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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 May 2021 at 01:45 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-05-11

Fellows Yates JA, Velsko IM, Aron F, et al (2021)

The evolution and changing ecology of the African hominid oral microbiome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(20):.

The oral microbiome plays key roles in human biology, health, and disease, but little is known about the global diversity, variation, or evolution of this microbial community. To better understand the evolution and changing ecology of the human oral microbiome, we analyzed 124 dental biofilm metagenomes from humans, including Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene to present-day modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as New World howler monkeys for comparison. We find that a core microbiome of primarily biofilm structural taxa has been maintained throughout African hominid evolution, and these microbial groups are also shared with howler monkeys, suggesting that they have been important oral members since before the catarrhine-platyrrhine split ca. 40 Mya. However, community structure and individual microbial phylogenies do not closely reflect host relationships, and the dental biofilms of Homo and chimpanzees are distinguished by major taxonomic and functional differences. Reconstructing oral metagenomes from up to 100 thousand years ago, we show that the microbial profiles of both Neanderthals and modern humans are highly similar, sharing functional adaptations in nutrient metabolism. These include an apparent Homo-specific acquisition of salivary amylase-binding capability by oral streptococci, suggesting microbial coadaptation with host diet. We additionally find evidence of shared genetic diversity in the oral bacteria of Neanderthal and Upper Paleolithic modern humans that is not observed in later modern human populations. Differences in the oral microbiomes of African hominids provide insights into human evolution, the ancestral state of the human microbiome, and a temporal framework for understanding microbial health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Rinaldi F, Giuliani G, D Pinto (2021)

Importance of preserving the resident microflora of the skin to improve immunological response.

Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research pii:jim-2021-001823 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-05-10

Kushugulova A, Löber U, Akpanova S, et al (2021)

Dynamic Changes in Microbiome Composition Following Mare's Milk Intake for Prevention of Collateral Antibiotic Effect.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:622735.

Introduction: Probiotics and prebiotics are widely used for recovery of the human gut microbiome after antibiotic treatment. High antibiotic usage is especially common in children with developing microbiome. We hypothesized that dry Mare's milk, which is rich in biologically active substances without containing live bacteria, could be used as a prebiotic in promoting microbial diversity following antibiotic treatment in children. The present pilot study aims to determine the impacts of dry Mare's milk on the diversity of gut bacterial communities when administered during antibiotic treatment and throughout the subsequent recovery phase.

Methods: Six children aged 4 to 5 years and diagnosed with bilateral bronchopneumonia were prescribed cephalosporin antibiotics. During the 60 days of the study, three children consumed dry Mare's milk whereas the other three did not. Fecal samples were collected daily during antibiotic therapy and every 5 days after antibiotic therapy. Total DNA was isolated and taxonomic composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. To assess the immune status of the gut, stool samples were analyzed by bead-based multiplex assays.

Results: Mare's milk treatment seems to prevent the bloom of Mollicutes, while preventing the loss of Coriobacteriales. Immunological analysis of the stool reveals an effect of Mare's milk on local immune parameters under the present conditions.

RevDate: 2021-05-09

Fülöp V, Demeter J, Á Cseh (2021)

Significance and effects of prenatal and postnatal microbiome in the period of early individual development and options for interventional treatment.

Orvosi hetilap, 162(19):731-740.

Összefoglaló. A humán mikrobiom az emberi szervezetben és az emberi testfelszínen élő mikrobaközösségek összessége, amelyek többsége a gyomor-bél rendszerben él. Ezek a mikrobaközösségek számos és sokféle baktériumot tartalmaznak, gombákat, vírusokat, archeákat és protozoonokat. Ez a mikrobiális közösség, vagy mikrobiota, a gazdaszervezetben nagyrészt egymással kölcsönösségi viszonyban tenyészik, és gondoskodik a bélben a tápanyagok anyagcseréjéről, kalibrálja az anyagcsere-működést, tanítja az immunrendszert, fenntartja a közösség integritását, és véd a kórokozók ellen. A majdan megszületendő magzat a megfelelő tápanyagellátását az anyai véráramból kapja, és így az anyai szervezetben a mikrobiota indukálta baktériumkomponensek vagy metabolitok hatékonyan átvihetők a magzatba. Az anyai mikrobiális közösségek - ideértve a praenatalis bélrendszeri, hüvelyi, száj- és bőrmikrobiomot - a terhesség alatt valójában kifejezett változásokon mennek keresztül, amelyek befolyásolhatják az egészség megőrzését, és hozzájárulhatnak a közismert betegségek kialakulásához. A magzat nem steril, és immunológiai szempontból sem naiv, hanem az anya révén környezeti ingerek hatásaitól befolyásolva kölcsönhatásba lép az anyai immunrendszerrel. Számos anyai tényező - beleértve a hormonokat, a citokineket és a mikrobiomot - módosíthatja az intrauterin környezetet, ezáltal befolyásolva a magzati immunrendszer fejlődését. A fokozott stresszben élő anyák csecsemőinél nagyobb az allergia és a gyomor-bél rendszeri rendellenességek aránya. A várandós étrendje is befolyásolja a magzati mikrobiomot a méh közvetítésével. A bélflóránk, vagyis a mikrobiom, a belünkben élő mikrobák összessége és szimbiózisa, amelynek kényes egyensúlya már csecsemőkorban kialakul, és döntően meghatározza az intestinalis barrier és a bélasszociált immunrendszer működését. A probiotikumok szaporodásához szükséges prebiotikummal is befolyásolható a bélflóra. A pre- és a probiotikum kombinációja a szimbiotikum. Az anyatej a patogénekkel szemben protektív hatású, részben azáltal, hogy emeli a Bifidobacterium-számot az újszülött bélflórájában. A dysbiosis a kommenzális, egészséges bélflóra megváltozása. Ennek szerepét feltételezik funkcionális gastrointestinalis kórképekben, egyre több pszichiátriai és neurológiai kórképben is, mint az autizmus-spektrumzavar. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(19): 731-740. Summary. The human microbiome is the totality of microbe communities living in the human body and on the human body surface, most of which live in the gastrointestinal tract. These microbe communities contain many and varied bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea and protozoa. This microbial community or microbiota in the host is largely reciprocal and takes care of nutrient metabolism in the gut, calibrates metabolism, teaches the immune system, maintains community integrity, and protects against pathogens. The fetus to be born is adequately supplied with nutrients from the maternal bloodstream, and thus microbial-induced bacterial components or metabolites can be efficiently transferred to the fetus in the maternal body. Maternal microbial communities, including prenatal intestinal, vaginal, oral, and dermal microbiomes, actually undergo pronounced changes during pregnancy that can affect health maintenance and contribute to the development of well-known diseases. The fetus is not sterile or immunologically naïve, but interacts with the maternal immune system through the effects of environmental stimuli through the mother. Many maternal factors, including hormones, cytokines, and the microbiome, can modify the intrauterine environment, thereby affecting the development of the fetal immune system. Infants of mothers under increased stress have higher rates of allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. The diet of the gravida also affects the fetal microbiome through the uterus. Our intestinal flora, or microbiome, is the totality and symbiosis of the microbes living in them, the delicate balance of which is established in infancy and decisively determines the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the intestinal associated immune system. The prebiotic required for the proliferation of probiotics can also affect the intestinal flora. The combination of pre- and probiotic is symbiotic. Breast milk has a protective effect against pathogens, in part by raising the number of Bifidobacteria in the intestinal flora of the newborn. Dysbiosis is a change in the commensal, healthy gut flora. Its role is hypothesized in functional gastrointestinal disorders, as well as in more and more psychiatric and neurological disorders such as the autism spectrum disorder. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(19): 731-740.

RevDate: 2021-05-08

MacDonald KW, Chanyi RM, Macklaim JM, et al (2021)

Streptococcus salivarius inhibits immune activation by periodontal disease pathogens.

BMC oral health, 21(1):245.

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease represents a major health concern. The administration of beneficial microbes has been increasing in popularity over efforts to manipulate the microbes using antimicrobial agents. This study determined the ability of Streptococcus salivarius to inhibit IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts when activated by periodontal pathogens and their effect on the salivary microbiome.

METHODS: Primary human gingival fibroblasts were challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum and a combination of all three. IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine release were measured. Using this same model, S. salivarius K12, M18 and different supernatant and whole-cell lysate fractions of S. salivarius K12 were administered to pathogen-induced fibroblasts. A patient study of healthy participants was also conducted to determine the effect S. salivarius K12 had on the native microbiome using 16S next generation sequence analysis.

RESULTS: All pathogens tested induced a significant IL-6 and IL-8 response. S. salivarius K12 or M18, did not exhibit an increase in inflammatory cytokines. When either of the probiotic strains were co-administered with a pathogen, there were significant reductions in both IL-6 and IL-8 release. This effect was also observed when gingival fibroblasts were pre-treated with either S. salivarius K12 or M18 and then stimulated with the oral pathogens. Chewing gum containing S. salivarius K12 did not alter the salivary microbiome and did not increase inflammatory markers in the oral cavity.

CONCLUSION: S. salivarius K12 and M18 prevented immune activation induced by periodontal disease pathogens. S. salivarius K12 did not alter the salivary microbiome or induce immune activation when administered as a chewing gum. These results warrant further study to determine if it may be an effective treatment in a model of periodontal disease.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Xiao W, ZS Ma (2021)

Inter-Individual Diversity Scaling Analysis of the Human Virome With Classic Diversity-Area Relationship (DAR) Modeling.

Frontiers in genetics, 12:627128.

The human virome is a critical component of the human microbiome, and it is believed to hold the richest diversity within human microbiomes. Yet, the inter-individual scaling (changes) of the human virome has not been formally investigated to the best of our knowledge. Here we fill the gap by applying diversity-area relationship (DAR) modeling (a recent extension to the classic species-area law in biodiversity and biogeography research) for analyzing four large datasets of the human virome with three DAR profiles: DAR scaling (z)-measuring the inter-individual heterogeneity in virome diversity, MAD (maximal accrual diversity: Dmax) and LGD ratio (ratio of local diversity to global diversity)-measuring the percentage of individual to population level diversity. Our analyses suggest: (i) The diversity scaling parameter (z) is rather resilient against the diseases as indicated by the lack of significant differences between the healthy and diseased treatments. (ii) The potential maximal accrual diversity (Dmax) is less resilient and may vary between the healthy and diseased groups or between different body sites. (iii) The LGD ratio of bacterial communities is much smaller than for viral communities, and relates to the comparatively greater heterogeneity between local vs. global diversity levels found for bacterial-biomes.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Parks DH, Rigato F, Vera-Wolf P, et al (2021)

Evaluation of the Microba Community Profiler for Taxonomic Profiling of Metagenomic Datasets From the Human Gut Microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:643682.

A fundamental goal of microbial ecology is to accurately determine the species composition in a given microbial ecosystem. In the context of the human microbiome, this is important for establishing links between microbial species and disease states. Here we benchmark the Microba Community Profiler (MCP) against other metagenomic classifiers using 140 moderate to complex in silico microbial communities and a standardized reference genome database. MCP generated accurate relative abundance estimates and made substantially fewer false positive predictions than other classifiers while retaining a high recall rate. We further demonstrated that the accuracy of species classification was substantially increased using the Microba Genome Database, which is more comprehensive than reference datasets used by other classifiers and illustrates the importance of including genomes of uncultured taxa in reference databases. Consequently, MCP classifies appreciably more reads than other classifiers when using their recommended reference databases. These results establish MCP as best-in-class with the ability to produce comprehensive and accurate species profiles of human gastrointestinal samples.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Walker AC, Bhargava R, Vaziriyan-Sani AS, et al (2021)

Colonization of the Caenorhabditis elegans gut with human enteric bacterial pathogens leads to proteostasis disruption that is rescued by butyrate.

PLoS pathogens, 17(5):e1009510 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-20-02213.

Protein conformational diseases are characterized by misfolding and toxic aggregation of metastable proteins, often culminating in neurodegeneration. Enteric bacteria influence the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases; however, the complexity of the human microbiome hinders our understanding of how individual microbes influence these diseases. Disruption of host protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, affects the onset and progression of these diseases. To investigate the effect of bacteria on host proteostasis, we used Caenorhabditis elegans expressing tissue-specific polyglutamine reporters that detect changes in the protein folding environment. We found that colonization of the C. elegans gut with enteric bacterial pathogens disrupted proteostasis in the intestine, muscle, neurons, and the gonad, while the presence of bacteria that conditionally synthesize butyrate, a molecule previously shown to be beneficial in neurodegenerative disease models, suppressed aggregation and the associated proteotoxicity. Co-colonization with this butyrogenic strain suppressed bacteria-induced protein aggregation, emphasizing the importance of microbial interaction and its impact on host proteostasis. Further experiments demonstrated that the beneficial effect of butyrate depended on the bacteria that colonized the gut and that this protective effect required SKN-1/Nrf2 and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors. We also found that bacteria-derived protein aggregates contribute to the observed disruption of host proteostasis. Together, these results reveal the significance of enteric infection and gut dysbiosis on the pathogenesis of protein conformational diseases and demonstrate the potential of using butyrate-producing microbes as a preventative and treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disease.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Xavier RJ (2021)

Translating the human microbiome: a path to improving health.

Genome medicine, 13(1):78.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

Jiang P, Wu S, Luo Q, et al (2021)

Metagenomic Analysis of Common Intestinal Diseases Reveals Relationships among Microbial Signatures and Powers Multidisease Diagnostic Models.

mSystems, 6(3):.

Common intestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and colorectal cancer (CRC) share clinical symptoms and altered gut microbes, necessitating cross-disease comparisons and the use of multidisease models. Here, we performed meta-analyses on 13 fecal metagenome data sets of the three diseases. We identified 87 species and 65 pathway markers that were consistently changed in multiple data sets of the same diseases. According to their overall trends, we grouped the disease-enriched marker species into disease-specific and disease-common clusters and revealed their distinct phylogenetic relationships; species in the CD-specific cluster were phylogenetically related, while those in the CRC-specific cluster were more distant. Strikingly, UC-specific species were phylogenetically closer to CRC, likely because UC patients have higher risk of CRC. Consistent with their phylogenetic relationships, marker species had similar within-cluster and different between-cluster metabolic preferences. A portion of marker species and pathways correlated with an indicator of leaky gut, suggesting a link between gut dysbiosis and human-derived contents. Marker species showed more coordinated changes and tighter inner-connections in cases than the controls, suggesting that the diseased gut may represent a stressed environment and pose stronger selection on gut microbes. With the marker species and pathways, we constructed four high-performance (including multidisease) models with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87 and true-positive rates up to 90%, and explained their putative clinical applications. We identified consistent microbial alterations in common intestinal diseases, revealed metabolic capacities and the relationships among marker bacteria in distinct states, and supported the feasibility of metagenome-derived multidisease diagnosis.IMPORTANCE Gut microbes have been identified as potential markers in distinguishing patients from controls in colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease individually, whereas there lacks a systematic analysis to investigate the exclusive microbial shifts of these enteropathies with similar clinical symptoms. Our meta-analysis and cross-disease comparisons identified consistent microbial alterations in each enteropathy, revealed microbial ecosystems among marker bacteria in distinct states, and demonstrated the necessity and feasibility of metagenome-based multidisease classifications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to construct multiclass models for these common intestinal diseases.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

Li W, Sun Y, Dai L, et al (2021)

Ecological and network analyses identify four microbial species with potential significance for the diagnosis/treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC).

BMC microbiology, 21(1):138.

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the primary types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the occurrence of which has been increasing worldwide. Although IBD is an intensively studied human microbiome-associated disease, research on Chinese populations remains relatively limited, particularly on the mucosal microbiome. The present study aimed to analyze the changes in the mucosal microbiome associated with UC from the perspectives of medical ecology and complex network analysis.

RESULTS: In total, 56 mucosal microbiome samples were collected from 28 Chinese UC patients and their healthy family partners, followed by amplicon sequencing. Based on sequencing data, we analyzed species diversity, shared species, and inter-species interactions at the whole community, main phyla, and core/periphery species levels. We identified four opportunistic "pathogens" (i.e., Clostridium tertium, Odoribacter splanchnicus, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Flavonifractor plautii) with potential significance for the diagnosis and treatment of UC, which were inhibited in healthy individuals, but unrestricted in the UC patients. In addition, we also discovered in this study: (i) The positive-to-negative links (P/N) ratio, which measures the balance of species interactions or inhibition effects in microbiome networks, was significantly higher in UC patients, indicating loss of inhibition against potentially opportunistic "pathogens" associated with dysbiosis. (ii) Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence regarding species diversity and composition between UC patients and healthy controls. Here, significant differences were found at the major phylum and core/periphery scales, but not at the whole community level. Thus, we argue that the paradoxical results found in existing studies are due to the scale effect.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal changes in the ecology and network structure of the gut mucosal microbiome that might be associated with UC, and these changes might provide potential therapeutic mechanisms of UC. The four opportunistic pathogens that were identified in the present study deserve further investigation in future studies.

RevDate: 2021-05-04

Barber CC, W Zhang (2021)

Small molecule natural products in human nasal/oral microbiota.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology pii:6129854 [Epub ahead of print].

Small molecule natural products are a chemically diverse class of biomolecules that fulfill myriad biological functions, including autoregulation, communication with microbial neighbors and the host, interference competition, nutrient acquisition, and resistance to oxidative stress. Human commensal bacteria are increasingly recognized as a potential source of new natural products, which may provide insight into the molecular ecology of many different human body sites as well as novel scaffolds for therapeutic development. Here, we review the scientific literature on natural products derived from residents of the human nasal/oral cavity, discuss their discovery, biosynthesis, and ecological roles, and identify key questions in the study of these compounds.

RevDate: 2021-05-04

Tripathi P, SD Bruner (2021)

Structural Basis for the Interactions of the Colibactin Resistance Gene Product ClbS with DNA.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The natural product colibactin, along with its associated biosynthetic gene cluster, is an example system for the role microbially derived small molecules play in the human microbiome. This is particularly relevant in the human gut, where host microbiota is involved in various disorders, including colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Bacteria harboring the colibactin gene cluster induce alkylation of nucleobases in host DNA, forming interstrand cross-links both in vivo and in vitro. These lesions can lead to deleterious double-strand breaks and have been identified as the primary mechanism of colibactin-induced cytotoxicity. The gene product ClbS is one of several mechanisms utilized by the producing bacteria to maintain genome integrity. ClbS catalyzes hydrolytic inactivation of colibactin and has been shown to bind DNA, incurring self-resistance. Presented is the molecular basis for ClbS bound to a DNA oligonucleotide. The structure shows the interaction of the protein with the ends of a DNA duplex with terminal nucleotides flipped to the enzyme active site. The structure suggests an additional function for ClbS, the binding to damaged DNA followed by repair. Additionally, our study provides general insight into the function of the widely distributed and largely uncharacterized DUF1706 protein family.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Altomare A, Del Chierico F, Rocchi G, et al (2021)

Association between Dietary Habits and Fecal Microbiota Composition in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Pilot Study.

Nutrients, 13(5): pii:nu13051479.

Intestinal dysbiosis seems to play a role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The present pilot study aimed to elucidate the association between nutrient intake and Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence with IBS symptoms and gut microbiota in IBS patients. The nutrient intake of 28 IBS patients and 21 controls was assessed through a food diary, the reference intake ranges (RIs) for energy-yielding macronutrients and the MD serving score (MDSS) index. MD adherence and nutrients intake were compared to IBS symptoms and fecal microbiota, obtained by 16S rRNA targeted-metagenomics. In IBS patients MDSS index was altered compared to controls (p < 0.01). IBS patients with low-MD score reported severe abdominal pain and higher flatulence point-scales. Through Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), Erysipelotrichaceae were detected as a microbial biomarker in IBS patients with altered RIs for macronutrients intake, compared to controls. Lactobacillaceae and Lactobacillus were associated to an altered carbohydrates intake in IBS patients, while specific taxonomic biomarkers, such as Aldercreuzia, Mogibacteriaceae, Rikenellaceae, Parabacteroides and F. prausnitzii were associated with an adequate intake of nutrient in these patients. This study supports an association between dietary patterns and gut microbial biomarkers in IBS patients. Further investigations are needed to clarify these connections.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Orellana R, Arancibia A, Badilla L, et al (2021)

Ecophysiological Features Shape the Distribution of Prophages and CRISPR in Sulfate Reducing Prokaryotes.

Microorganisms, 9(5): pii:microorganisms9050931.

Sulfate reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a phylogenetically and physiologically diverse group of microorganisms that use sulfate as an electron acceptor. SRP have long been recognized as key players of the carbon and sulfur cycles, and more recently, they have been identified to play a relevant role as part of syntrophic and symbiotic relations and the human microbiome. Despite their environmental relevance, there is a poor understanding about the prevalence of prophages and CRISPR arrays and how their distribution and dynamic affect the ecological role of SRP. We addressed this question by analyzing the results of a comprehensive survey of prophages and CRISPR in a total of 91 genomes of SRP with several genotypic, phenotypic, and physiological traits, including genome size, cell volume, minimum doubling time, cell wall, and habitat, among others. Our analysis discovered 81 prophages in 51 strains, representing the 56% of the total evaluated strains. Prophages are non-uniformly distributed across the SRP phylogeny, where prophage-rich lineages belonged to Desulfovibrionaceae and Peptococcaceae. Furthermore, our study found 160 CRISPR arrays in 71 SRP, which is more abundant and widely spread than previously expected. Although there is no correlation between presence and abundance of prophages and CRISPR arrays at the strain level, our analysis showed that there is a directly proportional relation between cellular volumes and number of prophages per cell. This result suggests that there is an additional selective pressure for strains with smaller cells to get rid of foreign DNA, such as prophages, but not CRISPR, due to less availability of cellular resources. Analysis of the prophage genes encoding viral structural proteins reported that 44% of SRP prophages are classified as Myoviridae, and comparative analysis showed high level of homology, but not synteny, among prophages belonging to the Family Desulfovibrionaceae. We further recovered viral-like particles and structures that resemble outer membrane vesicles from D. vulgaris str. Hildenborough. The results of this study improved the current understanding of dynamic interactions between prophages and CRISPR with their hosts in both cultured and hitherto-uncultured SRP strains, and how their distribution affects the microbial community dynamics in several sulfidogenic natural and engineered environments.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Kasurinen J, Spruit CM, Wicklund A, et al (2021)

Screening of Bacteriophage Encoded Toxic Proteins with a Next Generation Sequencing-Based Assay.

Viruses, 13(5): pii:v13050750.

Bacteriophage vB_EcoM_fHy-Eco03 (fHy-Eco03 for short) was isolated from a sewage sample based on its ability to infect an Escherichia coli clinical blood culture isolate. Altogether, 32 genes encoding hypothetical proteins of unknown function (HPUFs) were identified from the genomic sequence of fHy-Eco03. The HPUFs were screened for toxic properties (toxHPUFs) with a novel, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based approach. This approach identifies toxHPUF-encoding genes through comparison of gene-specific read coverages in DNA from pooled ligation mixtures before electroporation and pooled transformants after electroporation. The performance and reliability of the NGS screening assay was compared with a plating efficiency-based method, and both methods identified the fHy-Eco03 gene g05 product as toxic. While the outcomes of the two screenings were highly similar, the NGS screening assay outperformed the plating efficiency assay in both reliability and efficiency. The NGS screening assay can be used as a high throughput method in the search for new phage-inspired antimicrobial molecules.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Rees J, Radavelli Bagatini S, Lo J, et al (2021)

Association between Fruit and Vegetable Intakes and Mental Health in the Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Cohort.

Nutrients, 13(5): pii:nu13051447.

Increasing prevalence of mental health disorders within the Australian population is a serious public health issue. Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (FV), dietary fibre (DF) and resistant starch (RS) is associated with better mental and physical health. Few longitudinal studies exist exploring the temporal relationship. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we examined baseline FV intakes of 5845 Australian adults from the AusDiab study and estimated food group-derived DF and RS using data from the literature. Perceived mental health was assessed at baseline and 5 year follow up using SF-36 mental component summary scores (MCS). We conducted baseline cross-sectional analysis and prospective analysis of baseline dietary intake with perceived mental health at 5 years. Higher baseline FV and FV-derived DF and RS intakes were associated with better 5 year MCS (p < 0.001). A higher FV intake (754 g/d vs. 251 g/d, Q4 vs. Q1) at baseline had 41% lower odds (OR = 0.59: 95% CI 0.46-0.75) of MCS below population average (<47) at 5 year follow up. Findings were similar for FV-derived DF and RS. An inverse association was observed with discretionary food-derived DF and RS. This demonstrates the association between higher intakes of FV and FV-derived DF and RS with better 5 year mental health outcomes. Further RCTs are necessary to understand mechanisms that underlie this association including elucidation of causal effects.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Hedžet S, Rupnik M, T Accetto (2021)

Novel Siphoviridae Bacteriophages Infecting Bacteroides uniformis Contain Diversity Generating Retroelement.

Microorganisms, 9(5): pii:microorganisms9050892.

Intestinal phages are abundant and important components of gut microbiota, yet the isolated and characterized representatives that infect abundant gut bacteria are sparse. Here we describe the isolation of human intestinal phages infecting Bacteroidesuniformis. Bacteroides is one of the most common bacterial groups in the global human gut microbiota; however, to date not many Bacteroides specific phages are known. Phages isolated in this study belong to a novel viral genus, Bacuni, within the Siphoviridae family. Their genomes encode diversity-generating retroelements (DGR), which were shown in other bacteriophages to promote phage adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions and to broaden their host range. Three isolated phages showed 99.83% genome identity but one of them infected a distinct B. uniformis strain. The tropism of Bacuni phages appeared to be dependent on the interplay of DGR mediated sequence variations of gene encoding putative phage fimbrial tip proteins and mutations in host genes coding for outer-membrane proteins. We found prophages with up to 85% amino acid similarity over two-thirds of the Bacuni phage genome in the B. acidifaciens and Prevotella sp. genomes. Despite the abundance of Bacteroides within the human microbiome, we found Bacuni phages only in a limited subset of published gut metagenomes.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Simões MF, A Antunes (2021)

Microbial Pathogenicity in Space.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(4): pii:pathogens10040450.

After a less dynamic period, space exploration is now booming. There has been a sharp increase in the number of current missions and also of those being planned for the near future. Microorganisms will be an inevitable component of these missions, mostly because they hitchhike, either attached to space technology, like spaceships or spacesuits, to organic matter and even to us (human microbiome), or to other life forms we carry on our missions. Basically, we never travel alone. Therefore, we need to have a clear understanding of how dangerous our "travel buddies" can be; given that, during space missions, our access to medical assistance and medical drugs will be very limited. Do we explore space together with pathogenic microorganisms? Do our hitchhikers adapt to the space conditions, as well as we do? Do they become pathogenic during that adaptation process? The current review intends to better clarify these questions in order to facilitate future activities in space. More technological advances are needed to guarantee the success of all missions and assure the reduction of any possible health and environmental risks for the astronauts and for the locations being explored.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Lee YI, Choi S, Roh WS, et al (2021)

Cellular Senescence and Inflammaging in the Skin Microenvironment.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(8): pii:ijms22083849.

Cellular senescence and aging result in a reduced ability to manage persistent types of inflammation. Thus, the chronic low-level inflammation associated with aging phenotype is called "inflammaging". Inflammaging is not only related with age-associated chronic systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but also skin aging. As the largest organ of the body, skin is continuously exposed to external stressors such as UV radiation, air particulate matter, and human microbiome. In this review article, we present mechanisms for accumulation of senescence cells in different compartments of the skin based on cell types, and their association with skin resident immune cells to describe changes in cutaneous immunity during the aging process.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Wierzbicka A, Mańkowska-Wierzbicka D, Mardas M, et al (2021)

Role of Probiotics in Modulating Human Gut Microbiota Populations and Activities in Patients with Colorectal Cancer-A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

Nutrients, 13(4): pii:nu13041160.

BACKGROUND: Growing attention has been given to the role of nutrition and alterations of microbial diversity of the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. It has been suggested that probiotics and synbiotics modulate enteric microbiota and therefore may be used as an intervention to reduce the risk of CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of probiotics/synbiotics administration on gut microbiota in patients with CRC.

METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched between December 2020 and January 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting adults with CRC, who have taken probiotics/synbiotics for at least 6 days were included. Changes in gut microbiota and selected biochemical and inflammatory parameters (i.e., hsCRP, IL-2, hemoglobin) were retrieved.

RESULTS: The search resulted in 198 original research articles and a final 6 were selected as being eligible, including 457 subjects. The median age of patients was 65.4 years old and they were characterized by the median BMI value: 23.8 kg/m2. The literature search revealed that probiotic/synbiotic administration improved enteric microbiota by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium, and decreased the abundance of potentially harmful bacteria such as Fusobacterium, Porhyromonas, Pseudomonas and Enterococcus. Additionally, probiotic/synbiotic intervention improved release of antimicrobials, intestinal permeability, tight junction function in CRC patients.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of probiotics/synbiotics positively modulates enteric microbiota, improves postoperative outcomes, gut barrier function and reduces inflammatory parameters in patients suffering from CRC.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Jia B, Park D, Chun BH, et al (2021)

Diet-Related Alterations of Gut Bile Salt Hydrolases Determined Using a Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Microbiome.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(7): pii:ijms22073652.

The metabolism of bile acid by the gut microbiota is associated with host health. Bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) play a crucial role in controlling microbial bile acid metabolism. Herein, we conducted a comparative study to investigate the alterations in the abundance of BSHs using data from three human studies involving dietary interventions, which included a ketogenetic diet (KD) versus baseline diet (BD), overfeeding diet (OFD) versus underfeeding diet, and low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) versus BD. The KD increased BSH abundance compared to the BD, while the OFD and LCD did not change the total abundance of BSHs in the human gut. BSHs can be classified into seven clusters; Clusters 1 to 4 are relatively abundant in the gut. In the KD cohort, the levels of BSHs from Clusters 1, 3, and 4 increased significantly, whereas there was no notable change in the levels of BSHs from the clusters in the OFD and LCD cohorts. Taxonomic studies showed that members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria predominantly produced BSHs. The KD altered the community structure of BSH-active bacteria, causing an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decrease in Actinobacteria. In contrast, the abundance of BSH-active Bacteroidetes decreased in the OFD cohort, and no significant change was observed in the LCD cohort. These results highlight that dietary patterns are associated with the abundance of BSHs and community structure of BSH-active bacteria and demonstrate the possibility of manipulating the composition of BSHs in the gut through dietary interventions to impact human health.

RevDate: 2021-04-29

Mann EA, Bae E, Kostyuchek D, et al (2020)

The Gut Microbiome: Human Health and Inflammatory Skin Diseases.

Annals of dermatology, 32(4):265-272.

The human microbiome is a rich environment consisting of bacteria, fungi and other commensal microorganisms of the gut, mucosa and skin. The functional role of the gut microbiome includes facilitation in metabolism of macronutrients, maturation of the immune system, and production of pro- or anti-inflammatory signaling molecules and peptides. The identification of these resident organisms has brought about a new understanding of disease processes. Nevertheless, more questions remain regarding the interactions within the microbiome, its interactions with the host, and its contributions to the pathophysiology of disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing medical literature to highlight the role of the gut microbiome in human health, also paying attention to its role in several inflammatory skin diseases, namely atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and rosacea.

RevDate: 2021-04-29

Tourlousse DM, Narita K, Miura T, et al (2021)

Validation and standardization of DNA extraction and library construction methods for metagenomics-based human fecal microbiome measurements.

Microbiome, 9(1):95.

BACKGROUND: Validation and standardization of methodologies for microbial community measurements by high-throughput sequencing are needed to support human microbiome research and its industrialization. This study set out to establish standards-based solutions to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of metagenomics-based microbiome profiling of human fecal samples.

RESULTS: In the first phase, we performed a head-to-head comparison of a wide range of protocols for DNA extraction and sequencing library construction using defined mock communities, to identify performant protocols and pinpoint sources of inaccuracy in quantification. In the second phase, we validated performant protocols with respect to their variability of measurement results within a single laboratory (that is, intermediate precision) as well as interlaboratory transferability and reproducibility through an industry-based collaborative study. We further ascertained the performance of our recommended protocols in the context of a community-wide interlaboratory study (that is, the MOSAIC Standards Challenge). Finally, we defined performance metrics to provide best practice guidance for improving measurement consistency across methods and laboratories.

CONCLUSIONS: The validated protocols and methodological guidance for DNA extraction and library construction provided in this study expand current best practices for metagenomic analyses of human fecal microbiota. Uptake of our protocols and guidelines will improve the accuracy and comparability of metagenomics-based studies of the human microbiome, thereby facilitating development and commercialization of human microbiome-based products. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Marotz C, Cavagnero KJ, Song SJ, et al (2021)

Evaluation of the Effect of Storage Methods on Fecal, Saliva, and Skin Microbiome Composition.

mSystems, 6(2):.

As the number of human microbiome studies expand, it is increasingly important to identify cost-effective, practical preservatives that allow for room temperature sample storage. Here, we reanalyzed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data from a large sample storage study published in 2016 and performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on remnant DNA from this experiment. Both results support the initial findings that 95% ethanol, a nontoxic, cost-effective preservative, is effective at preserving samples at room temperature for weeks. We expanded on this analysis by collecting a new set of fecal, saliva, and skin samples to determine the optimal ratio of 95% ethanol to sample. We identified optimal collection protocols for fecal samples (storing a fecal swab in 95% ethanol) and saliva samples (storing unstimulated saliva in 95% ethanol at a ratio of 1:2). Storing skin swabs in 95% ethanol reduced microbial biomass and disrupted community composition, highlighting the difficulties of low biomass sample preservation. The results from this study identify practical solutions for large-scale analyses of fecal and oral microbial communities.IMPORTANCE Expanding our knowledge of microbial communities across diverse environments includes collecting samples in places far from the laboratory. Identifying cost-effective preservatives that will enable room temperature storage of microbial communities for sequencing analysis is crucial to enabling microbiome analyses across diverse populations. Here, we validate findings that 95% ethanol efficiently preserves microbial composition at room temperature for weeks. We also identified the optimal ratio of 95% ethanol to sample for stool and saliva to preserve both microbial load and composition. These results provide rationale for an accessible, nontoxic, cost-effective solution that will enable crowdsourcing microbiome studies, such as The Microsetta Initiative, and lower the barrier for collecting diverse samples.

RevDate: 2021-04-27

Jost M, Jacobson AN, Hussmann JA, et al (2021)

CRISPR-based functional genomics in human dendritic cells.

eLife, 10: pii:65856 [Epub ahead of print].

Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate processes ranging from antitumor and antiviral immunity to host-microbe communication at mucosal surfaces. It remains difficult, however, to genetically manipulate human DCs, limiting our ability to probe how DCs elicit specific immune responses. Here, we develop a CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method for human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) that mediates knockouts with a median efficiency of >94% across >300 genes. Using this method, we perform genetic screens in moDCs, identifying mechanisms by which DCs tune responses to lipopolysaccharides from the human microbiome. In addition, we reveal donor-specific responses to lipopolysaccharides, underscoring the importance of assessing immune phenotypes in donor-derived cells, and identify candidate genes that control this specificity, highlighting the potential of our method to pinpoint determinants of inter-individual variation in immunity. Our work sets the stage for a systematic dissection of the immune signaling at the host-microbiome interface and for targeted engineering of DCs for neoantigen vaccination.

RevDate: 2021-04-26

Al KF, JP Burton (2021)

Processing human urine and ureteral stents for 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

STAR protocols, 2(2):100435 pii:S2666-1667(21)00142-8.

Ureteral stents are commonly used medical devices that harbor a unique and patient-specific microbial community. This protocol describes an optimized procedure for high-quality DNA extraction from both urine and ureteral stent samples for the purpose of downstream microbiota characterization by amplicon sequencing. Detailed instruction is provided for 16S rRNA gene V4 region sequencing with the Illumina platform, which enables accurate and reproducible microbiota profiling of low bacterial abundance urine and stent samples. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Al et al. (2020).

RevDate: 2021-04-26

Zorba M, Melidou A, Patsatsi A, et al (2020)

The possible role of oral microbiome in autoimmunity.

International journal of women's dermatology, 6(5):357-364 pii:S2352-6475(20)30124-6.

Objective: The human microbiome refers to the entire habitat, including microorganisms, their genomes and the surrounding environmental conditions of the microbial ecosystem. When the equilibrium between microbial habitats and host is disturbed, dysbiosis is caused. The oral microbiome (OMB) has been implicated in the manifestation of many intra- and extraoral diseases. Lately, there has been an intense effort to investigate and specify the relationship between microbial complexes, especially that of the oral cavity and intestine and autoimmunity. This study aimed to review the current literature about the possible role of the OMB in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

Methods: We searched for published articles in English indexed in PubMed, Medline, Research Gate and Google Scholar using a search strategy that included terms for oral microbiome, autoimmune diseases, dysbiosis and next-generation sequencing.

Results: An important number of articles were gathered and used for the description of the possible impact of dysbiosis of OMB in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Behcet's disease, Crohn's disease and psoriasis.

Conclusion: This review article draws attention to the relationship between OMB and the triggering of a number of autoimmune diseases. Although this specific topic has been previously reviewed, herein, the authors review recent literature regarding the full list of nosological entities related to the OMB, point out the interaction between the microbiome and sex hormones with regard to their role in autoimmunity and discuss novel and promising therapeutic approaches for systemic autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, the question arises of whether the OMB is associated with oral bullous autoimmune diseases.

RevDate: 2021-04-26

Rampelli S, Fabbrini M, Candela M, et al (2021)

G2S: A New Deep Learning Tool for Predicting Stool Microbiome Structure From Oral Microbiome Data.

Frontiers in genetics, 12:644516.

Deep learning methodologies have revolutionized prediction in many fields and show the potential to do the same in microbial metagenomics. However, deep learning is still unexplored in the field of microbiology, with only a few software designed to work with microbiome data. Within the meta-community theory, we foresee new perspectives for the development and application of deep learning algorithms in the field of the human microbiome. In this context, we developed G2S, a bioinformatic tool for taxonomic prediction of the human fecal microbiome directly from the oral microbiome data of the same individual. The tool uses a deep convolutional neural network trained on paired oral and fecal samples from populations across the globe, which allows inferring the stool microbiome at the family level more accurately than other available approaches. The tool can be used in retrospective studies, where fecal sampling was not performed, and especially in the field of paleomicrobiology, as a unique opportunity to recover data related to ancient gut microbiome configurations. G2S was validated on already characterized oral and fecal sample pairs, and then applied to ancient microbiome data from dental calculi, to derive putative intestinal components in medieval subjects.

RevDate: 2021-04-21

Zhang W, Chen X, KC Wong (2021)

Noninvasive early diagnosis of intestinal diseases based on artificial intelligence in genomics and microbiome.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 36(4):823-831.

The maturing development in artificial intelligence (AI) and genomics has propelled the advances in intestinal diseases including intestinal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On the other hand, colorectal cancer is the second most deadly and the third most common type of cancer in the world according to GLOBOCAN 2020 data. The mechanisms behind IBD and IBS are still speculative. The conventional methods to identify colorectal cancer, IBD, and IBS are based on endoscopy or colonoscopy to identify lesions. However, it is invasive, demanding, and time-consuming for early-stage intestinal diseases. To address those problems, new strategies based on blood and/or human microbiome in gut, colon, or even feces were developed; those methods took advantage of high-throughput sequencing and machine learning approaches. In this review, we summarize the recent research and methods to diagnose intestinal diseases with machine learning technologies based on cell-free DNA and microbiome data generated by amplicon sequencing or whole-genome sequencing. Those methods play an important role in not only intestinal disease diagnosis but also therapy development in the near future.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Strobbe F, Bénard MV, Rossen NG, et al (2021)

A novel technique capable of taking 'protected' biopsies for reliable assessment of the distribution of microbiota along the colonic mucosa.

Journal of microbiological methods pii:S0167-7012(21)00072-5 [Epub ahead of print].

We evaluated a novel 'protected' biopsy method to reliably ascertain the spatial distribution of the mucosa-adherent colonic microbiota. Apart from minor differences at genus level, overall similarities along the colon were high between the various areas, irrespective of protected or unprotected sampling.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Kang HM, JH Kang (2021)

Effects of nasopharyngeal microbiota in respiratory infections and allergies.

Clinical and experimental pediatrics pii:cep.2020.01452 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome, which consists of a collective cluster of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in the human body, plays a key role in host health and immunity. The human nasal cavity harbors commensal bacteria that suppress the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. However, dysbiosis of the nasal microbial community is associated with many diseases, such as acute respiratory infections including otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis and allergic respiratory diseases including asthma. The nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococcus, which exists as a pathobiont in the nasal cavity, is the initial step in virtually all pneumococcal diseases. Although the factors influencing nasal colonization and elimination are not fully understood, the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to nasopharyngeal mucosa receptors and the eliciting of immune responses in the host are implicated in addition to bacterial microbiota properties and colonization resistance dynamics. Probiotics or synbiotic interventions may show promising and effective roles in the adjunctive treatment of dysbiosis; however, more studies are needed to characterize how these interventions can be applied in clinical practice in the future.

RevDate: 2021-04-18

Petrova MI, Reid G, JA Ter Haar (2021)

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GR-1, a.k.a. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1: Past and Future Perspectives.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(21)00069-X [Epub ahead of print].

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (LGR-1) (previously classified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1) is the most researched probiotic strain for women's health. Its various urogenital health effects, including a reduction in the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis and urinary-tract infection, are well documented. The strain has also been safely used by HIV-positive subjects, a portion of whom have reported reduced diarrhea and increased CD4 counts. Unlike most probiotic strains used for urogenital health, LGR-1 has been extensively studied for its properties, including its genomic and metabolic traits and its surface properties. This review aims to highlight the totality of research performed with LGR-1, to act as a rigorous scientific benchmark for probiotic microbes, especially for application to women's health.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Lu H, Yao Y, Yang J, et al (2021)

Microbiome-miRNA interactions in the progress from undifferentiated arthritis to rheumatoid arthritis: evidence, hypotheses, and opportunities.

Rheumatology international [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome has attracted attention for its potential utility in precision medicine. Increasingly, more researchers are recognizing changes in intestinal microbiome can upset the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors of host immune system, potentially contributing to arthritis immunopathogenesis. Patients who develop rheumatoid arthritis from undifferentiated arthritis can face multiple irreversible joint lesions and even deformities. Strategies for identifying undifferentiated arthritis patients who have a tendency to develop rheumatoid arthritis and interventions to prevent rheumatoid arthritis development are urgently needed. Intestinal microbiome dysbiosis and shifts in the miRNA profile affect undifferentiated arthritis progression, and may play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiologic process via stimulating inflammatory cytokines and disturbing host and microbial metabolic functions. However, a causal relationship between microbiome-miRNA interactions and rheumatoid arthritis development from undifferentiated arthritis has not been uncovered yet. Changes in the intestinal microbiome and miRNA profiles of undifferentiated arthritis patients with different disease outcomes should be studied together to uncover the role of the intestinal microbiome in rheumatoid arthritis development and to identify potential prognostic indicators of rheumatoid arthritis in undifferentiated arthritis patients. Herein, we discuss the possibility of microbiome-miRNA interactions contributing to rheumatoid arthritis development and describe the gaps in knowledge regarding their influence on undifferentiated arthritis prognosis that should be addressed by future studies.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Maslennikov R, Ivashkin V, Ufimtseva A, et al (2021)

A clinical variant of coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhoea as the initial symptom compared with other variants.

Minerva gastroenterology pii:S2724-5985.21.02827-0 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Johns MS, NJ Petrelli (2021)

Microbiome and colorectal cancer: A review of the past, present, and future.

Surgical oncology, 37:101560 pii:S0960-7404(21)00049-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The gastrointestinal tract is home to diverse and abundant microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiome. This ecosystem typically contains trillions of microbial cells that play an important role in regulation of human health. The microbiome has been implicated in host immunity, nutrient absorption, digestion, and metabolism. In recent years, researchers have shown that alteration of the microbiome is associated with disease development, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. This review discusses the five decades of research into the human microbiome and the development of colorectal cancer - the historical context including experiments that sparked interest, the explosion of research that has occurred in the last decade, and finally the future of testing and treatment.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Classen AY, Henze L, von Lilienfeld-Toal M, et al (2021)

Primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors: 2020 updated guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology (AGIHO/DGHO).

Annals of hematology [Epub ahead of print].

Hematologic and oncologic patients with chemo- or immunotherapy-related immunosuppression are at substantial risk for bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP). As bacterial resistances are increasing worldwide and new research reshapes our understanding of the interactions between the human host and bacterial commensals, administration of antibacterial prophylaxis has become a matter of discussion. This guideline constitutes an update of the 2013 published guideline of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO). It gives an overview about current strategies for antibacterial prophylaxis in cancer patients while taking into account the impact of antibacterial prophylaxis on the human microbiome and resistance development. Current literature published from January 2012 to August 2020 was searched and evidence-based recommendations were developed by an expert panel. All recommendations were discussed and approved in a consensus conference of the AGIHO prior to publication. As a result, we present a comprehensive update and extension of our guideline for antibacterial and PcP prophylaxis in cancer patients.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Guerin E, Shkoporov AN, Stockdale SR, et al (2021)

Isolation and characterisation of ΦcrAss002, a crAss-like phage from the human gut that infects Bacteroides xylanisolvens.

Microbiome, 9(1):89.

BACKGROUND: The gut phageome comprises a complex phage community of thousands of individual strains, with a few highly abundant bacteriophages. CrAss-like phages, which infect bacteria of the order Bacteroidales, are the most abundant bacteriophage family in the human gut and make an important contribution to an individual's core virome. Based on metagenomic data, crAss-like phages form a family, with four sub-families and ten candidate genera. To date, only three representatives isolated in pure culture have been reported: ΦcrAss001 and two closely related phages DAC15 and DAC17; all are members of the less abundant candidate genus VI. The persistence at high levels of both crAss-like phage and their Bacteroidales hosts in the human gut has not been explained mechanistically, and this phage-host relationship can only be properly studied with isolated phage-host pairs from as many genera as possible.

RESULTS: Faeces from a healthy donor with high levels of crAss-like phage was used to initiate a faecal fermentation in a chemostat, with selected antibiotics chosen to inhibit rapidly growing bacteria and selectively enrich for Gram-negative Bacteroidales. This had the objective of promoting the simultaneous expansion of crAss-like phages on their native hosts. The levels of seven different crAss-like phages expanded during the fermentation, indicating that their hosts were also present in the fermenter. The enriched supernatant was then tested against individual Bacteroidales strains isolated from the same faecal sample. This resulted in the isolation of a previously uncharacterised crAss-like phage of candidate genus IV of the proposed Alphacrassvirinae sub-family, ΦcrAss002, that infects the gut commensal Bacteroides xylanisolvens. ΦcrAss002 does not form plaques or spots on lawns of sensitive cells, nor does it lyse liquid cultures, even at high titres. In keeping with the co-abundance of phage and host in the human gut, ΦcrAss002 and Bacteroides xylanisolvens can also co-exist at high levels when co-cultured in laboratory media.

CONCLUSIONS: We report the isolation and characterisation of ΦcrAss002, the first representative of the proposed Alphacrassvirinae sub-family of crAss-like phages. ΦcrAss002 cannot form plaques or spots on bacterial lawns but can co-exist with its host, Bacteroides xylanisolvens, at very high levels in liquid culture without impacting on bacterial numbers. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Fremin BJ, AS Bhatt (2021)

Comparative genomics identifies thousands of candidate structured RNAs in human microbiomes.

Genome biology, 22(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Structured RNAs play varied bioregulatory roles within microbes. To date, hundreds of candidate structured RNAs have been predicted using informatic approaches that search for motif structures in genomic sequence data. The human microbiome contains thousands of species and strains of microbes. Yet, much of the metagenomic data from the human microbiome remains unmined for structured RNA motifs primarily due to computational limitations.

RESULTS: We sought to apply a large-scale, comparative genomics approach to these organisms to identify candidate structured RNAs. With a carefully constructed, though computationally intensive automated analysis, we identify 3161 conserved candidate structured RNAs in intergenic regions, as well as 2022 additional candidate structured RNAs that may overlap coding regions. We validate the RNA expression of 177 of these candidate structures by analyzing small fragment RNA-seq data from four human fecal samples.

CONCLUSIONS: This approach identifies a wide variety of candidate structured RNAs, including tmRNAs, antitoxins, and likely ribosome protein leaders, from a wide variety of taxa. Overall, our pipeline enables conservative predictions of thousands of novel candidate structured RNAs from human microbiomes.

RevDate: 2021-04-10

Thomas AM, Asnicar F, Kroemer G, et al (2021)

Microbial ACBP/DBI-like genes are rare in the human gut microbiome and show no links with obesity.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.00471-21 [Epub ahead of print].

Acyl coenzyme A (CoA) binding protein (ACBP), also called diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is a phylogenetically conserved protein that is expressed by all eukaryotic species as well as by some bacteria. Since elevated ACBP/DBI levels play a major role in the inhibition of autophagy, increase in appetite and lipoanabolism that accompany obesity, we wondered whether ACBP/DBI produced by the human microbiome might affect host weight. We found that the genomes of bacterial commensals rarely contain ACBP/DBI homologues, which are rather encoded by genomes of some pathogenic or environmental taxa that were not prevalent in human feces. Exhaustive bioinformatic analyses of 1,899 gut samples from healthy individuals refuted the hypothesis that bacterial ACBP/DBI might affect the BMI in a physiological context. Thus, the physiological regulation of BMI is unlikely to be affected by microbial ACBP/DBI-like proteins. However, at the speculative level, it remains possible that ACBP/DBI produced by potential pathogenic bacteria might enhance their virulence by inhibiting autophagy and hence subverting innate immune responses.ImportanceAcyl coenzyme A (CoA) binding protein (ACBP) can be encoded by several organisms across the domains of life, including microbes, and has shown to play major roles in human metabolic processes. However, little is known about its presence in the human gut microbiome and whether its microbial counterpart could also play a role in human metabolism. In the present study, we found that microbial ACBP/DBI sequences were rarely present in the gut microbiome across multiple metagenomic datasets. Microbes that carried ACBP/DBI in the human gut microbiome included Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lautropia mirabilis and Comamonas kerstersii, but these microorganisms were not associated with body-mass index, further indicating an unconvincing role for microbial ACBP/DBI in human metabolism.

RevDate: 2021-04-12

Anonymous (2021)

Correction for Finlay et al., The hygiene hypothesis, the COVID pandemic, and consequences for the human microbiome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(11):.

RevDate: 2021-04-10

Singh H, Clarke T, Brinkac L, et al (2021)

Forensic Microbiome Database: A Tool for Forensic Geolocation Meta-Analysis Using Publicly Available 16S rRNA Microbiome Sequencing.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:644861.

The human microbiome has been proposed as a tool to investigate different forensic questions, including for the identification of multiple personal information. However, the fragmented state of the publicly available data has retarded the development of analysis techniques and, therefore, the implementation of microbiomes as a forensic tool. To address this, we introduce the forensic microbiome database (FMD), which is a collection of 16S rRNA data and associated metadata generated from publicly available data. The raw data was further normalized and processed using a pipeline to create a standardized data set for downstream analysis. We present a website allowing for the exploration of geolocation signals in the FMD. The website allows users to investigate the taxonomic differences between microbiomes harvested from different locations and to predict the geolocation of their data based on the FMD sequences. All the results are presented in dynamic graphics to allow for a rapid and intuitive investigation of the taxonomic distributions underpinning the geolocation signals and prediction between locations. Apart from the forensic aspect, the database also allows exploration and comparison of microbiome samples from different geolocation and between different body sites. The goal of the FMD is to provide the scientific and non-scientific communities with data and tools to explore the possibilities of microbiomes to answer forensic questions and serve as a model for any future such databases.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Catania F, Baedke J, Fábregas-Tejeda A, et al (2021)

Global climate change, diet, and the complex relationship between human host and microbiome: Towards an integrated picture.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Dietary changes can alter the human microbiome with potential detrimental consequences for health. Given that environment, health, and evolution are interconnected, we ask: Could diet-driven microbiome perturbations have consequences that extend beyond their immediate impact on human health? We address this question in the context of the urgent health challenges posed by global climate change. Drawing on recent studies, we propose that not only can diet-driven microbiome changes lead to dysbiosis, they can also shape life-history traits and fuel human evolution. We posit that dietary shifts prompt mismatched microbiome-host genetics configurations that modulate human longevity and reproductive success. These mismatches can also induce a heritable intra-holobiont stress response, which encourages the holobiont to re-establish equilibrium within the changed nutritional environment. Thus, while mismatches between climate change-related genetic and epigenetic configurations within the holobiont increase the risk and severity of diseases, they may also affect life-history traits and facilitate adaptive responses. These propositions form a framework that can help systematize and address climate-related dietary challenges for policy and health interventions.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Solanki V, Tiwari M, V Tiwari (2021)

Immunoinformatic approach to design a multiepitope vaccine targeting non-mutational hotspot regions of structural and non-structural proteins of the SARS CoV2.

PeerJ, 9:e11126.

Background: The rapid Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV2) outbreak caused severe pandemic infection worldwide. The high mortality and morbidity rate of SARS CoV2 is due to the unavailability of vaccination and mutation in this virus. The present article aims to design a potential vaccine construct VTC3 targeting the non-mutational region of structural and non-structural proteins of SARS CoV2.

Methods: In this study, vaccines were designed using subtractive proteomics and reverse vaccinology. To target the virus adhesion and evasion, 10 different structural and non-structural proteins have been selected. Shortlisted proteins have been screened for B cell, T cell and IFN gamma interacting epitopes. 3D structure of vaccine construct was modeled and evaluated for its physicochemical properties, immunogenicity, allergenicity, toxicity and antigenicity. The finalized construct was implemented for docking and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) with different toll-like receptors (TLRs) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA). The binding energy and dissociation construct of the vaccine with HLA and TLR was also calculated. Mutational sensitivity profiling of the designed vaccine was performed, and mutations were reconfirmed from the experimental database. Antibody production, clonal selection, antigen processing, immune response and memory generation in host cells after injection of the vaccine was also monitored using immune simulation.

Results: Subtractive proteomics identified seven (structural and non-structural) proteins of this virus that have a role in cell adhesion and infection. The different epitopes were predicted, and only extracellular epitopes were selected that do not have similarity and cross-reactivity with the host cell. Finalized epitopes of all proteins with minimum allergenicity and toxicity were joined using linkers to designed different vaccine constructs. Docking different constructs with different TLRs and HLA demonstrated a stable and reliable binding affinity of VTC3 with the TLRs and HLAs. MDS analysis further confirms the interaction of VTC3 with HLA and TLR1/2 complex. The VTC3 has a favorable binding affinity and dissociation constant with HLA and TLR. The VTC3 does not have similarities with the human microbiome, and most of the interacting residues of VTC3 do not have mutations. The immune simulation result showed that VTC3 induces a strong immune response. The present study designs a multiepitope vaccine targeting the non-mutational region of structural and non-structural proteins of the SARS CoV2 using an immunoinformatic approach, which needs to be experimentally validated.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Daisley BA, G Reid (2021)

BEExact: a Metataxonomic Database Tool for High-Resolution Inference of Bee-Associated Microbial Communities.

mSystems, 6(2):.

High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing technologies have robust potential to improve our understanding of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)-associated microbial communities and their impact on hive health and disease. Despite recent computation algorithms now permitting exact inferencing of high-resolution exact amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), the taxonomic classification of these ASVs remains a challenge due to inadequate reference databases. To address this, we assemble a comprehensive data set of all publicly available bee-associated 16S rRNA gene sequences, systematically annotate poorly resolved identities via inclusion of 618 placeholder labels for uncultivated microbial dark matter, and correct for phylogenetic inconsistencies using a complementary set of distance-based and maximum likelihood correction strategies. To benchmark the resultant database (BEExact), we compare performance against all existing reference databases in silico using a variety of classifier algorithms to produce probabilistic confidence scores. We also validate realistic classification rates on an independent set of ∼234 million short-read sequences derived from 32 studies encompassing 50 different bee types (36 eusocial and 14 solitary). Species-level classification rates on short-read ASVs range from 80 to 90% using BEExact (with ∼20% due to "bxid" placeholder names), whereas only ∼30% at best can be resolved with current universal databases. A series of data-driven recommendations are developed for future studies. We conclude that BEExact (https://github.com/bdaisley/BEExact) enables accurate and standardized microbiota profiling across a broad range of bee species-two factors of key importance to reproducibility and meaningful knowledge exchange within the scientific community that together, can enhance the overall utility and ecological relevance of routine 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing endeavors.IMPORTANCE The failure of current universal taxonomic databases to support the rapidly expanding field of bee microbiota research has led to many investigators relying on "in-house" reference sets or manual classification of sequence reads (usually based on BLAST searches), often with vague identity thresholds and subjective taxonomy choices. This time-consuming, error- and bias-prone process lacks standardization, cripples the potential for comparative cross-study analysis, and in many cases is likely to incorrectly sway study conclusions. BEExact is structured on and leverages several complementary bioinformatic techniques to enable refined inference of bee host-associated microbial communities without any other methodological modifications necessary. It also bridges the gap between current practical outcomes (i.e., phylotype-to-genus level constraints with 97% operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) and the theoretical resolution (i.e., species-to-strain level classification with 100% ASVs) attainable in future microbiota investigations. Other niche habitats could also likely benefit from customized database curation via implementation of the novel approaches introduced in this study.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Kantele A, Kuenzli E, Dunn SJ, et al (2021)

Dynamics of intestinal multidrug-resistant bacteria colonisation contracted by visitors to a high-endemic setting: a prospective, daily, real-time sampling study.

The Lancet. Microbe, 2(4):e151-e158.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries. International travel contributes substantially to the global spread of intestinal multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Hundreds of millions of annual visitors to low-income and middle-income countries are all exposed to intestinal multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria resulting in 30-70% of them being colonised at their return. The colonisation process in high-exposure environments is poorly documented because data have only been derived from before travel and after travel sampling. We characterised colonisation dynamics by exploring daily stool samples while visiting a low-income and middle-income countries.

Methods: In this prospective, daily, real-time sampling study 20 European visitors to Laos volunteered to provide daily stool samples and completed daily questionnaires for 22 days. Samples were initially assessed at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, for acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) Gram-negative bacteria followed by whole-genome sequencing of isolates at MicrobesNG, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. The primary outcome of the study was to obtain data on the dynamics of intestinal multidrug-resistant bacteria acquisition.

Findings: Between Sept 18 and Sept 20, 2015, 23 volunteers were recruited, of whom 20 (87%) European volunteers were included in the final study population. Although colonisation rates were 70% at the end of the study, daily sampling revealed that all participants had acquired ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria at some point during the study period; the colonisation status varied day by day. Whole-genome sequencing analysis ascribed the transient pattern of colonisation to sequential acquisition of new strains, resulting in a loss of detectable colonisation by the initial multidrug-resistant Gram-negative strains. 19 (95%) participants acquired two to seven strains. Of the 83 unique strains identified (53 Escherichia coli, 10 Klebsiella spp, and 20 other ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria), some were shared by as many as four (20%) participants.

Interpretation: To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterise in real-time the dynamics of acquiring multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial colonisation during travel. Our data show multiple transient colonisation events indicative of constant microbial competition and suggest that travellers are exposed to a greater burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria than previously thought. The data emphasise the need for preventing travellers' diarrhoea and limiting antibiotic use, addressing the two major factors predisposing colonisation.

Funding: The Finnish Governmental Subsidy for Health Science Research, The Scandinavian Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council; The Royal Society; Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance, and European Research Council.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Wilkinson JE, Franzosa EA, Everett C, et al (2021)

A framework for microbiome science in public health.

Nature medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Human microbiome science has advanced rapidly and reached a scale at which basic biology, clinical translation and population health are increasingly integrated. It is thus now possible for public health researchers, practitioners and policymakers to take specific action leveraging current and future microbiome-based opportunities and best practices. Here we provide an outline of considerations for research, education, interpretation and scientific communication concerning the human microbiome and public health. This includes guidelines for population-scale microbiome study design; necessary physical platforms and analysis methods; integration into public health areas such as epidemiology, nutrition, chronic disease, and global and environmental health; entrepreneurship and technology transfer; and educational curricula. Particularly in the near future, there are both opportunities for the incorporation of microbiome-based technologies into public health practice, and a growing need for policymaking and regulation around related areas such as prebiotic and probiotic supplements, novel live-cell therapies and fecal microbiota transplants.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Dias CK, Starke R, Pylro VS, et al (2020)

Database limitations for studying the human gut microbiome.

PeerJ. Computer science, 6:e289.

Background: In the last twenty years, new methodologies have made possible the gathering of large amounts of data concerning the genetic information and metabolic functions associated to the human gut microbiome. In spite of that, processing all this data available might not be the simplest of tasks, which could result in an excess of information awaiting proper annotation. This assessment intended on evaluating how well respected databases could describe a mock human gut microbiome.

Methods: In this work, we critically evaluate the output of the cross-reference between the Uniprot Knowledge Base (Uniprot KB) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthologs (KEGG Orthologs) or the evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous groups (EggNOG) databases regarding a list of species that were previously found in the human gut microbiome.

Results: From a list which contemplates 131 species and 52 genera, 53 species and 40 genera had corresponding entries for KEGG Database and 82 species and 47 genera had corresponding entries for EggNOG Database. Moreover, we present the KEGG Orthologs (KOs) and EggNOG Orthologs (NOGs) entries associated to the search as their distribution over species and genera and lists of functions that appeared in many species or genera, the "core" functions of the human gut microbiome. We also present the relative abundance of KOs and NOGs throughout phyla and genera. Lastly, we expose a variance found between searches with different arguments on the database entries. Inferring functionality based on cross-referencing UniProt and KEGG or EggNOG can be lackluster due to the low number of annotated species in Uniprot and due to the lower number of functions affiliated to the majority of these species. Additionally, the EggNOG database showed greater performance for a cross-search with Uniprot about a mock human gut microbiome. Notwithstanding, efforts targeting cultivation, single-cell sequencing or the reconstruction of high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAG) and their annotation are needed to allow the use of these databases for inferring functionality in human gut microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Stavropoulou E, Kantartzi K, Tsigalou C, et al (2021)

Microbiome, Immunosenescence, and Chronic Kidney Disease.

Frontiers in medicine, 8:661203.

The gut microbiome is known as an important predictive tool for perceiving characteristic shifts in disease states. Multiple renal diseases and pathologies seem to be associated with gut dysbiosis which directly affects host homeostasis. The gastrointestinal-kidney dialogue confers interesting information about the pathogenesis of multiple kidney diseases. Moreover, aging is followed by specific shifts in the human microbiome, and gradual elimination of physiological functions predisposes the microbiome to inflammaging, sarcopenia, and disease. Aging is characterized by a microbiota with an abundance of disease-associated pathobionts. Multiple factors such as the immune system, environment, medication, diet, and genetic endowment are involved in determining the age of the microbiome in health and disease. Our present review promotes recently acquired knowledge and is expected to inspire researchers to advance studies and investigations on the involved pathways of the gut microbiota and kidney axis.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Bostanci N, Krog MC, Hugerth LW, et al (2021)

Dysbiosis of the Human Oral Microbiome During the Menstrual Cycle and Vulnerability to the External Exposures of Smoking and Dietary Sugar.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:625229.

Physiological hormonal fluctuations exert endogenous pressures on the structure and function of the human microbiome. As such, the menstrual cycle may selectively disrupt the homeostasis of the resident oral microbiome, thus compromising oral health. Hence, the aim of the present study was to structurally and functionally profile the salivary microbiome of 103 women in reproductive age with regular menstrual cycle, while evaluating the modifying influences of hormonal contraceptives, sex hormones, diet, and smoking. Whole saliva was sampled during the menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases (n = 309) of the cycle, and the participants reported questionnaire-based data concerning their life habits and oral or systemic health. No significant differences in alpha-diversity or phase-specific clustering of the overall microbiome were observed. Nevertheless, the salivary abundances of genera Campylobacter, Haemophilus, Prevotella, and Oribacterium varied throughout the cycle, and a higher species-richness was observed during the luteal phase. While the overall community structure maintained relatively intact, its functional properties were drastically affected. In particular, 11 functional modules were differentially abundant throughout the menstrual cycle, including pentose phosphate metabolism, and biosynthesis of cobalamin and neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. The menstrual cycle phase, but not oral contraceptive usage, was accountable for greater variations in the metabolic pathways of the salivary microbiome. Further co-risk factor analysis demonstrated that Prevotella and Veillonella were increased in current smokers, whereas high dietary sugar consumption modified the richness and diversity of the microbiome during the cycle. This is the first large study to systematically address dysbiotic variations of the oral microbiome during the course of menstrual cycle, and document the additive effect of smoking and sugar consumption as environmental risk factors. It reveals the structural resilience and functional adaptability of the oral microbiome to the endogenous hormonal pressures of the menstrual cycle, while revealing its vulnerability to the exogenous exposures of diet and smoking.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Callanan J, Stockdale SR, Shkoporov A, et al (2021)

Biases in Viral Metagenomics-Based Detection, Cataloguing and Quantification of Bacteriophage Genomes in Human Faeces, a Review.

Microorganisms, 9(3):.

The human gut is colonised by a vast array of microbes that include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea. While interest in these microbial entities has largely focused on the bacterial constituents, recently the viral component has attracted more attention. Metagenomic advances, compared to classical isolation procedures, have greatly enhanced our understanding of the composition, diversity, and function of viruses in the human microbiome (virome). We highlight that viral extraction methodologies are crucial in terms of identifying and characterising communities of viruses infecting eukaryotes and bacteria. Different viral extraction protocols, including those used in some of the most significant human virome publications to date, have introduced biases affecting their a overall conclusions. It is important that protocol variations should be clearly highlighted across studies, with the ultimate goal of identifying and acknowledging biases associated with different protocols and, perhaps, the generation of an unbiased and standardised method for examining this portion of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Baldelli V, Scaldaferri F, Putignani L, et al (2021)

The Role of Enterobacteriaceae in Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Microorganisms, 9(4): pii:microorganisms9040697.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a group of chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases with unknown etiology. There is a combination of well documented factors in their pathogenesis, including intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. The symbiotic microbiota plays important functions in the host, and the loss of beneficial microbes could favor the expansion of microbial pathobionts. In particular, the bloom of potentially harmful Proteobacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae, has been described as enhancing the inflammatory response, as observed in IBDs. Herein, we seek to investigate the contribution of Enterobacteriaceae to IBD pathogenesis whilst considering the continuous expansion of the literature and data. Despite the mechanism of their expansion still remaining unclear, their expansion could be correlated with the increase in nitrate and oxygen levels in the inflamed gut and with the bile acid dysmetabolism described in IBD patients. Furthermore, in several Enterobacteriaceae studies conducted at a species level, it has been suggested that some adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) play an important role in IBD pathogenesis. Overall, this review highlights the pivotal role played by Enterobacteriaceae in gut dysbiosis associated with IBD pathogenesis and progression.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Arsenijevic T, Nicolle R, Bouchart C, et al (2021)

Pancreatic Cancer Meets Human Microbiota: Close Encounters of the Third Kind.

Cancers, 13(6):.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most lethal types of cancer with a dismal prognosis. The five-year survival rate has not changed significantly in over 40 years. Current first-line treatments only offer a modest increase in overall survival in unselected populations, and there is an urgent need to personalize treatment in this aggressive disease and develop new therapeutic strategies. Evolving evidence suggests that the human microbiome impacts cancerogenesis and cancer resistance to therapy. The mechanism of action and interaction of microbiome and PDAC is still under investigation. Direct and indirect effects have been proposed, and the use of several microbiome signatures as predictive and prognostic biomarkers for pancreatic cancer are opening new therapeutic horizons. In this review, we provide an overview for the clinicians of studies describing the influence and associations of oral, gastrointestinal and intratumoral microbiota on PDAC development, progression and resistance to therapy and the potential use of microbiota as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker for PDAC.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Ahn J, RB Hayes (2021)

Environmental Influences on the Human Microbiome and Implications for Noncommunicable Disease.

Annual review of public health, 42:277-292.

The human microbiome contributes metabolic functions, protects against pathogens, educates the immune system, and through these basic functions, directly or indirectly, affects most of our physiologic functions. Here, we consider the human microbiome and its relationship to several major noncommunicable human conditions, including orodigestive tract cancers, neurologic diseases, diabetes, and obesity. We also highlight the scope of contextual macroenvironmental factors (toxicological and chemical environment, built environment, and socioeconomic environment) and individual microenvironmental factors (smoking, alcohol, and diet) that may push the microbiota toward less healthy or more healthy conditions, influencing the development of these diseases. Last, we highlight current uncertainties and challenges in the study of environmental influences on the human microbiome and implications for understanding noncommunicable disease, suggesting a research agenda to strengthen the scientific evidence base.

RevDate: 2021-04-14

Cho JC (2021)

Human microbiome privacy risks associated with summary statistics.

PloS one, 16(4):e0249528.

Recognizing that microbial community composition within the human microbiome is associated with the physiological state of the host has sparked a large number of human microbiome association studies (HMAS). With the increasing size of publicly available HMAS data, the privacy risk is also increasing because HMAS metadata could contain sensitive private information. I demonstrate that a simple test statistic based on the taxonomic profiles of an individual's microbiome along with summary statistics of HMAS data can reveal the membership of the individual's microbiome in an HMAS sample. In particular, species-level taxonomic data obtained from small-scale HMAS can be highly vulnerable to privacy risk. Minimal guidelines for HMAS data privacy are suggested, and an assessment of HMAS privacy risk using the simulation method proposed is recommended at the time of study design.

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Townsend EM, Kelly L, Gannon L, et al (2021)

Isolation and Characterization of Klebsiella Phages for Phage Therapy.

PHAGE (New Rochelle, N.Y.), 2(1):26-42.

Introduction: Klebsiella is a clinically important pathogen causing a variety of antimicrobial resistant infections in both community and nosocomial settings, particularly pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and sepsis. Bacteriophage (phage) therapy is being considered a primary option for the treatment of drug-resistant infections of these types. Methods: We report the successful isolation and characterization of 30 novel, genetically diverse Klebsiella phages. Results: The isolated phages span six different phage families and nine genera, representing both lysogenic and lytic lifestyles. Individual Klebsiella phage isolates infected up to 11 of the 18 Klebsiella capsule types tested, and all 18 capsule-types were infected by at least one of the phages. Conclusions: Of the Klebsiella-infecting phages presented in this study, the lytic phages are most suitable for phage therapy, based on their broad host range, high virulence, short lysis period and given that they encode no known toxin or antimicrobial resistance genes. Phage isolates belonging to the Sugarlandvirus and Slopekvirus genera were deemed most suitable for phage therapy based on our characterization. Importantly, when applied alone, none of the characterized phages were able to suppress the growth of Klebsiella for more than 12 h, likely due to the inherent ease of Klebsiella to generate spontaneous phage-resistant mutants. This indicates that for successful phage therapy, a cocktail of multiple phages would be necessary to treat Klebsiella infections.

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Dhariwal A, Junges R, Chen T, et al (2021)

ResistoXplorer: a web-based tool for visual, statistical and exploratory data analysis of resistome data.

NAR genomics and bioinformatics, 3(1):lqab018.

The study of resistomes using whole metagenomic sequencing enables high-throughput identification of resistance genes in complex microbial communities, such as the human microbiome. Over recent years, sophisticated and diverse pipelines have been established to facilitate raw data processing and annotation. Despite the progress, there are no easy-to-use tools for comprehensive visual, statistical and functional analysis of resistome data. Thus, exploration of the resulting large complex datasets remains a key bottleneck requiring robust computational resources and technical expertise, which creates a significant hurdle for advancements in the field. Here, we introduce ResistoXplorer, a user-friendly tool that integrates recent advancements in statistics and visualization, coupled with extensive functional annotations and phenotype collection, to enable high-throughput analysis of common outputs generated from metagenomic resistome studies. ResistoXplorer contains three modules-the 'Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Table' module offers various options for composition profiling, functional profiling and comparative analysis of resistome data; the 'Integration' module supports integrative exploratory analysis of resistome and microbiome abundance profiles derived from metagenomic samples; finally, the 'Antimicrobial Resistance Gene List' module enables users to intuitively explore the associations between antimicrobial resistance genes and the microbial hosts using network visual analytics to gain biological insights. ResistoXplorer is publicly available at http://www.resistoxplorer.no.

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Ceprnja M, Oros D, Melvan E, et al (2021)

Modeling of Urinary Microbiota Associated With Cystitis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:643638.

A decade ago, when the Human Microbiome Project was starting, urinary tract (UT) was not included because the bladder and urine were considered to be sterile. Today, we are presented with evidence that healthy UT possesses native microbiota and any major event disrupting its "equilibrium" can impact the host also. This dysbiosis often leads to cystitis symptoms, which is the most frequent lower UT complaint, especially among women. Cystitis is one of the most common causes of antimicrobial drugs prescriptions in primary and secondary care and an important contributor to the problem of antimicrobial resistance. Despite this fact, we still have trouble distinguishing whether the primary cause of majority of cystitis cases is a single pathogen overgrowth, or a systemic disorder affecting entire UT microbiota. There are relatively few studies monitoring changes and dynamics of UT microbiota in cystitis patients, making this field of research still an unknown. In this study variations to the UT microbiota of cystitis patients were identified and microbial dynamics has been modeled. The microbial genetic profile of urine samples from 28 patients was analyzed by 16S rDNA Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. One patient with bacterial cystitis symptoms was prescribed therapy based on national guideline recommendations on antibacterial treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) and UT microbiota change was monitored by 16S rDNA sequencing on 24 h basis during the entire therapy duration. The results of sequencing implied that a particular class of bacteria is associated with majority of cystitis cases in this study. The contributing role of this class of bacteria - Gammaproteobacteria, was further predicted by generalized Lotka-Volterra modeling (gLVM). Longitudinal microbiota insight obtained from a single patient under prescribed antimicrobial therapy revealed rapid and extensive changes in microbial composition and emphasized the need for current guidelines revision in regards to therapy duration. Models based on gLVM indicated protective role of two taxonomic classes of bacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidia class, which appear to actively suppress pathogen overgrowth.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Jalanka J, Lam C, Bennett A, et al (2021)

Colonic Gene Expression and Fecal Microbiota in Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Increased Toll-like Receptor 4 but Minimal Inflammation and no Response to Mesalazine.

Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility, 27(2):279-291.

Background/Aims: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) has been previously associated with evidence of immune activation and altered microbiota. Our aim is to assess the effect of the anti-inflammatory agent, mesalazine, on inflammatory gene expression and microbiota composition in IBS-D.

Methods: We studied a subset of patients (n = 43) from a previously published 12-week radomized placebo-controlled trial of mesalazine. Mucosal biopsies were assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for a range of markers of inflammation, altered permeability, and sensory receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) at randomization after treatment. All biopsy data were compared to 21 healthy controls. Patient's stool microbiota composition was analysed through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.

Results: We found no evidence of increased immune activation compared to healthy controls. However, we did find increased expression of receptors in both sensory pathways and innate immune response including TLR4. Higher TLR4 expression was associated with greater urgency. TLR4 expression correlated strongly with the expression of the receptors bradykinin receptor B2, chemerin chemokine-like receptor 1, and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 as well as TLR4's downstream adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88. Mesalazine had minimal effect on either gene expression or microbiota composition.

Conclusions: Biopsies from a well-characterized IBS-D cohort showed no substantial inflammation. Mesalazine has little effect on gene expression and its previous reported effect on fecal microbiota associated with much greater inflammation found in inflammatory bowel diseases is likely secondary to reduced inflammation. Increased expression of TLR4 and correlated receptors in IBS may mediate a general increase in sensitivity to external stimuli, particularly those that signal via the TLR system.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Groussin M, Poyet M, Sistiaga A, et al (2021)

Elevated rates of horizontal gene transfer in the industrialized human microbiome.

Cell, 184(8):2053-2067.e18.

Industrialization has impacted the human gut ecosystem, resulting in altered microbiome composition and diversity. Whether bacterial genomes may also adapt to the industrialization of their host populations remains largely unexplored. Here, we investigate the extent to which the rates and targets of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) vary across thousands of bacterial strains from 15 human populations spanning a range of industrialization. We show that HGTs have accumulated in the microbiome over recent host generations and that HGT occurs at high frequency within individuals. Comparison across human populations reveals that industrialized lifestyles are associated with higher HGT rates and that the functions of HGTs are related to the level of host industrialization. Our results suggest that gut bacteria continuously acquire new functionality based on host lifestyle and that high rates of HGT may be a recent development in human history linked to industrialization.

RevDate: 2021-04-02

Bai Y, Zhang L, X Lei (2021)

Human Endogenous Natural Products.

Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products, 114:313-337.

Natural products are a class of chemical compounds that are biosynthesized by living organisms, including humans. Endogenous natural products are produced by human cells as well as by the human microbiome. This contribution describes the current understanding and recent progress made on endogenous natural products that are produced by human cells, including amines, steroids, and fatty acid-derived natural products. The co-metabolism and natural product produced by the human microbiome will also be described, including the involvement of tryptophan, bile acids, choline, and cysteine. New strategies and technologies have been introduced that can be applied to identify and characterize those natural products produced by the human microbiome in terms of their composition and physiological function.

RevDate: 2021-03-31

Johnson SD, Fox HS, Buch S, et al (2021)

Chronic Opioid Administration is Associated with Prevotella-dominated Dysbiosis in SIVmac251 Infected, cART-treated Macaques.

Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an elevated risk of opioid misuse due to both prescriptions for HIV-associated chronic pain and because injection drug use remains a primary mode of HIV transmission. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by chronic immune activation and microbial dysbiosis, and translocation across the gut barrier exacerbating inflammation. Despite the high rate of co-occurrence, little is known about the microbiome during chronic opioid use in the context of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We recently demonstrated the reduction of the CD4 + T-cell reservoir in lymphoid tissues but increased in microglia/macrophage reservoirs in CNS by using morphine-treated, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques with viremia suppressed by cART. To understand whether morphine may perturb the gut-brain axis, fecal samples were collected at necropsy, DNA isolated, and 16S rRNA sequenced and changes of the microbiome analyzed. We found that morphine treatment led to dysbiosis, primarily characterized by expansion of Bacteroidetes, particularly Prevotellaceae, at the expense of Firmicutes and other members of healthy microbial communities resulting in a lower α-diversity. Of the many genera in Prevotellaceae, the differences between the saline and morphine group were primarily due to a higher relative abundance of Prevotella_9, the taxa most similar to Prevotella copri, an inflammatory pathobiont in the human microbiome. These findings reinforce previous research showing that opioid abuse is associated with dysbiosis, therefore, warranting additional future research to elucidate the complex interaction between the host and opioid abuse during HIV and SIV infection.

RevDate: 2021-04-02

Sehli S, Allali I, Chahboune R, et al (2021)

Metagenomics Approaches to Investigate the Gut Microbiome of COVID-19 Patients.

Bioinformatics and biology insights, 15:1177932221999428.

Over the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that the microbiome is a central component in human well-being and illness. However, to establish innovative therapeutic methods, it is crucial to learn more about the microbiota. Thereby, the area of metagenomics and associated bioinformatics methods and tools has become considerable in the study of the human microbiome biodiversity. The application of these metagenomics approaches to studying the gut microbiome in COVID-19 patients could be one of the promising areas of research in the fight against the SARS-CoV-2 infection and disparity. Therefore, understanding how the gut microbiome is affected by or could affect the SARS-CoV-2 is very important. Herein, we present an overview of approaches and methods used in the current published studies on COVID-19 patients and the gut microbiome. The accuracy of these researches depends on the appropriate choice and the optimal use of the metagenomics bioinformatics platforms and tools. Interestingly, most studies reported that COVID-19 patients' microbiota are enriched with opportunistic microorganisms. The choice and use of appropriate computational tools and techniques to accurately investigate the gut microbiota is therefore critical in determining the appropriate microbiome profile for diagnosis and the most reliable antiviral or preventive microbial composition.

RevDate: 2021-03-31

Bui TPN, WM de Vos (2021)

Next-generation therapeutic bacteria for treatment of obesity, diabetes, and other endocrine diseases.

Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism pii:S1521-690X(21)00021-X [Epub ahead of print].

The human gut microbiota has appeared as an important factor affecting host health and intestinal bacteria have recently emerged as potential therapeutics to treat diabetes and other endocrine diseases. These mainly anaerobic bacteria have been identified either via comparative "omics" analysis of the intestinal microbiota in healthy and diseased subjects or of data collected by fecal microbiota transplantation studies. Both approaches require advanced and in-depth sequencing technologies to perform massive genomic screening to select bacteria with potential benefits. It has been shown that these potentially therapeutic bacteria can either produce bioactive products that directly influence the host patho-physiology and endocrine systems or produce specific signaling molecules that may do so. These bioactive compounds can be formed via degradation of dietary or host-derived components or the conversion of intermediate compounds produced by fermentation of intestinal bacteria. Several of these bacteria have shown causality in preclinical models and entered clinical phase studies, while their mode of action is being analyzed. In this review, we summarize the research on the most promising bacterial candidates with therapeutic properties with a specific focus on diabetes.

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Wirbel J, Zych K, Essex M, et al (2021)

Microbiome meta-analysis and cross-disease comparison enabled by the SIAMCAT machine learning toolbox.

Genome biology, 22(1):93.

The human microbiome is increasingly mined for diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers using machine learning (ML). However, metagenomics-specific software is scarce, and overoptimistic evaluation and limited cross-study generalization are prevailing issues. To address these, we developed SIAMCAT, a versatile R toolbox for ML-based comparative metagenomics. We demonstrate its capabilities in a meta-analysis of fecal metagenomic studies (10,803 samples). When naively transferred across studies, ML models lost accuracy and disease specificity, which could however be resolved by a novel training set augmentation strategy. This reveals some biomarkers to be disease-specific, with others shared across multiple conditions. SIAMCAT is freely available from siamcat.embl.de .

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Zhao H (2021)

The human microbiome and genetic disease: towards the integration of metagenomic and multi-omics data.

Human genetics, 140(5):701-702.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Gazzaniga FS, Camacho DM, Wu M, et al (2021)

Harnessing Colon Chip Technology to Identify Commensal Bacteria That Promote Host Tolerance to Infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:638014.

Commensal bacteria within the gut microbiome contribute to development of host tolerance to infection, however, identifying specific microbes responsible for this response is difficult. Here we describe methods for developing microfluidic organ-on-a-chip models of small and large intestine lined with epithelial cells isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, or colon organoids derived from wild type or transgenic mice. To focus on host-microbiome interactions, we carried out studies with the mouse Colon Chip and demonstrated that it can support co-culture with living gut microbiome and enable assessment of effects on epithelial adhesion, tight junctions, barrier function, mucus production, and cytokine release. Moreover, infection of the Colon Chips with the pathogenic bacterium, Salmonella typhimurium, resulted in epithelial detachment, decreased tight junction staining, and increased release of chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CCL20) that closely mimicked changes previously seen in mice. Symbiosis between microbiome bacteria and the intestinal epithelium was also recapitulated by populating Colon Chips with complex living mouse or human microbiome. By taking advantage of differences in the composition between complex microbiome samples cultured on each chip using 16s sequencing, we were able to identify Enterococcus faecium as a positive contributor to host tolerance, confirming past findings obtained in mouse experiments. Thus, mouse Intestine Chips may represent new experimental in vitro platforms for identifying particular bacterial strains that modulate host response to pathogens, as well as for investigating the cellular and molecular basis of host-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2021-03-26

Shine EE, JM Crawford (2021)

Molecules from the Microbiome.

Annual review of biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome encodes a second genome that dwarfs the genetic capacity of the host. Microbiota-derived small molecules can directly target human cells and their receptors or indirectly modulate host responses through functional interactions with other microbes in their ecological niche. Their biochemical complexity has profound implications for nutrition, immune system development, disease progression, and drug metabolism, as well as the variation in these processes that exists between individuals. While the species composition of the human microbiome has been deeply explored, detailed mechanistic studies linking specific microbial molecules to host phenotypes are still nascent. In this review, we discuss challenges in decoding these interaction networks, which require interdisciplinary approaches that combine chemical biology, microbiology, immunology, genetics, analytical chemistry, bioinformatics, and synthetic biology. We highlight important classes of microbiota-derived small molecules and notable examples. An understanding of these molecular mechanisms is central to realizing the potential of precision microbiome editing in health, disease, and therapeutic responses. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 90 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2021-03-26

Jian C, Salonen A, K Korpela (2021)

Commentary: How to Count Our Microbes? The Effect of Different Quantitative Microbiome Profiling Approaches.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:627910.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Malka O, Kalson D, Yaniv K, et al (2021)

Cross-kingdom inhibition of bacterial virulence and communication by probiotic yeast metabolites.

Microbiome, 9(1):70.

BACKGROUND: Probiotic milk-fermented microorganism mixtures (e.g., yogurt, kefir) are perceived as contributing to human health, and possibly capable of protecting against bacterial infections. Co-existence of probiotic microorganisms are likely maintained via complex biomolecular mechanisms, secreted metabolites mediating cell-cell communication, and other yet-unknown biochemical pathways. In particular, deciphering molecular mechanisms by which probiotic microorganisms inhibit proliferation of pathogenic bacteria would be highly important for understanding both the potential benefits of probiotic foods as well as maintenance of healthy gut microbiome.

RESULTS: The microbiome of a unique milk-fermented microorganism mixture was determined, revealing a predominance of the fungus Kluyveromyces marxianus. We further identified a new fungus-secreted metabolite-tryptophol acetate-which inhibits bacterial communication and virulence. We discovered that tryptophol acetate blocks quorum sensing (QS) of several Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Vibrio cholerae, a prominent gut pathogen. Notably, this is the first report of tryptophol acetate production by a yeast and role of the molecule as a signaling agent. Furthermore, mechanisms underscoring the anti-QS and anti-virulence activities of tryptophol acetate were elucidated, specifically down- or upregulation of distinct genes associated with V. cholerae QS and virulence pathways.

CONCLUSIONS: This study illuminates a yet-unrecognized mechanism for cross-kingdom inhibition of pathogenic bacteria cell-cell communication in a probiotic microorganism mixture. A newly identified fungus-secreted molecule-tryptophol acetate-was shown to disrupt quorum sensing pathways of the human gut pathogen V. cholerae. Cross-kingdom interference in quorum sensing may play important roles in enabling microorganism co-existence in multi-population environments, such as probiotic foods and the gut microbiome. This discovery may account for anti-virulence properties of the human microbiome and could aid elucidating health benefits of probiotic products against bacterially associated diseases. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-03-27

Santiago M, SW Olesen (2021)

16S rRNA sequencing of samples from universal stool bank donors.

BMC research notes, 14(1):108.

OBJECTIVES: Universal stool banks provide stool to physicians for use in treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection via fecal microbiota transplantation. Stool donors providing the material are rigorously screened for diseases and disorders with a potential microbiome etiology, and they are likely healthier than the controls in most microbiome datasets. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on samples from a selection of stool donors at a large stool bank, OpenBiome, to characterize their gut microbial community and to compare samples across different timepoints and sequencing runs.

DATA DESCRIPTION: 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on 200 samples derived from 170 unique stool donations from 86 unique donors. Samples were sequenced on 11 different sequencing runs. We are making this data available because rigorously screened, likely very healthy stool donors may be useful for characterizing and understanding microbial community differences across different populations and will help shed light into the how the microbiome community promotes health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-03-23

Del Chierico F, Manco M, Gardini S, et al (2021)

Fecal microbiota signatures of insulin resistance, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in youth with obesity: a pilot study.

Acta diabetologica [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To identify fecal microbiota profiles associated with metabolic abnormalities belonging to the metabolic syndrome (MS), high count of white blood cells (WBCs) and insulin resistance (IR).

METHODS: Sixty-eight young patients with obesity were stratified for percentile distribution of MS abnormalities. A MS risk score was defined as low, medium, and high MS risk. High WBCs were defined as a count ≥ 7.0 103/µL; severe obesity as body mass index Z-score ≥ 2 standard deviations; IR as homeostatic assessment model algorithm of IR (HOMA) ≥ 3.7. Stool samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA-based metagenomics.

RESULTS: We found reduced bacterial richness of fecal microbiota in patients with IR and high diastolic blood pressure (BP). Distinct microbial markers were associated to high BP (Clostridium and Clostridiaceae), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Lachnospiraceae, Gemellaceae, Turicibacter), and high MS risk (Coriobacteriaceae), WBCs (Bacteroides caccae, Gemellaceae), severe obesity (Lachnospiraceae), and impaired glucose tolerance (Bacteroides ovatus and Enterobacteriaceae). Conversely, taxa such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Parabacterodes, Bacteroides caccae, Oscillospira, Parabacterodes distasonis, Coprococcus, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were associated to low MS risk score, triglycerides, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR, respectively. Supervised multilevel analysis grouped clearly "variable" patients based on the MS risk.

CONCLUSIONS: This was a proof-of-concept study opening the way at the identification of fecal microbiota signatures, precisely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in young patients with obesity. These evidences led us to infer, while some gut bacteria have a detrimental role in exacerbating metabolic risk factors some others are beneficial ameliorating cardiovascular host health.

RevDate: 2021-03-25
CmpDate: 2021-03-24

J T, B F, J M, et al (2021)

Smoking in women with chronic vaginal discomfort is not associated with decreased abundance of Lactobacillus spp. but promotes Mobiluncus and Gardnerella spp. overgrowth - secondary analysis of trial data including microbio-me analysis.

Ceska gynekologie, 86(1):22-29.

BACKGROUND: Smoking is considered a risk factor for bacterial vaginosis. It is currently unknown which parameters of the vaginal environment are affected and how smoking triggers the disease.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary objective is to estimate the effect size of smoking on vaginal pH and the Nugent score in patients with chronic vulvovaginal discomfort prior to the development of episode of vaginosis. The secondary goal is to investigate the effect of smoking on individual microscopic parameters of the vaginal environment and on subjectively reported symptoms of vaginal discomfort.

METHODS: Smoking reported by patients was tested as a predictor, using multivariate logistic and ordinal logistic regression analysis on a dataset from the first visit of a randomized trial NCT04171947, which enrolled patients with intermediate vaginal environment. We tested the primary hypothesis (odds ratio (OR) for vaginal pH > 4.5 and Nugent score > 3 in smokers) at the significance level á = 5%. For exploratory analyses of the effect of smoking on the parameters of the vaginal environment, á was corrected as per Bonferoni.

RESULTS: In a cross-sectional sample of 250 women after adjusting for other risk factors, smoking had an impact on the Nugent score (OR = 3.3 (1.3-8.5), P = 0.011), while pH was not affected (OR = 1.2 (0.5-2.8), P = 0.698). Smoking was associated with the prevalence of clue cells (P < 0.000), Gardnerella spp. (P = 0.001) and Mobiluncus spp. (P = 0.001), while the prevalence of Lactobacillus remained unchanged (P = 0.049).

CONCLUSION: Contrarily to common assumptions, vaginal Lactobacillus is not directly affected by smoking, which rather promotes the growth of bacteria of Gardnerella and Mobiluncus spp. Given that other parameters remained unaffected, it appears that smoking leads to vaginal dysbio-sis by creating specific favourable conditions for these two opportunistic pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-03-20

Ma Y, Zhang Y, Xiang J, et al (2021)

Metagenome Analysis of Intestinal Bacteria in Healthy People, Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal Cancer.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:599734.

Objectives: Several reports suggesting that the intestinal microbiome plays a key role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or colorectal cancer (CRC), but the changes of intestinal bacteria in healthy people, patients with IBD and CRC are not fully explained. The study aimed to investigate changes of intestinal bacteria in healthy subjects, patients with IBD, and patients with CRC.

Materials: We collected data from the European Nucleotide Archive on healthy people and patients with colorectal cancer with the study accession number PRJEB6070, PRJEB7774, PRJEB27928, PRJEB12449, and PRJEB10878, collected IBD patient data from the Integrated Human Microbiome Project from the Human Microbiome Project Data Portal. We performed metagenome-wide association studies on the fecal samples from 290 healthy subjects, 512 IBD patients, and 285 CRC patients. We used the metagenomics dataset to study bacterial community structure, relative abundance, functional prediction, differentially abundant bacteria, and co-occurrence networks.

Results: The bacterial community structure in both IBD and CRC was significantly different from healthy subjects. Our results showed that IBD patients had low intestinal bacterial diversity and CRC patients had high intestinal bacterial diversity compared to healthy subjects. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes in IBD decreased significantly, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased significantly. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Bacteroides in IBD was higher than in healthy people and CRC. Compared with healthy people and CRC, the main difference of intestinal bacteria in IBD patients was Bacteroidetes, and compared with healthy people and IBD, the main difference of intestinal bacteria in CRC patients was in Fusobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria. The main differences in the functional composition of intestinal bacteria in healthy people, IBD and CRC patients were L-homoserine and L-methionine biosynthesis, 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II, L-methionine biosynthesis I, and superpathway of L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-methionine biosynthesis I. The results of stratified showed that the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria involved in metabolic pathways has significantly changed. Besides, the association network of intestinal bacteria in healthy people, IBD, and CRC patients has also changed.

Conclusions: In conclusion, compared with healthy people, the taxonomic and functional composition of intestinal bacteria in IBD and CRC patients was significantly changed.

RevDate: 2021-03-20

Marcos-Zambrano LJ, Karaduzovic-Hadziabdic K, Loncar Turukalo T, et al (2021)

Applications of Machine Learning in Human Microbiome Studies: A Review on Feature Selection, Biomarker Identification, Disease Prediction and Treatment.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:634511.

The number of microbiome-related studies has notably increased the availability of data on human microbiome composition and function. These studies provide the essential material to deeply explore host-microbiome associations and their relation to the development and progression of various complex diseases. Improved data-analytical tools are needed to exploit all information from these biological datasets, taking into account the peculiarities of microbiome data, i.e., compositional, heterogeneous and sparse nature of these datasets. The possibility of predicting host-phenotypes based on taxonomy-informed feature selection to establish an association between microbiome and predict disease states is beneficial for personalized medicine. In this regard, machine learning (ML) provides new insights into the development of models that can be used to predict outputs, such as classification and prediction in microbiology, infer host phenotypes to predict diseases and use microbial communities to stratify patients by their characterization of state-specific microbial signatures. Here we review the state-of-the-art ML methods and respective software applied in human microbiome studies, performed as part of the COST Action ML4Microbiome activities. This scoping review focuses on the application of ML in microbiome studies related to association and clinical use for diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics. Although the data presented here is more related to the bacterial community, many algorithms could be applied in general, regardless of the feature type. This literature and software review covering this broad topic is aligned with the scoping review methodology. The manual identification of data sources has been complemented with: (1) automated publication search through digital libraries of the three major publishers using natural language processing (NLP) Toolkit, and (2) an automated identification of relevant software repositories on GitHub and ranking of the related research papers relying on learning to rank approach.

RevDate: 2021-04-10

Mulkerrins KB, Lyons C, MP Shiaris (2021)

Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis AS003, a Strain Possessing All Three Type II-a CRISPR Loci.

Microbiology resource announcements, 10(11):.

Enterococcus faecalis is a clinically significant member of the human microbiome. Three CRISPR-Cas loci are located in conserved locations. Previous studies provide evidence that E. faecalis strains with functional CRISPR-Cas genes are negatively correlated with antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the genome sequence of an unusual strain possessing all three CRISPR-Cas loci.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Zimmermann M, Patil KR, Typas A, et al (2021)

Towards a mechanistic understanding of reciprocal drug-microbiome interactions.

Molecular systems biology, 17(3):e10116.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics target multiple gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and can collaterally damage the gut microbiota. Yet, our knowledge of the extent of damage, the antibiotic activity spectra, and the resistance mechanisms of gut microbes is sparse. This limits our ability to mitigate microbiome-facilitated spread of antibiotic resistance. In addition to antibiotics, non-antibiotic drugs affect the human microbiome, as shown by metagenomics as well as in vitro studies. Microbiome-drug interactions are bidirectional, as microbes can also modulate drugs. Chemical modifications of antibiotics mostly function as antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, while metabolism of non-antibiotics can also change the drugs' pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxic properties. Recent studies have started to unravel the extensive capacity of gut microbes to metabolize drugs, the mechanisms, and the relevance of such events for drug treatment. These findings raise the question whether and to which degree these reciprocal drug-microbiome interactions will differ across individuals, and how to take them into account in drug discovery and precision medicine. This review describes recent developments in the field and discusses future study areas that will benefit from systems biology approaches to better understand the mechanistic role of the human gut microbiota in drug actions.

RevDate: 2021-03-17

Rosiana S, Zhang L, Kim GH, et al (2021)

Comprehensive genetic analysis of adhesin proteins and their role in virulence of Candida albicans.

Genetics, 217(2):.

Candida albicans is a microbial fungus that exists as a commensal member of the human microbiome and an opportunistic pathogen. Cell surface-associated adhesin proteins play a crucial role in C. albicans' ability to undergo cellular morphogenesis, develop robust biofilms, colonize, and cause infection in a host. However, a comprehensive analysis of the role and relationships between these adhesins has not been explored. We previously established a CRISPR-based platform for efficient generation of single- and double-gene deletions in C. albicans, which was used to construct a library of 144 mutants, comprising 12 unique adhesin genes deleted singly, and every possible combination of double deletions. Here, we exploit this adhesin mutant library to explore the role of adhesin proteins in C. albicans virulence. We perform a comprehensive, high-throughput screen of this library, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a simplified model host system, which identified mutants critical for virulence and significant genetic interactions. We perform follow-up analysis to assess the ability of high- and low-virulence strains to undergo cellular morphogenesis and form biofilms in vitro, as well as to colonize the C. elegans host. We further perform genetic interaction analysis to identify novel significant negative genetic interactions between adhesin mutants, whereby combinatorial perturbation of these genes significantly impairs virulence, more than expected based on virulence of the single mutant constituent strains. Together, this study yields important new insight into the role of adhesins, singly and in combinations, in mediating diverse facets of virulence of this critical fungal pathogen.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

González-Sánchez P, GM DeNicola (2021)

The microbiome(s) and cancer: know thy neighbor(s).

The Journal of pathology [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is essential for the correct functioning of many host physiological processes, including metabolic regulation and immune responses. Increasing evidence indicates that the microbiome may also influence cancer development, progression, and the response to therapy. Although most studies have focused on the effect of the gut microbiome, many other organs such as the skin, vagina, and lungs harbor their own microbiomes that are different from the gut. Tumor development has been associated with dysbiosis not only in the gut but also in the tissue from which the tumor originated. Furthermore, the intratumoral microbiota has a distinct signature in each tumor type. Here, we review the mechanisms by which the organ-specific microbiome can contribute to carcinogenesis: release of toxins that cause DNA damage and barrier failure; alteration of immune responses to create a local inflammatory or immunosuppressive environment; and regulation of nutrient levels in the tumor microenvironment through metabolite production and consumption. Solving the puzzle of how the microbiome influences the carcinogenesis process and treatment response requires an understanding of the two ways the microbiome can interact with cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment: through systemic effects exerted by the gut microbiota and local effects of the intratumoral microbiota. © 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

RevDate: 2021-03-15

Fuentes-Chust C, Parolo C, Rosati G, et al (2021)

The Microbiome Meets Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges in Developing New Diagnostic Devices.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Monitoring of the human microbiome is an emerging area of diagnostics for personalized medicine. Here, the potential of different nanomaterials and nanobiosensing technologies is reviewed for the development of novel diagnostic devices for the detection and measurement of microbiome-related biomarkers. Moreover, the current and future landscape of microbiome-based diagnostics is defined by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of current nanotechnology-based approaches, especially in the context of developing point-of-care (PoC) devices that would meet the international guidelines known as REASSURED (Real-time connectivity; Ease of specimen collection; Affordability; Sensitivity; Specificity; User-friendliness; Rapid & robust operation; Equipment-free; and Deliverability). Finally, the strategies of the latest international scientific consortia working in this field are analyzed, the current microbiome diagnostics market are reported and the principal ethical, legal, and societal issues related to microbiome R&D and innovation are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Zhou Y, He Y, Liu L, et al (2021)

Alterations in Gut Microbial Communities Across Anatomical Locations in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:615064.

We previously discovered that gut microbiota can serve as universal microbial biomarkers for diagnosis, disease activity assessment, and predicting the response to infliximab treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Much still remains unknown about the relationship between alterations in gut microbiota and IBD affected bowel region, in particular in the case of ulcerative colitis (UC) and colonic Crohn's disease (cCD) without endoscopic and biopsy data. In the current study gut microbiota from a population in China was found to be distinct from that of the Western world [Human Microbiome Project (HMP) data]. Furthermore, both gut microbiota greatly differed from microbiota of other anatomical locations (oral, skin, airway, and vagina), with higher alpha-diversity (Chinese gut > HMP gut > oral microbiome > airway microbiome > skin microbiome > vaginal microbiome), and marked differences in microbiome composition. In patients with IBD in China, UC was characterized by the presence of Gardnerella, while cCD was characterized by the presence of Fusobacterium. Moreover, gut microbiota, such as Gardnerella and Fusobacterium, may be potential biomarkers for identifying UC from cCD. Together, this study revealed crucial differences in microbial communities across anatomical locations, and demonstrated that there was an important association between IBD affected bowel region and gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Neckovic A, van Oorschot RAH, Szkuta B, et al (2021)

Investigation into the presence and transfer of microbiomes within a forensic laboratory setting.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 52:102492.

Microbial profiling within forensic science is an emerging field that may have applications in the identification of individuals using microbial signatures. It is important to determine if microbial transfer may occur within a forensic laboratory setting using current standard operating procedures (SOPs) for nuclear DNA recovery, to assess the suitability of such procedures for microbial profiling and establish the potential limitations of microbial profiling for forensic purposes. This preliminary study investigated the presence and potential transfer of human-associated microbiomes within a forensic laboratory. Swabs of laboratory surfaces, external surfaces of personal protective equipment (PPE) and equipment were taken before and after mock examinations of cotton swatches, which harboured microbiota transferred from direct hand-contact. Microbial profiles obtained from these samples were compared to reference profiles obtained from the participants, cotton swatches and the researcher to detect microbial transfer from the individuals and determine potential source contributions. The results revealed an apparent transfer of microbiota to the examined swatches, laboratory equipment and surfaces from the participants and/or researcher following the mock examinations, highlighting potential contamination issues regarding microbial profiling when using current laboratory SOPs for nuclear DNA recovery, and cleaning.

RevDate: 2021-03-25

Ponziani FR, Picca A, Marzetti E, et al (2021)

Characterization of the gut-liver-muscle axis in cirrhotic patients with sarcopenia.

Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIM: Sarcopenia is frequent in cirrhosis and is associated with unfavourable outcomes. The role of the gut-liver-muscle axis in this setting has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to identify gut microbiota, metabolic and inflammatory signatures associated with sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients.

METHODS: Fifty cirrhotic patients assessed for the presence of sarcopenia by the quantification of muscle mass and strength were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. A multiomic analysis, including gut microbiota composition and metabolomics, serum myokines and systemic and intestinal inflammatory mediators, was performed.

RESULTS: The gut microbiota of sarcopenic cirrhotic patients was poor in bacteria associated with physical function (Methanobrevibacter, Prevotella and Akkermansia), and was enriched in Eggerthella, a gut microbial marker of frailty. The abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Klebsiella, was also increased, to the detriment of autochthonous ones. Sarcopenia was associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in cirrhotic patients. Gut microbiota metabolic pathways involved in amino acid, protein and branched-chain amino acid metabolism were up-regulated, in addition to ethanol, trimethylamine and dimethylamine production. Correlation networks and clusters of variables associated with sarcopenia were identified, including one centred on Klebsiella/ethanol/FGF21/Eggerthella/Prevotella.

CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the gut-liver-muscle axis are associated with sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis. Detrimental but also compensatory functions are involved in this complex network.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Shestopaloff K, Dong M, Gao F, et al (2021)

DCMD: Distance-based classification using mixture distributions on microbiome data.

PLoS computational biology, 17(3):e1008799.

Current advances in next-generation sequencing techniques have allowed researchers to conduct comprehensive research on the microbiome and human diseases, with recent studies identifying associations between the human microbiome and health outcomes for a number of chronic conditions. However, microbiome data structure, characterized by sparsity and skewness, presents challenges to building effective classifiers. To address this, we present an innovative approach for distance-based classification using mixture distributions (DCMD). The method aims to improve classification performance using microbiome community data, where the predictors are composed of sparse and heterogeneous count data. This approach models the inherent uncertainty in sparse counts by estimating a mixture distribution for the sample data and representing each observation as a distribution, conditional on observed counts and the estimated mixture, which are then used as inputs for distance-based classification. The method is implemented into a k-means classification and k-nearest neighbours framework. We develop two distance metrics that produce optimal results. The performance of the model is assessed using simulated and human microbiome study data, with results compared against a number of existing machine learning and distance-based classification approaches. The proposed method is competitive when compared to the other machine learning approaches, and shows a clear improvement over commonly used distance-based classifiers, underscoring the importance of modelling sparsity for achieving optimal results. The range of applicability and robustness make the proposed method a viable alternative for classification using sparse microbiome count data. The source code is available at https://github.com/kshestop/DCMD for academic use.

RevDate: 2021-03-11

Tiwari RK, Moin A, Rizvi SMD, et al (2021)

Modulating neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration-related dementia: can microglial toll-like receptors pull the plug?.

Metabolic brain disease [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegeneration-associated dementia disorders (NADDs), namely Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, are developed by a significant portion of the elderly population globally. Extensive research has provided critical insights into the molecular basis of the pathological advancements of these diseases, but an efficient curative therapy seems elusive. A common attribute of NADDs is neuroinflammation due to a chronic inflammatory response within the central nervous system (CNS), which is primarily modulated by microglia. This response within the CNS is positively regulated by cytokines, chemokines, secondary messengers or cyclic nucleotides, and free radicals. Microglia mediated immune activation is regulated by a positive feedback loop in NADDs. The present review focuses on evaluating the crosstalk between inflammatory mediators and microglia, which aggravates both the clinical progression and extent of NADDs by forming a persistent chronic inflammatory milieu within the CNS. We also discuss the role of the human gut microbiota and its effect on NADDs as well as the suitability of targeting toll-like receptors for an immunotherapeutic intervention targeting the deflation of an inflamed milieu within the CNS.

RevDate: 2021-03-12

Moreno-Indias I, Lahti L, Nedyalkova M, et al (2021)

Statistical and Machine Learning Techniques in Human Microbiome Studies: Contemporary Challenges and Solutions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:635781.

The human microbiome has emerged as a central research topic in human biology and biomedicine. Current microbiome studies generate high-throughput omics data across different body sites, populations, and life stages. Many of the challenges in microbiome research are similar to other high-throughput studies, the quantitative analyses need to address the heterogeneity of data, specific statistical properties, and the remarkable variation in microbiome composition across individuals and body sites. This has led to a broad spectrum of statistical and machine learning challenges that range from study design, data processing, and standardization to analysis, modeling, cross-study comparison, prediction, data science ecosystems, and reproducible reporting. Nevertheless, although many statistics and machine learning approaches and tools have been developed, new techniques are needed to deal with emerging applications and the vast heterogeneity of microbiome data. We review and discuss emerging applications of statistical and machine learning techniques in human microbiome studies and introduce the COST Action CA18131 "ML4Microbiome" that brings together microbiome researchers and machine learning experts to address current challenges such as standardization of analysis pipelines for reproducibility of data analysis results, benchmarking, improvement, or development of existing and new tools and ontologies.

RevDate: 2021-03-08

Bar J, Sarig O, Lotan-Pompan M, et al (2021)

Evidence for cutaneous dysbiosis in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

Clinical and experimental dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome project addresses the relationship between bacterial flora and their human host, in both healthy and diseased conditions. The skin is an ecosystem with multiple niches, each featuring unique physiological conditions, thus hosting different bacterial populations. The skin microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many dermatoses.

OBJECTIVE: Given the role of dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of inflammation which is prominent in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB), we aimed at characterizing the skin microbiome in a series of patients with DEB.

METHODS: A case-control study of 8 DEB patients and 9 control cases enrolled between June 2017 and November 2018. DEB patients were sampled at three different sites: untreated wound, perilesional skin and normal (uninvolved) skin. Age-matched controls were sampled from the same normal skin anatomical site. We used a dedicated DNA extraction protocol to isolate microbial DNA which was then analyzed using next generation microbial 16S rRNA sequencing. Data were analyzed using a series of advanced bioinformatics tools.

RESULTS: DEB patient's wounds, perilesional and uninvolved skin demonstrated reduced bacterial diversity as compared to control, with DEB wounds being the least diverse. We found an increased prevalence of staphylococci species in DEB patients' lesional and perilesional skin, compared to their uninvolved, intact skin. Similarly, the uninvolved skin of DEB patients displayed increased staphylococcal content when comparing to control skin. Furthermore, the uninvolved skin of DEB patients featured significantly different microbiome diversities (other than staphylococci) when compared to control skin.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the existence of a DEB-associated unique skin microbiome signature which may be targeted by specific pathogen-directed therapies. Moreover, altering skin microbiome with increasing colonization of non-chronic wounds associated bacteria may potentially facilitate wound healing in DEB patients.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Poddighe D, A Kushugulova (2021)

Salivary Microbiome in Pediatric and Adult Celiac Disease.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:625162.

The human salivary microbiota includes hundreds of bacterial species. Alterations in gut microbiota have been explored in Celiac Disease (CD), but fewer studies investigated the characteristics of salivary microbiome in these patients, despite the potential implications in its pathogenesis. Indeed, some recent studies suggested that the partial digestion of gluten proteins by some bacteria may affect the array of gluten peptides reaching the gut and the way by which those are presented to the intestinal immune system. The available clinical studies investigating the salivary microbiota in children and adults, are insufficient to make any reliable conclusion, even though some bacterial species/phyla differences have been reported between celiac patients and controls. However, the salivary microbiome could correlate better with the duodenal microbiota, than the fecal one. Therefore, further clinical studies on salivary microbiome by different and independent research groups and including different populations, are advisable in order to explore the usefulness of the salivary microbiome analysis and understand some aspects of CD pathogenesis with potential clinical and practical implications.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Ghannam RB, SM Techtmann (2021)

Machine learning applications in microbial ecology, human microbiome studies, and environmental monitoring.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 19:1092-1107.

Advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology have enabled expansion of our ability to profile microbial diversity. These large datasets of taxonomic and functional diversity are key to better understanding microbial ecology. Machine learning has proven to be a useful approach for analyzing microbial community data and making predictions about outcomes including human and environmental health. Machine learning applied to microbial community profiles has been used to predict disease states in human health, environmental quality and presence of contamination in the environment, and as trace evidence in forensics. Machine learning has appeal as a powerful tool that can provide deep insights into microbial communities and identify patterns in microbial community data. However, often machine learning models can be used as black boxes to predict a specific outcome, with little understanding of how the models arrived at predictions. Complex machine learning algorithms often may value higher accuracy and performance at the sacrifice of interpretability. In order to leverage machine learning into more translational research related to the microbiome and strengthen our ability to extract meaningful biological information, it is important for models to be interpretable. Here we review current trends in machine learning applications in microbial ecology as well as some of the important challenges and opportunities for more broad application of machine learning to understanding microbial communities.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Lee LH, Wong SH, Chin SF, et al (2021)

Editorial: Human Microbiome: Symbiosis to Pathogenesis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:605783.

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Spichak S, Bastiaanssen TFS, Berding K, et al (2021)

Mining microbes for mental health: Determining the role of microbial metabolic pathways in human brain health and disease.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 125:698-761 pii:S0149-7634(21)00103-2 [Epub ahead of print].

There is increasing knowledge regarding the role of the microbiome in modulating the brain and behaviour. Indeed, the actions of microbial metabolites are key for appropriate gut-brain communication in humans. Among these metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan, and bile acid metabolites/pathways show strong preclinical evidence for involvement in various aspects of brain function and behaviour. With the identification of neuroactive gut-brain modules, new predictive tools can be applied to existing datasets. We identified 278 studies relating to the human microbiota-gut-brain axis which included sequencing data. This spanned across psychiatric and neurological disorders with a small number also focused on normal behavioural development. With a consistent bioinformatics pipeline, thirty-five of these datasets were reanalysed from publicly available raw sequencing files and the remainder summarised and collated. Among the reanalysed studies, we uncovered evidence of disease-related alterations in microbial metabolic pathways in Alzheimer's Disease, schizophrenia, anxiety and depression. Amongst studies that could not be reanalysed, many sequencing and technical limitations hindered the discovery of specific biomarkers of microbes or metabolites conserved across studies. Future studies are warranted to confirm our findings. We also propose guidelines for future human microbiome analysis to increase reproducibility and consistency within the field.

RevDate: 2021-03-20

Nuzzo A, Saha S, Berg E, et al (2021)

Expanding the drug discovery space with predicted metabolite-target interactions.

Communications biology, 4(1):288.

Metabolites produced in the human gut are known modulators of host immunity. However, large-scale identification of metabolite-host receptor interactions remains a daunting challenge. Here, we employed computational approaches to identify 983 potential metabolite-target interactions using the Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) cohort dataset of the Human Microbiome Project 2 (HMP2). Using a consensus of multiple machine learning methods, we ranked metabolites based on importance to IBD, followed by virtual ligand-based screening to identify possible human targets and adding evidence from compound assay, differential gene expression, pathway enrichment, and genome-wide association studies. We confirmed known metabolite-target pairs such as nicotinic acid-GPR109a or linoleoyl ethanolamide-GPR119 and inferred interactions of interest including oleanolic acid-GABRG2 and alpha-CEHC-THRB. Eleven metabolites were tested for bioactivity in vitro using human primary cell-types. By expanding the universe of possible microbial metabolite-host protein interactions, we provide multiple drug targets for potential immune-therapies.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Huang E, Kim S, T Ahn (2021)

Deep Learning for Integrated Analysis of Insulin Resistance with Multi-Omics Data.

Journal of personalized medicine, 11(2):.

Technological advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have made it possible to uncover extensive and dynamic alterations in diverse molecular components and biological pathways across healthy and diseased conditions. Large amounts of multi-omics data originating from emerging NGS experiments require feature engineering, which is a crucial step in the process of predictive modeling. The underlying relationship among multi-omics features in terms of insulin resistance is not well understood. In this study, using the multi-omics data of type II diabetes from the Integrative Human Microbiome Project, from 10,783 features, we conducted a data analytic approach to elucidate the relationship between insulin resistance and multi-omics features, including microbiome data. To better explain the impact of microbiome features on insulin classification, we used a developed deep neural network interpretation algorithm for each microbiome feature's contribution to the discriminative model output in the samples.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Koshy-Chenthittayil S, Archambault L, Senthilkumar D, et al (2021)

Agent Based Models of Polymicrobial Biofilms and the Microbiome-A Review.

Microorganisms, 9(2):.

The human microbiome has been a focus of intense study in recent years. Most of the living organisms comprising the microbiome exist in the form of biofilms on mucosal surfaces lining our digestive, respiratory, and genito-urinary tracts. While health-associated microbiota contribute to digestion, provide essential nutrients, and protect us from pathogens, disturbances due to illness or medical interventions contribute to infections, some that can be fatal. Myriad biological processes influence the make-up of the microbiota, for example: growth, division, death, and production of extracellular polymers (EPS), and metabolites. Inter-species interactions include competition, inhibition, and symbiosis. Computational models are becoming widely used to better understand these interactions. Agent-based modeling is a particularly useful computational approach to implement the various complex interactions in microbial communities when appropriately combined with an experimental approach. In these models, each cell is represented as an autonomous agent with its own set of rules, with different rules for each species. In this review, we will discuss innovations in agent-based modeling of biofilms and the microbiota in the past five years from the biological and mathematical perspectives and discuss how agent-based models can be further utilized to enhance our comprehension of the complex world of polymicrobial biofilms and the microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-04-13
CmpDate: 2021-04-13

Pane S, Sacco A, Iorio A, et al (2021)

Strongyloides stercoralis Infestation in a Child: How a Nematode Can Affect Gut Microbiota.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(4):.

Background: Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis and characterized by gastrointestinal and pulmonary involvement. We report a pediatric case of strongyloidiasis to underline the response of the host microbiota to the perturbation induced by the nematode. Methods: We performed a 16S rRNA-metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota of a 7-year-old female during and after S. stercolaris infection, investigating three time-point of stool samples' ecology: T0- during parasite infection, T1- a month after parasite infection, and T2- two months after parasite infection. Targeted-metagenomics were used to investigate ecology and to predict the functional pathways of the gut microbiota. Results: an increase in the alpha-diversity indices in T0-T1 samples was observed compared to T2 and healthy controls (CTRLs). Beta-diversity analysis showed a shift in the relative abundance of specific gut bacterial species from T0 to T2 samples. Moreover, the functional prediction of the targeted-metagenomics profiles suggested an enrichment of microbial glycan and carbohydrate metabolisms in the T0 sample compared with CTRLs. Conclusions: The herein report reinforces the literature suggestion of a putative direct or immune-mediated ability of S. stercolaris to promote the increase in bacterial diversity.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Petrova P, Ivanov I, Tsigoriyna L, et al (2021)

Traditional Bulgarian Dairy Products: Ethnic Foods with Health Benefits.

Microorganisms, 9(3):.

The reported health effects of fermented dairy foods, which are traditionally manufactured in Bulgaria, are connected with their microbial biodiversity. The screening and development of probiotic starters for dairy products with unique properties are based exclusively on the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains. This study aims to systematically describe the LAB microbial content of artisanal products such as Bulgarian-type yoghurt, white brined cheese, kashkaval, koumiss, kefir, katak, and the Rhodope's brano mliako. The original technologies for their preparation preserve the valuable microbial content and improve their nutritional and probiotic qualities. This review emphasises the features of LAB starters and the autochthonous microflora, the biochemistry of dairy food production, and the approaches for achieving the fortification of the foods with prebiotics, bioactive peptides (ACE2-inhibitors, bacteriocins, cyclic peptides with antimicrobial activity), immunomodulatory exopolysaccharides, and other metabolites (indol-3-propionic acid, free amino acids, antioxidants, prebiotics) with reported beneficial effects on human health. The link between the microbial content of dairy foods and the healthy human microbiome is highlighted.

RevDate: 2021-03-19

Salem M, Pajunen MI, Jun JW, et al (2021)

T4-like Bacteriophages Isolated from Pig Stools Infect Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis Using LPS and OmpF as Receptors.

Viruses, 13(2):.

The Yersinia bacteriophages fPS-2, fPS-65, and fPS-90, isolated from pig stools, have long contractile tails and elongated heads, and they belong to genus Tequatroviruses in the order Caudovirales. The phages exhibited relatively wide host ranges among Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and related species. One-step growth curve experiments revealed that the phages have latent periods of 50-80 min with burst sizes of 44-65 virions per infected cell. The phage genomes consist of circularly permuted dsDNA of 169,060, 167,058, and 167,132 bp in size, respectively, with a G + C content 35.3%. The number of predicted genes range from 267 to 271. The phage genomes are 84-92% identical to each other and ca 85% identical to phage T4. The phage receptors were identified by whole genome sequencing of spontaneous phage-resistant mutants. The phage-resistant strains had mutations in the ompF, galU, hldD, or hldE genes. OmpF is a porin, and the other genes encode lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic enzymes. The ompF, galU, and hldE mutants were successfully complemented in trans with respective wild-type genes. The host recognition was assigned to long tail fiber tip protein Gp38, analogous to that of T-even phages such as Salmonella phage S16, specifically to the distal β-helices connecting loops.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Bassaganya-Riera J, Berry EM, Blaak EE, et al (2020)

Goals in Nutrition Science 2020-2025.

Frontiers in nutrition, 7:606378.

Five years ago, with the editorial board of Frontiers in Nutrition, we took a leap of faith to outline the Goals for Nutrition Science - the way we see it (1). Now, in 2020, we can put ourselves to the test and take a look back. Without a doubt we got it right with several of the key directions. To name a few, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for Food and Nutrition are part of the global public agenda, and the SDGs contribute to the structuring of international science and research. Nutritional Science has become a critical element in strengthening work on the SDGs, and the development of appropriate methodologies is built on the groundwork of acquiring and analyzing big datasets. Investigation of the Human Microbiome is providing novel insight on the interrelationship between nutrition, the immune system and disease. Finally, with an advanced definition of the gut-brain-axis we are getting a glimpse into the potential for Nutrition and Brain Health. Various milestones have been achieved, and any look into the future will have to consider the lessons learned from Covid-19 and the sobering awareness about the frailty of our food systems in ensuring global food security. With a view into the coming 5 years from 2020 to 2025, the editorial board has taken a slightly different approach as compared to the previous Goals article. A mind map has been created to outline the key topics in nutrition science. Not surprisingly, when looking ahead, the majority of scientific investigation required will be in the areas of health and sustainability. Johannes le Coutre, Field Chief Editor, Frontiers in Nutrition.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Ma ZS (2021)

Niche-neutral theoretic approach to mechanisms underlying the biodiversity and biogeography of human microbiomes.

Evolutionary applications, 14(2):322-334.

The human microbiome consists of five major regional biomes distributed in or on our five body sites including skin, oral, lung, gut, and reproductive tract. Its biogeography (the spatial and temporal distribution of its biodiversity) has far-reaching implications to our health and diseases. Nevertheless, we currently have very limited understanding on the mechanisms shaping the biogeography, since it is often rather difficult to determine the relative importance of drift, dispersal, speciation, and selection, the four processes (mechanisms) determining the patterns of microbial biogeography and community dynamics according to a recent synthesis in community ecology and biogeography. To disentangle these mechanisms, I utilize multisite neutral (MSN) model and niche-neutral hybrid (NNH) model to analyze large number of truly multisite microbiome samples covering all five major human microbiome habitats, including 699 metacommunities and 5,420 local communities. Approximately 89% of metacommunities and 92% local communities exhibit patterns indistinguishable from neutral, and 20% indistinguishable from niche-neutral hybrid model, indicating the relative significance of stochastic neutral forces versus deterministic niche selection in shaping the biogeography of human microbiome. These findings cast supporting evidence to van der Gast's revision to classic Bass-Becking doctrine of microbial biogeography: "Some things are everywhere and some things are not. Sometimes the environment selects and sometimes it doesn't," offering the first educated guess for "some" and "sometimes" in the revised doctrine. Furthermore, the logistic/Cox regression models describing the relationships among community neutrality, niche differentiation, and key community/species characteristics (including community diversity, community/species dominance, speciation, and migration rates) were constructed to quantitatively describe the niche-neutral continuum and the influences of community/species properties on the continuum.

RevDate: 2021-03-12

Engevik MA, Danhof HA, Ruan W, et al (2021)

Fusobacterium nucleatum Secretes Outer Membrane Vesicles and Promotes Intestinal Inflammation.

mBio, 12(2):.

Multiple studies have implicated microbes in the development of inflammation, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Bacteria in the genus Fusobacterium have been identified in the intestinal mucosa of patients with digestive diseases; thus, we hypothesized that Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes intestinal inflammation. The addition of >50 kDa F. nucleatum conditioned media, which contain outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), to colonic epithelial cells stimulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In addition, purified F. nucleatum OMVs, but not compounds <50 kDa, stimulated IL-8 and TNF production; which was decreased by pharmacological inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These effects were linked to downstream effectors p-ERK, p-CREB, and NF-κB. F. nucleatum >50-kDa compounds also stimulated TNF secretion, p-ERK, p-CREB, and NF-κB activation in human colonoid monolayers. In mice harboring a human microbiota, pretreatment with antibiotics and a single oral gavage of F. nucleatum resulted in inflammation. Compared to mice receiving vehicle control, mice treated with F. nucleatum showed disruption of the colonic architecture, with increased immune cell infiltration and depleted mucus layers. Analysis of mucosal gene expression revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (KC, TNF, IL-6, IFN-γ, and MCP-1) at day 3 and day 5 in F. nucleatum-treated mice compared to controls. These proinflammatory effects were absent in mice who received F. nucleatum without pretreatment with antibiotics, suggesting that an intact microbiome is protective against F. nucleatum-mediated immune responses. These data provide evidence that F. nucleatum promotes proinflammatory signaling cascades in the context of a depleted intestinal microbiome.IMPORTANCE Several studies have identified an increased abundance of Fusobacterium in the intestinal tracts of patients with colon cancer, liver cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, HIV infection, and alcoholism. However, the direct mechanism(s) of action of Fusobacterium on pathophysiological within the gastrointestinal tract is unclear. These studies have identified that F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum releases outer membrane vesicles which activate TLR4 and NF-κB to stimulate proinflammatory signals in vitro Using mice harboring a human microbiome, we demonstrate that F. nucleatum can promote inflammation, an effect which required antibiotic-mediated alterations in the gut microbiome. Collectively, these results suggest a mechanism by which F. nucleatum may contribute to intestinal inflammation.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )