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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 20 Nov 2019 at 01:43 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-11-19

Mohanraj U, Wan X, Spruit CM, et al (2019)

A Toxicity Screening Approach to Identify Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-Microbial Proteins.

Viruses, 11(11): pii:v11111057.

The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance among many pathogenic bacteria has created a profound need to discover new alternatives to antibiotics. Bacteriophages, the viruses of microbes, express special proteins to overtake the metabolism of the bacterial host they infect, the best known of which are involved in bacterial lysis. However, the functions of majority of bacteriophage encoded gene products are not known, i.e., they represent the hypothetical proteins of unknown function (HPUFs). In the current study we present a phage genomics-based screening approach to identify phage HPUFs with antibacterial activity with a long-term goal to use them as leads to find unknown targets to develop novel antibacterial compounds. The screening assay is based on the inhibition of bacterial growth when a toxic gene is expression-cloned into a plasmid vector. It utilizes an optimized plating assay producing a significant difference in the number of transformants after ligation of the toxic and non-toxic genes into a cloning vector. The screening assay was first tested and optimized using several known toxic and non-toxic genes. Then, it was applied to screen 94 HPUFs of bacteriophage φR1-RT, and identified four HPUFs that were toxic to Escherichia coli. This optimized assay is in principle useful in the search for bactericidal proteins of any phage, and also opens new possibilities to understanding the strategies bacteriophages use to overtake bacterial hosts.

RevDate: 2019-11-19

Loverdos K, Bellos G, Kokolatou L, et al (2019)

Lung Microbiome in Asthma: Current Perspectives.

Journal of clinical medicine, 8(11): pii:jcm8111967.

A growing body of evidence implicates the human microbiome as a potentially influential player actively engaged in shaping the pathogenetic processes underlying the endotypes and phenotypes of chronic respiratory diseases, particularly of the airways. In this article, we specifically review current evidence on the characteristics of lung microbiome, and specifically the bacteriome, the modes of interaction between lung microbiota and host immune system, the role of the "lung-gut axis", and the functional effects thereof on asthma pathogenesis. We also attempt to explore the possibilities of therapeutic manipulation of the microbiome, aiming at the establishment of asthma prevention strategies and the optimization of asthma treatment.

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Kang W, Jia Z, Tang D, et al (2019)

Fusobacterium nucleatum Facilitates Apoptosis, ROS Generation, and Inflammatory Cytokine Production by Activating AKT/MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2019:1681972.

Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) plays key roles in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. However, the pathogenic effect of F. nucleatum on human oral tissues and cells has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we aimed to analyze the pathogenic effects of F. nucleatum on human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) and clarify the potential mechanisms. RNA-sequencing analysis confirmed that F. nucleatum significantly altered the gene expression of GF as the stimulation time increased. Cell counting and EdU-labeling assays indicated that F. nucleatum inhibited GF proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and proinflammatory cytokine production were dramatically elevated after F. nucleatum stimulation. Furthermore, we found that the AKT/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were significantly activated by F. nucleatum infection and that a large number of genes related to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, ROS, and inflammatory cytokine production downstream of AKT/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were significantly altered in F. nucleatum-stimulated GFs. These findings suggest that F. nucleatum inhibits GF proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis, ROS generation, and inflammatory cytokine production partly by activating the AKT/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our study opens a new window for understanding the pathogenic effects of periodontal pathogens on the host oral system.

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Bui TPN, Schols HA, Jonathan M, et al (2019)

Mutual Metabolic Interactions in Co-cultures of the Intestinal Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans With an Acetogen, Methanogen, or Pectin-Degrader Affecting Butyrate Production.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2449.

The human intestinal tract harbors diverse and complex microbial communities that have a vast metabolic capacity including the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into short chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and butyrate. As butyrate is beneficial for gut health there is much attention on butyrogenic bacteria and their role in the colonic anaerobic food chain. However, our understanding how production of butyrate by gut microorganisms is controlled by interactions between different species and environmental nutrient availability is very limited. To address this, we set up experimental in vitro co-culture systems to study the metabolic interactions of Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans, a butyrate producer with each of its partners; Blautia hydrogenotrophica, an acetogen; Methanobrevibacter smithii, a methanogen and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a versatile degrader of plant cell wall pectins; through corresponding specific cross-feeding. In all co-cultures, A. rhamnosivorans was able to benefit from its partner for enhanced butyrate formation compared to monocultures. Interspecies transfer of hydrogen or formate from A. rhamnosivorans to the acetogen B. hydrogenotrophica and in turn of acetate from the acetogen to the butyrogen were essential for butyrate formation. A. rhamnosivorans grown on glucose supported growth of M. smithii via interspecies formate/hydrogen transfer enhancing butyrate formation. In the co-culture with pectin, lactate was released by B. thetaiotaomicron which was concomitantly used by A. rhamnosivorans for the production of butyrate. Our findings indicate enhanced butyrate formation through microbe-microbe interactions between A. rhamnosivorans and an acetogen, a methanogen or a pectin-degrader. Such microbial interactions enhancing butyrate formation may be beneficial for colonic health.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Migacz-Gruszka K, Branicki W, Obtulowicz A, et al (2019)

What's New in the Pathophysiology of Alopecia Areata? The Possible Contribution of Skin and Gut Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Alopecia - Big Opportunities, Big Challenges, and Novel Perspectives.

International journal of trichology, 11(5):185-188.

The term "microbiome" defines the collective genome of all commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microbes living in the human body. The composition of microbiota in the gut and skin is influenced by many factors such as the stage of life, nutrition, lifestyle, and gender. In the past few years, several scientific papers have demonstrated an implication of microbiota in many immune-mediated diseases, for example, diabetes, ulcerative colitis, and multiple sclerosis. The alterations in the proportion of gut microbiota have emerged as potential immunomodulators with the capacity to induce physiologic as well as pathologic immune responses against the human body, causing inflammation and destruction of tissues or organs. The microbiota influences the differentiation of adaptive immune cells not only in the gut but also in the skin. Alopecia areata (AA) is a dermatologic disorder which causes hair loss in most cases resistant to treatment. There are some clinical and experimental evidences indicating that AA is the demonstration of autoimmune attack against hair follicles. The factors that may implicate such an autoimmunity in AA still remain unknown. Despite more and more evidences demonstrate that human microbiome plays a key role in human health and diseases, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been conducted to analyze an implication of microbiome in the pathogenesis of AA. Undoubtedly, there is a need to performing a study which might explain the involvement of gut and skin microbiota in the unclear pathogenesis of AA and lead to alternative treatment options for numerous patients suffering from current treatment limitations.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Fehlner-Peach H, Magnabosco C, Raghavan V, et al (2019)

Distinct Polysaccharide Utilization Profiles of Human Intestinal Prevotella copri Isolates.

Cell host & microbe, 26(5):680-690.e5.

Gut-dwelling Prevotella copri (P. copri), the most prevalent Prevotella species in the human gut, have been associated with diet and disease. However, our understanding of their diversity and function remains rudimentary because studies have been limited to 16S and metagenomic surveys and experiments using a single type strain. Here, we describe the genomic diversity of 83 P. copri isolates from 11 human donors. We demonstrate that genomically distinct isolates, which can be categorized into different P. copri complex clades, utilize defined sets of polysaccharides. These differences are exemplified by variations in susC genes involved in polysaccharide transport as well as polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) that were predicted in part from genomic and metagenomic data. Functional validation of these PULs showed that P. copri isolates utilize distinct sets of polysaccharides from dietary plant, but not animal, sources. These findings reveal both genomic and functional differences in polysaccharide utilization across human intestinal P. copri strains.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Liu YK, Xu X, XD Zhou (2019)

[Potential application of human microbiomes in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology, 37(5):556-562.

Human microbiome refers to the total microorganism genetic information of human body surface and internal, which is closely related to human health and disease. Oral and gut microbiomes are the most diverse microbial communities, which can interact and play a role in the development of the disease, and can reflect the health and disease state in real time. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent research has shown a link between microbes and diabetes. This article reviewed the latest research on the changes of oral and gut microbiomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, which expects to provide a reference for exploring the development of the disease model for prediction, diagnosis and prognosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on human microbiome characteristics.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Chaudhari D, Dhotre D, Agarwal D, et al (2019)

Understanding the association between the human gut, oral and skin microbiome and the Ayurvedic concept of prakriti.

Journal of biosciences, 44(5):.

Ayurveda is one of the ancient systems of medicine which is widely practised as a personalized scientific approach towards the general wellness. Ayurvedic prakriti is broadly defined as the phenotypes which are determined on the basis of physical, psychological and physiological traits irrespective of their social, ethnic, dietary and geographical stature. Prakriti is the constitution of a person, which comprises vata, pitta, and kapha and is a key determinant of how one individual is different from the other. Human microbiome is considered the 'latest discovered' human organ and microbiome research reiterates the fundamental principles of Ayurveda for creating a healthy gut environment by maintaining the individual-specific microbiome. Hence, it is important to understand the association of human microbiome with the Ayurvedic prakriti of an individual. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of human microbiome from the gut, oral and skin samples of healthy individuals (n=18) by 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomics using standard QIIME pipeline. In the three different prakriti samples differential abundance of Bacteroides, Desulfovibrio, Parabacteroides, Slackia, and Succinivibrio was observed in the gut microbiome. Analysis also revealed prakriti-specific presence of Mogibacterium, Propionibacterium, Pyramidobacter, Rhodococcus in the kapha prakriti individuals Planomicrobium, Hyphomicrobium, Novosphingobium in the pitta prakriti individuals and Carnobacterium, Robiginitalea, Cetobacterium, Psychrobacter in the vata prakriti individuals. Similarly, the oral and skin microbiome also revealed presence of prakriti-specific differential abundance of diverse bacterial genera. Prakriti-specific presence of bacterial taxa was recorded and only 42% microbiome in the oral samples and 52% microbiome in the skin samples were shared. Bacteria known for preventing gut inflammation by digesting the resistant starch were abundant in the pitta prakriti individuals, who are more prone to develop gut-inflammation-related disorders. In summary, human gut, oral and skin microbiome showed presence or high abundance of few bacterial taxa across three prakriti types, suggesting their specific physiological importance.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Holmes S (2019)

Successful strategies for human microbiome data generation, storage and analyses.

Journal of biosciences, 44(5):.

Current interest in the potential for clinical use of new tools for improving human health are now focused on techniques for the study of the human microbiome and its interaction with environmental and clinical covariates. This review outlines the use of statistical strategies that have been developed in past studies and can inform successful design and analyses of controlled perturbation experiments performed in the human microbiome. We carefully outline what the data are, their imperfections and how we need to transform, decontaminate and denoise them. We show how to identify the important unknown parameters and how to can leverage variability we see to produce efficient models for prediction and uncertainty quantification. We encourage a reproducible strategy that builds on best practice principles that can be adapted for effective experimental design and reproducible workflows. Nonparametric, data-driven denoising strategies already provide the best strain identification and decontamination methods. Data driven models can be combined with uncertainty quantification to provide reproducible aids to decision making in the clinical context, as long as careful, separate, registered confirmatory testing are undertaken. Here we provide guidelines for effective longitudinal studies and their analyses. Lessons learned along the way are that visualizations at every step can pinpoint problems and outliers, normalization and filtering improve power in downstream testing. We recommend collecting and binding the metadata and covariates to sample descriptors and recording complete computer scripts into an R markdown supplement that can reduce opportunities for human error and enable collaborators and readers to replicate all the steps of the study. Finally, we note that optimizing the bioinformatic and statistical workflow involves adopting a wait-and-see approach that is particularly effective in cases where the features such as 'mass spectrometry peaks' and metagenomic tables can only be partially annotated.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Wojciuk B, Salabura A, Grygorcewicz B, et al (2019)

Urobiome: In Sickness and in Health.

Microorganisms, 7(11): pii:microorganisms7110548.

The human microbiome has been proven to contribute to the human condition, both in health and in disease. The metagenomic approach based on next-generation sequencing has challenged the dogma of urine sterility. The human urobiome consists of bacteria and eukaryotic viruses as well as bacteriophages, which potentially represent the key factor. There have been several significant findings with respect to the urobiome in the context of urological disorders. Still, the research on the urobiome in chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation remains underrepresented, as does research on the role of the virome in the urinary microbiota. In this review, we present recent findings on the urobiome with a particular emphasis on chronic kidney disease and post-kidney transplantation status. Challenges and opportunities arising from the research on the human urobiome will also be discussed.

RevDate: 2019-11-12

Astudillo-de la Vega H, Alonso-Luna O, Ali-Pérez J, et al (2019)

Oncobiome at the Forefront of a Novel Molecular Mechanism to Understand the Microbiome and Cancer.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1168:147-156.

The microbiome comprises all the genetic material within a microbiota, that represents tenfold higher than that of our cells. The microbiota it includes a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, and archaea, and this ecosystem is personalized in any body space of every individual. Balanced microbial communities can positively contribute to training the immune system and maintaining immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis is a change in the normal microbiome composition that can initiate chronic inflammation, epithelial barrier breaches, and overgrowth of harmful bacteria. The next-generation sequencing methods have revolutionized the study of the microbiome. Bioinformatic tools to manage large volumes of new information, it became possible to assess species diversity and measure dynamic fluctuations in microbial communities. The burden of infections that are associated to human cancer is increasing but is underappreciated by the cancer research community. The rich content in microbes of normal and tumoral tissue reflect could be defining diverse physiological or pathological states. Genomic research has emerged a new focus on the interplay between the human microbiome and carcinogenesis and has been termed the 'oncobiome'. The interactions among the microbiota in all epithelium, induce changes in the host immune interactions and can be a cause of cancer. Microbes have been shown to have systemic effects on the host that influence the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Metagenomics allows to investigate the composition of microbial community. Metatranscriptome analysis applies RNA sequencing to microbial samples to determine which species are present. Cancer can be caused by changes in the microbiome. The roles of individual microbial species in cancer progression have been identified long ago for various tissue types. The identification of microbiomes of drug resistance in the treatment of cancer patients has been the subject of numerous microbiome studies. The complexity of cancer genetic alterations becomes irrelevant in certain cancers to explain the origin, the cause or the oncogenic maintenance by the oncogene addiction theory.

RevDate: 2019-11-11

Bianchi M, Alisi A, Fabrizi M, et al (2019)

Maternal Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids During Pregnancy Is Associated With Differential Methylation Profiles in Cord Blood White Cells.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:1050.

A healthy diet during pregnancy is pivotal for the offspring health at birth and later in life. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are not endogenously produced in humans and are exclusively derived from the diet. They are pivotal for the fetus growth and neuronal development and seem beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and preventing later allergic disorders in the offspring by modulating the inflammatory immune response. In the present study, we investigated the association between maternal intakes of n-3PUFAs, profiled on maternal erythrocyte membranes at pregnancy term, and offspring DNA methylation on cord blood mononuclear cells in a sample of 118 mother-newborn pairs randomly drawn from the "Feeding fetus' low-grade inflammation and insulin-resistance" study cohort. N-3 PUFA content on erythrocyte membranes is a validated biomarker to measure objectively medium term intake of n-3 PUFAs. Based on distribution of n-3 PUFA in the whole cohort of mothers, we identified mothers with low (n-3 PUFA concentration <25th percentile), medium (n-3 PUFAs between 25th and 75th percentiles), and high n-3 PUFA content (>75th percentile). The HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina) was used for the epigenome-wide association study using the Infinium Methylation Assay. The overall DNA methylation level was not different between the three groups while there was significant difference in methylation levels at certain sites. Indeed, 8,503 sites had significantly different methylations between low and high n-3 PUFA groups, 12,716 between low and medium n-3 PUFA groups, and 18,148 between high and medium n-3 PUFA groups. We found differentially methylated genes that belong prevalently to pathways of signal transduction, metabolism, downstream signaling of G protein-coupled receptors, and gene expression. Within these pathways, we identified four differentially methylated genes, namely, MSTN, IFNA13, ATP8B3, and GABBR2, that are involved in the onset of insulin resistance and adiposity, innate immune response, phospholipid translocation across cell membranes, and mechanisms of addiction to high fat diet, alcohol, and sweet taste. In conclusion, findings of this preliminary investigation suggest that maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has potential to influence the offspring DNA methylation. Validation of results in a larger cohort and investigation of biological significance and impact on the phenotype are warranted.

RevDate: 2019-11-10

Stubbendieck RM, Li H, CR Currie (2019)

Convergent evolution of signal-structure interfaces for maintaining symbioses.

Current opinion in microbiology, 50:71-78 pii:S1369-5274(19)30055-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic microbes are essential to the ecological success and evolutionary diversification of multicellular organisms. The establishment and stability of bipartite symbioses are shaped by mechanisms ensuring partner fidelity between host and symbiont. In this minireview, we demonstrate how the interface of chemical signals and host structures influences fidelity between legume root nodules and rhizobia, Hawaiian bobtail squid light organs and Allivibrio fischeri, and fungus-growing ant crypts and Pseudonocardia. Subsequently, we illustrate the morphological diversity and widespread phylogenetic distribution of specialized structures used by hosts to house microbial symbionts, indicating the importance of signal-structure interfaces across the history of multicellular life. These observations, and the insights garnered from well-studied bipartite associations, demonstrate the need to concentrate on the signal-structure interface in complex and multipartite systems, including the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Kumpitsch C, Koskinen K, Schöpf V, et al (2019)

The microbiome of the upper respiratory tract in health and disease.

BMC biology, 17(1):87 pii:10.1186/s12915-019-0703-z.

The human upper respiratory tract (URT) offers a variety of niches for microbial colonization. Local microbial communities are shaped by the different characteristics of the specific location within the URT, but also by the interaction with both external and intrinsic factors, such as ageing, diseases, immune responses, olfactory function, and lifestyle habits such as smoking. We summarize here the current knowledge about the URT microbiome in health and disease, discuss methodological issues, and consider the potential of the nasal microbiome to be used for medical diagnostics and as a target for therapy.

RevDate: 2019-11-06

Maixner F (2019)

Molecular Reconstruction of the Diet in Human Stool Samples.

mSystems, 4(6): pii:4/6/e00634-19.

Understanding dietary effects on the gut microbial composition is one of the key questions in human microbiome research. It is highly important to have reliable dietary data on the stool samples to unambiguously link the microbiome composition to food intake. Often, however, self-reported diet surveys have low accuracy and can be misleading. Thereby, additional molecular biology-based methods could help to revise the diet composition. The article by Reese et al. [A. T. Reese, T. R. Kartzinel, B. L. Petrone, P. J. Turnbaugh, et al., mSystems 4(5):e00458-19, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00458-19] in a recent issue of mSystems describes a DNA metabarcoding strategy targeting chloroplast DNA markers in stool samples from 11 human subjects consuming both controlled and freely selected diets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of this molecular method in detecting plant remains in the sample compared to the written dietary records. This study displays an important first step in implementing molecular dietary reconstructions in stool microbiome studies which will finally help to increase the accuracy of dietary metadata.

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Agorastos A, VP Bozikas (2019)

Gut microbiome and adaptive immunity in schizophrenia.

Psychiatrike = Psychiatriki, 30(3):189-192.

Over the past few years, immunopathogenesis has emerged as one of the most compelling aetiopathological models of schizophrenia (SCZ), suggesting a chronic, immune-based, low-grade inflammatory background of this devastating disorder.1,2 Mounting evidence points towards a prominent role of the adaptive immune system in SCZ, suggesting alterations in defense mechanisms, such as altered T-cell function and a shift towards B-cell immunity.3 Immune cells have the ability to infiltrate the brain and mediate a neuroimmune cross-talk through activation of microglia, production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, leading to neuroinflammation, as mediator of neuroprogressive and neurodegenerative changes in SCZ.4 Antipsychotic drugs, commonly used to treat SCZ, are also known to affect the adaptive immune system, interfering with the differentiation and function of immune cells, towards their normalization in response to treatment. Adaptive immunity is principally founded on T-cell and B-cell populations, but also includes the host microbiome. The gastrointestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a great organism diversity and refined genomic structure that resides in the intestinal tract and has a central position in human health and disease.5 Neuroimmune dysregulation, relying of the highly sensitive and fine-tuned equilibrium between microbiome and adaptive immunity, can tip the scales towards neuroinflammation and disruption of higher-order brain networks.4,6,7 During the last decade, the human microbiome and the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB)-axis have become a novel epicentre in mental health research as a potentially vital new determinant in the field of neuroimmunoregulation, brain development, emotions, cognition and behaviour.7 The MGB-axis represents a bidirectional, key communication pathway between the immune system and the brain, thus partly also mediating the regulation of cognitive and emotional processing. An imbalanced human microbiome might greatly influence proper neuroimmune reactions and neurodevelopment with long-lasting effects and could thus play a pivotal role in the susceptibility and aetiology of psychiatric illness. Recent research offers first evidence that patients with SCZ show marked disturbances of gut bacterial taxa composition with a decreased microbiome diversity index, party associated with specific SCZ phenotype, symptom severity and treatment response.8,9 As the elegant education of the adaptive immune compartment depends on the colonization niche, antigen type and metabolic property of different gut microbes, T-cell differentiation as well as a continuous diversification of B-cell repertoire is expressed through microbiome-related, antigen-specific receptors that define a unique clonotype.10 However, there is only sparse evidence on the precise role of the microbiome on the programming of T- and B-cells in the underlying neurobiological pathways of SCZ and even less findings on the association of molecular T- and B-cell receptor repertoire signature and microbiome clonal landscape with specific phenotypical features of the disease.11 The latest conceptual advances in immunology urge an integrative re-evaluation of previous immunological findings in SCZ through modern approaches. High-throughput, next-generation sequencing (NGS) represents a powerful singlecell transcriptomic tool to profile the whole clonal landscape of T and B cells and human microbiome. NGS thus offers a unique opportunity for in-depth characterization of cellular and molecular signatures of adaptive immune receptor repertoires and microbiome taxonomy in SCZ and investigation of their intersection as a relevant pathway of disease progression and phenotype differentiation. SCZ patients are likely to show a diverging host-microbiome immune homeostasis with disease-specific clonotypes of adaptive immune receptor repertoires associated with altered microbiome taxonomy and molecular signature differences, which, in turn, may be related to distinct symptomatic phenotypes and neurocognitive patterns. Such sophisticated immuno-bioinformatic analyses may transform our understanding of SCZ by identification of novel neuroimmune pathways, offering us clinically accessible symptomatic and diagnostic biomarkers important for personalized medicine implications.12 An increased understanding and better characterization of immuno-phenotypes in SCZ will better guide the development of novel immune-based treatments in this severe disease and pave the way for possible prevention options through implementation of antibody engineering, vaccine design, and cellular immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Orlandi E, Iacovelli NA, Tombolini V, et al (2019)

Potential role of microbiome in oncogenesis, outcome prediction and therapeutic targeting for head and neck cancer.

Oral oncology, 99:104453 pii:S1368-8375(19)30364-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In the last decade, human microbiome research is rapidly growing involving several fields of clinical medicine and population health. Although the microbiome seems to be linked to all sorts of diseases, cancer has the biggest potential to be investigated. Following the publication of the National Institute of Health - Human Microbiome Project (NIH-HMP), the link between Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) and microbiome seems to be a fast-moving field in research area. However, robust evidence-based literature is still quite scarce. Nevertheless the relationship between oral microbiome and HNC could have important consequences for prevention and early detection of this type of tumors. The aims of the present review are: (i) to discuss current pre-clinical evidence of a role of oral microbiome in HNC; (ii) to report recent developments in understanding the human microbiome's relationship with HNC oncogenesis; (iii) to explore the issue of treatment response and treatment toxicity; (iv) to describe the role of microbiota as potentially modifiable factor suitable for targeting by therapeutics. Further studies are needed to better establish the causal relationship between oral microbiome and HNC oncogenesis. Future trials should continue to explore oral microbiome in order to build the scientific and clinical rationale of HNC preventative and ameliorate treatment outcome.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Porras AM, IL Brito (2019)

The internationalization of human microbiome research.

Current opinion in microbiology, 50:50-55 pii:S1369-5274(19)30050-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome has now been linked with myriad diseases, yet most of this research has been conducted on American and European populations that make up only 1/6th of the world's population. With growing recognition that human microbiomes differ tremendously across global populations, it is especially important to understand how these compositional differences impact health outcomes. Recent advances in infectious disease and malnutrition research have demonstrated the potential for microbiome-based strategies to address the biggest challenges in global health. This review highlights major advances toward understanding microbiome diversity across the world and its contributions to disease, and outlines key questions, challenges, and opportunities to broaden the scope of and promote inclusivity within microbiome research.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Shah N, Meisel JS, M Pop (2019)

Embracing Ambiguity in the Taxonomic Classification of Microbiome Sequencing Data.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:1022.

The advent of high throughput sequencing has enabled in-depth characterization of human and environmental microbiomes. Determining the taxonomic origin of microbial sequences is one of the first, and frequently only, analysis performed on microbiome samples. Substantial research has focused on the development of methods for taxonomic annotation, often making trade-offs in computational efficiency and classification accuracy. A side-effect of these efforts has been a reexamination of the bacterial taxonomy itself. Taxonomies developed prior to the genomic revolution captured complex relationships between organisms that went beyond uniform taxonomic levels such as species, genus, and family. Driven in part by the need to simplify computational workflows, the bacterial taxonomies used most commonly today have been regularized to fit within a standard seven taxonomic levels. Consequently, modern analyses of microbial communities are relatively coarse-grained. Few methods make classifications below the genus level, impacting our ability to capture biologically relevant signals. Here, we present ATLAS, a novel strategy for taxonomic annotation that uses significant outliers within database search results to group sequences in the database into partitions. These partitions capture the extent of taxonomic ambiguity within the classification of a sample. The ATLAS pipeline can be found on GitHub [https://github.com/shahnidhi/outlier_in_BLAST_hits]. We demonstrate that ATLAS provides similar annotations to phylogenetic placement methods, but with higher computational efficiency. When applied to human microbiome data, ATLAS is able to identify previously characterized taxonomic groupings, such as those in the class Clostridia and the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the majority of partitions identified by ATLAS are at the subgenus level, replacing higher-level annotations with specific groups of species. These more precise partitions improve our detection power in determining differential abundance in microbiome association studies.

RevDate: 2019-11-01

Huck O, Mulhall H, Rubin G, et al (2019)

Akkermansia muciniphila reduces Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced inflammation and periodontal bone destruction.

Journal of clinical periodontology [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Akkermansia muciniphila is a beneficial gut commensal, whose anti-inflammatory properties have recently been demonstrated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of A.muciniphila on Porphyromonas gingivalis elicited inflammation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In lean and obese mice, A.muciniphila was administered in P.gingivalis induced calvarial abcess and in experimental periodontitis model (EIP). Bone destruction and inflammation were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. In vitro, A.muciniphila was co-cultured with P.gingivalis, growth and virulence factors expression were evaluated. Bone-marrow macrophages (BMMϕ) and gingival epithelial cells (TIGK) were exposed to both bacterial strains and the expression of inflammatory mediators, as well as tight junction markers was analyzed.

RESULTS: In a model of calvarial infection, A.muciniphila decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and bone destruction. In EIP, treatment with A.muciniphila resulted in a decreased alveolar bone loss. In vitro, the addition of A.muciniphila to P.gingivalis infected BMMϕ increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 and decreased IL-12. Additionally, A.muciniphila exposure increases the expression of junctional integrity markers such as integrin-β1, E-cadherin and ZO-1 in TIGK cells. A.muciniphila co-culture with P.gingivalis reduced gingipains mRNA expression.

DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated the protective effects of A.muciniphila administration and may open consideration to its use as an adjunctive therapeutic agent to periodontal treatment.

RevDate: 2019-10-31

Zhu C, Miller M, Lusskin N, et al (2019)

Fingerprinting cities: differentiating subway microbiome functionality.

Biology direct, 14(1):19 pii:10.1186/s13062-019-0252-y.

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the human microbiome impacts individual and public health. City subway systems are human-dense environments, where passengers often exchange microbes. The MetaSUB project participants collected samples from subway surfaces in different cities and performed metagenomic sequencing. Previous studies focused on taxonomic composition of these microbiomes and no explicit functional analysis had been done till now.

RESULTS: As a part of the 2018 CAMDA challenge, we functionally profiled the available ~ 400 subway metagenomes and built predictor for city origin. In cross-validation, our model reached 81% accuracy when only the top-ranked city assignment was considered and 95% accuracy if the second city was taken into account as well. Notably, this performance was only achievable if the similarity of distribution of cities in the training and testing sets was similar. To assure that our methods are applicable without such biased assumptions we balanced our training data to account for all represented cities equally well. After balancing, the performance of our method was slightly lower (76/94%, respectively, for one or two top ranked cities), but still consistently high. Here we attained an added benefit of independence of training set city representation. In testing, our unbalanced model thus reached (an over-estimated) performance of 90/97%, while our balanced model was at a more reliable 63/90% accuracy. While, by definition of our model, we were not able to predict the microbiome origins previously unseen, our balanced model correctly judged them to be NOT-from-training-cities over 80% of the time. Our function-based outlook on microbiomes also allowed us to note similarities between both regionally close and far-away cities. Curiously, we identified the depletion in mycobacterial functions as a signature of cities in New Zealand, while photosynthesis related functions fingerprinted New York, Porto and Tokyo.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the power of our high-speed function annotation method, mi-faser, by analysing ~ 400 shotgun metagenomes in 2 days, with the results recapitulating functional signals of different city subway microbiomes. We also showed the importance of balanced data in avoiding over-estimated performance. Our results revealed similarities between both geographically close (Ofa and Ilorin) and distant (Boston and Porto, Lisbon and New York) city subway microbiomes. The photosynthesis related functional signatures of NYC were previously unseen in taxonomy studies, highlighting the strength of functional analysis.

RevDate: 2019-10-30

Daisley BA, Pitek AP, Chmiel JA, et al (2019)

Novel probiotic approach to counter Paenibacillus larvae infection in honey bees.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0541-6 [Epub ahead of print].

American foulbrood (AFB) is a highly virulent disease afflicting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The causative organism, Paenibacillus larvae, attacks honey bee brood and renders entire hives dysfunctional during active disease states, but more commonly resides in hives asymptomatically as inactive spores that elude even vigilant beekeepers. The mechanism of this pathogenic transition is not fully understood, and no cure exists for AFB. Here, we evaluated how hive supplementation with probiotic lactobacilli (delivered through a nutrient patty; BioPatty) affected colony resistance towards a naturally occurring AFB outbreak. Results demonstrated a significantly lower pathogen load and proteolytic activity of honey bee larvae from BioPatty-treated hives. Interestingly, a distinctive shift in the microbiota composition of adult nurse bees occurred irrespective of treatment group during the monitoring period, but only vehicle-supplemented nurse bees exhibited higher P. larvae loads. In vitro experiments utilizing laboratory-reared honey bee larvae showed Lactobacillus plantarum Lp39, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus kunkeei BR-1 (contained in the BioPatty) could reduce pathogen load, upregulate expression of key immune genes, and improve survival during P. larvae infection. These findings suggest the usage of a lactobacilli-containing hive supplement, which is practical and affordable for beekeepers, may be effective for reducing enzootic pathogen-related hive losses.

RevDate: 2019-10-30

Royston KJ, Adedokun B, OI Olopade (2019)

Race, the microbiome and colorectal cancer.

World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 11(10):773-787.

In the past decade, more cancer researchers have begun to understand the significance of cancer prevention, which has prompted a shift in the increasing body of scientific literature. An area of fascination and great potential is the human microbiome. Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota has significant roles in an individual's ability to avoid cancer, with considerable focus on the gut microbiome and colorectal cancer. That in mind, racial disparities with regard to colorectal cancer treatment and prevention are generally understudied despite higher incidence and mortality rates among Non-Hispanic Blacks compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. A comprehension of ethnic differences with relation to colorectal cancer, dietary habits and the microbiome is a meritorious area of investigation. This review highlights literature that identifies and bridges the gap in understanding the role of the human microbiome in racial disparities across colorectal cancer. Herein, we explore the differences in the gut microbiota, common short chain fatty acids produced in abundance by microbes, and their association with racial differences in cancer acquisition.

RevDate: 2019-10-26

Musso P, Chiappini E, R Bernardini (2019)

Human microbiome and allergic diseases in children: pathogenetic role and therapeutic options.

Current pediatric reviews pii:CPR-EPUB-101899 [Epub ahead of print].

The recent and extensive study of the microbiome has provided an enormous amount of data concerning the type and possible functions of microorganisms present in the gut, airways, genital tract, and skin. These data showed interpersonal differences in the composition of the microbiome and these differences suggest a link between the microbiome, the immune modulation, and the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This research is particularly relevant in paediatrics, since allergic diseases are constantly increasing and there is evidence in the paediatric age that shows that the composition of the microbiome in the foetal and neonatal period plays a key role in the development of the immune system: vaginal delivery, breastfeeding, childhood spent in rural environments and/or in contact with animals result in a greater biodiversity of the microbiome with the presence of protective species that reduce the activation of Th2 lymphocytes, involved in allergic reactions. Further studies are necessary to better understand the microbiota role in the pathogenesis of atopy in order to understand if specific probiotics and prebiotics, administered orally or topically, can affect the microbiota composition and modulate immune system functions, producing a therapeutic effect in the treatment of allergic diseases. This narrative review analysed the available literature regarding the correlation between the microbiome and the development of allergic diseases and with special focus on paediatric studies. The skin, gut or lung dysbiosis can be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of allergies and the remodulation of the microbiome becomes an important therapeutic challenge.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Klimko AI, Cherdyntseva TA, Brioukhanov AL, et al (2019)

In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins pii:10.1007/s12602-019-09599-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Research of human microbiome demonstrates that in order to develop next generation of probiotic agents, it is necessary to choose bacterial strains featured by special properties, such as the ability of the cells to attach to intestinal walls, resistance to bile and acids, bacteriocin synthesis, antioxidative and antipathogenic activity, and survivability in intestines. Thirty-three strains of lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus genera from the Lomonosov Moscow State University Collection of Microorganisms (CM MSU) have been tested for important probiotic properties which assist these bacteria to settle effectively in intestines: cell adhesion, ability to form biofilms, agglutination with lectin (concanavalin A), and antimicrobial activity. The results of experiments clearly demonstrate that all these properties can be classified as strain characteristics and differ even within the same species. Besides the cultures of Lactobacillus with good agglutination ability with concanavalin A (Lact. caucasicus CM MSU 155, Lact. brevis CM MSU 521), we also discovered strains with high adhesion properties (Lact. acidophilus CM MSU 146-89% affinity for hexadecane; Lact. paracasei CM MSU 527-85%; Lact. plantarum CM MSU 508-78%; Lact. caucasicus CM MSU 155-70%; and Lact. delbrueckii CM MSU 571-57%), biofilm formation ability with a hydrophobic carrier (Lact. plantarum CM MSU 588-OD590 of crystal violet extracts = 1.336; Lact. brevis CM MSU 521-OD590 = 1.207; and Lact. brevis CM MSU 535-OD590 = 1.151), and with high antimicrobial activity specially to Staphylococcus aureus. Lact. brevis CM MSU 521 possesses the best property combination, which makes it potentially applicable as a very good lactic acid probiotic strain.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Engevik MA, Morra CN, Röth D, et al (2019)

Microbial Metabolic Capacity for Intestinal Folate Production and Modulation of Host Folate Receptors.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2305.

Microbial metabolites, including B complex vitamins contribute to diverse aspects of human health. Folate, or vitamin B9, refers to a broad category of biomolecules that include pterin, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), and glutamate subunits. Folates are required for DNA synthesis and epigenetic regulation. In addition to dietary nutrients, the gut microbiota has been recognized as a source of B complex vitamins, including folate. This study evaluated the predicted folate synthesis capabilities in the genomes of human commensal microbes identified in the Human Microbiome Project and folate production by representative strains of six human intestinal bacterial phyla. Bacterial folate synthesis genes were ubiquitous across 512 gastrointestinal reference genomes with 13% of the genomes containing all genes required for complete de novo folate synthesis. An additional 39% of the genomes had the genetic capacity to synthesize folates in the presence of pABA, an upstream intermediate that can be obtained through diet or from other intestinal microbes. Bacterial folate synthesis was assessed during exponential and stationary phase growth through the evaluation of expression of select folate synthesis genes, quantification of total folate production, and analysis of folate polyglutamylation. Increased expression of key folate synthesis genes was apparent in exponential phase, and increased folate polyglutamylation occurred during late stationary phase. Of the folate producers, we focused on the commensal Lactobacillus reuteri to examine host-microbe interactions in relation to folate and examined folate receptors in the physiologically relevant human enteroid model. RNAseq data revealed segment-specific folate receptor distribution. Treatment of human colonoid monolayers with conditioned media (CM) from wild-type L. reuteri did not influence the expression of key folate transporters proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) or reduced folate carrier (RFC). However, CM from L. reuteri containing a site-specific inactivation of the folC gene, which prevents the bacteria from synthesizing a polyglutamate tail on folate, significantly upregulated RFC expression. No effects were observed using L. reuteri with a site inactivation of folC2, which results in no folate production. This work sheds light on the contributions of microbial folate to overall folate status and mammalian host metabolism.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Sonnenburg JL, ED Sonnenburg (2019)

Vulnerability of the industrialized microbiota.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 366(6464):.

The human body is an ecosystem that is home to a complex array of microbes known as the microbiome or microbiota. This ecosystem plays an important role in human health, but as a result of recent lifestyle changes occurring around the planet, whole populations are seeing a major shift in their gut microbiota. Measures meant to kill or limit exposure to pathogenic microbes, such as antibiotics and sanitation, combined with other factors such as processed food, have had unintended consequences for the human microbial ecosystem, including changes that may be difficult to reverse. Microbiota alteration and the accompanying loss of certain functional attributes might result in the microbial communities of people living in industrialized societies being suboptimal for human health. As macroecologists, conservationists, and climate scientists race to document, understand, predict, and delay global changes in our wider environment, microbiota scientists may benefit by using analogous approaches to study and protect our intimate microbial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-10-24

Hellweger F, Vick C, Rückbeil F, et al (2019)

Fresh ideas bloom in gut healthcare to cross-fertilize lake management.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Harmful bacteria may be the most significant threat to human gut and lake ecosystem health, and they are often managed using similar tools, like poisoning with antibiotics or algicides. Out-of-the-box thinking in human microbiome engineering is leading to novel methods, like engineering bacteria to kill pathogens, "persuade" them not to produce toxins or "mop up" their toxins. The bacterial agent can be given a competitive edge via an exclusive nutrient, and they can be engineered to commit suicide once their work is done. Viruses can kill pathogens with specific DNA sequences or knock out their antibiotic resistance genes using CRISPR technology. Some of these ideas may work for lakes. We critically review novel methods for managing harmful bacteria in the gut from the perspective of managing toxic cyanobacteria in lakes, and discuss practical aspects such as modifying bacteria using genetic engineering or directed evolution, mass culturing and controlling the agents. A key knowledge gap is in the ecology of strains, like toxigenic vs. nontoxigenic Microcystis, including allelopathic and Black Queen interactions. Some of the "gut methods" may have future potential for lakes, but there presently is no substitute for established management approaches, including reducing N and P nutrient inputs, and mitigating climate change.

RevDate: 2019-10-22

Greathouse KL, Sinha R, E Vogtmann (2019)

DNA extraction for human microbiome studies: the issue of standardization.

Genome biology, 20(1):212 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1843-8.

Among the laboratory and bioinformatic processing steps for human microbiome studies, a lack of consistency in DNA extraction methodologies is hindering the ability to compare results between studies and sometimes leading to errant conclusions. The purpose of this article is to highlight the issues related to DNA extraction methods and to suggest minimum standard requirements that should be followed to ensure consistency and reproducibility.

RevDate: 2019-10-22

Altay O, Nielsen J, Uhlen M, et al (2019)

Systems biology perspective for studying the gut microbiota in human physiology and liver diseases.

EBioMedicine pii:S2352-3964(19)30648-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The advancement in high-throughput sequencing technologies and systems biology approaches have revolutionized our understanding of biological systems and opened a new path to investigate unacknowledged biological phenomena. In parallel, the field of human microbiome research has greatly evolved and the relative contribution of the gut microbiome to health and disease have been systematically explored. This review provides an overview of the network-based and translational systems biology-based studies focusing on the function and composition of gut microbiota. We also discussed the association between the gut microbiome and the overall human physiology, as well as hepatic diseases and other metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2019-10-22

Renson A, Herd P, JB Dowd (2019)

Sick Individuals and Sick (Microbial) Populations: Challenges in Epidemiology and the Microbiome.

Annual review of public health [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome represents a new frontier in understanding the biology of human health. While epidemiology in this area is still in its infancy, its scope will likely expand dramatically over the coming years. To rise to the challenge, we argue that epidemiology should capitalize on its population perspective as a critical complement to molecular microbiome research, allowing for the illumination of contextual mechanisms that may vary more across populations rather than among individuals. We first briefly review current research on social context and the gut microbiome, focusing specifically on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. Next, we reflect on the current state of microbiome epidemiology through the lens of one specific area, the association of the gut microbiome and metabolic disorders. We identify key methodological shortcomings of current epidemiological research in this area, including extensive selection bias, the use of noncompositionally robust measures, and a lack of attention to social factors as confounders or effect modifiers. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 41 is April 1, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Baker JL, He X, W Shi (2019)

Precision Reengineering of the Oral Microbiome for Caries Management.

Advances in dental research, 30(2):34-39.

Technological advancements have revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and importance of the human microbiome. This progress has also emphasized the need for precision therapeutics, as it has underscored the dilemmas, such as dysbiosis and increasing antibiotic resistance, associated with current, broad-spectrum treatment modalities. Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease worldwide, accompanied by a tremendous financial and social burden, despite widespread and efficacious fluoride and hygienic regimens. Over the past several decades, various precision approaches to combat dental caries, including vaccines, probiotics, and antimicrobial compounds, have been pursued. Despite the distinct overall conceptual strengths of each approach, for various reasons, there are currently no approved precision antibiotic therapeutics to prevent dental caries. Specifically targeted antimicrobial peptides (STAMPs) are synthetic molecules that combine the antibiotic moiety of a traditional antimicrobial peptide with a targeting domain to provide specificity against a particular organism. Conjoining the killing domain from the antimicrobial, novispirin G10, and a targeting domain derived from the Streptococcus mutans pheromone, CSP, the STAMP C16G2 was designed to provide targeted killing of S. mutans, widely considered the keystone species in dental caries pathogenesis. C16G2 was able to selectively eliminate S. mutans from complex ecosystems while leaving closely related, yet health-associated, oral species unharmed. This remodeling of the dental plaque community is expected to have significant advantages compared to conventional broad-spectrum mouthwashes, as the intact, surviving community is apt to prevent reinfection by pathogens. Following successful phase I clinical trials that evaluated the safety and basic microbiology of C16G2 treatments, the phase II trials of several C16G2 formulations are currently in progress. C16G2 represents an exciting advance in precision therapeutics, and the STAMP platform provides vast opportunities for both the development of additional therapeutics and the overall study of microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2019-10-20

Cao L, Gurevich A, Alexander KL, et al (2019)

MetaMiner: A Scalable Peptidogenomics Approach for Discovery of Ribosomal Peptide Natural Products with Blind Modifications from Microbial Communities.

Cell systems pii:S2405-4712(19)30312-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are an important class of natural products that contain antibiotics and a variety of other bioactive compounds. The existing methods for discovery of RiPPs by combining genome mining and computational mass spectrometry are limited to discovering specific classes of RiPPs from small datasets, and these methods fail to handle unknown post-translational modifications. Here, we present MetaMiner, a software tool for addressing these challenges that is compatible with large-scale screening platforms for natural product discovery. After searching millions of spectra in the Global Natural Products Social (GNPS) molecular networking infrastructure against just eight genomic and metagenomic datasets, MetaMiner discovered 31 known and seven unknown RiPPs from diverse microbial communities, including human microbiome and lichen microbiome, and microorganisms isolated from the International Space Station.

RevDate: 2019-10-18

Dobrange E, Peshev D, Loedolff B, et al (2019)

Fructans as Immunomodulatory and Antiviral Agents: The Case of Echinacea.

Biomolecules, 9(10): pii:biom9100615.

Throughout history, medicinal purposes of plants have been studied, documented, and acknowledged as an integral part of human healthcare systems. The development of modern medicine still relies largely on this historical knowledge of the use and preparation of plants and their extracts. Further research into the human microbiome highlights the interaction between immunomodulatory responses and plant-derived, prebiotic compounds. One such group of compounds includes the inulin-type fructans (ITFs), which may also act as signaling molecules and antioxidants. These multifunctional compounds occur in a small proportion of plants, many of which have recognized medicinal properties. Echinacea is a well-known medicinal plant and products derived from it are sold globally for its cold- and flu-preventative and general health-promoting properties. Despite the well-documented phytochemical profile of Echinacea plants and products, little research has looked into the possible role of ITFs in these products. This review aims to highlight the occurrence of ITFs in Echinacea derived formulations and the potential role they play in immunomodulation.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Zou M, Jie Z, Cui B, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation results in bacterial strain displacement in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

FEBS open bio [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is thought to have the potential to correct dysbiosis of gut microbiota, has been used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for almost a decade. Here, we report an interventional prospective cohort study performed to elucidate the extent of and processes underlying microbiota engraftment in IBD patients after FMT treatment. The cohort included two categories of patients: (1) patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD)(Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≥ 7, n = 11) and (2) patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (Montreal classification S2 and S3, n = 4). All patients were treated with a single FMT (via mid-gut, from healthy donors) and follow-up visits were performed at baseline, 3 days, one week, and one month after FMT (missing time points included). At each follow-up time point, fecal samples and clinical metadata were collected. For comparative analysis, 10 fecal samples from 10 healthy donors were included to represent the diversity level of normal gut microbiota. Additionally, the metagenomic data of 25 fecal samples from 5 individuals with metabolic syndrome who underwent autologous FMT treatment were downloaded from a previous published paper to represent fluctuations in microbiota induced during FMT. All fecal samples underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that 3 days after FMT, 11 out of 15 recipients were in remission (3 out of 4 UC recipients; 8 out of 11 CD recipients). Generally, bacterial colonization was observed to be lower in CD recipients than in UC recipients at both species and strain levels. Furthermore, across species, different strains displayed disease-specific displacement advantages under two-disease status. Finally, most post-FMT species (> 80%) could be properly predicted (AUC > 85%) using a random forest classification model, with the gut microbiota composition and clinical parameters of pre-FMT recipients acting as factors that contribute to prediction accuracy.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Lam KL, PCK Cheung (2019)

Carbohydrate-based Prebiotics in Targeted Modulation of Gut Microbiome.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The Human Microbiome Project has prompted unprecedented advancement to microbiome science. Personalized microbiome modulation with precision (PMMP) is one of the emerging yet challenging field in future microbiome research. Carbohydrate-based prebiotics (CBPs) have been shown to modulate gut microbiome in various extents by their different structural characteristics such as degree of polymerization, branching, glycosidic linkage, monosaccharide profile, and chemical modification. Subsequently, a targeted modulation of microbiome might be achieved by using CBPs with specific structure. A multi-dimensional database can be established based on the structure-microbiome (SMR) and structure-microbial-marker (SMMR) relationships. Such relationships could facilitate the development of synbiotics and PMMP.

RevDate: 2019-10-16

Sharma A, Das P, Buschmann M, et al (2019)

The future of microbiome-based therapeutics in clinical applications.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiome, a collection of microorganisms, their genomes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, is akin to a human organ, and knowledge is emerging on its role in human health and diseases. The influence of the microbiome in drug response has only been investigated in detail for the last 10 years. The human microbiome is a complex and highly dynamic system, which varies dramatically between individuals, yet there exists a common core microbiome that is heritable and can be transmitted to progeny. Here, we review the role of the human microbiome, which is now widely accepted as a major factor that drives the interpersonal variation in therapeutic response. We describe examples in which the microbiome modifies drug action. Despite its complexity, the microbiome can be readily altered, with the potential to increase the benefits and reduce the toxicity and side-effects associated with pharmaceutical drugs. The potential of new microbiome-based strategies, such as Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT), probiotics and phage therapy as promising medical therapeutics are outlined. We also suggest a combination reductionist and system-level approaches that could be applied to further investigate the role of microbiota in drug metabolism modulation of drug response. Finally, we emphasize the importance of combining microbiome and pharmacology studies, as a novel means to treat disease and reduce side effects.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Srivastava D, Baksi KD, Kuntal BK, et al (2019)

"EviMass": A Literature Evidence-Based Miner for Human Microbial Associations.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:849.

The importance of understanding microbe-microbe as well as microbe-disease associations is one of the key thrust areas in human microbiome research. High-throughput metagenomic and transcriptomic projects have fueled discovery of a number of new microbial associations. Consequently, a plethora of information is being added routinely to biomedical literature, thereby contributing toward enhancing our knowledge on microbial associations. In this communication, we present a tool called "EviMass" (Evidence based mining of human Microbial Associations), which can assist biologists to validate their predicted hypotheses from new microbiome studies. Users can interactively query the processed back-end database for microbe-microbe and disease-microbe associations. The EviMass tool can also be used to upload microbial association networks generated from a human "disease-control" microbiome study and validate the associations from biomedical literature. Additionally, a list of differentially abundant microbes for the corresponding disease can be queried in the tool for reported evidences. The results are presented as graphical plots, tabulated summary, and other evidence statistics. EviMass is a comprehensive platform and is expected to enable microbiome researchers not only in mining microbial associations, but also enriching a new research hypothesis. The tool is available free for academic use at https://web.rniapps.net/evimass.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Lilley ECH, Morris AT, JL Silberg (2019)

The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry of Virginia Commonwealth University.

Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies pii:S1832427419000872 [Epub ahead of print].

The Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR) is a population-based registry of more than 60,000 twins primarily born or living in Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Researchers may utilize the MATR for administration of research services, including study recruitment, data or sample (e.g., DNA) collection, archival dataset creation, as well as data collection through mailed, phone or online surveys. In addition, the MATR houses the MATR Repository, with over 1700 DNA samples primarily from whole blood available for researchers interested in DNA genotyping. For over 40 years MATR twins have participated in research studies with investigators from a range of scientific disciplines and institutions. These studies, which have resulted in numerous publications, explored diverse topics, including substance use, smoking behaviors, developmental psychopathology, bullying, children's health, cardiovascular disease, cancer, the human microbiome, epigenetics of aging, children of twins and sleep homeostasis. Researchers interested in utilizing twins are encouraged to contact the MATR to discuss potential research opportunities.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Farmakiotis D (2019)

The human microbiome and checkpoint inhibition: potential benefits from antibiotic stewardship.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5586745 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Kang W, Jia Z, Tang D, et al (2019)

Time-Course Transcriptome Analysis for Drug Repositioning in Fusobacterium nucleatum-Infected Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 7:204.

Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) is a crucial periodontal pathogen and human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) are the first line of defense against oral pathogens. However, the research on potential molecular mechanisms of host defense and effective treatment of F. nucleatum infection in GFs remains scarce. In this study, we undertook a time-series experiment and performed an RNA-seq analysis to explore gene expression profiles during the process of F. nucleatum infection in GFs. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) could be divided into three coexpression clusters. Functional analysis revealed that the immune-related signaling pathways were more overrepresented at the early stage, while metabolic pathways were mainly enriched at the late stage. We computationally identified several U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs that could protect the F. nucleatum infected GFs via a coexpression-based drug repositioning approach. Biologically, we confirmed that six drugs (etravirine, zalcitabine, wortmannin, calcium D-pantothenate, ellipticine, and tanespimycin) could significantly decrease F. nucleatum-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and block the Protein Kinase B (PKB/AKT)/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our study provides more detailed molecular mechanisms of the process by which F. nucleatum infects GFs and illustrates the value of the cogena-based drug repositioning method and the potential therapeutic application of these tested drugs in the treatment of F. nucleatum infection.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Tett A, Huang KD, Asnicar F, et al (2019)

The Prevotella copri Complex Comprises Four Distinct Clades Underrepresented in Westernized Populations.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(19)30427-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Prevotella copri is a common human gut microbe that has been both positively and negatively associated with host health. In a cross-continent meta-analysis exploiting >6,500 metagenomes, we obtained >1,000 genomes and explored the genetic and population structure of P. copri. P. copri encompasses four distinct clades (>10% inter-clade genetic divergence) that we propose constitute the P. copri complex, and all clades were confirmed by isolate sequencing. These clades are nearly ubiquitous and co-present in non-Westernized populations. Genomic analysis showed substantial functional diversity in the complex with notable differences in carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting that multi-generational dietary modifications may be driving reduced prevalence in Westernized populations. Analysis of ancient metagenomes highlighted patterns of P. copri presence consistent with modern non-Westernized populations and a clade delineation time pre-dating human migratory waves out of Africa. These findings reveal that P. copri exhibits a high diversity that is underrepresented in Western-lifestyle populations.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

McCrory C, Fiorito G, McLoughlin S, et al (2019)

Epigenetic clocks and allostatic load reveal potential sex-specific drivers of biological ageing.

The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences pii:5586166 [Epub ahead of print].

Allostatic Load (AL) and epigenetic clocks both attempt to characterise the accelerated ageing of biological systems, but at present it is unclear whether these measures are complementary or distinct. This study examines the cross-sectional association of AL with Epigenetic Age Acceleration (EAA) in a sub-sample of 490 community dwelling older-adults participating in The Irish Longitudinal study on Aging (TILDA). A battery of 14 biomarkers representing the activity of 4 different physiological systems: immunological, cardiovascular, metabolic, renal, was used to construct the AL score. DNA methylation age was computed according to the algorithms described by Horvath, Hannum and Levine allowing for estimation of whether an individual is experiencing accelerated or decelerated ageing. Horvath, Hannum and Levine EAA correlated 0.05, 0.03, and 0.21 with AL respectively. Disaggregation by sex revealed that AL was more strongly associated with EAA in men compared with women as assessed using Horvath's clock. Metabolic dysregulation was a strong driver of EAA in men as assessed using Horvath and Levine's clock, while metabolic and cardiovascular dysregulation were associated with EAA in women using Levine's clock. Results indicate that AL and the epigenetic clocks are measuring different age-related variance and implicate sex-specific drivers of biological ageing.

RevDate: 2019-10-11

Stinson LF (2019)

Establishment of the early-life microbiome: a DOHaD perspective.

Journal of developmental origins of health and disease pii:S2040174419000588 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome plays a number of critical roles in host physiology. Evidence from longitudinal cohort studies and animal models strongly supports the theory that maldevelopment of the microbiome in early life can programme later-life disease. The early-life microbiome develops in a clear stepwise manner over the first 3 years of life. During this highly dynamic time, insults such as antibiotic use and formula feeding can adversely affect the composition and temporal development of the microbiome. Such experiences predispose infants for the development of chronic health conditions later in life. This review highlights key factors that disrupt the early-life microbiome and highlights major non-communicable diseases which are underpinned by early-life dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-10-10

Shkoporov AN, Clooney AG, Sutton TDS, et al (2019)

The Human Gut Virome Is Highly Diverse, Stable, and Individual Specific.

Cell host & microbe, 26(4):527-541.e5.

The human gut contains a vast array of viruses, mostly bacteriophages. The majority remain uncharacterized, and their roles in shaping the gut microbiome and in impacting on human health remain poorly understood. We performed longitudinal metagenomic analysis of fecal viruses in healthy adults that reveal high temporal stability, individual specificity, and correlation with the bacterial microbiome. Using a database-independent approach that uses most of the sequencing data, we uncovered the existence of a stable, numerically predominant individual-specific persistent personal virome. Clustering of viral genomes and de novo taxonomic annotation identified several groups of crAss-like and Microviridae bacteriophages as the most stable colonizers of the human gut. CRISPR-based host prediction highlighted connections between these stable viral communities and highly predominant gut bacterial taxa such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Faecalibacterium. This study provides insights into the structure of the human gut virome and serves as an important baseline for hypothesis-driven research.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Andreev VP, Liu G, Zee J, et al (2019)

Clustering of the structures by using "snakes-&-dragons" approach, or correlation matrix as a signal.

PloS one, 14(10):e0223267.

Biological, ecological, social, and technological systems are complex structures with multiple interacting parts, often represented by networks. Correlation matrices describing interdependency of the variables in such structures provide key information for comparison and classification of such systems. Classification based on correlation matrices could supplement or improve classification based on variable values, since the former reveals similarities in system structures, while the latter relies on the similarities in system states. Importantly, this approach of clustering correlation matrices is different from clustering elements of the correlation matrices, because our goal is to compare and cluster multiple networks-not the nodes within the networks. A novel approach for clustering correlation matrices, named "snakes-&-dragons," is introduced and illustrated by examples from neuroscience, human microbiome, and macroeconomics.

RevDate: 2019-10-10

Holster S, Hooiveld GJ, Repsilber D, et al (2019)

Allogenic Faecal Microbiota Transfer Induces Immune-Related Gene Sets in the Colon Mucosa of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Biomolecules, 9(10): pii:biom9100586.

Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the introduction of new microbial communities into the intestine of a patient, with the aim of restoring a disturbed gut microbiota. Even though it is used as a potential treatment for various diseases, it is unknown how the host mucosa responds to FMT. This study aims to investigate the colonic mucosa gene expression response to allogenic (from a donor) or autologous (own) FMT in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In a recently conducted randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical study, 17 IBS patients were treated with FMT by colonoscopy. RNA was isolated from colonic biopsies collected by sigmoidoscopy at baseline, as well as two weeks and eight weeks after FMT. In patients treated with allogenic FMT, predominantly immune response-related gene sets were induced, with the strongest response two weeks after the FMT. In patients treated with autologous FMT, predominantly metabolism-related gene sets were affected. Furthermore, several microbiota genera showed correlations with immune-related gene sets, with different correlations found after allogenic compared to autologous FMT. This study shows that the microbe-host response is influenced by FMT on the mucosal gene expression level, and that there are clear differences in response to allogenic compared to autologous FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Zhao H, Fu S, Yu Y, et al (2019)

MetaMed: Linking Microbiota Functions with Medicine Therapeutics.

mSystems, 4(5):.

Understanding how the human microbiome affects human health has consequences for treating disease and minimizing unwanted side effects in clinical research. Here, we present MetaMed (http://metamed.rwebox.com/index), a novel and integrative system-wide correlation mapping system to link bacterial functions and medicine therapeutics, providing novel hypotheses for deep investigation of microbe therapeutic effects on human health. Furthermore, comprehensive relationships between microbes living in the environment and drugs were discovered, providing a rich source for discovering microbiota metabolites with great potential for pharmaceutical applications.

RevDate: 2019-10-21

Li W, ZS Ma (2019)

Diversity scaling of human vaginal microbial communities.

Zoological research, 40(6):587-594.

The composition and diversity of the human vaginal microbial community have been investigated intensively due to the diversity-stability relationship (DSR)-based hypothesis for bacterial vaginosis (BV) etiology, which was first proposed in the 1990s and has received renewed interest in recent years. Nevertheless, diversity changes (scaling) across individuals in a cohort or population have not yet been addressed, which is significant both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, biodiversity scaling is the core of biogeography, and practically, inter-subject heterogeneity is critical for understanding the etiology and epidemiology of human microbiome-associated diseases such as BV. Here we applied the diversity-area relationship (DAR), a recent extension to the classic species-area relationship (SAR), to study diversity scaling of the vaginal microbiome by reanalyzing reported data collected from 1 107 postpartum women. The model used here characterized the power-law (or its extension) relationships between accrued diversity and areas (numbers of individuals), upon which four biogeographic profiles were thus defined. Specifically, we established the DAR profile (relationship between diversity scaling parameter and so-termed diversity order (q)), similarly pair-wise diversity overlap (PDO) profile, maximal accrual diversity (MAD) profile, and ratio of individual-level to population-level diversity (RIP) profile. These four profiles offer valuable tools to assess and predict diversity scaling (changes) in the human vaginal microbiome across individuals, as well as to understand the dynamics of vaginal microbiomes in healthy women.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Amato KR, Mallott EK, McDonald D, et al (2019)

Convergence of human and Old World monkey gut microbiomes demonstrates the importance of human ecology over phylogeny.

Genome biology, 20(1):201.

BACKGROUND: Comparative data from non-human primates provide insight into the processes that shaped the evolution of the human gut microbiome and highlight microbiome traits that differentiate humans from other primates. Here, in an effort to improve our understanding of the human microbiome, we compare gut microbiome composition and functional potential in 14 populations of humans from ten nations and 18 species of wild, non-human primates.

RESULTS: Contrary to expectations from host phylogenetics, we find that human gut microbiome composition and functional potential are more similar to those of cercopithecines, a subfamily of Old World monkey, particularly baboons, than to those of African apes. Additionally, our data reveal more inter-individual variation in gut microbiome functional potential within the human species than across other primate species, suggesting that the human gut microbiome may exhibit more plasticity in response to environmental variation compared to that of other primates.

CONCLUSIONS: Given similarities of ancestral human habitats and dietary strategies to those of baboons, these findings suggest that convergent ecologies shaped the gut microbiomes of both humans and cercopithecines, perhaps through environmental exposure to microbes, diet, and/or associated physiological adaptations. Increased inter-individual variation in the human microbiome may be associated with human dietary diversity or the ability of humans to inhabit novel environments. Overall, these findings show that diet, ecology, and physiological adaptations are more important than host-microbe co-diversification in shaping the human microbiome, providing a key foundation for comparative analyses of the role of the microbiome in human biology and health.

RevDate: 2019-10-07

Bradley PH, KS Pollard (2019)

phylogenize: correcting for phylogeny reveals genes associated with microbial distributions.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5582265 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: Phylogenetic comparative methods are powerful but presently under-utilized ways to identify microbial genes underlying differences in community composition. These methods help to identify functionally important genes because they test for associations beyond those expected when related microbes occupy similar environments. We present phylogenize, a pipeline with web, QIIME 2, and R interfaces that allows researchers to perform phylogenetic regression on 16S amplicon and shotgun sequencing data and to visualize results. phylogenize applies broadly to both host-associated and environmental microbiomes. Using Human Microbiome Project and Earth Microbiome Project data, we show that phylogenize draws similar conclusions from 16S versus shotgun sequencing and reveals both known and candidate pathways associated with host colonization.

AVAILABILITY: phylogenize is available at https://phylogenize.org and https://bitbucket.org/pbradz/phylogenize.

RevDate: 2019-10-20

Hooks KB, MA O'Malley (2019)

Contrasting Strategies: Human Eukaryotic Versus Bacterial Microbiome Research.

The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Most discussions of human microbiome research have focused on bacterial investigations and findings. Our target is to understand how human eukaryotic microbiome research is developing, its potential distinctiveness, and how problems can be addressed. We start with an overview of the entire eukaryotic microbiome literature (578 papers), show tendencies in the human-based microbiome literature, and then compare the eukaryotic field to more developed human bacterial microbiome research. We are particularly concerned with problems of interpretation that are already apparent in human bacterial microbiome research (e.g. disease causality, probiotic interventions, evolutionary claims). We show where each field converges and diverges, and what this might mean for progress in human eukaryotic microbiome research. Our analysis then makes constructive suggestions for the future of the field.

RevDate: 2019-10-04

Sugimoto Y, Camacho FR, Wang S, et al (2019)

A metagenomic strategy for harnessing the chemical repertoire of the human microbiome.

Science (New York, N.Y.) pii:science.aax9176 [Epub ahead of print].

Remarkable progress has been made in determining the effects of the microbiome on human physiology and disease, but the underlying molecules and mechanisms governing these effects remain largely unexplored. Here, we combine a new computational algorithm with synthetic biology to access biologically active small molecules encoded directly in human microbiome-derived metagenomic sequencing data. We discover that members of a clinically used class of molecules are widely encoded in the human microbiome, and that they exert potent antibacterial activities against neighboring microbes, implying a possible role in niche competition and host defense. Our approach paves the way toward a systematic unveiling of the chemical repertoire encoded by the human microbiome and provides a generalizable platform for discovering molecular mediators of microbiome-host and microbiome-microbiome interactions.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Chmiel JA, Daisley BA, Burton JP, et al (2019)

Deleterious Effects of Neonicotinoid Pesticides on Drosophila melanogaster Immune Pathways.

mBio, 10(5):.

Neonicotinoid insecticides are common agrochemicals that are used to kill pest insects and improve crop yield. However, sublethal exposure can exert unintentional toxicity to honey bees and other beneficial pollinators by dysregulating innate immunity. Generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the dual oxidase (Duox) pathway is a critical component of the innate immune response, which functions to impede infection and maintain homeostatic regulation of the gut microbiota. Despite the importance of this pathway in gut immunity, the consequences of neonicotinoid exposure on Duox signaling have yet to be studied. Here, we use a Drosophila melanogaster model to investigate the hypothesis that imidacloprid (a common neonicotinoid) can affect the Duox pathway. The results demonstrated that exposure to sublethal imidacloprid reduced H2O2 production by inhibiting transcription of the Duox gene. Furthermore, the reduction in Duox expression was found to be a result of imidacloprid interacting with the midgut portion of the immune deficiency pathway. This impairment led to a loss of microbial regulation, as exemplified by a compositional shift and increased total abundance of Lactobacillus and Acetobacter spp. (dominant microbiota members) found in the gut. In addition, we demonstrated that certain probiotic lactobacilli could ameliorate Duox pathway impairment caused by imidacloprid, but this effect was not directly dependent on the Duox pathway itself. This study is the first to demonstrate the deleterious effects that neonicotinoids can have on Duox-mediated generation of H2O2 and highlights a novel coordination between two important innate immune pathways present in insects.IMPORTANCE Sublethal exposure to certain pesticides (e.g., neonicotinoid insecticides) is suspected to contribute to honey bee (Apis mellifera) population decline in North America. Neonicotinoids are known to interfere with immune pathways in the gut of insects, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We used a Drosophila melanogaster model to understand how imidacloprid (a common neonicotinoid) interferes with two innate immune pathways-Duox and Imd. We found that imidacloprid dysregulates these pathways to reduce hydrogen peroxide production, ultimately leading to a dysbiotic shift in the gut microbiota. Intriguingly, we found that presupplementation with probiotic bacteria could mitigate the harmful effects of imidacloprid. Thus, these observations uncover a novel mechanism of pesticide-induced immunosuppression that exploits the interconnectedness of two important insect immune pathways.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Reid G (2019)

The Need to Focus on Therapy Instead of Associations.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:327.

Molecular analyses of the vaginal microbiota have uncovered a vast array of organisms in this niche, but not so far changed what has been known for a long time: lactobacilli are dominant in health, and the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis is sub-optimal, and has not changed for over 40 years. While the lowering cost of DNA sequencing has attracted more researchers to the field, and bioinformatics, and statistical tools have made it possible to produce large datasets, it is functional and actionable studies that are more urgently needed, not more microbial abundance, and health or disease-associative data. The triggers of dysbiosis remain to be identified, but ultimately treatment will require disrupting biofilms of primarily anaerobic bacteria and replacing them with the host's own lactobacilli, or health-promoting organisms. The options of using probiotic strains to displace the biofilms and for prebiotics to encourage resurgence of the indigenous lactobacilli hold great promise, but more researchers need to develop, and test these concepts in humans. The enormity of the problem of vaginal dysbiosis cannot be understated. It should not take another 40 years to offer better management options.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

Cammarota G, Ianiro G, Kelly CR, et al (2019)

International consensus conference on stool banking for faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2019-319548 [Epub ahead of print].

Although faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a well-established role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), its widespread dissemination is limited by several obstacles, including lack of dedicated centres, difficulties with donor recruitment and complexities related to regulation and safety monitoring. Given the considerable burden of CDI on global healthcare systems, FMT should be widely available to most centres.Stool banks may guarantee reliable, timely and equitable access to FMT for patients and a traceable workflow that ensures safety and quality of procedures. In this consensus project, FMT experts from Europe, North America and Australia gathered and released statements on the following issues related to the stool banking: general principles, objectives and organisation of the stool bank; selection and screening of donors; collection, preparation and storage of faeces; services and clients; registries, monitoring of outcomes and ethical issues; and the evolving role of FMT in clinical practice,Consensus on each statement was achieved through a Delphi process and then in a plenary face-to-face meeting. For each key issue, the best available evidence was assessed, with the aim of providing guidance for the development of stool banks in order to promote accessibility to FMT in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2019-10-09

Hynönen U, Zoetendal EG, Virtala AK, et al (2019)

Molecular ecology of the yet uncultured bacterial Ct85-cluster in the mammalian gut.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(19)30176-3 [Epub ahead of print].

In our previous studies on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) -associated microbiota by molecular methods, we demonstrated that a particular 16S rRNA gene amplicon was more abundant in the feces of healthy subjects or mixed type IBS (IBS-M) -sufferers than in the feces of individuals with diarrhea-type IBS (IBS-D). In the current study, we demonstrated that this, so called Ct85-amplicon, consists of a cluster of very heterogeneous 16S rRNA gene sequences, and defined six 16S rRNA gene types, a to f, within this cluster, each representing a novel species-, genus- or family level taxon. We then designed specific PCR primers for these sequence types, mapped the distribution of the Ct85-cluster sequences and that of the newly defined sequence types in several animal species and compared the sequence types present in the feces of healthy individuals and IBS sufferers using two IBS study cohorts, Finnish and Dutch. Various Ct85-cluster sequence types were detected in the fecal samples of several companion and production animal species with remarkably differing prevalences and abundances. The Ct85 sequence type composition of swine closely resembled that of humans. One of the five types (d) shared between humans and swine was not present in any other animals tested, while one sequence type (b) was found only in human samples. In both IBS study cohorts, one type (e) was more prevalent in healthy individuals than in the IBS-M group. By revealing various sequence types in the widespread Ct85-cluster and their distribution, the results improve our understanding of these uncultured bacteria, which is essential for future efforts to cultivate representatives of the Ct85-cluster and reveal their roles in IBS.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

Ghose C, Ly M, Schwanemann LK, et al (2019)

The Virome of Cerebrospinal Fluid: Viruses Where We Once Thought There Were None.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2061.

Traditionally, medicine has held that some human body sites are sterile and that the introduction of microbes to these sites results in infections. This paradigm shifted significantly with the discovery of the human microbiome and acceptance of these commensal microbes living across the body. However, the central nervous system (CNS) is still believed by many to be sterile in healthy people. Using culture-independent methods, we examined the virome of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a cohort of mostly healthy human subjects. We identified a community of DNA viruses, most of which were identified as bacteriophages. Compared to other human specimen types, CSF viromes were not ecologically distinct. There was a high alpha diversity cluster that included feces, saliva, and urine, and a low alpha diversity cluster that included CSF, body fluids, plasma, and breast milk. The high diversity cluster included specimens known to have many bacteria, while other specimens traditionally assumed to be sterile formed the low diversity cluster. There was an abundance of viruses shared among CSF, breast milk, plasma, and body fluids, while each generally shared less with urine, feces, and saliva. These shared viruses ranged across different virus families, indicating that similarities between these viromes represent more than just a single shared virus family. By identifying a virome in the CSF of mostly healthy individuals, it is now less likely that any human body site is devoid of microbes, which further highlights the need to decipher the role that viral communities may play in human health.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

Pires ES, Hardoim CCP, Miranda KR, et al (2019)

The Gut Microbiome and Metabolome of Two Riparian Communities in the Amazon.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2003.

During the last decades it has become increasingly clear that the microbes that live on and in humans are critical for health. The communities they form, termed microbiomes, are involved in fundamental processes such as the maturation and constant regulation of the immune system. Additionally, they constitute a strong defense barrier to invading pathogens, and are also intricately linked to nutrition. The parameters that affect the establishment and maintenance of these microbial communities are diverse, and include the genetic background, mode of birth, nutrition, hygiene, and host lifestyle in general. Here, we describe the characterization of the gut microbiome of individuals living in the Amazon, and the comparison of these microbial communities to those found in individuals from an urban, industrialized setting. Our results showed striking differences in microbial communities from these two types of populations. Additionally, we used high-throughput metabolomics to study the chemical ecology of the gut environment and found significant metabolic changes between the two populations. Although we cannot point out a single cause for the microbial and metabolic changes observed between Amazonian and urban individuals, they are likely to include dietary differences as well as diverse patterns of environmental exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first description of gut microbial and metabolic profiles in Amazonian populations, and it provides a starting point for thorough characterizations of the impact of individual environmental conditions on the human microbiome and metabolome.

RevDate: 2019-09-24

Dizzell S, Nazli A, Reid G, et al (2019)

Protective Effect of Probiotic Bacteria and Estrogen in Preventing HIV-1-Mediated Impairment of Epithelial Barrier Integrity in Female Genital Tract.

Cells, 8(10): pii:cells8101120.

Approximately 40% of global HIV-1 transmission occurs in the female genital tract (FGT) through heterosexual transmission. Epithelial cells lining the FGT provide the first barrier to HIV-1 entry. Previous studies have suggested that certain hormonal contraceptives or a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota can enhance HIV-1 acquisition in the FGT. We examined the effects of lactobacilli and female sex hormones on the barrier functions and innate immune responses of primary endometrial genital epithelial cells (GECs). Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 and L. rhamnosus GR-1, were tested, as were sex hormones estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4), and the hormonal contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Our results demonstrate that probiotic lactobacilli enhance barrier function without affecting cytokines. Treatment of GECs with MPA resulted in reduced barrier function. In contrast, E2 treatment enhanced barrier function and reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Comparison of hormones plus lactobacilli as a pre-treatment prior to HIV exposure revealed a dominant effect of lactobacilli in preventing loss of barrier function by GECs. In summary, the combination of E2 and lactobacilli had the best protective effect against HIV-1 seen by enhancement of barrier function and reduction in proinflammatory cytokines. These studies provide insights into how probiotic lactobacilli in the female genital microenvironment can alter HIV-1-mediated barrier disruption and how the combination of E2 and lactobacilli may decrease susceptibility to primary HIV infection.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Chu J, Vila-Farres X, SF Brady (2019)

Bioactive Synthetic-Bioinformatic Natural Product Cyclic Peptides Inspired by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene Clusters from the Human Microbiome.

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(40):15737-15741.

Bioinformatic analysis of sequenced bacterial genomes has uncovered an increasing number of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) to which no known bacterial metabolite can be ascribed. One emerging method we have investigated for studying these BGCs is the synthetic-Bioinformatic Natural Product (syn-BNP) approach. The syn-BNP approach replaces transcription, translation, and in vivo enzymatic biosynthesis of natural products with bioinformatic algorithms to predict the output of a BGC and in vitro chemical synthesis to produce the predicted structure. Here we report on expanding the syn-BNP approach to the design and synthesis of cyclic peptides inspired by nonribosomal peptide synthetase BGCs associated with the human microbiota. While no syn-BNPs we tested inhibited the growth of bacteria or yeast, five were found to be active in the human cell-based MTT metabolic activity assay. Interestingly, active peptides were mostly inspired by BGCs found in the genomes of opportunistic pathogens that are often more commonly associated with environments outside the human microbiome. The cyclic syn-BNP studies presented here provide further evidence of its potential for identifying bioactive small molecules directly from the instructions encoded in the primary sequences of natural product BGCs.

RevDate: 2019-09-23

Bosch TCG (2019)

Multidisciplinary Approaches to Exploring Human-Microbiome Interactions.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 41(10):1-2.

RevDate: 2019-10-02

Yerushalmy O, Coppenhagen-Glazer S, Nir-Paz R, et al (2019)

Complete Genome Sequences of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Phages Isolated as Part of an International Effort.

Microbiology resource announcements, 8(38): pii:8/38/e00843-19.

We report the genomic sequences of phages KpCHEMY26 and KpGranit, isolated in Israel during a worldwide effort against a multidrug- and phage-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae from a patient in Finland. These results demonstrate the importance of an efficient worldwide network for collaborating in personalized therapy for infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2019-10-09

Willmann M, Vehreschild MJGT, Biehl LM, et al (2019)

Distinct impact of antibiotics on the gut microbiome and resistome: a longitudinal multicenter cohort study.

BMC biology, 17(1):76 pii:10.1186/s12915-019-0692-y.

BACKGROUND: The selection pressure exercised by antibiotic drugs is an important consideration for the wise stewardship of antimicrobial treatment programs. Treatment decisions are currently based on crude assumptions, and there is an urgent need to develop a more quantitative knowledge base that can enable predictions of the impact of individual antibiotics on the human gut microbiome and resistome.

RESULTS: Using shotgun metagenomics, we quantified changes in the gut microbiome in two cohorts of hematological patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics; one cohort was treated with ciprofloxacin in a hospital in Tübingen and the other with cotrimoxazole in a hospital in Cologne. Analyzing this rich longitudinal dataset, we found that gut microbiome diversity was reduced in both treatment cohorts to a similar extent, while effects on the gut resistome differed. We observed a sharp increase in the relative abundance of sulfonamide antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by 148.1% per cumulative defined daily dose of cotrimoxazole in the Cologne cohort, but not in the Tübingen cohort treated with ciprofloxacin. Through multivariate modeling, we found that factors such as individual baseline microbiome, resistome, and plasmid diversity; liver/kidney function; and concurrent medication, especially virostatic agents, influence resistome alterations. Strikingly, we observed different effects on the plasmidome in the two treatment groups. There was a substantial increase in the abundance of ARG-carrying plasmids in the cohort treated with cotrimoxazole, but not in the cohort treated with ciprofloxacin, indicating that cotrimoxazole might contribute more efficiently to the spread of resistance.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents a step forward in developing the capability to predict the effect of individual antimicrobials on the human microbiome and resistome. Our results indicate that to achieve this, integration of the individual baseline microbiome, resistome, and mobilome status as well as additional individual patient factors will be required. Such personalized predictions may in the future increase patient safety and reduce the spread of resistance.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02058888 . Registered February 10 2014.

RevDate: 2019-09-18

Bhuta R, Nieder M, Jubelirer T, et al (2019)

The Gut Microbiome and Pediatric Cancer: Current Research and Gaps in Knowledge.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, 2019(54):169-173.

The human microbiome consists of trillions of microbial cells that interact with one another and the human host to play a clinically significant role in health and disease. Gut microbial changes have been identified in cancer pathogenesis, at disease diagnosis, during therapy, and even long after completion of treatment. Alterations in the gut microbiome have been linked to treatment-related toxicity and potential long-term morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Such alterations are plausible given immune modulation due to disease as well as exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy, infections, and antibiotics. The following review presents our current scientific understanding on the role of the gut microbiome in pediatric cancer, identifies gaps in knowledge, and suggests future research goals.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

Köberl M, Erschen S, Etemadi M, et al (2019)

Deciphering the microbiome shift during fermentation of medicinal plants.

Scientific reports, 9(1):13461 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-49799-2.

The importance of the human-microbiome relationship for positive health outcomes has become more apparent over the last decade. Influencing the gut microbiome via modification of diet represents a possibility of maintaining a healthy gut flora. Fermented food and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display a preventive way to inhibit microbial dysbioses and diseases, but their ecology on plants is poorly understood. We characterized the microbiome of medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L. and Calendula officinalis L.) using 16S rRNA gene profiling from leaves that were fermented over a six-week time course. The unfermented samples were characterized by a distinct phyllosphere microbiome, while the endosphere revealed a high similarity. During fermentation, significant microbial shifts were observed, whereby LAB were enhanced in all approaches but never numerically dominated. Among the LAB, Enterococcaceae were identified as the most dominant family in both plants. M. chamomilla community had higher relative abundances of Lactobacillaceae and Carnobacteriaceae, while C. officinalis showed a higher presence of Leuconostocaceae and Streptococcaceae. The natural leaf microbiome and the indigenous LAB communities of field-grown Asteraceae medicinal plants are plant-specific and habitat-specific and are subjected to significant shifts during fermentation. Leaf surfaces as well as leaf endospheres were identified as sources for biopreservative LAB.

RevDate: 2019-09-23

Amato KR, Jeyakumar T, Poinar H, et al (2019)

Shifting Climates, Foods, and Diseases: The Human Microbiome through Evolution.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 41(10):e1900034.

Human evolution has been punctuated by climate anomalies, structuring environments, deadly infections, and altering landscapes. How well humans adapted to these new circumstances had direct effects on fitness and survival. Here, how the gut microbiome could have contributed to human evolutionary success through contributions to host nutritional buffering and infectious disease resistance is reviewed. How changes in human genetics, diet, disease exposure, and social environments almost certainly altered microbial community composition is also explored. Emerging research points to the microbiome as a key player in host responses to environmental change. Therefore, the reciprocal interactions between humans and their microbes are likely to have shaped human patterns of local adaptation throughout our shared evolutionary history. Recent alterations in human lifestyle, however, are altering human microbiomes in unprecedented ways. The consequences of interrupted host-microbe relationships for human adaptive potential in the future are unknown.

RevDate: 2019-09-16

Requena T, M Velasco (2019)

The human microbiome in sickness and in health.

Revista clinica espanola pii:S0014-2565(19)30194-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The study of the human microbiome has led to an exceptional increase in the current understanding of the importance of microbiota for health throughout all stages of life. Human microbial colonization occurs in the skin, genitourinary system and, mainly, in the oral cavity and intestinal tract. In these locations, the human microbiota establishes a symbiotic relationship with the host and helps maintain the physiological homeostasis. Lifestyle, age, diet and use of antibiotics are the main regulators of the composition and functionality of human microbiota. Recent studies have indicated the reduction in microbial diversity as one of the contributors to the development of diseases. In addition to phylogenetic diversity studies, further metagenomic studies are needed at the functional level of the human microbiome to improve our understanding of its involvement in human health.

RevDate: 2019-09-14

Polkowska-Pruszyńska B, Gerkowicz A, D Krasowska (2019)

The gut microbiome alterations in allergic and inflammatory skin diseases - an update.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is a wide range of microorganisms residing in and on our body. The homeostasis between host immune system and the microbial environment allows mutual benefits and protection. Physiological bacterial colonization is essential for the establishment of organism immunity. The human microbiota ecosystem can be divided into several compartments, out of which intestinal flora strongly affects our health and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. The gastrointestinal tract, being a major guardian of the immune system, maintains the homeostasis with the commensal microorganisms by tolerating the typical flora antigens. The dysbiosis may trigger an inflammatory response followed by tissue damage or autoimmune processes. The gut microbiome alterations are linked to the pathogenesis of the allergic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, metabolic, neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Moreover, there is increasing evidence connecting the skin condition with the gastrointestinal microbiome, which has been described as the skin-gut axis. The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the role of the gut microbiome alterations in the pathogenesis of selected allergic and inflammatory skin diseases.

RevDate: 2019-09-14

Ndika J, Seemab U, Poon WL, et al (2019)

Silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles trigger miRNA/isomiR expression changes in THP-1 cells that are proportional to their health hazard potential.

Nanotoxicology [Epub ahead of print].

After over a decade of nanosafety research, it is indisputable that the vast majority of nano-sized particles induce a plethora of adverse cellular responses - the severity of which is linked to the material's physicochemical properties. Differentiated THP-1 cells were previously exposed for 6 h and 24 h to silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles at the maximum molar concentration at which no more than 15% cellular cytotoxicity was observed. All three nanoparticles differed in extent of induction of biological pathways corresponding to immune response signaling and metal ion homeostasis. In this study, we integrated gene and miRNA expression profiles from the same cells to propose miRNA biomarkers of adverse exposure to metal-based nanoparticles. We employed RNA sequencing together with a quantitative strategy that also enables analysis of the overlooked repertoire of length and sequence miRNA variants called isomiRs. Whilst only modest changes in expression were observed within the first 6 h of exposure, the miRNA/isomiR (miR) profiles of each nanoparticle were unique. Via canonical correlation and pathway enrichment analyses, we identified a co-regulated miR-mRNA cluster, predicted to be highly relevant for cellular response to metal ion homeostasis. These miRs were annotated to be canonical or variant isoforms of hsa-miR-142-5p, -342-3p, -5100, -6087, -6894-3p, and -7704. Hsa-miR-5100 was differentially expressed in response to each nanoparticle in both the 6 h and 24 h exposures. Taken together, this co-regulated miR-mRNA cluster could represent potential biomarkers of sub-toxic metal-based nanoparticle exposure.

RevDate: 2019-10-13

Forsberg KJ, Bhatt IV, Schmidtke DT, et al (2019)

Functional metagenomics-guided discovery of potent Cas9 inhibitors in the human microbiome.

eLife, 8: pii:46540.

CRISPR-Cas systems protect bacteria and archaea from phages and other mobile genetic elements, which use small anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to overcome CRISPR-Cas immunity. Because Acrs are challenging to identify, their natural diversity and impact on microbial ecosystems are underappreciated. To overcome this discovery bottleneck, we developed a high-throughput functional selection to isolate ten DNA fragments from human oral and fecal metagenomes that inhibit Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) in Escherichia coli. The most potent Acr from this set, AcrIIA11, was recovered from a Lachnospiraceae phage. We found that AcrIIA11 inhibits SpyCas9 in bacteria and in human cells. AcrIIA11 homologs are distributed across diverse bacteria; many distantly-related homologs inhibit both SpyCas9 and a divergent Cas9 from Treponema denticola. We find that AcrIIA11 antagonizes SpyCas9 using a different mechanism than other previously characterized Type II-A Acrs. Our study highlights the power of functional selection to uncover widespread Cas9 inhibitors within diverse microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Kumar M, Singh P, Murugesan S, et al (2020)

Microbiome as an Immunological Modifier.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2055:595-638.

Humans are living ecosystems composed of human cells and microbes. The microbiome is the collection of microbes (microbiota) and their genes. Recent breakthroughs in the high-throughput sequencing technologies have made it possible for us to understand the composition of the human microbiome. Launched by the National Institutes of Health in USA, the human microbiome project indicated that our bodies harbor a wide array of microbes, specific to each body site with interpersonal and intrapersonal variabilities. Numerous studies have indicated that several factors influence the development of the microbiome including genetics, diet, use of antibiotics, and lifestyle, among others. The microbiome and its mediators are in a continuous cross talk with the host immune system; hence, any imbalance on one side is reflected on the other. Dysbiosis (microbiota imbalance) was shown in many diseases and pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, diabetes, and cancer. The microbial composition mirrors inflammation variations in certain disease conditions, within various stages of the same disease; hence, it has the potential to be used as a biomarker.

RevDate: 2019-10-21

Boto L, Pineda M, R Pineda (2019)

Potential impacts of horizontal gene transfer on human health and physiology and how anthropogenic activity can affect it.

The FEBS journal, 286(20):3959-3967.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is widespread among prokaryotes driving their evolution. In this paper, we review the potential impact in humans of the HGT between prokaryotes living in close association with humans in two scenarios: horizontal transfer in human microbiomes and transfer between microbes living in human managed environments. Although our vision is focused on the possible impact of these transfers in the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes or pathogenicity determinants, we also discuss possible human physiological adaptations via gene transfer between resident and occasional bacteria in the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2019-10-21

Fielding RA, Reeves AR, Jasuja R, et al (2019)

Muscle strength is increased in mice that are colonized with microbiota from high-functioning older adults.

Experimental gerontology, 127:110722 pii:S0531-5565(19)30477-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Evidence in support of a gut-muscle axis has been reported in rodents, but studies in older adult humans are limited. Accordingly, the primary goals of the present study were to compare gut microbiome composition in older adults that differed in terms of the percentage of whole body lean mass and physical functioning (high-functioning, HF, n = 18; low-functioning, LF, n = 11), and to evaluate the causative role of the gut microbiome on these variables by transferring fecal samples from older adults into germ-free mice. Family-level Prevotellaceae, genus-level Prevotella and Barnesiella, and the bacterial species Barnesiella intestinihominis were higher in HF older adults at the initial study visit, at a 1-month follow-up visit, in HF human fecal donors, and in HF-colonized mice, when compared with their LF counterparts. Grip strength was significantly increased by 6.4% in HF-, when compared with LF-colonized mice. In contrast, despite significant differences for the percentage of whole body lean mass and physical functioning when comparing the human fecal donors, the percentage of whole body lean mass and treadmill endurance capacity were not different when comparing human microbiome-containing mice. In sum, these data suggest a role for gut bacteria on the maintenance of muscle strength, but argue against a role for gut bacteria on the maintenance of the percentage of whole body lean mass or endurance capacity, findings that collectively add to elucidation of the gut-muscle axis in older adults.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Wheeler KM, MA Liss (2019)

The Microbiome and Prostate Cancer Risk.

Current urology reports, 20(10):66 pii:10.1007/s11934-019-0922-4.

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: There is an abundance of evidence that the human microbiome plays an important and nuanced role in controlling human metabolism, immunity, and cancer. Herein we aim to review the most current research looking at prostate cancer and its link with the gut and genitourinary microbiome. There is now a host of evidence for a unique genitourinary (GU) microbiome. The prostate microbiota, to include viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic contributions, as assessed from formalin-fixed tissue is described nicely in the study by Banerjee et al. Further hierarchical analysis by this group found a unique microbiome signature for higher Gleason score cancers and validation PCR studies noted a marked number of viral genomic insertions into host DNA. Shretha et al. also recently established unique GU microbiomes in patients with prostate cancer or benign prostate pathology based on urine samples. The gut microbiome likely also has an indirect but significant role in prostate cancer development and treatment. Liss et al. and Golombos et al. found significant associations between specific gut microbiota and prostate cancer. Interestingly, the balance of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharides, production of bile salts, and metabolism of dietary fiber to short chain fatty acids all likely play important roles in creating systemic pro- or anti-carcinogenic states. In terms of prostate cancer treatment effects, Sfanos et al. noted a unique microbial signature in patients undergoing oral androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as compared with prostate cancer patients not on ADT. Patients undergoing ADT also had enrichment of bacterial metabolic pathways promoting androgen synthesis. Together, these studies have identified a unique GU microbiome and linked both the GU microbiome and unique gut microbial signatures with prostate cancer and prostate cancer treatments. Whether this information can be used in cancer prevention, treatment, or diagnosis are areas of ongoing and active research.

RevDate: 2019-09-13

Soto-Perez P, Bisanz JE, Berry JD, et al (2019)

CRISPR-Cas System of a Prevalent Human Gut Bacterium Reveals Hyper-targeting against Phages in a Human Virome Catalog.

Cell host & microbe, 26(3):325-335.e5.

Bacteriophages are abundant within the human gastrointestinal tract, yet their interactions with gut bacteria remain poorly understood, particularly with respect to CRISPR-Cas immunity. Here, we show that the type I-C CRISPR-Cas system in the prevalent gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta is transcribed and sufficient for specific targeting of foreign and chromosomal DNA. Comparative analyses of E. lenta CRISPR-Cas systems across (meta)genomes revealed 2 distinct clades according to cas sequence similarity and spacer content. We assembled a human virome database (HuVirDB), encompassing 1,831 samples enriched for viral DNA, to identify protospacers. This revealed matches for a majority of spacers, a marked increase over other databases, and uncovered "hyper-targeted" phage sequences containing multiple protospacers targeted by several E. lenta strains. Finally, we determined the positional mismatch tolerance of observed spacer-protospacer pairs. This work emphasizes the utility of merging computational and experimental approaches for determining the function and targets of CRISPR-Cas systems.

RevDate: 2019-09-07

Wang S, Ryan CA, Boyaval P, et al (2019)

Maternal Vertical Transmission Affecting Early-life Microbiota Development.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(19)30208-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The association of the human microbiome with health outcomes has attracted much interest toward its therapeutic manipulation. The likelihood of modulating the human microbiome in early life is high and offers great potential to exert profound effects on human development since the early microbiota shows more flexibility compared to that of adults. The human microbiota, being similar to human genetics, can be transmitted from mother to infant, providing insights into early microbiota acquisition, subsequent development, and potential opportunities for intervention. Here, we review adaptations of the maternal microbiota during pregnancy, birth, and infancy, the acquisition and succession of early-life microbiota, and highlight recent efforts to elucidate mother-to-infant microbiota transmission. We further discuss how the mother-to-infant microbial transmission is shaped; and finally we address potential directions for future studies to promote our understanding within this field.

RevDate: 2019-09-08

Cammarota G, Putignani L, A Gasbarrini (2019)

Gut microbiome beats two to zero host genome.

Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition, 8(4):378-380.

RevDate: 2019-09-13

Badal VD, Wright D, Katsis Y, et al (2019)

Challenges in the construction of knowledge bases for human microbiome-disease associations.

Microbiome, 7(1):129 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0742-2.

The last few years have seen tremendous growth in human microbiome research, with a particular focus on the links to both mental and physical health and disease. Medical and experimental settings provide initial sources of information about these links, but individual studies produce disconnected pieces of knowledge bounded in context by the perspective of expert researchers reading full-text publications. Building a knowledge base (KB) consolidating these disconnected pieces is an essential first step to democratize and accelerate the process of accessing the collective discoveries of human disease connections to the human microbiome. In this article, we survey the existing tools and development efforts that have been produced to capture portions of the information needed to construct a KB of all known human microbiome-disease associations and highlight the need for additional innovations in natural language processing (NLP), text mining, taxonomic representations, and field-wide vocabulary standardization in human microbiome research. Addressing these challenges will enable the construction of KBs that help identify new insights amenable to experimental validation and potentially clinical decision support.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Basu Thakur P, Long AR, Nelson BJ, et al (2019)

Complex Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hypochlorous Acid by the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri.

mSystems, 4(5): pii:4/5/e00453-19.

Inflammatory diseases of the gut are associated with increased intestinal oxygen concentrations and high levels of inflammatory oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which are antimicrobial compounds produced by the innate immune system. This contributes to dysbiotic changes in the gut microbiome, including increased populations of proinflammatory enterobacteria (Escherichia coli and related species) and decreased levels of health-associated anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes The pathways for H2O2 and HOCl resistance in E. coli have been well studied, but little is known about how commensal and probiotic bacteria respond to inflammatory oxidants. In this work, we have characterized the transcriptomic response of the anti-inflammatory, gut-colonizing Gram-positive probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri to both H2O2 and HOCl. L. reuteri mounts distinct but overlapping responses to each of these stressors, and both gene expression and survival were strongly affected by the presence or absence of oxygen. Oxidative stress response in L. reuteri required several factors not found in enterobacteria, including the small heat shock protein Lo18, polyphosphate kinase 2, and RsiR, an L. reuteri-specific regulator of anti-inflammatory mechanisms.IMPORTANCE Reactive oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid, are antimicrobial compounds produced by the immune system during inflammation. Little is known, however, about how many important types of bacteria present in the human microbiome respond to these oxidants, especially commensal and other health-associated species. We have now mapped the stress response to both H2O2 and HOCl in the intestinal lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri.

RevDate: 2019-09-03

Abid MB, CJ Koh (2019)

Probiotics in health and disease: fooling Mother Nature?.

Infection pii:10.1007/s15010-019-01351-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Probiotics are ubiquitous, consumption by the general public is common, and the dogma remains that they are beneficial for general and gut health. However, evolving evidence suggests a potentially "harmful" impact of many commercially available probiotics. There is also significant variability in formulations that leads to a lack of a universally acceptable definition of probiotics. In this perspective, we review the flaws with definition, relevant observational and randomized studies that showed both positive and negative impacts on health and disease, unbiased interpretation of key trials, emerging evidence from microbiome and immuno-oncological studies, and impact on systemic immunity. We propose that caution be exercised prior to endorsements of their illness-directed consumption and rampant general usage. As a deeper understanding of the human microbiome accrues and our ability to manipulate this complex ecosystem improves, the probiotic of tomorrow might be the precision tool that deals with diseases on a broad front. Gut microbiome, akin to fingerprints, is indigenous to an individual and 'one size fits all' prescription strategy should be discouraged until a more universally acceptable 'favorable taxa' or a 'personalized probiotic,' to complement an individual's native microbiota, gets fashioned.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

Godoy-Vitorino F (2019)

Human microbial ecology and the rising new medicine.

Annals of translational medicine, 7(14):342.

The first life forms on earth were Prokaryotic, and the evolution of all Eukaryotic life occurred with the help of bacteria. Animal-associated microbiota also includes members of the archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses. The genomes of this host-associated microbial life are called the microbiome. Across the mammalian tree, microbiomes guarantee the development of immunity, physiology, and resistance to pathogens. In humans, all surfaces and cavities are colonized by a microbiome, maintained by a careful balance between the host response and its colonizers-thus humans are considered now supraorganisms. These microbiomes supply essential ecosystem services that benefit health through homeostasis, and the loss of the indigenous microbiota leads to dysbiosis, which can have significant consequences to disease. This educational review aims to describe the importance of human microbial ecology, explain the ecological terms applied to the study of the human microbiome, developments within the cutting-edge microbiome field, and implications to diagnostic and treatment.

RevDate: 2019-09-02

Derrien M, Alvarez AS, WM de Vos (2019)

The Gut Microbiota in the First Decade of Life.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(19)30214-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Appreciation of the importance of the gut microbiome is growing, and it is becoming increasingly relevant to identify preventive or therapeutic solutions targeting it. The composition and function of the gut microbiota are relatively well described for infants (less than 3 years) and adults, but have been largely overlooked in pre-school (3-6 years) and primary school-age (6-12 years) children, as well as teenagers (12-18 years). Early reports suggested that the infant microbiota would attain an adult-like structure at the age of 3 years, but recent studies have suggested that microbiota development may take longer. This development time is of key importance because there is evidence to suggest that deviations in this development may have consequences in later life. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge concerning the gut microbiota, its evolution, variation, and response to dietary challenges during the first decade of life with a focus on healthy pre-school and primary school-age children (up to 12 years) from various populations around the globe. This knowledge should facilitate the identification of diet-based approaches targeting individuals of this age group, to promote the development of a healthy microbiota in later life.

RevDate: 2019-09-21

Yan ZZ, Chen QL, Zhang YJ, et al (2019)

Antibiotic resistance in urban green spaces mirrors the pattern of industrial distribution.

Environment international, 132:105106.

Urban green spaces are closely related to the activities and health of urban residents. Turf grass and soil are two major interfaces between the environmental and human microbiome, which represent potential pathways for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from environmental to human microbiome through skin-surface contact. However, the information regarding the prevalence of ARGs in urban green spaces and drivers in shaping their distribution patterns remain unclear. Here, we profiled a wide spectrum of ARGs in grass phyllosphere and soils from 40 urban parks across Greater Melbourne, Australia, using high throughput quantitative PCR. A total of 217 and 218 unique ARGs and MGEs were detected in grass phyllosphere and soils, respectively, conferring resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics commonly used in human and animals. The plant microbiome contained a core resistome, which occupied >84% of the total abundance of ARGs. In contrast, no core resistome was identified in the soil microbiome. The difference between plant and soil resistome composition was attributed to the difference in bacterial community structure and intensity of environmental and anthropogenic influence. Most importantly, the abundance of ARGs in urban green spaces was significantly positively related to industrial factors including total number of business, number of manufacturing, and number of electricity, gas, water and waste services in the region. Structural equation models further revealed that industrial distribution was a major factor shaping the ARG profiles in urban green spaces after accounting for multiple drivers. These findings have important implications for mitigation of the potential risks posed by ARGs to urban residents.

RevDate: 2019-10-08

Putignani L, Gasbarrini A, B Dallapiccola (2019)

Potential of multiomics technology in precision medicine.

Current opinion in gastroenterology, 35(6):491-498.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 'precision medicine' refers to the generation of identification and classification criteria for advanced taxonomy of patients, exploiting advanced models to infer optimized clinical decisions for each disease phenotype.

RECENT FINDINGS: The current article reviews new advances in the past 18 months on the microbiomics science intended as new discipline contributing to advanced 'precision medicine'. Recently published data highlight the importance of multidimensional data in the description of deep disease phenotypes, including microbiome and immune profiling, and support the efficacy of the systems medicine to better stratify patients, hence optimizing diagnostics, clinical management and response to treatments.

SUMMARY: The articles referenced in this review help inform the reader on new decision-support systems that can be based on multiomics patients' data including microbiome and immune profiling. These harmonized and integrated data can be elaborated by artificial intelligence to generate optimized diagnostic pipelines and clinical interventions.

RevDate: 2019-10-08
CmpDate: 2019-10-08

Herd P, Palloni A, Rey F, et al (2018)

Social and population health science approaches to understand the human microbiome.

Nature human behaviour, 2(11):808-815.

The microbiome is now considered our 'second genome' with potentially comparable importance to the genome in determining human health. There is, however, a relatively limited understanding of the broader environmental factors, particularly social conditions, that shape variation in human microbial communities. Fulfilling the promise of microbiome research - particularly the microbiome's potential for modification - will require collaboration between biologists and social and population scientists. For life scientists, the plasticity and adaptiveness of the microbiome calls for an agenda to understand the sensitivity of the microbiome to broader social environments already known to be powerful predictors of morbidity and mortality. For social and population scientists, attention to the microbiome may help answer nagging questions about the underlying biological mechanisms that link social conditions to health. We outline key substantive and methodological advances that can be made if collaborations between social and population health scientists and life scientists are strategically pursued.

RevDate: 2019-08-28

Chen J, Douglass J, Prasath V, et al (2019)

The microbiome and breast cancer: a review.

Breast cancer research and treatment pii:10.1007/s10549-019-05407-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome plays an integral role in physiology, with most microbes considered benign or beneficial. However, some microbes are known to be detrimental to human health, including organisms linked to cancers and other diseases characterized by aberrant inflammation. Dysbiosis, a state of microbial imbalance with harmful bacteria species outcompeting benign bacteria, can lead to maladies including cancer. The microbial composition varies across body sites, with the gut, urogenital, and skin microbiomes particularly well characterized. However, the microbiome associated with normal breast tissue and breast diseases is poorly understood. Collectively, studies have shown that breast tissue has a distinct microbiome with particular species enriched in the breast tissue itself, as well as the nipple aspirate and gut bacteria of women with breast cancer. More importantly, the breast and associated microbiomes may modulate therapeutic response and serve as potential biomarkers for diagnosing and staging breast cancer.

RevDate: 2019-09-13

Creekmore BC, Gray JH, Walton WG, et al (2019)

Mouse Gut Microbiome-Encoded β-Glucuronidases Identified Using Metagenome Analysis Guided by Protein Structure.

mSystems, 4(4): pii:4/4/e00452-19.

Gut microbial β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes play important roles in drug efficacy and toxicity, intestinal carcinogenesis, and mammalian-microbial symbiosis. Recently, the first catalog of human gut GUS proteins was provided for the Human Microbiome Project stool sample database and revealed 279 unique GUS enzymes organized into six categories based on active-site structural features. Because mice represent a model biomedical research organism, here we provide an analogous catalog of mouse intestinal microbial GUS proteins-a mouse gut GUSome. Using metagenome analysis guided by protein structure, we examined 2.5 million unique proteins from a comprehensive mouse gut metagenome created from several mouse strains, providers, housing conditions, and diets. We identified 444 unique GUS proteins and organized them into six categories based on active-site features, similarly to the human GUSome analysis. GUS enzymes were encoded by the major gut microbial phyla, including Firmicutes (60%) and Bacteroidetes (21%), and there were nearly 20% for which taxonomy could not be assigned. No differences in gut microbial gus gene composition were observed for mice based on sex. However, mice exhibited gus differences based on active-site features associated with provider, location, strain, and diet. Furthermore, diet yielded the largest differences in gus composition. Biochemical analysis of two low-fat-associated GUS enzymes revealed that they are variable with respect to their efficacy of processing both sulfated and nonsulfated heparan nonasaccharides containing terminal glucuronides.IMPORTANCE Mice are commonly employed as model organisms of mammalian disease; as such, our understanding of the compositions of their gut microbiomes is critical to appreciating how the mouse and human gastrointestinal tracts mirror one another. GUS enzymes, with importance in normal physiology and disease, are an attractive set of proteins to use for such analyses. Here we show that while the specific GUS enzymes differ at the sequence level, a core GUSome functionality appears conserved between mouse and human gastrointestinal bacteria. Mouse strain, provider, housing location, and diet exhibit distinct GUSomes and gus gene compositions, but sex seems not to affect the GUSome. These data provide a basis for understanding the gut microbial GUS enzymes present in commonly used laboratory mice. Further, they demonstrate the utility of metagenome analysis guided by protein structure to provide specific sets of functionally related proteins from whole-genome metagenome sequencing data.

RevDate: 2019-08-30

Cao L, Shcherbin E, H Mohimani (2019)

A Metabolome- and Metagenome-Wide Association Network Reveals Microbial Natural Products and Microbial Biotransformation Products from the Human Microbiota.

mSystems, 4(4): pii:4/4/e00387-19.

The human microbiome consists of thousands of different microbial species, and tens of thousands of bioactive small molecules are associated with them. These associated molecules include the biosynthetic products of microbiota and the products of microbial transformation of host molecules, dietary components, and pharmaceuticals. The existing methods for characterization of these small molecules are currently time consuming and expensive, and they are limited to the cultivable bacteria. Here, we propose a method for detecting microbiota-associated small molecules based on the patterns of cooccurrence of molecular and microbial features across multiple microbiomes. We further map each molecule to the clade in a phylogenetic tree that is responsible for its production/transformation. We applied our proposed method to the tandem mass spectrometry and metagenomics data sets collected by the American Gut Project and to microbiome isolates from cystic fibrosis patients and discovered the genes in the human microbiome responsible for the production of corynomycolenic acid, which serves as a ligand for human T cells and induces a specific immune response against infection. Moreover, our method correctly associated pseudomonas quinolone signals, tyrvalin, and phevalin with their known biosynthetic gene clusters.IMPORTANCE Experimental advances have enabled the acquisition of tandem mass spectrometry and metagenomics sequencing data from tens of thousands of environmental/host-oriented microbial communities. Each of these communities contains hundreds of microbial features (corresponding to microbial species) and thousands of molecular features (corresponding to microbial natural products). However, with the current technology, it is very difficult to identify the microbial species responsible for the production/biotransformation of each molecular feature. Here, we develop association networks, a new approach for identifying the microbial producer/biotransformer of natural products through cooccurrence analysis of metagenomics and mass spectrometry data collected on multiple microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-08-26

Brüssow H (2019)

Problems with the concept of gut microbiota dysbiosis.

Microbial biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome research is with the notable exception of fecal transplantation still mostly in a descriptive phase. Part of the difficulty for translating research into medical interventions is due to the large compositional complexity of the microbiome resulting in datasets that need sophisticated statistical methods for their analysis and do not lend to industrial applications. Another part of the difficulty might be due to logical flaws in terminology particularly concerning 'dysbiosis' that avoids circular conclusions and is based on sound ecological and evolutionary reasoning. Many case-control studies are underpowered necessitating more meta-analyses that sort out consistent from spurious dysbiosis-disease associations. We also need for the microbiome a transition from statistical associations to causal relationships with diseases that fulfil a set of modified Koch's postulates for commensals. Disturbingly, the most sophisticated statistical analyses explain only a small percentage of the variance in the microbiome. Microbe-microbe interactions irrelevant to the host and stochastic processes might play a greater role than anticipated. To satisfy the concept of Karl Popper about conjectures and refutations in the scientific process, we should also conduct more experiments that try to refute the role of the commensal gut microbiota for human health and disease.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Satokari R (2019)

Modulation of Gut Microbiota for Health by Current and Next-Generation Probiotics.

Nutrients, 11(8): pii:nu11081921.

The human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem and has an essential role in maintaining intestinal and systemic health. Microbiota dysbiosis is associated with a number of intestinal and systemic conditions and its modulation for human health is of great interest. Gut microbiota is a source of novel health-promoting bacteria, often termed as next-generation probiotics in order to distinguish them from traditional probiotics. The previous lessons learned with traditional probiotics can help the development of next-generation probiotics that target specific health issues and needs.

RevDate: 2019-08-23

Mittelman K, D Burstein (2019)

Tiny Hidden Genes within Our Microbiome.

Cell, 178(5):1034-1035.

Exploration of tiny protein-coding sequences within the human microbiome reveals thousands of conserved gene families that have been overlooked by traditional analyses. These small proteins may play key roles in the crosstalk among bacteria within the microbiome and in interactions with their human hosts.

RevDate: 2019-08-25

Mu X, Zhao C, Yang J, et al (2019)

Group B Streptococcus colonization induces Prevotella and Megasphaera abundance-featured vaginal microbiome compositional change in non-pregnant women.

PeerJ, 7:e7474 pii:7474.

Background: Previous studies have indicated that variations in the vaginal microbiome result in symptomatic conditions. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a significant neonatal pathogen and maternal vaginal colonization has been recognized as an important risk factor for neonatal disease. Therefore, it is important to discover the relationship between the composition of the vaginal microbiome and GBS colonization. This study explores the potential relationship between the composition of the vaginal microbiome and GBS colonization in non-pregnant Chinese women.

Methods: A total of 22 GBS-positive, non-pregnant women and 44 matched GBS-negative women were recruited for the current study. The composition of the vaginal microbiome was profiled by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The microbiome diversity and variation were then evaluated.

Results: The vaginal microbiome of the 66 subjects enrolled in the current study were compared and the results showed that GBS-positive women exhibited significant vaginal microbial differences compared with the GBS-negative women based on the analysis of similarities (r = 0.306, p < 0.01). The relative abundance of the bacterial genus Lactobacillus (p < 0.01) was significantly lower in the GBS-positive group, while the abundances of the bacterial genera Prevotella (p < 0.01), Megasphaera (p < 0.01), and Streptococcus (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in the GBS-positive group.

Discussion: The current study addressed significant variations across the communities of the vaginal microbiome in GBS-positive and GBS-negative women in a Chinese cohort, which paves the way for a larger cohort-based clinical validation study and the development of therapeutic probiotics in the future.

RevDate: 2019-08-25

Guo J, Lv Q, Ariff A, et al (2019)

Western oropharyngeal and gut microbial profiles are associated with allergic conditions in Chinese immigrant children.

The World Allergy Organization journal, 12(8):100051 pii:100051.

Background: The allergy epidemic resulting from western environment/lifestyles is potentially due to modifications of the human microbiome. Therefore, it is of interest to study immigrants living in a western environment as well as their counterparts in the country of origin to understand differences in their microbiomes and health status.

Methods: We investigated 58 Australian Chinese (AC) children from Perth, Western Australia as well as 63 Chinese-born Chinese (CC) children from a city in China. Oropharyngeal (OP) and fecal samples were collected. To assess the microbiomes, 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing for variable regions V3 and V4 was used. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed to measure the children's atopic status. Information on food allergy and wheezing were acquired from a questionnaire.

Results: AC children had more allergic conditions than CC children. The alpha diversity (mean species diversity) of both OP and gut microbiome was lower in AC children compared to CC children for richness estimate (Chao1), while diversity evenness (Shannon index) was higher. The beta diversity (community similarity) displayed a distinct separation of the OP and gut microbiota between AC and CC children. An apparent difference in microbial abundance was observed for many bacteria. In AC children, we sought to establish consistent trends in bacterial relative abundance that are either higher or lower in AC versus CC children and higher or lower in children with allergy versus those without allergy. The majority of OP taxa showed a consistent trend while the majority of fecal taxa showed a contrasting trend.

Conclusion: Distinct differences in microbiome compositions were found in both oropharyngeal and fecal samples of AC and CC children. The association of the OP microbiome with allergic condition is different from that of the gut microbiome in AC children. The microbiome profiles are changed by the western environment/lifestyle and are associated with allergies in Chinese immigrant children in Australia.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

Pendegraft AH, Guo B, N Yi (2019)

Bayesian hierarchical negative binomial models for multivariable analyses with applications to human microbiome count data.

PloS one, 14(8):e0220961 pii:PONE-D-18-33781.

The analyses of large volumes of metagenomic data extracted from aggregate populations of microscopic organisms residing on and in the human body are advancing contemporary understandings of the integrated participation of microbes in human health and disease. Next generation sequencing technology facilitates said analyses in terms of diversity, community composition, and differential abundance by filtering and binning microbial 16S rRNA genes extracted from human tissues into operational taxonomic units. However, current statistical tools restrict study designs to investigations of limited numbers of host characteristics mediated by limited numbers of samples potentially yielding a loss of relevant information. This paper presents a Bayesian hierarchical negative binomial model as an efficient technique capable of compensating for multivariable sets including tens or hundreds of host characteristics as covariates further expanding analyses of human microbiome count data. Simulation studies reveal that the Bayesian hierarchical negative binomial model provides a desirable strategy by often outperforming three competing negative binomial model in terms of type I error while simultaneously maintaining consistent power. An application of the Bayesian hierarchical negative binomial model using subsets of the open data published by the American Gut Project demonstrates an ability to identify operational taxonomic units significantly differentiable among persons diagnosed by a medical professional with either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome that are consistent with contemporary gastrointestinal literature.

RevDate: 2019-08-21

Spencer SP, Fragiadakis GK, JL Sonnenburg (2019)

Pursuing Human-Relevant Gut Microbiota-Immune Interactions.

Immunity, 51(2):225-239.

The gut microbiota is a complex and plastic network of diverse organisms intricately connected with human physiology. Recent advances in profiling approaches of both the microbiota and the immune system now enable a deeper exploration of immunity-microbiota connections. An important next step is to elucidate a human-relevant "map" of microbial-immune wiring while focusing on animal studies to probe a prioritized subset of interactions. Here, we provide an overview of this field's current status and discuss two approaches for establishing priorities for detailed investigation: (1) longitudinal intervention studies in humans probing the dynamics of both the microbiota and the immune system and (2) the study of traditional populations to assess lost features of human microbial identity whose absence may be contributing to the rise of immunological disorders. These human-centered approaches offer a judicious path forward to understand the impact of the microbiota in immune development and function.

RevDate: 2019-08-19

Mougeot JC, Stevens CB, Morton DS, et al (2019)

Oral Microbiome and Cancer Therapy-Induced Oral Mucositis.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, 2019(53):.

Characterization of the role of oral microbiome in cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis (CTOM) is critical in preventing the clinically deleterious effects on patients' health that are associated with CTOM. Funding initiatives related to the National Institutes of Health human microbiome project have resulted in groundbreaking advancements in biology and medicine during the last decade. These advancements have shown that a human being is in fact a superorganism made of human cells and associated symbiotic or commensal microbiota. In this review, we describe the state of science as it relates to fundamental knowledge on oral microbiome and its role in CTOM. We also discuss how state-of-the-art technologies and systems biology tools may be used to help tackle the difficult challenges ahead to develop effective treatments or preventive therapies for oral mucositis. We make a clear distinction between disease processes pertaining to the oral microbiome, which includes opportunistic pathogens that may be defined as pathobionts, and those infectious disease processes initiated by exogenous pathogens. We also explored the extent to which knowledge from the gastrointestinal tract in disease and intestinal mucositis could help us better understand CTOM pathobiology. Finally, we propose a model in which the oral microbiome participates in the current five-step CTOM pathobiology model. With the advent of more sophisticated metagenomics technologies and methods of analysis, much hope lies ahead to implement an effective holistic approach to treat cancer patients affected by CTOM.

RevDate: 2019-08-18

Conteville LC, Oliveira-Ferreira J, ACP Vicente (2019)

Gut Microbiome Biomarkers and Functional Diversity Within an Amazonian Semi-Nomadic Hunter-Gatherer Group.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1743.

Human groups that still maintain traditional modes of subsistence (hunter-gatherers and rural agriculturalists) represent human groups non-impacted by urban-industrialized lifestyles, and therefore their gut microbiome provides the basis for understanding the human microbiome evolution and its association with human health and disease. The Yanomami is the largest semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer group of the Americas, exploring different niches of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil and Venezuela. Here, based on shotgun metagenomic data, we characterized the gut microbiome of the Yanomami from Brazil and compared taxonomically and functionally with the Yanomami from Venezuela, with other traditional groups from the Amazon and an urban-industrialized group. Taxonomic biomarkers were identified to each South American traditional group studied, including each Yanomami group. Broader levels of functional categories poorly discriminated the traditional and urban-industrialized groups, but the stratification of these categories revealed clear segregation of these groups. The Yanomami/Brazil gut microbiome presented unique functional features, such as a higher abundance of gene families involved in regulation/cell signaling, motility/chemotaxis, and virulence, contrasting with the gut microbiomes from the Yanomami/Venezuela and the other groups. Our study revealed biomarkers, and taxonomic and functional features that distinguished the gut microbiome of Yanomami/Brazil and Yanomami/Venezuela individuals, despite their shared lifestyle, culture, and genetic background. These differences may be a reflection of the environmental and seasonal diversity of the niches they explore. Overall, their microbiome profiles are shared with South American and African traditional groups, probably due to their lifestyle. The unique features identified within the Yanomami highlight the bias imposed by underrepresented sampling, and factors such as variations over space and time (seasonality) that impact, mainly, the hunter-gatherers.

RevDate: 2019-08-18

Sudo N (2019)

Biogenic Amines: Signals Between Commensal Microbiota and Gut Physiology.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 10:504.

There is increasing interest in the interactions among the gut microbiota, gut, and brain, which is often referred to as the "microbiota-gut-brain" axis. Biogenic amines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamines are all generated by commensal gut microorganisms and are suggested to play roles as signaling molecules mediating the function of the "microbiota-gut-brain" axis. In addition, such amines generated in the gut have attracted attention in terms of possible clues into the etiologies of depression, anxiety, and even psychosis. This review covers the latest research related to the potential role of microbe-derived amines such as catecholamine, serotonin, histamine, as well as other trace amines, in modulating not only gut physiology but also brain function of the host. Further attention in this field can offer not only insight into expanding the fundamental roles and impacts of the human microbiome, but also further offer new therapeutic strategies for psychological disorders based on regulating the balance of resident bacteria.

RevDate: 2019-08-18

Lacorte E, Gervasi G, Bacigalupo I, et al (2019)

A Systematic Review of the Microbiome in Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Frontiers in neurology, 10:727.

Background and Purpose: A relationship between gut microbiome and central nervous system (CNS), have been suggested. The human microbiome may have an influence on brain's development, thus implying that dysbiosis may contribute in the etiology and progression of some neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of this systematic review was to identify evidence on the characterization and potential distinctive traits of the microbiome of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, as compared to healthy children. Methods: The review was performed following the methodology described in the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews, and was reported based on the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. All literature published up to April 2019 was retrieved searching the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Only observational studies, published in English and reporting data on the characterization of the microbiome in humans aged 0-18 years with a neurodevelopmental disorder were included. Neurodevelopmental disorders were categorized according to the definition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 5 (DSM-5). Results: Bibliographic searches yielded 9,237 records. One study was identified through other data sources. A total of 16 studies were selected based on their relevance and pertinence to the topic of the review, and were then applied the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 10 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, and were thus included in the qualitative analysis and applied the NOS score. Two studies reported data on the gut microbiome of children with ADHD, while 8 reported data on either the gut (n = 6) or the oral microbiome (n = 2) of children with ASD. Conclusions: All the 10 studies included in this review showed a high heterogeneity in terms of sample size, gender, clinical issues, and type of controls. This high heterogeneity, along with the small sample size of the included studies, strongly limited the external validity of results. The quality assessment performed using the NOS score showed an overall low to moderate methodological quality of the included studies. To better clarify the potential role of microbiome in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, further high-quality observational (specifically cohort) studies are needed.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )