our approaches to medicine have changed and created a whole new generation of people who have chronic pain. Various medical services were postponed. The pandemic significantly impacted the bio-psychosocial model of pain and the management of chronic pain. These new challenges affected millions of patients worldwide, with more burden on patients with chronic pain. Telemedicine and digital health rather than traditional office visits have become essential tools for communications, resulting in an unmatched surge in telehealth adoption. This new approach facilitated the remote treatment and follow-up of patients who have difficulty to access the healthcare services, particularly patients with chronic pain and those who were receiving regular controlled medications. An extensive computer search was conducted, during the period (from January 2014 to March 2024), and included literature from PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, and Google scholar. According to preset inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 38 articles have been included in this review article. This literature review focuses on the innovation of telemedicine and digital health in pain management, especially in the context of the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The manuscript provides a comprehensive overview of telemedicine and digital communications, their evolution, and their significance in healthcare. It also emphasizes the benefits, challenges, limitations, and the ethical concerns of telemedicine in pain management after the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the document explores the different modes of the telecommunications and discusses the future directions of the digital health technology.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Moutschen M (2024)

[Vaccines in adults : an underestimated pillar of cardiovascular disease prevention].

Revue medicale de Liege, 79(5-6):277-281.

This brief article focuses on vaccines targeted against five infectious agents that are linked to an increased cardiovascular risk in adults: COVID-19, influenza, pneumococcus, respiratory syncytial virus, and varicella-zoster virus. The article is divided into three parts. Firstly, it outlines the mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular events that occur during and after infections. Secondly, it discusses the principles of vaccine protection in this context. The third part is dedicated to clinical studies that specifically demonstrate the cardiovascular protection afforded by the vaccines. Vaccines targeting the five aforementioned infectious agents should undoubtedly be considered key elements in the prevention of cardiovascular risk.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yıldırım E, Büyükişcan ES, Kalem ŞA, et al (2024)

Remote Neuropscyhological Assessment: Teleneuropsychology.

Noro psikiyatri arsivi, 61(2):167-174.

INTRODUCTION: Teleneuropsychology, which includes the remote application of neuropsychological tests to patients via telephone or videoconferencing, can expand access to health services for patients who reside in distant areas or have mobility restrictions. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant increase in the use of teleneuropsychology in cognitive assessment. In this review, the aim was to critically review the results of studies conducted in the field of teleneuropsychology and the fundamental principles related to tele-neuropsychological assessment. Additionally, the "guideline for home-based teleneuropsychology" developed for Türkiye's practices is outlined in this review.

METHOD: A literature search was conducted using the Web of Science and PubMed databases to include all types of articles related to the subject.

RESULTS: The results of studies on in-clinic and home-based teleneuropsychological assessment indicate that tests that assess cognitive functions such as attention, memory, executive functions, and language, particularly those based on verbal administration, can be reliably applied through teleneuropsychological assessment. However, there are factors to consider when referring patients for teleneuropsychological assessment, selecting tests for assessment, and making ethical considerations. Additionally, it is important to follow recommended steps for both the clinician and the patient and/or their caregiver before and during the interview in order for the assessment to be carried out effectively.

CONCLUSION: Although direct contact with the patient is an essential element in clinical neuropsychology practice, when necessary, teleneuropsychological assessment performed by trained experts following appropriate application procedures can be a good alternative to face-to-face evaluations.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Usami M, Satake N, Katsuyama H, et al (2024)

Is children's mental health an important function of newly national organization for health crisis management in Japan?.

PCN reports : psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 3(1):e175.

This review discussed analyzing information dissemination and activities related to mental health conducted by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), considering their application in Japan, and disseminating them to the public is necessary for the Japanese New Center for Health Control. The Japanese government also explores the Japanese New Center For Health Control in addressing children's mental health issues potentially under the Japan health crisis. The findings underscore the urgency of prioritizing children's mental health and implementing effective strategies to mitigate the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


SUPPORT ESP: Order from Amazon
The ESP project will earn a commission.

With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )