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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Jan 2020 at 01:38 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-01-25

Oduor JMO, Kadija E, Nyachieo A, et al (2020)

Bioprospecting Staphylococcus Phages with Therapeutic and Bio-Control Potential.

Viruses, 12(2): pii:v12020133.

Emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a serious threat to the public health. This is also true for Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci. Staphylococcus phages Stab20, Stab21, Stab22, and Stab23, were isolated in Albania. Based on genomic and phylogenetic analysis, they were classified to genus Kayvirus of the subfamily Twortvirinae. In this work, we describe the in-depth characterization of the phages that electron microscopy confirmed to be myoviruses. These phages showed tolerance to pH range of 5.4 to 9.4, to maximum UV radiation energy of 25 µJ/cm2, to temperatures up to 45 °C, and to ethanol concentrations up to 25%, and complete resistance to chloroform. The adsorption rate constants of the phages ranged between 1.0 × 10-9 mL/min and 4.7 × 10-9 mL/min, and the burst size was from 42 to 130 plaque-forming units. The phages Stab20, 21, 22, and 23, originally isolated using Staphylococcusxylosus as a host, demonstrated varied host ranges among different Staphylococcus strains suggesting that they could be included in cocktail formulations for therapeutic or bio-control purpose. Phage particle proteomes, consisting on average of ca 60-70 gene products, revealed, in addition to straight-forward structural proteins, also the presence of enzymes such DNA polymerase, helicases, recombinases, exonucleases, and RNA ligase polymer. They are likely to be injected into the bacteria along with the genomic DNA to take over the host metabolism as soon as possible after infection.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Chevrette MG, J Handelsman (2020)

From Metagenomes to Molecules: Innovations in Functional Metagenomics Unlock Hidden Chemistry in the Human Microbiome.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Megrian D, Taib N, Witwinowski J, et al (2020)

One or two membranes? Diderm Firmicutes challenge the Gram-positive/Gram-negative divide.

Molecular microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

How, when, and why the transition between cell envelopes with one membrane (Gram-positives or monoderms) and two (Gram-negative or diderms) occurred in Bacteria is a key unanswered question in evolutionary biology. Different hypotheses have been put forward, suggesting that either the monoderm or the diderm phenotype is ancestral. The existence of diderm members in the classically monoderm Firmicutes challenges the Gram-positive/Gram-negative divide and provides a great opportunity to tackle the issue. In this review, we present current knowledge on the diversity of bacterial cell envelopes, including these atypical Firmicutes. We discuss how phylogenomic analysis supports the hypothesis that the diderm cell envelope architecture is an ancestral character in the Firmicutes, and that the monoderm phenotype in this phylum arose multiple times independently by loss of the outer membrane. Given the overwhelming distribution of diderm phenotypes with respect to monoderm ones, this scenario likely extends to the ancestor of all bacteria. Finally, we discuss the recent development of genetic tools for Veillonella parvula, a diderm Firmicute member of the human microbiome, which indicates it as an emerging new experimental model to investigate fundamental aspects of the diderm/monoderm transition.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Van Treuren W, D Dodd (2020)

Microbial Contribution to the Human Metabolome: Implications for Health and Disease.

Annual review of pathology, 15:345-369.

The human gastrointestinal tract is home to an incredibly dense population of microbes. These microbes employ unique strategies to capture energy in this largely anaerobic environment. In the process of breaking down dietary- and host-derived substrates, the gut microbiota produce a broad range of metabolic products that accumulate to high levels in the gut. Increasingly, studies are revealing that these chemicals impact host biology, either by acting on cells within the gastrointestinal tract or entering circulation and exerting their effects at distal sites within the body. Given the high level of functional diversity in the gut microbiome and the varied diets that we consume, the repertoire of microbiota-derived molecules within our bodies varies dramatically across individuals. Thus, the microbes in our gut and the metabolic end products they produce represent a phenotypic lever that we can potentially control to develop new therapeutics for personalized medicine. Here, we review current understanding of how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to the molecules within our gut and those that circulate within our bodies. We also highlight examples of how these molecules affect host physiology and discuss potential strategies for controlling their production to promote human health and to treat disease.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Napoli E, Siracusa L, G Ruberto (2020)

New tricks for old guys recent developments in the chemistry, biochemistry, applications and exploitation of selected species from the Lamiaceae family.

Chemistry & biodiversity [Epub ahead of print].

Lamiaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants comprising about 250 genera and over 7,000 species. The majority of the plants of this family are aromatic and therefore important source of essential oils. Lamiaceae are widely used as culinary herbs and reported as medicinal plants in several folk traditions. In the Mediterranean area oregano, sage, rosemary, thyme and lavender stand out for geographical diffusion and variety of uses. The aim of this review is to provide recent data dealing with the phytochemical and pharmacological studies, and the more recent applications of the essential oils and the non-volatile phytocomplexes. This literature survey suggests how the deeper understanding of biomolecular processes in the health and food sectors as per as pest control bioremediation of cultural heritage, or interaction with human microbiome, fields, leads to the rediscovery and new potential applications of well-known plants.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Jia Z, Zhao X, Liu X, et al (2020)

Impacts of the Plateau Environment on the Gut Microbiota and Blood Clinical Indexes in Han and Tibetan Individuals.

mSystems, 5(1): pii:5/1/e00660-19.

The intestinal microbiota is significantly affected by the external environment, but our understanding of the effects of extreme environments such as plateaus is far from adequate. In this study, we systematically analyzed the variation in the intestinal microbiota and 76 blood clinical indexes among 393 healthy adults with different plateau living durations (Han individuals with no plateau living, with plateau living for 4 to 6 days, with plateau living for >3 months, and who returned to the plain for 3 months, as well as plateau-living Tibetans). The results showed that the high-altitude environment rapidly (4 days) and continually (more than 3 months) shaped both the intestinal microbiota and clinical indexes of the Han population. With prolongation of plateau living, the general characteristics of the intestinal microbiota and clinical indexes of the Han population were increasingly similar to those of the Tibetan population. The intestinal microbiota of the Han population that returned to the plain area for 3 months still resembled that of the plateau-living Han population rather than that of the Han population on the plain. Moreover, clinical indexes such as blood glucose were significantly lower in the plateau groups than in the nonplateau groups, while the opposite result was obtained for testosterone. Interestingly, there were Tibetan-specific correlations between glucose levels and Succinivibrio and Sarcina abundance in the intestine. The results of this study suggest that a hypoxic environment could rapidly and lastingly affect both the human intestinal microbiota and blood clinical indexes, providing new insights for the study of plateau adaptability.IMPORTANCE The data presented in the present study demonstrate that the hypoxic plateau environment has a profound impact on the gut microbiota and blood clinical indexes in Han and Tibetan individuals. The plateau-changed signatures of the gut microbiota and blood clinical indexes were not restored to the nonplateau status in the Han cohorts, even when the individuals returned to the plain from the plateau for several months. Our study will improve the understanding of the great impact of hypoxic environments on the gut microbiota and blood clinical indexes as well as the adaptation mechanism and intervention targets for plateau adaptation.

RevDate: 2020-01-21

Lawenius L, Scheffler JM, Gustafsson KL, et al (2020)

Pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila protects from fat mass gain but not from bone loss.

American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

Probiotic bacteria can protect from ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss in mice. Akkermansia muciniphila is considered to have probiotic potential due to its beneficial effect on obesity and insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine if treatment with pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila (pAkk) could prevent ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with vehicle or pAkk for 4 weeks, starting 3 days before ovx or sham surgery. Treatment with pAkk reduced fat mass accumulation confirming earlier findings. However, treatment with pAkk decreased trabecular and cortical bone mass in femur and vertebra of gonadal intact mice and did not protect from ovx-induced bone loss. Treatment with pAkk increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and increased expression of calcium transporter Trpv5 in kidney suggesting increased reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys. Serum amyloid A 3 (SAA3) can suppress bone formation and mediate the effects of PTH on bone resorption and bone loss in mice and treatment with pAkk increased serum levels of SAA3 and gene expression of Saa3 in colon. Moreover, regulatory T cells can be protective of bone and pAkk treated mice had decreased number of regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and bone marrow. In conclusion, treatment with pAkk protected from ovx-induced fat mass gain but not from bone loss and reduced bone mass in gonadal intact mice. Our findings with pAkk differ from some probiotics that have been shown to protect bone mass, demonstrating that not all prebiotic and probiotic factors have the same effect on bone.

RevDate: 2020-01-21

Chang PT, Rao K, Longo LO, et al (2020)

Thiopeptide Defense by an Ant's Bacterial Symbiont.

Journal of natural products [Epub ahead of print].

Fungus-growing ants and their microbial symbionts have emerged as a model system for understanding antibiotic deployment in an ecological context. Here we establish that bacterial symbionts of the ant Trachymyrmex septentrionalis antagonize their most likely competitors, other strains of ant-associated bacteria, using the thiopeptide antibiotic GE37468. Genomic analysis suggests that these symbionts acquired the GE37468 gene cluster from soil bacteria. This antibiotic, with known activity against human pathogens, was previously identified in a biochemical screen but had no known ecological role. GE37468's host-associated defense role in this insect niche intriguingly parallels the function of similar thiopeptides in the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-01-18

Korpela K, Salonen A, Saxen H, et al (2020)

Antibiotics in early life associate with specific gut microbiota signatures in a prospective longitudinal infant cohort.

Pediatric research pii:10.1038/s41390-020-0761-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The effects of antibiotics on infant gut microbiota are unclear. We hypothesized that the use of common antibiotics results in long-term aberration in gut microbiota.

METHODS: Antibiotic-naive infants were prospectively recruited when hospitalized because of a respiratory syncytial virus infection. Composition of fecal microbiota was compared between those receiving antibiotics during follow-up (prescribed at clinicians' discretion because of complications such as otitis media) and those with no antibiotic exposure. Fecal sampling started on day 1, then continued at 2-day intervals during the hospital stay, and at 1, 3 and 6 months at home.

RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-three fecal samples from 40 patients (median age 2.3 months at baseline; 22 exposed to antibiotics) were available for microbiota analyses. A single course of amoxicillin or macrolide resulted in aberration of infant microbiota characterized by variation in the abundance of bifidobacteria, enterobacteria and clostridia, lasting for several months. Recovery from the antibiotics was associated with an increase in clostridia. Occasionally, antibiotic use resulted in microbiota profiles associated with inflammatory conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic use in infants modifies especially bifidobacterial levels. Further studies are warranted whether administration of bifidobacteria will provide health benefits by normalizing the microbiota in infants receiving antibiotics.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Husso A, Jalanka J, Alipour MJ, et al (2020)

The composition of the perinatal intestinal microbiota in horse.

Scientific reports, 10(1):441 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-57003-8.

The establishment of the intestinal microbiota is critical for the digestive and immune systems. We studied the early development of the rectal microbiota in horse, a hindgut fermenter, from birth until 7 days of age, by qPCR and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. To evaluate initial sources of the foal microbiota, we characterised dam fecal, vaginal and oral microbiotas. We utilised an amplicon sequence variant (ASV) pipeline to maximise resolution and reproducibility. Stringent ASV filtering based on prevalence and abundance in samples and controls purged contaminants while preserving intestinal taxa. Sampled within 20 minutes after birth, rectal meconium contained small amounts of diverse bacterial DNA, with a profile closer to mare feces than mouth. 24 hours after birth, rectum was colonised by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, some foals dominated by single genera. At day 7, the rectal genera were still different from adult feces. The mare vaginal microbiota contributed to 24 h and 7 day microbiotas. It contained few lactobacilli, with Corynebacterium, Porphyromonas, Campylobacter and Helcococcus as the most abundant genera. In the oral mucosa, Gemella was extremely abundant. Our observations indicate that bacteria or bacterial components are present in the intestine immediately after birth, but the newborn microbiota changes rapidly.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Selway CA, Eisenhofer R, LS Weyrich (2020)

Microbiome applications for pathology: challenges of low microbial biomass samples during diagnostic testing.

The journal of pathology. Clinical research [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome can play key roles in disease, and diagnostic testing will soon have the ability to examine these roles in the context of clinical applications. Currently, most diagnostic testing in pathology applications focuses on a small number of disease-causing microbes and dismisses the whole microbial community that causes or is modulated by disease. Microbiome modifications have already provided clinically relevant insights in gut and oral diseases, such as irritable bowel disease, but there are currently limitations when clinically examining microbiomes outside of these body sites. This is critical, as the majority of microbial samples used in pathology originate from body sites that contain low concentrations of microbial DNA, including skin, tissue, blood, and urine. These samples, also known as low microbial biomass samples, are difficult to examine without careful consideration and precautions to mitigate contamination and biases. Here, we present the limitations when analysing low microbial biomass samples using current protocols and techniques and highlight the advantages that microbiome testing can offer diagnostics in the future, if the proper precautions are implemented. Specifically, we discuss the sources of contamination and biases that may result in false assessments for these sample types. Finally, we provide recommendations to mitigate contamination and biases from low microbial biomass samples during diagnostic testing, which will be especially important to effectively diagnose and treat patients using microbiome analyses.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Jian C, Luukkonen P, Yki-Järvinen H, et al (2020)

Quantitative PCR provides a simple and accessible method for quantitative microbiota profiling.

PloS one, 15(1):e0227285 pii:PONE-D-19-24448.

The use of relative abundance data from next generation sequencing (NGS) can lead to misinterpretations of microbial community structures, as the increase of one taxon leads to the concurrent decrease of the other(s) in compositional data. Although different DNA- and cell-based methods as well as statistical approaches have been developed to overcome the compositionality problem, and the biological relevance of absolute bacterial abundances has been demonstrated, the human microbiome research has not yet adopted these methods, likely due to feasibility issues. Here, we describe how quantitative PCR (qPCR) done in parallel to NGS library preparation provides an accurate estimation of absolute taxon abundances from NGS data and hence provides an attainable solution to compositionality in high-throughput microbiome analyses. The advantages and potential challenges of the method are also discussed.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Zangl I, Pap IJ, Aspöck C, et al (2019)

The role of Lactobacillus species in the control of Candida via biotrophic interactions.

Microbial cell (Graz, Austria), 7(1):1-14.

Microbial communities have an important role in health and disease. Candida spp. are ubiquitous commensals and sometimes opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans, colonizing mucosal surfaces of the genital, urinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and the oral cavity. They mainly cause local mucosal infections in immune competent individuals. However, in the case of an ineffective immune defense, Candida infections may become a serious threat. Lactobacillus spp. are part of the human microbiome and are natural competitors of Candida in the vaginal environment. Lactic acid, low pH and other secreted metabolites are environmental signals sensed by fungal species present in the microbiome. This review briefly discusses the ternary interaction between host, Lactobacillus species and Candida with regard to fungal infections and the potential antifungal and fungistatic effect of Lactobacillus species. Our understanding of these interactions is incomplete due to the variability of the involved species and isolates and the complexity of the human host.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Kang W, Ji X, Zhang X, et al (2019)

Persistent Exposure to Fusobacterium nucleatum Triggers Chemokine/Cytokine Release and Inhibits the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation Capabilities of Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:429.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most frequent pathogenic bacteria causing periodontitis. The direct effect of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) on oral stem cells has rarely been reported. In this study, we aimed to evaluate how gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) respond to a direct challenge with F. nucleatum. GMSCs were isolated by the limiting dilution method and exposed to F. nucleatum at various multiplicities of infection (MOIs; F. nucleatum:cell ratios of 10:1, 50:1, and 100:1) for 24 h to 4 weeks. Our results indicated that F. nucleatum significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and promoted cell migration and the release of chemokines/cytokines, such as CCL2, CXCL1, and IL-6. Additionally, F. nucleatum inhibited GMSC osteogenic differentiation partly by decreasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodule formation, and osteogenesis-related gene and protein expression. RNA-sequencing analyses indicated that F. nucleatum time-dependently activated cellular signaling pathways during the process of osteogenic differentiation. A total of 64 cell differentiation-related genes were found to be differentially expressed between non-infected and F. nucleatum-infected GMSCs at 3, 7, 14, and 21 d. Intriguingly, we discovered that the 64 cell differentiation-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as bone cancer, osteosarcoma and bone marrow cancer, which provides new insight into tumorigenesis during the process of GMSC osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that persistent exposure to F. nucleatum promotes cell migration and chemokine/cytokine release and inhibits the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of GMSCs. Our study provides a novel and long-time bacteria-cell co-culture in vitro model and makes a foundation for the future mechanistic studies of GMSCs under F. nucleatum infection.

RevDate: 2020-01-10

Nobile V, Palumbo F, Lanni S, et al (2020)

Altered mitochondrial function in cells carrying a premutation or unmethylated full mutation of the FMR1 gene.

Human genetics pii:10.1007/s00439-019-02104-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Fragile X-related disorders are due to a dynamic mutation of the CGG repeat at the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene, coding for the RNA-binding protein FMRP. As the CGG sequence expands from premutation (PM, 56-200 CGGs) to full mutation (> 200 CGGs), FMRP synthesis decreases until it is practically abolished in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients, mainly due to FMR1 methylation. Cells from rare individuals with no intellectual disability and carriers of an unmethylated full mutation (UFM) produce slightly elevated levels of FMR1-mRNA and relatively low levels of FMRP, like in PM carriers. With the aim of clarifying how UFM cells differ from CTRL and FXS cells, a comparative proteomic approach was undertaken, from which emerged an overexpression of SOD2 in UFM cells, also confirmed in PM but not in FXS. The SOD2-mRNA bound to FMRP in UFM more than in the other cell types. The high SOD2 levels in UFM and PM cells correlated with lower levels of superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and with morphological anomalies and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane detected through confocal microscopy. The same effect was observed in CTRL and FXS after treatment with MC2791, causing SOD2 overexpression. These mitochondrial phenotypes reverted after knock-down with siRNA against SOD2-mRNA and FMR1-mRNA in UFM and PM. Overall, these data suggest that in PM and UFM carriers, which have high levels of FMR1 transcription and may develop FXTAS, SOD2 overexpression helps to maintain low levels of both superoxide and ROS with signs of mitochondrial degradation.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Marzano V, Tilocca B, Fiocchi AG, et al (2020)

Perusal of food allergens analysis by mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

Journal of proteomics, 215:103636 pii:S1874-3919(20)30004-X [Epub ahead of print].

Food allergy is the disease where the immune system is elicited by antigens in food. Although innocuous for immune-tolerant individuals, an ever-growing number of food allergenic people are being registered worldwide. To date, no treatment to cure food allergy is available and the disease management relies on the careful exclusion of the allergenic food from the diet of the allergic individuals. Great efforts are ongoing to clarify the allergenic mechanisms of the diverse allergenic proteins of food origin, aimed to both designing suitable therapies and for a timely and precise diagnosis of the allergic condition. Among the other omics sciences, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is gaining a steadily increasing interest by the whole scientific community acknowledged its high versatility. In the present work, the latest proteomics based-studies on allergenic proteins are reviewed to provide guidance on the different MS-based methodologies adopted in the research on food allergens. Our review points to highlight the strengths of the MS-based proteomics and how these have been exploited to address specific research questions. Also, the most common drawbacks encountered in a proteomic study are discussed, providing an overview that helps novel researchers in choosing the more suitable experimental workflow. SIGNIFICANCE: Wide wealth of knowledge arising from the various MS-based proteomic investigations is improving our understanding of food allergy through molecular characterization of food allergens. The present work reviews the key aspects to be evaluated while investigating food allergens by means of MS-based proteomics and provide guidance to the novel research groups approaching to the fascinating world of MS-based food allergens detection.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Signore F, Gulìa C, Votino R, et al (2019)

The Role of Number of Copies, Structure, Behavior and Copy Number Variations (CNV) of the Y Chromosome in Male Infertility.

Genes, 11(1): pii:genes11010040.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines infertility as the inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve spontaneous pregnancy within one year. Statistics show that the two sexes are equally at risk. Several causes may be responsible for male infertility; however, in 30-40% of cases a diagnosis of idiopathic male infertility is made in men with normal urogenital anatomy, no history of familial fertility-related diseases and a normal panel of values as for endocrine, genetic and biochemical markers. Idiopathic male infertility may be the result of gene/environment interactions, genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. Numerical and structural anomalies of the Y chromosome represent a minor yet significant proportion and are the topic discussed in this review. We searched the PubMed database and major search engines for reports about Y-linked male infertility. We present cases of Y-linked male infertility in terms of (i) anomalies of the Y chromosome structure/number; (ii) Y chromosome misbehavior in a normal genetic background; (iii) Y chromosome copy number variations (CNVs). We discuss possible explanations of male infertility caused by mutations, lower or higher number of copies of otherwise wild type, Y-linked sequences. Despite Y chromosome structural anomalies are not a major cause of male infertility, in case of negative results and of normal DNA sequencing of the ascertained genes causing infertility and mapping on this chromosome, we recommend an analysis of the karyotype integrity in all cases of idiopathic fertility impairment, with an emphasis on the structure and number of this chromosome.

RevDate: 2020-01-06

Zhang X, N Yi (2020)

Fast Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Mixed Modeling Approach for Analyzing Longitudinal Metagenomics Data.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5697093 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Longitudinal metagenomics data, including both 16S rRNA and whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing data, enhanced our abilities to understand the dynamic associations between the human microbiome and various diseases. However, analytic tools have not been fully developed to simultaneously address the main challenges of longitudinal metagenomics data, i.e. high-dimensionality, dependence among samples and zero-inflation of observed counts.

RESULTS: We propose a fast zero-inflated negative binomial mixed modeling (FZINBMM) approach to analyze high-dimensional longitudinal metagenomic count data. The FZINBMM approach is based on zero-inflated negative binomial mixed models (ZINBMMs) for modeling longitudinal metagenomic count data and a fast EM-IWLS algorithm for fitting ZINBMMs. FZINBMM takes advantage of a commonly used procedure for fitting linear mixed models (LMMs), which allows us to include various types of fixed and random effects and within-subject correlation structures and quickly analyze many taxa. We found that FZINBMM remarkably outperformed in computational efficiency and was statistically comparable with two R packages, GLMMadaptive and glmmTMB, that use numerical integration to fit ZINBMMs. Extensive simulations and real data applications showed that FZINBMM outperformed other previous methods, including LMMs, negative binomial mixed models and zero-inflated Gaussian mixed models.

AVAILABILITY: FZINBMM has been implemented in the R package NBZIMM, available in the public GitHub repository http://github.com//nyiuab//NBZIMM.

RevDate: 2020-01-06

Cui JJ, Wang LY, Tan ZR, et al (2020)

MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED PERSONALIZED DRUG THERAPY.

Mass spectrometry reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Personalized drug therapy aims to provide tailored treatment for individual patient. Mass spectrometry (MS) is revolutionarily involved in this area because MS is a rapid, customizable, cost-effective, and easy to be used high-throughput method with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It is driving the formation of a new field, MS-based personalized drug therapy, which currently mainly includes five subfields: therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), pharmacogenomics (PGx), pharmacomicrobiomics, pharmacoepigenomics, and immunopeptidomics. Gas chromatography-MS (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) are considered as the gold standard for TDM, which can be used to optimize drug dosage. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-MS (MALDI-TOF-MS) significantly improves the capability of detecting biomacromolecule, and largely promotes the application of MS in PGx. It is becoming an indispensable tool for genotyping, which is used to discover and validate genetic biomarkers. In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS also plays important roles in identity of human microbiome whose diversity can explain interindividual differences of drug response. Pharmacoepigenetics is to study the role of epigenetic factors in individualized drug treatment. MS can be used to discover and validate pharmacoepigenetic markers (DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNA). For the emerging cancer immunotherapy, personalized cancer vaccine has effective immunotherapeutic activity in the clinic. MS-based immunopeptidomics can effectively discover and screen neoantigens. This article systematically reviewed MS-based personalized drug therapy in the above mentioned five subfields. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Lai J, Hutto S, J Lesnick (2019)

Whole Genome Sequencing of Microbial Communities for Scaling Microbiome and Metagenomic Studies.

Journal of biomolecular techniques : JBT, 30(Suppl):S41.

Our understanding of the role of human microbiome in health and disease has been growing rapidly in recent years. Amplicon sequencing of highly conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) regions has long been the standard technique used to assess patient microbial diversity, however there are limitations to this method. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing only captures prokaryotic diversity and misses eukaryotic and viral components of the microbiome. While an additional amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region can capture fungal diversity, there is no known parallel technique for viral detection. Furthermore, these rRNA amplicon methods are generally only genus-specific. To obtain species-level differentiation, multiple variable regions of the rRNA need to be assessed in repeated experiments. Additionally, important strain information is not detected. Strain-to-strain variation is responsible for pathogenicity, toxins, virulence factors, epitopes, and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can determine strain-to strain variation and has more applications beyond microbial community identification. Metagenomic homolog discovery from uncharacterized organisms is enabling pathway design for production of molecules of interest. Using WGS, biologists are prospecting for natural enzymatic solutions to their challenges. Miniaturizing WGS significantly lowers the cost to sequence and discover, as well as reduces process cycle time. As researchers continue to deepen our understanding of human microbiome, and as biologists explore the metagenomic space, our tools and analyses need to scale accordingly. A workflow utilizing the Labcyte Echo 525 Liquid Handler can provide the solution to cost-effectively scale WGS of microbiomes to meet the demands of this new era of microbiome research. In this study, we demonstrate that the Echo 525 Liquid Handler can be used to miniaturize WGS of microbial communities. Raw data can be processed, analyzed, and ready for interpretation within the hour, by utilizing CosmosID's best-in-class microbiome bioinformatics platform. We see accurate representation of microbiome samples to their references.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Jasti M, AV Vlassov (2019)

The Complete Microbiome Workflow: Deciphering the Secrets of the Human Microbiome for Future Diagnostic Solutions.

Journal of biomolecular techniques : JBT, 30(Suppl):S39-S40.

Human Microbiome is an exciting and rapidly expanding field of research, aimed at studying bacteria, fungi and viruses (beneficial as well as pathogenic) densely populating in our bodies. Human Microbiome project demonstrated that microbiome dysbiosis in gastrointestinal tract might eventually cause various diseases including Crohns, C.Diff, U.colitis, Diabetes and cancer. Correlation of Microbiome compositions to these chronic diseases promises a great deal for development of innovative diagnostics and therapeutics. We developed a new automated high-throughput Microbiome kit for purification of fecal Total Nucleic Acid (DNA and RNA) with superior yields and quality. This magnetic bead-based kit enables processing 96 stool samples on KingFisher Flex platform within just 1h. Gene expression analysis on these Total Nucleic Acid extractions, using TaqMan assays for diverse bacterial species confirmed superior depletion of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions and lowest Ct values vs other commercial kits. This presentation will highlight several case studies that were conducted utilizing the Ion Torrent platform for 16S sequencing to characterize the microbiome compositions in fecal samples originating from various donors. One case study explored the impact of diet on gut microbiome profile and NGS data indicated that the gut microbiome can respond to dietary perturbations, as we observed several shifts in the abundances of certain bacterial families in GI tract of a person, who was on a nutritionist recommended diet. Another case study was performed with fecal samples collected from a person taking probiotics, to explore whether there are any respective changes in the gut microbiome profile. 16S sequencing results detected a significant shift in firmicutes/bacteroidetes levels with the intake of probiotics. In conclusion, the workflow that we developed to harness the power of microbiome enables fast generation of metagenomic data for bacterial communities residing within human gut, which can be utilized as diagnostic biomarkers for certain diseases, and potentially lay the path towards future microbiome therapeutics.

RevDate: 2020-01-02

Yang J, Zhang J, Zhao C, et al (2020)

Blood Loss Leads to Increase in Relative Abundance of Opportunistic Pathogens in the Gut Microbiome of Rabbits.

Current microbiology pii:10.1007/s00284-019-01825-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Massive blood loss, a common pathological complication in the clinic, is often accompanied by altered gut integrity and intestinal wall damage. Little is known to what extent the gut microbiome could be correlated with this process. The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health, especially in immune and inflammatory responses. This study aims to determine whether acute blood loss affects the gut microbiome and the dynamic variation of the gut microbiome following the loss of blood. We used New Zealand rabbits to mimic the blood loss complication and designed a five-time-point fecal sampling strategy including 24-h pre-blood loss procedure, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, and 1-week post-blood loss procedure. Gut microbiome composition and diversity were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and downstream α-diversity, β-diversity, and taxonomy analysis. The gut microbiome changed dramatically after blood loss procedure. There was a significant increase in diversity and richness of the gut microbiome at 24-h post-procedure (P = 0.038). Based on an analysis of similarities, the composition of gut microbiome in the samples collected at 24-h post-procedure was significantly different from that of pre-procedure samples (r = 0.79, P = 0.004 weighted unifrac distance; r = 0.99, P = 0.002, unweighted unifrac distance). The relative abundance of Lactobacillus was significantly decreased in the post-procedure samples (P = 0.0006), while the relative abundance of Clostridiales (P = 0.018) and Bacteroidales (P = 0.015) was significantly increased after procedure. We also found the relative abundance of Bacilli, Lactobacillus, Myroides, and Prevotella decreased gradually at different time points after blood loss. The relative abundance of the Clostridia, Alphaproteobacteria, and Sporosarcina increased at 24-h post-procedure and decreased thereafter. This preliminary study discovered potential connections between blood loss and dysbiosis of gut microbiome. The diversity and abundance of the gut microbiome was affected to various extents after acute blood loss and unable to be restored to the original microbiome profile even after one week. The increase in relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens after blood loss could be an important indication to reconsider immune and inflammatory responses after acute blood loss from the perspective of gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

O'Neil D, Block H, Lehmann D, et al (2019)

High-Throughput and Automated Procedures for Microbiome Analysis of Stool and Soil.

Journal of biomolecular techniques : JBT, 30(Suppl):S19.

Microbiome studies often require processing hundreds or thousands of samples in order to identify large-scale differences in the community composition of the target sample type. Large scale studies of this type are enabled by the advent of highly multiplexed 16S next-generation sequencing, for which efficient sample extraction techniques are needed. Two of the most common sample types studied are soil (environmental studies) and stool (human microbiome studies). These studies of the environmental and human microbiomes are challenged by the fact that soil and stool are extremely difficult sample types due to their high abundance of inhibitory substances, which are co-purified and have the potential to inhibit enzymatic reactions. The secondgeneration of the QIAGEN/MO BIO Inhibitor Removal Technology in the PowerSoil Pro and PowerFecal Pro kits addresses these challenges and efficiently removes PCR inhibitors from difficult soil and stool samples. These kits have been adapted to high-throughput processing methods, including 96-well plate-based as well as magnetic bead-based protocols which allow automation on a wide variety of platforms. High-throughput bead beating homogenization allows rapidlysis by a combination of mechanical and chemical methods. Inhibitors are removed by a specialized precipitation step, after which DNA purification can be carried out in 96-wellplate formats. This technology enables high-throughput processing of stool and soil samples for downstream applications such as PCR amplification and 16S rDNA sequencing. These procedures provide equivalent yields and purity to single spin column workflows, while enablingmuchhigher throughput in equivalent times. 16S sequencing shows equivalent community composition to manual methods, as shown by OTU analysis as well as alpha and beta diversity measures. These new procedure are ideal for high-throughput sample processing of both environmental and stool samples.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Gavin DP, Reen FJ, Rocha-Martin J, et al (2019)

Genome mining and characterisation of a novel transaminase with remote stereoselectivity.

Scientific reports, 9(1):20285.

Microbial enzymes from pristine niches can potentially deliver disruptive opportunities in synthetic routes to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and intermediates in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Advances in green chemistry technologies and the importance of stereochemical control, further underscores the application of enzyme-based solutions in chemical synthesis. The rich tapestry of microbial diversity in the oceanic ecosystem encodes a capacity for novel biotransformations arising from the chemical complexity of this largely unexplored bioactive reservoir. Here we report a novel ω-transaminase discovered in a marine sponge Pseudovibrio sp. isolate. Remote stereoselection using a transaminase has been demonstrated for the first time using this novel protein. Application to the resolution of an intermediate in the synthesis of sertraline highlights the synthetic potential of this novel biocatalyst discovered through genomic mining. Integrated chemico-genomics revealed a unique substrate profile, while molecular modelling provided structural insights into this 'first in class' selectivity at a remote chiral centre.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Picca A, Ponziani FR, Calvani R, et al (2019)

Gut Microbial, Inflammatory and Metabolic Signatures in Older People with Physical Frailty and Sarcopenia: Results from the BIOSPHERE Study.

Nutrients, 12(1): pii:nu12010065.

Physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) share multisystem derangements, including variations in circulating amino acids and chronic low-grade inflammation. Gut microbiota balances inflammatory responses in several conditions and according to nutritional status. Therefore, an altered gut-muscle crosstalk has been hypothesized in PF&S. We analyzed the gut microbial taxa, systemic inflammation, and metabolic characteristics of older adults with and without PF&S. An innovative multi-marker analytical approach was applied to explore the classification performance of potential biomarkers for PF&S. Thirty-five community dwellers aged 70+, 18 with PF&S, and 17 nonPF&S controls were enrolled. Sequential and Orthogonalized Covariance Selection (SO-CovSel), a multi-platform regression method developed to handle highly correlated variables, was applied. The SO-CovSel model with the best prediction ability using the smallest number of variables was built using seven mediators. The model correctly classified 91.7% participants with PF&S and 87.5% nonPF&S controls. Compared with the latter group, PF&S participants showed higher serum concentrations of aspartic acid, lower circulating levels of concentrations of threonine and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, increased abundance of Oscillospira and Ruminococcus microbial taxa, and decreased abundance of Barnesiellaceae and Christensenellaceae. Future investigations are warranted to determine whether these biomediators are involved in PF&S pathophysiology and may, therefore, provide new targets for interventions.

RevDate: 2019-12-30

Tomassi D, Forzani L, Duarte S, et al (2019)

Sufficient dimension reduction for compositional data.

Biostatistics (Oxford, England) pii:5689688 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent efforts to characterize the human microbiome and its relation to chronic diseases have led to a surge in statistical development for compositional data. We develop likelihood-based sufficient dimension reduction methods (SDR) to find linear combinations that contain all the information in the compositional data on an outcome variable, i.e., are sufficient for modeling and prediction of the outcome. We consider several models for the inverse regression of the compositional vector or transformations of it, as a function of outcome. They include normal, multinomial, and Poisson graphical models that allow for complex dependencies among observed counts. These methods yield efficient estimators of the reduction and can be applied to continuous or categorical outcomes. We incorporate variable selection into the estimation via penalties and address important invariance issues arising from the compositional nature of the data. We illustrate and compare our methods and some established methods for analyzing microbiome data in simulations and using data from the Human Microbiome Project. Displaying the data in the coordinate system of the SDR linear combinations allows visual inspection and facilitates comparisons across studies.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Ounit R, Mason C, Lonardi S, et al (2019)

A Metagenomic Analysis of Environmental and Clinical Samples Using a Secure Hybrid Cloud Solution.

Journal of biomolecular techniques : JBT, 30(Suppl):S2.

The number and types of studies about the human microbiome, metagenomics and personalized medicine, and clinical genomics are increasing at an unprecedented rate, leading to computational challenges. For example, the analysis of patient/clinical samples requires methods capable of (i) accurately detecting pathogenic organisms, (ii) running with high speed to allow short response-time and diagnosis, and (iii) scaling to ever growing databases of reference genomes. While cloud-computing has the potential to offer low-cost solutions to these needs, serious concerns regarding the protection of genomic data exist due to the lack of control and security in remote genomic databases. We present a novel metagenomic analysis system called "Virgile" that is capable of performing privacy-preserving queries on databases hosted in outsourced servers (e.g., public or cloud-based). This method takes as input the sequenced data produced by any modern sequencing instruments (e.g., Illumina, Pacbio, Oxford Nanopore) and outputs the microbial profile using a database of whole genome sequences (e.g., the RefSeq database from NCBI). The algorithm for the microbial profile aims to estimate without bias the abundance of microorganisms present using a genome-centric approach. Result: Using an extensive set of 65 simulated datasets, negative and positive controls, real clinical samples, and mock communities, we show that Virgile identifies and estimates the abundance of organisms present in environmental or clinical samples with high accuracy compared to state-of-the-art and popular methods available, including MetaPhlAn2 and KrakenUniq. Running at high speed, Virgile can also be run on a standard 8 GB RAM laptop. Virgile is a novel privacy-preserving abundance estimation algorithm called Virgile that can efficiently and rapidly discern the abundance and taxonomic identification of organisms present in a metagenomic sample, including those from medical environments. To the best of our knowledge, Virgile is the only metagenome analysis system leveraging cloud computing in a secure manner.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Manara S, Asnicar F, Beghini F, et al (2019)

Microbial genomes from non-human primate gut metagenomes expand the primate-associated bacterial tree of life with over 1000 novel species.

Genome biology, 20(1):299.

BACKGROUND: Humans have coevolved with microbial communities to establish a mutually advantageous relationship that is still poorly characterized and can provide a better understanding of the human microbiome. Comparative metagenomic analysis of human and non-human primate (NHP) microbiomes offers a promising approach to study this symbiosis. Very few microbial species have been characterized in NHP microbiomes due to their poor representation in the available cataloged microbial diversity, thus limiting the potential of such comparative approaches.

RESULTS: We reconstruct over 1000 previously uncharacterized microbial species from 6 available NHP metagenomic cohorts, resulting in an increase of the mappable fraction of metagenomic reads by 600%. These novel species highlight that almost 90% of the microbial diversity associated with NHPs has been overlooked. Comparative analysis of this new catalog of taxa with the collection of over 150,000 genomes from human metagenomes points at a limited species-level overlap, with only 20% of microbial candidate species in NHPs also found in the human microbiome. This overlap occurs mainly between NHPs and non-Westernized human populations and NHPs living in captivity, suggesting that host lifestyle plays a role comparable to host speciation in shaping the primate intestinal microbiome. Several NHP-specific species are phylogenetically related to human-associated microbes, such as Elusimicrobia and Treponema, and could be the consequence of host-dependent evolutionary trajectories.

CONCLUSIONS: The newly reconstructed species greatly expand the microbial diversity associated with NHPs, thus enabling better interrogation of the primate microbiome and empowering in-depth human and non-human comparative and co-diversification studies.

RevDate: 2019-12-26

Harkins CP, Kong HH, JA Segre (2019)

Manipulating the Human Microbiome to Manage Disease.

JAMA pii:2758268 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-12-30

Zhou ZY, Xu X, Y Zhou (2019)

[Research progress on carbohydrate active enzymes of human microbiome].

Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology, 37(6):666-670.

A massive variety of microorganisms live in and on the human body, especially at oral, skin, vaginal, gastroin-testinal, and respiratory sites. The complicated metabolic activities of microorganisms assist human digestive function and participate in a series of physiological and pathogenetic processes. Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are a series of enzymes that function in degradation, modification, and formation of glycoside bonds. Microbes regulate the physiological and pathogenetic processes of human body by producing various CAZymes to degrade and modify complex carbohydrates and generate signal molecules for further utilization in human cells. Here, we reviewed the mechanisms of complex carbohy-drate metabolism and related microbial CAZymes, especially in digestive tract and oral cavity. We also summarized the rela-tionship between microbial CAZymes and human health, and proposed potential applications.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Majid M, S Andleeb (2019)

Designing a multi-epitopic vaccine against the enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis based on immunoinformatics approach.

Scientific reports, 9(1):19780.

Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis is an enteric pathogen which is described as a causative agent of various intestinal infections and inflammatory diseases. Moreover, various research studies have reported it to be a leading factor in the development of colorectal cancer. As a part of the normal human microbiome, its treatment has become quite a challenge due to the alarming resistance against the available antibiotics. Although, this particular strain of B. fragilis shows susceptibility to few antibiotics, it is pertinent to devise an effective vaccine strategy for its elimination. There is no vaccine available against this pathogen up to date; therefore, we systematically ventured the outer membrane toxin producing proteins found exclusively in the toxigenic B. fragilis through the in-silico approaches to predict a multi-epitopic chimeric vaccine construct. The designed protein constitutes of epitopes which are predicted for linear B cells, Helper and T cells of outer membrane proteins expected to be putative vaccine candidates. The finalized proteins are only expressed in the enterotoxigenic B. fragilis, thus proving them to be exclusive. The 3D structure of the protein was first predicted followed by its refinement and validation via utilizing the bioinformatic approaches. Docking of the designed protein with the TLR2 receptor forecasted apt binding. Upon immune simulation, notable levels were observed in the expression of the immune cells.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Grosicki GJ, Durk RP, JR Bagley (2019)

Rapid gut microbiome changes in a world-class ultramarathon runner.

Physiological reports, 7(24):e14313.

The human gut microbiome is a dynamic ecosystem with prolific health connotations. Physical activity is emerging as a potent regulator of human microbiome composition. This study examined changes in the gut microbiome of a world-class ultramarathon runner before and after competing in the Western States Endurance Run (WSER), a 163 km mountain footrace. Anthropometrics and body composition were assessed and the ultramarathoner's submaximal and maximal performance profiles were evaluated. Gut microbiome analyses were performed at four time-points: 21 weeks and 2 weeks before and 2 hours and 10 days after WSER. Aerobic power (VO2 max) was 4.24 L/min (66.7 ml kg-1 min-1), and running economy (51.1 ml kg-1 min-1 at 268 m/min) and lactate threshold (~83% VO2 max) values were comparable to that of highly trained distance runners. Two hours post-race, considerable changes in the ultrarunners' gut microbiome were observed. Alpha diversity (Shannon Diversity Index) increased from 2.73 to 2.80 and phylum-level bacterial composition (Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio) rose from 4.4 to 14.2. Underlying these macro-level microbial alterations were demonstrable increases in select bacterial genera such as Veillonella (+14,229%) and Streptococcus (+438%) concomitant with reductions in Alloprevotella (-79%) and Subdolingranulum (-50%). To our knowledge, this case study shows the most rapid and pronounced shifts in human gut microbiome composition after acute exercise in the human literature. These findings provide yet another example of how exercise can be a powerful modulator of human health.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Ly LK, Rowles JL, Paul HM, et al (2019)

Bacterial steroid-17,20-desmolase is a taxonomically rare enzymatic pathway that converts prednisone to 1,4-androstanediene-3,11,17-trione, a metabolite that causes proliferation of prostate cancer cells.

The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 199:105567 pii:S0960-0760(19)30617-X [Epub ahead of print].

The adrenal gland has traditionally been viewed as a source of "weak androgens"; however, emerging evidence indicates 11-oxy-androgens of adrenal origin are metabolized in peripheral tissues to potent androgens. Also emerging is the role of gut bacteria in the conversion of C21 glucocorticoids to 11-oxygenated C19 androgens. Clostridium scindens ATCC 35,704 is a gut microbe capable of converting cortisol into 11-oxy-androgens by cleaving the side-chain. The desA and desB genes encode steroid-17,20-desmolase. Our prior study indicated that the urinary tract bacterium, Propionimicrobium lymphophilum ACS-093-V-SCH5 encodes desAB and converts cortisol to 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione. We wanted to determine how widespread this function occurs in the human microbiome. Phylogenetic and sequence similarity network analyses indicated that the steroid-17,20-desmolase pathway is taxonomically rare and located in gut and urogenital microbiomes. Two microbes from each of these niches, C. scindens and Propionimicrobium lymphophilum, respectively, were screened for activity against endogenous (cortisol, cortisone, and allotetrahydrocortisol) and exogenous (prednisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, and 9-fluorocortisol) glucocorticoids. LC/MS analysis showed that both microbes were able to side-chain cleave all glucocorticoids, forming 11-oxy-androgens. Pure recombinant DesAB from C. scindens showed the highest activity against prednisone, a commonly prescribed glucocorticoid. In addition, 0.1 nM 1,4-androstadiene-3,11,17-trione, bacterial side-chain cleavage product of prednisone, showed significant proliferation relative to vehicle in androgen-dependent growth LNCaP prostate cancer cells after 24 h (2.3 fold; P < 0.01) and 72 h (1.6 fold; P < 0.01). Taken together, DesAB-expressing microbes may be an overlooked source of androgens in the body, potentially contributing to various disease states, such as prostate cancer.

RevDate: 2020-01-10

Liu Q, Liu Q, Meng H, et al (2020)

Staphylococcus epidermidis Contributes to Healthy Maturation of the Nasal Microbiome by Stimulating Antimicrobial Peptide Production.

Cell host & microbe, 27(1):68-78.e5.

The composition of the human microbiome profoundly impacts human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying microbiome maturation are poorly understood. The nasal microbiome is of particular importance as a source of many respiratory infections. Here, we performed a large sequencing and culture-based analysis of the human nasal microbiota from different age groups. We observed a significant decline of pathogenic bacteria before adulthood, with an increase of the commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. In seniors, this effect was partially reversed. In vitro, many S. epidermidis isolates stimulated nasal epithelia to produce antimicrobial peptides, killing pathogenic competitors, while S. epidermidis itself proved highly resistant owing to its exceptional capacity to form biofilms. Furthermore, S. epidermidis isolates with high antimicrobial peptide-inducing and biofilm-forming capacities outcompeted pathogenic bacteria during nasal colonization in vivo. Our study identifies a pivotal role of S. epidermidis in healthy maturation of the nasal microbiome, which is achieved at least in part by symbiotic cooperation with innate host defense.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Deering KE, Devine A, O'Sullivan TA, et al (2019)

Characterizing the Composition of the Pediatric Gut Microbiome: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients, 12(1): pii:nu12010016.

The consortium of trillions of microorganisms that live inside the human gut are integral to health. Little has been done to collate and characterize the microbiome of children. A systematic review was undertaken to address this gap (PROSPERO ID: CRD42018109599). MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the keywords: "healthy preadolescent children" and "gut microbiome" to 31 August 2018. Of the 815 journal articles, 42 met the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome was the relative abundance of bacteria at the phylum, family, and genus taxonomic ranks. α-diversity, short chain fatty acid concentrations, diet, 16S rRNA sequencing region, and geographical location were documented. The preadolescent gut microbiome is dominated at the phylum level by Firmicutes (weighted overall average relative abundance = 51.1%) and Bacteroidetes (36.0%); genus level by Bacteroides (16.0%), Prevotella (8.69%), Faecalibacterium (7.51%), and Bifidobacterium (5.47%). Geographic location and 16S rRNA sequencing region were independently associated with microbial proportions. There was limited consensus between studies that reported α-diversity and short chain fatty acids. Broadly speaking, participants from non-Western locations, who were less likely to follow a Westernized dietary pattern, had higher α-diversity and SCFA concentrations. Confirmatory studies will increase the understanding of the composition and functional capacity of the preadolescent gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Martiny JBH, Whiteson KL, Bohannan BJM, et al (2020)

The emergence of microbiome centres.

Nature microbiology, 5(1):2-3.

RevDate: 2019-12-19

Lo Presti A, Del Chierico F, Altomare A, et al (2019)

Exploring the genetic diversity of the 16S rRNA gene of Akkermansia muciniphila in IBD and IBS.

Future microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: The human gastrointestinal tract harbors diverse, abundant microbiota and Akkermansia muciniphila is involved in this community. The aim of this study is to characterize 16 new A. muciniphila 16S ribosomal RNA sequences selected from a metagenomic database from stools of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases and control (CTRLs) subjects by a phylogenetic approach. Materials & methods: A phylogenetic approach was used to study the genetic diversity and SNPs in 16 A. muciniphila 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from stools of 107 individuals, 36 of which were patients affected by IBS, 30 by inflammatory bowel disease and 41 were CTRLs. Results: Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the subdivision into different supported clusters. An increase of variability in IBS has been identified. Conclusion: The genetic variation combined to the relative abundance, contribute to the protective role of A. muciniphila. Phylogenesis represent an additional approach to investigate genetic variability.

RevDate: 2019-12-20

Song N, Liu X, Feng Q, et al (2019)

Whole Body Vibration Triggers a Change in the Mutual Shaping State of Intestinal Microbiota and Body's Immunity.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 7:377.

Whole body vibration (WBV) is a non-invasive physical therapy that has recently been included in the hospital's patient rehabilitation training catalog, but its health effects have not been sufficiently studied. In the present study, to examine the possible effects of WBV on immune cell differentiation, the IFN, IL-4,-17, F4/80 and CD3,-4,-8,-11b,-11c,-19 markers were used to characterizing the cells in mouse spleen. The results showed that the CD4 and CD25 positive lymphocytes in the spleen were significantly increased in the WBV group, and the population of Treg cells was enhanced significantly in response to WBV. Since the differentiation in immune cells is usually associated with microbiota, therefore the intestinal flora was characterized in mice and human individuals. The results indicated that WBV significantly reduced the α-diversity of mouse intestinal microbiota. Moreover, the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) results indicated that the β-diversities of both mice and human fecal microbiota increased after WBV. Analysis of the bacterial composition indicated that the contents of a variety of bacteria changed in mice upon the stimulation of vibration, such as Lactobacillus animalis in mice, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in human. The succeeding correlation analysis revealed that some bacteria with significant content variations were correlated to the regulatory T cell differentiation in mice and physical characteristics in human. Our research will provide the basis for future non-invasive treatment of microbial and immune related diseases.

RevDate: 2019-12-20

Sutton TDS, C Hill (2019)

Gut Bacteriophage: Current Understanding and Challenges.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 10:784.

The gut microbiome is widely accepted to have a significant impact on human health yet, despite years of research on this complex ecosystem, the contributions of different forces driving microbial population structure remain to be fully elucidated. The viral component of the human gut microbiome is dominated by bacteriophage, which are known to play crucial roles in shaping microbial composition, driving bacterial diversity, and facilitating horizontal gene transfer. Bacteriophage are also one of the most poorly understood components of the human gut microbiome, with the vast majority of viral sequences sharing little to no homology to reference databases. If we are to understand the dynamics of bacteriophage populations, their interaction with the human microbiome and ultimately their influence on human health, we will depend heavily on sequence based approaches and in silico tools. This is complicated by the fact that, as with any research field in its infancy, methods of analyses vary and this can impede our ability to compare the outputs of different studies. Here, we discuss the major findings to date regarding the human virome and reflect on our current understanding of how gut bacteriophage shape the microbiome. We consider whether or not the virome field is built on unstable foundations and if so, how can we provide a solid basis for future experimentation. The virome is a challenging yet crucial piece of the human microbiome puzzle. In order to develop our understanding, we will discuss the need to underpin future studies with robust research methods and suggest some solutions to existing challenges.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Wang C, Li P, Yan Q, et al (2019)

Characterization of the Pig Gut Microbiome and Antibiotic Resistome in Industrialized Feedlots in China.

mSystems, 4(6):.

To characterize the diversity and richness and explore the function and structure of swine gut microbiome and resistome in common pig-farming feedlots, we sampled and metagenomic sequenced the feces of pigs from four different industrialized feedlots located in four distant provinces across China. Surprisingly, more than half of the nonredundant genes (1,937,648, 54.3%) in the current catalogue were newly found compared with the previously published reference gene catalogue (RGC) of the pig gut microbiome. Additionally, 16 high-completeness draft genomes were obtained by analyzing the dominant species on each feedlot. Notably, seven of these species often appeared in the human body sites. Despite a smaller number of nonredundant genes, our study identified more antibiotic resistance genes than those available in the RGC. Tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and multidrug resistance genes accounted for nearly 70% of the relative abundance in the current catalogue. Slightly higher sharing ratios were shown between the industrialized feedlot pig gut microbiomes and human gut microbiomes than that between the RGC and human counterpart (14.7% versus 12.6% in genes and 94.1% versus 87.7% in functional groups, respectively). Furthermore, a remarkably high number of the antibiotic resistance proteins (n =141) were identified to be shared by the pig, human, and mouse resistome, indicating the potential for horizontal transfer of resistance genes. Of the antibiotic resistance proteins shared by pigs and humans, 50 proteins were related to tetracycline resistance, and 49 were related to aminoglycoside resistance.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota is believed to be closely related to many important physical functions in the host. Comprehensive data on mammalian gut metagenomes has facilitated research on host-microbiome interaction mechanisms, but less is known about pig gut microbiome, especially the gut microbiome in industrialized feedlot pigs, compared with human microbiome. On the other hand, pig production, as an important source of food, is believed to exacerbate the antibiotic resistance in humans due to the abuse of antibiotics in pig production in various parts of the world. This study delineates an intricate picture of swine gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome in industrialized feedlots and may provide insight for the pig producing industry.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Wang Y, Randolph TW, Shojaie A, et al (2019)

The Generalized Matrix Decomposition Biplot and Its Application to Microbiome Data.

mSystems, 4(6):.

Exploratory analysis of human microbiome data is often based on dimension-reduced graphical displays derived from similarities based on non-Euclidean distances, such as UniFrac or Bray-Curtis. However, a display of this type, often referred to as the principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) plot, does not reveal which taxa are related to the observed clustering because the configuration of samples is not based on a coordinate system in which both the samples and variables can be represented. The reason is that the PCoA plot is based on the eigen-decomposition of a similarity matrix and not the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the sample-by-abundance matrix. We propose a novel biplot that is based on an extension of the SVD, called the generalized matrix decomposition biplot (GMD-biplot), which involves an arbitrary matrix of similarities and the original matrix of variable measures, such as taxon abundances. As in a traditional biplot, points represent the samples, and arrows represent the variables. The proposed GMD-biplot is illustrated by analyzing multiple real and simulated data sets which demonstrate that the GMD-biplot provides improved clustering capability and a more meaningful relationship between the arrows and points.IMPORTANCE Biplots that simultaneously display the sample clustering and the important taxa have gained popularity in the exploratory analysis of human microbiome data. Traditional biplots, assuming Euclidean distances between samples, are not appropriate for microbiome data, when non-Euclidean distances are used to characterize dissimilarities among microbial communities. Thus, incorporating information from non-Euclidean distances into a biplot becomes useful for graphical displays of microbiome data. The proposed GMD-biplot accounts for any arbitrary non-Euclidean distances and provides a robust and computationally efficient approach for graphical visualization of microbiome data. In addition, the proposed GMD-biplot displays both the samples and taxa with respect to the same coordinate system, which further allows the configuration of future samples.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Parida S, D Sharma (2019)

The Microbiome-Estrogen Connection and Breast Cancer Risk.

Cells, 8(12): pii:cells8121642.

The microbiome is undoubtedly the second genome of the human body and has diverse roles in health and disease. However, translational progress is limited due to the vastness of the microbiome, which accounts for over 3.3 million genes, whose functions are still unclear. Numerous studies in the past decade have demonstrated how microbiome impacts various organ-specific cancers by altering the energy balance of the body, increasing adiposity, synthesizing genotoxins and small signaling molecules, and priming and regulating immune response and metabolism of indigestible dietary components, xenobiotics, and pharmaceuticals. In relation to breast cancer, one of the most prominent roles of the human microbiome is the regulation of steroid hormone metabolism since endogenous estrogens are the most important risk factor in breast cancer development especially in postmenopausal women. Intestinal microbes encode enzymes capable of deconjugating conjugated estrogen metabolites marked for excretion, pushing them back into the enterohepatic circulation in a biologically active form. In addition, the intestinal microbes also break down otherwise indigestible dietary polyphenols to synthesize estrogen-like compounds or estrogen mimics that exhibit varied estrogenic potency. The present account discusses the potential role of gastrointestinal microbiome in breast cancer development by mediating metabolism of steroid hormones and synthesis of biologically active estrogen mimics.

RevDate: 2019-12-17

Jiang S, Xiao G, Koh AY, et al (2019)

A Bayesian zero-inflated negative binomial regression model for the integrative analysis of microbiome data.

Biostatistics (Oxford, England) pii:5679577 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiome omics approaches can reveal intriguing relationships between the human microbiome and certain disease states. Along with identification of specific bacteria taxa associated with diseases, recent scientific advancements provide mounting evidence that metabolism, genetics, and environmental factors can all modulate these microbial effects. However, the current methods for integrating microbiome data and other covariates are severely lacking. Hence, we present an integrative Bayesian zero-inflated negative binomial regression model that can both distinguish differentially abundant taxa with distinct phenotypes and quantify covariate-taxa effects. Our model demonstrates good performance using simulated data. Furthermore, we successfully integrated microbiome taxonomies and metabolomics in two real microbiome datasets to provide biologically interpretable findings. In all, we proposed a novel integrative Bayesian regression model that features bacterial differential abundance analysis and microbiome-covariate effects quantifications, which makes it suitable for general microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2019-12-18

Ma ZS, W Li (2019)

How and Why Men and Women Differ in Their Microbiomes: Medical Ecology and Network Analyses of the Microgenderome.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany), 6(23):1902054.

Microgenderome or sexual dimorphism in microbiome refers to the bidirectional interactions between microbiotas, sex hormones, and immune systems, and it is highly relevant to disease susceptibility. A critical step in exploring microgenderome is to dissect the sex differences in key community ecology properties, which has not been systematically analyzed. This study aims at filling the gap by reanalyzing the Human Microbiome Project datasets with two objectives: (i) dissecting the sex differences in community diversity and their intersubject scaling, species composition, core/periphery species, and high-salience skeletons (species interactions); (ii) offering mechanistic interpretations for (i). Conceptually, the Vellend-Hanson synthesis of community ecology that stipulates selection, drift, speciation, and dispersal as the four processes driving community dynamics is followed. Methodologically, seven approaches reflecting the state-of-the-art research in medical ecology of human microbiomes are harnessed to achieve the objectives. It is postulated that the revealed microgenderome characteristics (categorized as seven aspects of differences/similarities) exert far reaching influences on disease susceptibility, and are primarily due to the sex difference in selection effects (deterministic fitness differences in microbial species and/or species interactions with each other or with their hosts), which are, in turn, shaped/modulated by host physiology (immunity, hormones, gut-brain communications, etc.).

RevDate: 2019-12-12

Berkes E, Liao YH, Neef D, et al (2019)

Potentiated In Vitro Probiotic Activities of Lactobacillus fermentum LfQi6 Biofilm Biomass Versus Planktonic Culture.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins pii:10.1007/s12602-019-09624-8 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we describe enhanced in vitro probiotic activities of preformed biofilms versus planktonic cultures of Lactobacillus fermentum LfQi6 (LfQi6), a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from the human microbiome. These evaluations are used to help predict host in vivo probiotic benefits and therefore indicate that LfQi6 may provide significant probiotic benefits in the human host when administered as preformed biofilms rather than as planktonic cultures. Specifically, LfQi6 biofilms demonstrated improved in vitro performance versus LfQi6 planktonic cultures for host gastrointestinal survival and engraftment, strain-specific antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity against clinically significant pathogens, concurrent promotion of beneficial gastrointestinal commensal biofilms, beneficial commensal enzyme activities, and host cellular-protective glutathione antioxidant activity. Evaluation of LfQi6 according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA 2007, 2012, 2015) Guidelines and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Evaluation of Probiotics in Food (FAO/WHO, 2002) demonstrates strain safety. In summary, in vitro evaluation of Lact. fermentum LfQi6 demonstrates significant evidence for strain-specific probiotic characteristics and safety. Moreover, strain-specific as well as biofilm-phenotype-specific benefits demonstrated in vitro furthermore suggest that in vivo use of LfQi6 biofilm biomass may be of greater benefit to the human host than the use of standard planktonic cultures. This concept - potentiating probiotic benefits through the use of preformed commensal biofilms - is novel and may serve to further broaden the application of microbial biofilms to human health.

RevDate: 2019-12-12

Rapp R (2019)

On mycohuman performances: fungi in current artistic research.

Fungal biology and biotechnology, 6:22 pii:85.

This review reflects several artists and their artistic research in the field of hybrid art, bio art, or science art, working with Fungi as both subject matter and medium. The work of Saša Spačal, Tarsh Bates and Theresa Schubert is not representational in the manner of traditional fine art, but works rather through performative, multidisciplinary and research-based strategies to produce artwork through fungal material as such. My research results are based on the series "Nonhuman subjectivities" and "Nonhuman agents" that Christian de Lutz and I conceived and realized at Art Laboratory Berlin (2016-18) in various formats-exhibitions, workshops, lectures and a conference. The work of Saša Spačal and her colleagues involves creating interactive situations of symbiosis between the fungal and the human. An example of this is Myconnect, in which a biofeedback loop is related between the human participant and Oyster mushroom mycelia through a special encounter, which is mediated by non-linguistic forms of awareness and exchange-sonic, electronic and metabolic. Tarsh Bates' work with Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis refers to a complex and intimate relation between the human and yeasts that form part of the human microbiome. Bates considers the relationship between humans and yeast as "CandidaHomo Ecologies" and sees both partners as equals. She explores this relationship through her work The Surface dynamics of adhesion, examines it from historical and metabolic levels through an installation that includes the live yeast growing on agar mixed with the artist's own blood. Theresa Schubert's installations and site-specific interventions treat living organisms, especially Fungi, as collaborators and co-creators. Her work Growing Geometries-Tattooing Mushrooms follows the morphological development of fungal fruiting bodies through the intervention of a tattoo. Her performative forest walks, especially the Forestal Psyche and also new actions for the "Mind the Fungi" project, engage the public in an intimate and multi sensory encounter with Fungi and their surrounding environment.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Barton W, O'Sullivan O, PD Cotter (2019)

Metabolic phenotyping of the human microbiome.

F1000Research, 8:.

The human microbiome has been identified as having a key role in health and numerous diseases. Trillions of microbial cells and viral particles comprise the microbiome, each representing modifiable working elements of an intricate bioactive ecosystem. The significance of the human microbiome as it relates to human biology has progressed through culture-dependent (for example, media-based methods) and, more recently, molecular (for example, genetic sequencing and metabolomic analysis) techniques. The latter have become increasingly popular and evolved from being used for taxonomic identification of microbiota to elucidation of functional capacity (sequencing) and metabolic activity (metabolomics). This review summarises key elements of the human microbiome and its metabolic capabilities within the context of health and disease.

RevDate: 2019-12-18

Michel-Todó L, Reche PA, Bigey P, et al (2019)

In silico Design of an Epitope-Based Vaccine Ensemble for Chagas Disease.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2698.

Trypanosoma cruzi infection causes Chagas disease, which affects 7 million people worldwide. Two drugs are available to treat it: benznidazole and nifurtimox. Although both are efficacious against the acute stage of the disease, this is usually asymptomatic and goes undiagnosed and untreated. Diagnosis is achieved at the chronic stage, when life-threatening heart and/or gut tissue disruptions occur in ~30% of those chronically infected. By then, the drugs' efficacy is reduced, but not their associated high toxicity. Given current deficiencies in diagnosis and treatment, a vaccine to prevent infection and/or the development of symptoms would be a breakthrough in the management of the disease. Current vaccine candidates are mostly based on the delivery of single antigens or a few different antigens. Nevertheless, due to the high biological complexity of the parasite, targeting as many antigens as possible would be desirable. In this regard, an epitope-based vaccine design could be a well-suited approach. With this aim, we have gone through publicly available databases to identify T. cruzi epitopes from several antigens. By means of a computer-aided strategy, we have prioritized a set of epitopes based on sequence conservation criteria, projected population coverage of Latin American population, and biological features of their antigens of origin. Fruit of this analysis, we provide a selection of CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, and B cell epitopes that have <70% identity to human or human microbiome protein sequences and represent the basis toward the development of an epitope-based vaccine against T. cruzi.

RevDate: 2019-12-18

Freitag TL, Hartikainen A, Jouhten H, et al (2019)

Minor Effect of Antibiotic Pre-treatment on the Engraftment of Donor Microbiota in Fecal Transplantation in Mice.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2685.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) and is also considered a potential treatment for a wide range of intestinal and systemic diseases. FMT corrects the microbial dysbiosis associated with rCDI, and the engraftment of donor microbiota is likely to play a key role in treatment efficacy. For disease indications other than rCDI, FMT treatment efficacy has been moderate. This may be partly due to stronger resilience of resident host microbiota in patients who do not suffer from rCDI. In rCDI, patients typically have undergone several antibiotic treatments prior to FMT, depleting the microbiota. In this study, we addressed the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics (Ab) as a pre-treatment to FMT on the engraftment of donor microbiota in recipients. We conducted a pre-clinical study of FMT between two healthy mouse strains, Balb/c as donors and C57BL/6 as recipients, to perform FMT within the same species and to mimic interindividual FMT between human donors and patients. Microbiota composition was assessed with high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. The microbiota of Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice differed significantly, which allowed for the assessment of microbiota transplantation from the donor strain to the recipient. Our results showed that Ab-treatment depleted microbiota in C57BL/6 recipient mice prior to FMT. The diversity of microbiota did not recover spontaneously to baseline levels during 8 weeks after Ab-treatment, but was restored already at 2 weeks in mice receiving FMT. Interestingly, pre-treatment with antibiotics prior to FMT did not increase the overall similarity of the recipient's microbiota to that of the donor's, as compared with mice receiving FMT without Ab-treatment. Pre-treatment with Ab improved the establishment of only a few donor-derived taxa, such as Bifidobacterium, in the recipients, thus having a minor effect on the engraftment of donor microbiota in FMT. In conclusion, pre-treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics did not improve the overall engraftment of donor microbiota, but did improve the engraftment of specific taxa. These results may inform future therapeutic studies of FMT.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Golofast B, K Vales (2020)

The connection between microbiome and schizophrenia.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 108:712-731.

There has been an accumulation of knowledge about the human microbiome, some detailed investigations of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its functions, and the highlighting of complex interactions between the gut, the gut microbiota, and the central nervous system. That assumes the involvement of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of various CNS diseases, including schizophrenia. Given this information and the fact, that the gut microbiota is sensitive to internal and environmental influences, we have speculated that among the factors that influence the formation and composition of gut microbiota during life, possible key elements in the schizophrenia development chain are hidden where gut microbiota is a linking component. This article aims to describe and understand the developmental relationships between intestinal microbiota and the risk of developing schizophrenia.

RevDate: 2019-12-28

Hall CV, Lord A, Betzel R, et al (2019)

Co-existence of Network Architectures Supporting the Human Gut Microbiome.

iScience, 22:380-391.

Microbial organisms of the human gut microbiome do not exist in isolation but form complex and diverse interactions to maintain health and reduce risk of disease development. The organization of the gut microbiome is assumed to be a singular assortative network, where interactions between operational taxonomic units (OTUs) can readily be clustered into segregated and distinct communities. Here, we leverage recent methodological advances in network modeling to assess whether communities in the human microbiome exhibit a single network structure or whether co-existing mesoscale network architectures are present. We found evidence for core-periphery structures in the microbiome, supported by strong, assortative community interactions. This complex architecture, coupled with previously reported functional roles of OTUs, provides a nuanced understanding of how the microbiome simultaneously promotes high microbial diversity and maintains functional redundancy.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Borbet TC, Zhang X, Müller A, et al (2019)

The role of the changing human microbiome in the asthma pandemic.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 144(6):1457-1466.

Asthma and allergy incidence continue to increase globally. We have made significant strides in treating disease, but it is becoming more apparent that we need to advance our knowledge into the origins of asthmatic disease. Much recent work has indicated that microbiome composition influences immune regulation and that multiple health care factors have driven a loss in microbiome diversity in modern human populations. Evidence is growing of microbiota-driven influences on immune development, asthma susceptibility, and asthma pathogenesis. The focus of this review is to highlight the strides the field has made in characterizing the constituents of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, such as Helicobacter pylori, other members of the neonatal intestinal microbiota, and microbial peptides and metabolites that influence host immunity and immune response to allergens. As we delve further into this field of research, the goal will be to find actionable and clinical interventions to identify at-risk populations earlier to prevent disease onset. Manipulation of the host microbial community during infancy might be an especially promising approach.

RevDate: 2020-01-14

Neckovic A, van Oorschot RAH, Szkuta B, et al (2019)

Investigation of direct and indirect transfer of microbiomes between individuals.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 45:102212 pii:S1872-4973(19)30359-X [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome encompasses the fungi, bacteria and viruses that live on, within, and immediately surrounding the body. Microbiomes have potential utility in forensic science as an evidentiary tool to link or exclude persons of interest associated with criminal activities. Research has shown the microbiome is individualised, and that personal microbial signatures can be recovered from surfaces such as phones, shoes and fabrics. Before the human microbiome may be used as an investigative tool, further research is required to investigate the utility and potential limitations surrounding microbial profiling. This includes the detectability of microbial transfer between individuals or items, the associated risks (such as contamination events) and the applicability of microbial profiling for forensic purposes. This research aimed to identify whether an individual's distinguishable microbiome could be transferred to another individual and onto substrates, and vice versa. Paper, cotton, and glass surfaces were chosen to represent a range of substrate matrices. The study involved six participants placed into three pairs; participants took part in two modes of transfer. Transfer Mode 1 involved the pair shaking hands, followed by rubbing a substrate in their right hand. Transfer Mode 2 involved individuals rubbing a substrate in their left hand, swapping substrates with their partner and then rubbing the swapped substrate in their left hand. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on the extracted microbial DNA from participant and substrate samples. Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology 2 (QIIME 2) was used for sequence quality control and beta (between-sample) diversity analyses and taxonomic assignment. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) based on Jaccard distances was visualised through Emperor software to determine the phylogenetic similarity of bacterial communities between participants and among participant pairs. Statistical testing through PERMANOVA revealed significant differences in the Jaccard distances between each participant pair (P < 0.001), highlighting not only the potential distinguishability of skin microbiomes among individuals, but also the clustering effect observed between participant pairs due to the potential transfer of hand-associated microbiomes between individuals. The study demonstrated that transfer of the human skin microbiome had occurred between all participant pairs, regardless of substrate type or mode of transfer.

RevDate: 2019-12-05

Barrera-Vázquez OS, JC Gomez-Verjan (2019)

The Unexplored World of Human Virome, Mycobiome, and Archaeome in Aging.

The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences pii:5652062 [Epub ahead of print].

In the last decades, improvements in different aspects of sanitation, medical care, and nutrition, among others, have permitted an increase in the average lifespan of human population around the world. These advances have stimulated an increased interest in the study of the aging process and age-sensitive characteristics, such as the microbial community that colonizes the human body (microbiome). The human microbiome is composed of bacteria (bacteriome), archaea (archaeome), fungi (mycobiome), and viruses (virome). To date, research has mainly been centered on the composition of the bacteriome, with other members remain poorly studied. Interestingly, changes in the composition of the microbiome have been implicated in aging and age-related diseases. Therefore, in the present perspective, we suggest expanding the scope to research to include the role and the possible associations that the other members of the microbiome could have in the aging organism. An expanded view of the microbiome would increase our knowledge of the physiology of aging and may be particularly valuable for the treatment and diagnosis of age-related diseases.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Leon-Velarde CG, Jun JW, M Skurnik (2019)

Yersinia Phages and Food Safety.

Viruses, 11(12):.

One of the human- and animal-pathogenic species in genus Yersinia is Yersinia enterocolitica, a food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes enteric infections, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and sometimes sequelae such as reactive arthritis and erythema nodosum. Y. enterocolitica is able to proliferate at 4 C, making it dangerous if contaminated food products are stored under refrigeration. The most common source of Y. enterocolitica is raw pork meat. Microbiological detection of the bacteria from food products is hampered by its slow growth rate as other bacteria overgrow it. Bacteriophages can be exploited in several ways to increase food safety with regards to contamination by Y. enterocolitica. For example, Yersinia phages could be useful in keeping the contamination of food products under control, or, alternatively, the specificity of the phages could be exploited in developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools for the identification of the bacteria in food products. In this review, we will discuss the present state of the research on these topics.

RevDate: 2020-01-05

Ahmed N, Daniel B, Varghese J, et al (2019)

Oropharyngeal microbiome of an HIV-positive patient.

Microbial pathogenesis, 139:103805 pii:S0882-4010(18)31956-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Studies on understanding the human microbiome continue to grow rapidly; nonetheless, reports on alterations in the microbiome post HIV infection are limited. Human microbiome is an aggregate of bacteria, fungi, viruses and archaea that have co-evolved with humans. These microbes have important roles in immune modulation, vitamin synthesis, metabolism etc. The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides in the junction between digestive and respiratory tracts, might have a key role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, akin to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to various environmental and endogenous microbes; however, unlike other similar mucosal surfaces, there has been limited investigation of the microbiome of the respiratory tract. HIV infection is associated with alterations in the respiratory microbiome. The aim of this study was to use next-generation sequencing to determine the composition of the oropharyngeal microbiome in a HIV-positive individual. The bacterial composition was determined by illumina sequencing using MiSeq of partial 16S rRNA genes (V3-V4). A total of 3, 57,926 reads were analyzed. Overall, the genera Proteus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Clostridium were most prevalent bacterial populations in the oropharynx of an HIV positive patient.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Quagliariello A, Di Paola M, De Fanti S, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota composition in Himalayan and Andean populations and its relationship with diet, lifestyle and adaptation to the high-altitude environment.

Journal of anthropological sciences = Rivista di antropologia : JASS, 97: [Epub ahead of print].

Human populations living at high altitude evolved a number of biological adjustments to cope with a challenging environment characterised especially by reduced oxygen availability and limited nutritional resources. This condition may also affect their gut microbiota composition. Here, we explored the impact of exposure to such selective pressures on human gut microbiota by considering different ethnic groups living at variable degrees of altitude: the high-altitude Sherpa and low-altitude Tamang populations from Nepal, the high-altitude Aymara population from Bolivia, as well as a low-altitude cohort of European ancestry, used as control. We thus observed microbial profiles common to the Sherpa and Aymara, but absent in the low-altitude cohorts, which may contribute to the achievement of adaptation to high-altitude lifestyle and nutritional conditions. The collected evidences suggest that microbial signatures associated to these rural populations may enhance metabolic functions able to supply essential compounds useful for the host to cope with high altitude-related physiological changes and energy demand. Therefore, these results add another valuable piece of the puzzle to the understanding of the beneficial effects of symbiosis between microbes and their human host even from an evolutionary perspective.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Bajerski F, Bürger A, Glasmacher B, et al (2020)

Factors determining microbial colonization of liquid nitrogen storage tanks used for archiving biological samples.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 104(1):131-144.

The availability of bioresources is a precondition for life science research, medical applications, and diagnostics, but requires a dedicated quality management to guarantee reliable and safe storage. Anecdotal reports of bacterial isolates and sample contamination indicate that organisms may persist in liquid nitrogen (LN) storage tanks. To evaluate the safety status of cryocollections, we systematically screened organisms in the LN phase and in ice layers covering inner surfaces of storage tanks maintained in different biobanking facilities. We applied a culture-independent approach combining cell detection by epifluorescence microscopy with the amplification of group-specific marker genes and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial ribosomal genes. In the LN phase, neither cells nor bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were detectable (detection limit, 102 cells per ml, 103 gene copies per ml). In several cases, small numbers of bacteria of up to 104 cells per ml and up to 106 gene copies per ml, as well as Mycoplasma, or fungi were detected in the ice phase formed underneath the lids or accumulated at the bottom. The bacteria most likely originated from the stored materials themselves (Elizabethingia, Janthibacterium), the technical environment (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Methylobacterium), or the human microbiome (Bacteroides, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus). In single cases, bacteria, Mycoplasma, fungi, and human cells were detected in the debris at the bottom of the storage tanks. In conclusion, the limited microbial load of the ice phase and in the debris of storage tanks can be effectively avoided by minimizing ice formation and by employing hermetically sealed sample containers.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Tang L (2019)

Exploring the chemical space of the human microbiome.

Nature methods, 16(12):1201.

RevDate: 2019-12-20

Garud NR, KS Pollard (2020)

Population Genetics in the Human Microbiome.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 36(1):53-67.

While the human microbiome's structure and function have been extensively studied, its within-species genetic diversity is less well understood. However, genetic mutations in the microbiome can confer biomedically relevant traits, such as the ability to extract nutrients from food, metabolize drugs, evade antibiotics, and communicate with the host immune system. The population genetic processes by which these traits evolve are complex, in part due to interacting ecological and evolutionary forces in the microbiome. Advances in metagenomic sequencing, coupled with bioinformatics tools and population genetic models, facilitate quantification of microbiome genetic variation and inferences about how this diversity arises, evolves, and correlates with traits of both microbes and hosts. In this review, we explore the population genetic forces (mutation, recombination, drift, and selection) that shape microbiome genetic diversity within and between hosts, as well as efforts towards predictive models that leverage microbiome genetics.

RevDate: 2019-11-28

Poon WL, Lee JC, Leung KS, et al (2019)

Nanosized silver, but not titanium dioxide or zinc oxide, enhances oxidative stress and inflammatory response by inducing 5-HETE activation in THP-1 cells.

Nanotoxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Bioactive, oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress but almost nothing is known about their interactions with nanomaterials (NMs). To investigate the effects of nano-sized materials (n-TiO2, n-ZnO, n-Ag) and their bulk-sized or ionic (b-TiO2, b-ZnO, i-Ag) counterpart, we studied the status of oxidative stress and PUFA metabolism in THP-1 cells at low-toxic concentrations (<15% cytotoxicity) 6 h or 24 h after the particle exposures by LC/MS and microarray. N-Ag had a significant and sustained impact on cellular antioxidant defense, seen as incremental synthesis and accumulation of glutathione (GSH) in the cell, and reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The cellular particle doses were largely dependent on exposure duration and particle dissolution, and active transporter mechanisms controlled the concentration of Zn in cytosol. Even at these sub-toxic concentrations, n-Ag was able to induce statistically significant elevation in the 5-HETE: arachidonic acid ratio at 24 h, which suggests association to oxidative stress and induction of pro-inflammatory responses. This was supported by the enhanced gene expression of chemotaxis-related genes. Overall, THP-1 cells internalized all tested particles, but only n-Ag led to low level of oxidative stress through ROS production and antioxidant balance disruption. N-Ag stimulated arachidonic acid oxidation to form 5-HETE which further magnified the inflammatory responses by enhancing the production of mitochondrial superoxide and leukocyte chemokines. Since the sustained n-Ag uptake was detected, the effects may last long and function as a trigger for the low-grade inflammation playing role in the chronic inflammatory diseases.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Croitoru DO, V Piguet (2019)

A Mother's Touch: Emerging Roles in Development of the Cutaneous Microbiome.

The Journal of investigative dermatology, 139(12):2414-2416.

Skin-associated bacteria constitute a large proportion of the human microbiome and influence host immunity. The healthy cutaneous microbiome adopts site-specific composition, weeks to months postpartum. Zhu et al. (2019) expand the scope of pediatric data, tracking infant skin microflora changes by site, through childhood, and establish new associations with delivery mode and maternal microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Ristori MV, Quagliariello A, Reddel S, et al (2019)

Autism, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Nutritional Interventions.

Nutrients, 11(11):.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral syndrome that is characterized by speech and language disorders, intellectual impairment, learning and motor dysfunctions. Several genetic and environmental factors are suspected to affect the ASD phenotype including air pollution, exposure to pesticides, maternal infections, inflammatory conditions, dietary factors or consumption of antibiotics during pregnancy. Many children with ASD shows abnormalities in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, including increased intestinal permeability, overall microbiota alterations, and gut infection. Moreover, they are "picky eaters" and the existence of specific sensory patterns in ASD patients could represent one of the main aspects in hampering feeding. GI disorders are associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiome is able to communicate with brain activities through microbiota-derived signaling molecules, immune mediators, gut hormones as well as vagal and spinal afferent neurons. Since the diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiota and in the production of molecules, such as the SCFA, we wanted to investigate the role that nutritional intervention can have on GI microbiota composition and thus on its influence on behavior, GI symptoms and microbiota composition and report which are the beneficial effect on ASD conditions.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Estrela AB, Nakashige TG, Lemetre C, et al (2019)

Functional Multigenomic Screening of Human-Associated Bacteria for NF-κB-Inducing Bioactive Effectors.

mBio, 10(6):.

The effect of the microbiota on its human host is driven, at least in part, by small-molecule and protein effectors it produces. Here, we report on the use of functional multigenomic screening to identify microbiota-encoded effectors. In this study, genomic DNA from 116 human-associated bacteria was cloned en masse, and the resulting multigenomic library was screened using a nuclear factor-κB reporter (NF-κB) assay. Functional multigenomics builds on the concept of functional metagenomics but takes advantage of increasing advances in cultivating and sequencing human-associated bacteria. Effector genes found to confer NF-κB-inducing activity to Escherichia coli encode proteins in four general categories: cell wall hydrolases, membrane transporters, lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. The compact nature of multigenomic libraries, which results from the ability to normalize input DNA ratios, should simplify screening of libraries using diverse heterologous hosts and reporter assays, increasing the rate of discovery of novel effector genes.IMPORTANCE Human-associated bacteria are thought to encode bioactive small molecules and proteins that play an intimate role in human health and disease. Here, we report on the creation and functional screening of a multigenomic library constructed using genomic DNA from 116 bacteria found at diverse sites across the human body. Individual clones were screened for genes capable of conferring NF-κB-inducing activity to Escherichia coli NF-κB is a useful reporter for a range of cellular processes related to immunity, pathogenesis, and inflammation. Compared to the screening of metagenomic libraries, the ability to normalize input DNA ratios when constructing a multigenomic library should facilitate the more efficient examination of commensal bacteria for diverse bioactivities. Multigenomic screening takes advantage of the growing available resources in culturing and sequencing the human microbiota and generates starting points for more in-depth studies on the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria interact with their human host.

RevDate: 2019-11-20

Bender JM, Li F, Purswani H, et al (2019)

Early exposure to antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit alters the taxonomic and functional infant gut microbiome.

The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: The infant gut microbiome is thought to play a key role in developing metabolic and immunologic pathways. Antibiotics have been shown to disrupt the human microbiome, but the impact they have on infants during this key window of development remains poorly understood. Through this study, we further characterize the effect antibiotics have on the gut microbiome of infants by looking at metagenomic sequencing data over time.Materials and methods: Stool samples were collected on infants from a large tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit. After DNA extraction, metagenomics libraries were generated and sequenced. Taxonomic and functional analyses were then performed. Further directed specimen sequencing for fungal species was also performed.Results: A total of 51 stool samples from 25 infants were analyzed: seven infants were on antibiotics during at least one of their collection time points. Antibiotics given at birth altered the microbiome (PERMANOVA R2 = 0.044, p = .002) but later courses did not (R2 = 0.023, p = .114). Longitudinal samples collected while off antibiotics were more similar than those collected during a transition on or off antibiotics (mean Bray-Curtis distance 0.29 vs. 0.63, Wilcoxon p = .06). Functional analysis revealed four microbial pathways that were disrupted by antibiotics given at-birth (p < .1, folate synthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis). No functional changes associated with current antibiotic use were identified. In a limited sample set, we saw little evidence of fungal involvement in the overall infant microbiome.Conclusion: Through this study, we have further characterized the role antibiotics have in the development of the infant microbiome. Antibiotics given at birth were associated with alterations in the microbiome and had significant impact on the functional pathways involved in folate synthesis and multiple metabolic pathways. Later courses of antibiotics led to stochastic dysbiosis and a significant decrease in Escherichia coli. Further characterization of the infant mycobiome is still needed.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Mohanraj U, Wan X, Spruit CM, et al (2019)

A Toxicity Screening Approach to Identify Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-Microbial Proteins.

Viruses, 11(11):.

The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance among many pathogenic bacteria has created a profound need to discover new alternatives to antibiotics. Bacteriophages, the viruses of microbes, express special proteins to overtake the metabolism of the bacterial host they infect, the best known of which are involved in bacterial lysis. However, the functions of majority of bacteriophage encoded gene products are not known, i.e., they represent the hypothetical proteins of unknown function (HPUFs). In the current study we present a phage genomics-based screening approach to identify phage HPUFs with antibacterial activity with a long-term goal to use them as leads to find unknown targets to develop novel antibacterial compounds. The screening assay is based on the inhibition of bacterial growth when a toxic gene is expression-cloned into a plasmid vector. It utilizes an optimized plating assay producing a significant difference in the number of transformants after ligation of the toxic and non-toxic genes into a cloning vector. The screening assay was first tested and optimized using several known toxic and non-toxic genes. Then, it was applied to screen 94 HPUFs of bacteriophage φR1-RT, and identified four HPUFs that were toxic to Escherichia coli. This optimized assay is in principle useful in the search for bactericidal proteins of any phage, and also opens new possibilities to understanding the strategies bacteriophages use to overtake bacterial hosts.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Loverdos K, Bellos G, Kokolatou L, et al (2019)

Lung Microbiome in Asthma: Current Perspectives.

Journal of clinical medicine, 8(11):.

A growing body of evidence implicates the human microbiome as a potentially influential player actively engaged in shaping the pathogenetic processes underlying the endotypes and phenotypes of chronic respiratory diseases, particularly of the airways. In this article, we specifically review current evidence on the characteristics of lung microbiome, and specifically the bacteriome, the modes of interaction between lung microbiota and host immune system, the role of the "lung-gut axis", and the functional effects thereof on asthma pathogenesis. We also attempt to explore the possibilities of therapeutic manipulation of the microbiome, aiming at the establishment of asthma prevention strategies and the optimization of asthma treatment.

RevDate: 2019-11-21

Kang W, Jia Z, Tang D, et al (2019)

Fusobacterium nucleatum Facilitates Apoptosis, ROS Generation, and Inflammatory Cytokine Production by Activating AKT/MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2019:1681972.

Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) plays key roles in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. However, the pathogenic effect of F. nucleatum on human oral tissues and cells has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we aimed to analyze the pathogenic effects of F. nucleatum on human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) and clarify the potential mechanisms. RNA-sequencing analysis confirmed that F. nucleatum significantly altered the gene expression of GF as the stimulation time increased. Cell counting and EdU-labeling assays indicated that F. nucleatum inhibited GF proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and proinflammatory cytokine production were dramatically elevated after F. nucleatum stimulation. Furthermore, we found that the AKT/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were significantly activated by F. nucleatum infection and that a large number of genes related to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, ROS, and inflammatory cytokine production downstream of AKT/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were significantly altered in F. nucleatum-stimulated GFs. These findings suggest that F. nucleatum inhibits GF proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis, ROS generation, and inflammatory cytokine production partly by activating the AKT/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our study opens a new window for understanding the pathogenic effects of periodontal pathogens on the host oral system.

RevDate: 2019-11-21

Bui TPN, Schols HA, Jonathan M, et al (2019)

Mutual Metabolic Interactions in Co-cultures of the Intestinal Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans With an Acetogen, Methanogen, or Pectin-Degrader Affecting Butyrate Production.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2449.

The human intestinal tract harbors diverse and complex microbial communities that have a vast metabolic capacity including the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into short chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and butyrate. As butyrate is beneficial for gut health there is much attention on butyrogenic bacteria and their role in the colonic anaerobic food chain. However, our understanding how production of butyrate by gut microorganisms is controlled by interactions between different species and environmental nutrient availability is very limited. To address this, we set up experimental in vitro co-culture systems to study the metabolic interactions of Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans, a butyrate producer with each of its partners; Blautia hydrogenotrophica, an acetogen; Methanobrevibacter smithii, a methanogen and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a versatile degrader of plant cell wall pectins; through corresponding specific cross-feeding. In all co-cultures, A. rhamnosivorans was able to benefit from its partner for enhanced butyrate formation compared to monocultures. Interspecies transfer of hydrogen or formate from A. rhamnosivorans to the acetogen B. hydrogenotrophica and in turn of acetate from the acetogen to the butyrogen were essential for butyrate formation. A. rhamnosivorans grown on glucose supported growth of M. smithii via interspecies formate/hydrogen transfer enhancing butyrate formation. In the co-culture with pectin, lactate was released by B. thetaiotaomicron which was concomitantly used by A. rhamnosivorans for the production of butyrate. Our findings indicate enhanced butyrate formation through microbe-microbe interactions between A. rhamnosivorans and an acetogen, a methanogen or a pectin-degrader. Such microbial interactions enhancing butyrate formation may be beneficial for colonic health.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Migacz-Gruszka K, Branicki W, Obtulowicz A, et al (2019)

What's New in the Pathophysiology of Alopecia Areata? The Possible Contribution of Skin and Gut Microbiome in the Pathogenesis of Alopecia - Big Opportunities, Big Challenges, and Novel Perspectives.

International journal of trichology, 11(5):185-188.

The term "microbiome" defines the collective genome of all commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microbes living in the human body. The composition of microbiota in the gut and skin is influenced by many factors such as the stage of life, nutrition, lifestyle, and gender. In the past few years, several scientific papers have demonstrated an implication of microbiota in many immune-mediated diseases, for example, diabetes, ulcerative colitis, and multiple sclerosis. The alterations in the proportion of gut microbiota have emerged as potential immunomodulators with the capacity to induce physiologic as well as pathologic immune responses against the human body, causing inflammation and destruction of tissues or organs. The microbiota influences the differentiation of adaptive immune cells not only in the gut but also in the skin. Alopecia areata (AA) is a dermatologic disorder which causes hair loss in most cases resistant to treatment. There are some clinical and experimental evidences indicating that AA is the demonstration of autoimmune attack against hair follicles. The factors that may implicate such an autoimmunity in AA still remain unknown. Despite more and more evidences demonstrate that human microbiome plays a key role in human health and diseases, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been conducted to analyze an implication of microbiome in the pathogenesis of AA. Undoubtedly, there is a need to performing a study which might explain the involvement of gut and skin microbiota in the unclear pathogenesis of AA and lead to alternative treatment options for numerous patients suffering from current treatment limitations.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Fehlner-Peach H, Magnabosco C, Raghavan V, et al (2019)

Distinct Polysaccharide Utilization Profiles of Human Intestinal Prevotella copri Isolates.

Cell host & microbe, 26(5):680-690.e5.

Gut-dwelling Prevotella copri (P. copri), the most prevalent Prevotella species in the human gut, have been associated with diet and disease. However, our understanding of their diversity and function remains rudimentary because studies have been limited to 16S and metagenomic surveys and experiments using a single type strain. Here, we describe the genomic diversity of 83 P. copri isolates from 11 human donors. We demonstrate that genomically distinct isolates, which can be categorized into different P. copri complex clades, utilize defined sets of polysaccharides. These differences are exemplified by variations in susC genes involved in polysaccharide transport as well as polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) that were predicted in part from genomic and metagenomic data. Functional validation of these PULs showed that P. copri isolates utilize distinct sets of polysaccharides from dietary plant, but not animal, sources. These findings reveal both genomic and functional differences in polysaccharide utilization across human intestinal P. copri strains.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Liu YK, Xu X, XD Zhou (2019)

[Potential application of human microbiomes in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology, 37(5):556-562.

Human microbiome refers to the total microorganism genetic information of human body surface and internal, which is closely related to human health and disease. Oral and gut microbiomes are the most diverse microbial communities, which can interact and play a role in the development of the disease, and can reflect the health and disease state in real time. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent research has shown a link between microbes and diabetes. This article reviewed the latest research on the changes of oral and gut microbiomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, which expects to provide a reference for exploring the development of the disease model for prediction, diagnosis and prognosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on human microbiome characteristics.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Chaudhari D, Dhotre D, Agarwal D, et al (2019)

Understanding the association between the human gut, oral and skin microbiome and the Ayurvedic concept of prakriti.

Journal of biosciences, 44(5):.

Ayurveda is one of the ancient systems of medicine which is widely practised as a personalized scientific approach towards the general wellness. Ayurvedic prakriti is broadly defined as the phenotypes which are determined on the basis of physical, psychological and physiological traits irrespective of their social, ethnic, dietary and geographical stature. Prakriti is the constitution of a person, which comprises vata, pitta, and kapha and is a key determinant of how one individual is different from the other. Human microbiome is considered the 'latest discovered' human organ and microbiome research reiterates the fundamental principles of Ayurveda for creating a healthy gut environment by maintaining the individual-specific microbiome. Hence, it is important to understand the association of human microbiome with the Ayurvedic prakriti of an individual. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of human microbiome from the gut, oral and skin samples of healthy individuals (n=18) by 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomics using standard QIIME pipeline. In the three different prakriti samples differential abundance of Bacteroides, Desulfovibrio, Parabacteroides, Slackia, and Succinivibrio was observed in the gut microbiome. Analysis also revealed prakriti-specific presence of Mogibacterium, Propionibacterium, Pyramidobacter, Rhodococcus in the kapha prakriti individuals Planomicrobium, Hyphomicrobium, Novosphingobium in the pitta prakriti individuals and Carnobacterium, Robiginitalea, Cetobacterium, Psychrobacter in the vata prakriti individuals. Similarly, the oral and skin microbiome also revealed presence of prakriti-specific differential abundance of diverse bacterial genera. Prakriti-specific presence of bacterial taxa was recorded and only 42% microbiome in the oral samples and 52% microbiome in the skin samples were shared. Bacteria known for preventing gut inflammation by digesting the resistant starch were abundant in the pitta prakriti individuals, who are more prone to develop gut-inflammation-related disorders. In summary, human gut, oral and skin microbiome showed presence or high abundance of few bacterial taxa across three prakriti types, suggesting their specific physiological importance.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Holmes S (2019)

Successful strategies for human microbiome data generation, storage and analyses.

Journal of biosciences, 44(5):.

Current interest in the potential for clinical use of new tools for improving human health are now focused on techniques for the study of the human microbiome and its interaction with environmental and clinical covariates. This review outlines the use of statistical strategies that have been developed in past studies and can inform successful design and analyses of controlled perturbation experiments performed in the human microbiome. We carefully outline what the data are, their imperfections and how we need to transform, decontaminate and denoise them. We show how to identify the important unknown parameters and how to can leverage variability we see to produce efficient models for prediction and uncertainty quantification. We encourage a reproducible strategy that builds on best practice principles that can be adapted for effective experimental design and reproducible workflows. Nonparametric, data-driven denoising strategies already provide the best strain identification and decontamination methods. Data driven models can be combined with uncertainty quantification to provide reproducible aids to decision making in the clinical context, as long as careful, separate, registered confirmatory testing are undertaken. Here we provide guidelines for effective longitudinal studies and their analyses. Lessons learned along the way are that visualizations at every step can pinpoint problems and outliers, normalization and filtering improve power in downstream testing. We recommend collecting and binding the metadata and covariates to sample descriptors and recording complete computer scripts into an R markdown supplement that can reduce opportunities for human error and enable collaborators and readers to replicate all the steps of the study. Finally, we note that optimizing the bioinformatic and statistical workflow involves adopting a wait-and-see approach that is particularly effective in cases where the features such as 'mass spectrometry peaks' and metagenomic tables can only be partially annotated.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Wojciuk B, Salabura A, Grygorcewicz B, et al (2019)

Urobiome: In Sickness and in Health.

Microorganisms, 7(11):.

The human microbiome has been proven to contribute to the human condition, both in health and in disease. The metagenomic approach based on next-generation sequencing has challenged the dogma of urine sterility. The human urobiome consists of bacteria and eukaryotic viruses as well as bacteriophages, which potentially represent the key factor. There have been several significant findings with respect to the urobiome in the context of urological disorders. Still, the research on the urobiome in chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation remains underrepresented, as does research on the role of the virome in the urinary microbiota. In this review, we present recent findings on the urobiome with a particular emphasis on chronic kidney disease and post-kidney transplantation status. Challenges and opportunities arising from the research on the human urobiome will also be discussed.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-20

Astudillo-de la Vega H, Alonso-Luna O, Ali-Pérez J, et al (2019)

Oncobiome at the Forefront of a Novel Molecular Mechanism to Understand the Microbiome and Cancer.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1168:147-156.

The microbiome comprises all the genetic material within a microbiota, that represents tenfold higher than that of our cells. The microbiota it includes a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, and archaea, and this ecosystem is personalized in any body space of every individual. Balanced microbial communities can positively contribute to training the immune system and maintaining immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis is a change in the normal microbiome composition that can initiate chronic inflammation, epithelial barrier breaches, and overgrowth of harmful bacteria. The next-generation sequencing methods have revolutionized the study of the microbiome. Bioinformatic tools to manage large volumes of new information, it became possible to assess species diversity and measure dynamic fluctuations in microbial communities. The burden of infections that are associated to human cancer is increasing but is underappreciated by the cancer research community. The rich content in microbes of normal and tumoral tissue reflect could be defining diverse physiological or pathological states. Genomic research has emerged a new focus on the interplay between the human microbiome and carcinogenesis and has been termed the 'oncobiome'. The interactions among the microbiota in all epithelium, induce changes in the host immune interactions and can be a cause of cancer. Microbes have been shown to have systemic effects on the host that influence the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Metagenomics allows to investigate the composition of microbial community. Metatranscriptome analysis applies RNA sequencing to microbial samples to determine which species are present. Cancer can be caused by changes in the microbiome. The roles of individual microbial species in cancer progression have been identified long ago for various tissue types. The identification of microbiomes of drug resistance in the treatment of cancer patients has been the subject of numerous microbiome studies. The complexity of cancer genetic alterations becomes irrelevant in certain cancers to explain the origin, the cause or the oncogenic maintenance by the oncogene addiction theory.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Bianchi M, Alisi A, Fabrizi M, et al (2019)

Maternal Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids During Pregnancy Is Associated With Differential Methylation Profiles in Cord Blood White Cells.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:1050.

A healthy diet during pregnancy is pivotal for the offspring health at birth and later in life. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are not endogenously produced in humans and are exclusively derived from the diet. They are pivotal for the fetus growth and neuronal development and seem beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and preventing later allergic disorders in the offspring by modulating the inflammatory immune response. In the present study, we investigated the association between maternal intakes of n-3PUFAs, profiled on maternal erythrocyte membranes at pregnancy term, and offspring DNA methylation on cord blood mononuclear cells in a sample of 118 mother-newborn pairs randomly drawn from the "Feeding fetus' low-grade inflammation and insulin-resistance" study cohort. N-3 PUFA content on erythrocyte membranes is a validated biomarker to measure objectively medium term intake of n-3 PUFAs. Based on distribution of n-3 PUFA in the whole cohort of mothers, we identified mothers with low (n-3 PUFA concentration <25th percentile), medium (n-3 PUFAs between 25th and 75th percentiles), and high n-3 PUFA content (>75th percentile). The HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina) was used for the epigenome-wide association study using the Infinium Methylation Assay. The overall DNA methylation level was not different between the three groups while there was significant difference in methylation levels at certain sites. Indeed, 8,503 sites had significantly different methylations between low and high n-3 PUFA groups, 12,716 between low and medium n-3 PUFA groups, and 18,148 between high and medium n-3 PUFA groups. We found differentially methylated genes that belong prevalently to pathways of signal transduction, metabolism, downstream signaling of G protein-coupled receptors, and gene expression. Within these pathways, we identified four differentially methylated genes, namely, MSTN, IFNA13, ATP8B3, and GABBR2, that are involved in the onset of insulin resistance and adiposity, innate immune response, phospholipid translocation across cell membranes, and mechanisms of addiction to high fat diet, alcohol, and sweet taste. In conclusion, findings of this preliminary investigation suggest that maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has potential to influence the offspring DNA methylation. Validation of results in a larger cohort and investigation of biological significance and impact on the phenotype are warranted.

RevDate: 2019-12-11

Stubbendieck RM, Li H, CR Currie (2019)

Convergent evolution of signal-structure interfaces for maintaining symbioses.

Current opinion in microbiology, 50:71-78.

Symbiotic microbes are essential to the ecological success and evolutionary diversification of multicellular organisms. The establishment and stability of bipartite symbioses are shaped by mechanisms ensuring partner fidelity between host and symbiont. In this minireview, we demonstrate how the interface of chemical signals and host structures influences fidelity between legume root nodules and rhizobia, Hawaiian bobtail squid light organs and Allivibrio fischeri, and fungus-growing ant crypts and Pseudonocardia. Subsequently, we illustrate the morphological diversity and widespread phylogenetic distribution of specialized structures used by hosts to house microbial symbionts, indicating the importance of signal-structure interfaces across the history of multicellular life. These observations, and the insights garnered from well-studied bipartite associations, demonstrate the need to concentrate on the signal-structure interface in complex and multipartite systems, including the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Kumpitsch C, Koskinen K, Schöpf V, et al (2019)

The microbiome of the upper respiratory tract in health and disease.

BMC biology, 17(1):87.

The human upper respiratory tract (URT) offers a variety of niches for microbial colonization. Local microbial communities are shaped by the different characteristics of the specific location within the URT, but also by the interaction with both external and intrinsic factors, such as ageing, diseases, immune responses, olfactory function, and lifestyle habits such as smoking. We summarize here the current knowledge about the URT microbiome in health and disease, discuss methodological issues, and consider the potential of the nasal microbiome to be used for medical diagnostics and as a target for therapy.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Maixner F (2019)

Molecular Reconstruction of the Diet in Human Stool Samples.

mSystems, 4(6):.

Understanding dietary effects on the gut microbial composition is one of the key questions in human microbiome research. It is highly important to have reliable dietary data on the stool samples to unambiguously link the microbiome composition to food intake. Often, however, self-reported diet surveys have low accuracy and can be misleading. Thereby, additional molecular biology-based methods could help to revise the diet composition. The article by Reese et al. [A. T. Reese, T. R. Kartzinel, B. L. Petrone, P. J. Turnbaugh, et al., mSystems 4(5):e00458-19, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00458-19] in a recent issue of mSystems describes a DNA metabarcoding strategy targeting chloroplast DNA markers in stool samples from 11 human subjects consuming both controlled and freely selected diets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of this molecular method in detecting plant remains in the sample compared to the written dietary records. This study displays an important first step in implementing molecular dietary reconstructions in stool microbiome studies which will finally help to increase the accuracy of dietary metadata.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Agorastos A, VP Bozikas (2019)

Gut microbiome and adaptive immunity in schizophrenia.

Psychiatrike = Psychiatriki, 30(3):189-192.

Over the past few years, immunopathogenesis has emerged as one of the most compelling aetiopathological models of schizophrenia (SCZ), suggesting a chronic, immune-based, low-grade inflammatory background of this devastating disorder.1,2 Mounting evidence points towards a prominent role of the adaptive immune system in SCZ, suggesting alterations in defense mechanisms, such as altered T-cell function and a shift towards B-cell immunity.3 Immune cells have the ability to infiltrate the brain and mediate a neuroimmune cross-talk through activation of microglia, production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, leading to neuroinflammation, as mediator of neuroprogressive and neurodegenerative changes in SCZ.4 Antipsychotic drugs, commonly used to treat SCZ, are also known to affect the adaptive immune system, interfering with the differentiation and function of immune cells, towards their normalization in response to treatment. Adaptive immunity is principally founded on T-cell and B-cell populations, but also includes the host microbiome. The gastrointestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a great organism diversity and refined genomic structure that resides in the intestinal tract and has a central position in human health and disease.5 Neuroimmune dysregulation, relying of the highly sensitive and fine-tuned equilibrium between microbiome and adaptive immunity, can tip the scales towards neuroinflammation and disruption of higher-order brain networks.4,6,7 During the last decade, the human microbiome and the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB)-axis have become a novel epicentre in mental health research as a potentially vital new determinant in the field of neuroimmunoregulation, brain development, emotions, cognition and behaviour.7 The MGB-axis represents a bidirectional, key communication pathway between the immune system and the brain, thus partly also mediating the regulation of cognitive and emotional processing. An imbalanced human microbiome might greatly influence proper neuroimmune reactions and neurodevelopment with long-lasting effects and could thus play a pivotal role in the susceptibility and aetiology of psychiatric illness. Recent research offers first evidence that patients with SCZ show marked disturbances of gut bacterial taxa composition with a decreased microbiome diversity index, party associated with specific SCZ phenotype, symptom severity and treatment response.8,9 As the elegant education of the adaptive immune compartment depends on the colonization niche, antigen type and metabolic property of different gut microbes, T-cell differentiation as well as a continuous diversification of B-cell repertoire is expressed through microbiome-related, antigen-specific receptors that define a unique clonotype.10 However, there is only sparse evidence on the precise role of the microbiome on the programming of T- and B-cells in the underlying neurobiological pathways of SCZ and even less findings on the association of molecular T- and B-cell receptor repertoire signature and microbiome clonal landscape with specific phenotypical features of the disease.11 The latest conceptual advances in immunology urge an integrative re-evaluation of previous immunological findings in SCZ through modern approaches. High-throughput, next-generation sequencing (NGS) represents a powerful singlecell transcriptomic tool to profile the whole clonal landscape of T and B cells and human microbiome. NGS thus offers a unique opportunity for in-depth characterization of cellular and molecular signatures of adaptive immune receptor repertoires and microbiome taxonomy in SCZ and investigation of their intersection as a relevant pathway of disease progression and phenotype differentiation. SCZ patients are likely to show a diverging host-microbiome immune homeostasis with disease-specific clonotypes of adaptive immune receptor repertoires associated with altered microbiome taxonomy and molecular signature differences, which, in turn, may be related to distinct symptomatic phenotypes and neurocognitive patterns. Such sophisticated immuno-bioinformatic analyses may transform our understanding of SCZ by identification of novel neuroimmune pathways, offering us clinically accessible symptomatic and diagnostic biomarkers important for personalized medicine implications.12 An increased understanding and better characterization of immuno-phenotypes in SCZ will better guide the development of novel immune-based treatments in this severe disease and pave the way for possible prevention options through implementation of antibody engineering, vaccine design, and cellular immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2019-12-16

Orlandi E, Iacovelli NA, Tombolini V, et al (2019)

Potential role of microbiome in oncogenesis, outcome prediction and therapeutic targeting for head and neck cancer.

Oral oncology, 99:104453.

In the last decade, human microbiome research is rapidly growing involving several fields of clinical medicine and population health. Although the microbiome seems to be linked to all sorts of diseases, cancer has the biggest potential to be investigated. Following the publication of the National Institute of Health - Human Microbiome Project (NIH-HMP), the link between Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) and microbiome seems to be a fast-moving field in research area. However, robust evidence-based literature is still quite scarce. Nevertheless the relationship between oral microbiome and HNC could have important consequences for prevention and early detection of this type of tumors. The aims of the present review are: (i) to discuss current pre-clinical evidence of a role of oral microbiome in HNC; (ii) to report recent developments in understanding the human microbiome's relationship with HNC oncogenesis; (iii) to explore the issue of treatment response and treatment toxicity; (iv) to describe the role of microbiota as potentially modifiable factor suitable for targeting by therapeutics. Further studies are needed to better establish the causal relationship between oral microbiome and HNC oncogenesis. Future trials should continue to explore oral microbiome in order to build the scientific and clinical rationale of HNC preventative and ameliorate treatment outcome.

RevDate: 2019-12-22

Porras AM, IL Brito (2019)

The internationalization of human microbiome research.

Current opinion in microbiology, 50:50-55.

The human microbiome has now been linked with myriad diseases, yet most of this research has been conducted on American and European populations that make up only 1/6th of the world's population. With growing recognition that human microbiomes differ tremendously across global populations, it is especially important to understand how these compositional differences impact health outcomes. Recent advances in infectious disease and malnutrition research have demonstrated the potential for microbiome-based strategies to address the biggest challenges in global health. This review highlights major advances toward understanding microbiome diversity across the world and its contributions to disease, and outlines key questions, challenges, and opportunities to broaden the scope of and promote inclusivity within microbiome research.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Shah N, Meisel JS, M Pop (2019)

Embracing Ambiguity in the Taxonomic Classification of Microbiome Sequencing Data.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:1022.

The advent of high throughput sequencing has enabled in-depth characterization of human and environmental microbiomes. Determining the taxonomic origin of microbial sequences is one of the first, and frequently only, analysis performed on microbiome samples. Substantial research has focused on the development of methods for taxonomic annotation, often making trade-offs in computational efficiency and classification accuracy. A side-effect of these efforts has been a reexamination of the bacterial taxonomy itself. Taxonomies developed prior to the genomic revolution captured complex relationships between organisms that went beyond uniform taxonomic levels such as species, genus, and family. Driven in part by the need to simplify computational workflows, the bacterial taxonomies used most commonly today have been regularized to fit within a standard seven taxonomic levels. Consequently, modern analyses of microbial communities are relatively coarse-grained. Few methods make classifications below the genus level, impacting our ability to capture biologically relevant signals. Here, we present ATLAS, a novel strategy for taxonomic annotation that uses significant outliers within database search results to group sequences in the database into partitions. These partitions capture the extent of taxonomic ambiguity within the classification of a sample. The ATLAS pipeline can be found on GitHub [https://github.com/shahnidhi/outlier_in_BLAST_hits]. We demonstrate that ATLAS provides similar annotations to phylogenetic placement methods, but with higher computational efficiency. When applied to human microbiome data, ATLAS is able to identify previously characterized taxonomic groupings, such as those in the class Clostridia and the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the majority of partitions identified by ATLAS are at the subgenus level, replacing higher-level annotations with specific groups of species. These more precise partitions improve our detection power in determining differential abundance in microbiome association studies.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Huck O, Mulhall H, Rubin G, et al (2019)

Akkermansia muciniphila reduces Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced inflammation and periodontal bone destruction.

Journal of clinical periodontology [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Akkermansia muciniphila is a beneficial gut commensal, whose anti-inflammatory properties have recently been demonstrated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of A. muciniphila on Porphyromonas gingivalis elicited inflammation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In lean and obese mice, A. muciniphila was administered in P. gingivalis-induced calvarial abscess and in experimental periodontitis model (EIP). Bone destruction and inflammation were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. In vitro, A. muciniphila was co-cultured with P. gingivalis, growth and virulence factor expression was evaluated. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMϕ) and gingival epithelial cells (TIGK) were exposed to both bacterial strains, and the expression of inflammatory mediators, as well as tight junction markers, was analysed.

RESULTS: In a model of calvarial infection, A. muciniphila decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and bone destruction. In EIP, treatment with A. muciniphila resulted in a decreased alveolar bone loss. In vitro, the addition of A. muciniphila to P. gingivalis-infected BMMϕ increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 and decreased IL-12. Additionally, A. muciniphila exposure increases the expression of junctional integrity markers such as integrin-β1, E-cadherin and ZO-1 in TIGK cells. A. muciniphila co-culture with P. gingivalis reduced gingipains mRNA expression.

DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated the protective effects of A. muciniphila administration and may open consideration to its use as an adjunctive therapeutic agent to periodontal treatment.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Zhu C, Miller M, Lusskin N, et al (2019)

Fingerprinting cities: differentiating subway microbiome functionality.

Biology direct, 14(1):19.

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the human microbiome impacts individual and public health. City subway systems are human-dense environments, where passengers often exchange microbes. The MetaSUB project participants collected samples from subway surfaces in different cities and performed metagenomic sequencing. Previous studies focused on taxonomic composition of these microbiomes and no explicit functional analysis had been done till now.

RESULTS: As a part of the 2018 CAMDA challenge, we functionally profiled the available ~ 400 subway metagenomes and built predictor for city origin. In cross-validation, our model reached 81% accuracy when only the top-ranked city assignment was considered and 95% accuracy if the second city was taken into account as well. Notably, this performance was only achievable if the similarity of distribution of cities in the training and testing sets was similar. To assure that our methods are applicable without such biased assumptions we balanced our training data to account for all represented cities equally well. After balancing, the performance of our method was slightly lower (76/94%, respectively, for one or two top ranked cities), but still consistently high. Here we attained an added benefit of independence of training set city representation. In testing, our unbalanced model thus reached (an over-estimated) performance of 90/97%, while our balanced model was at a more reliable 63/90% accuracy. While, by definition of our model, we were not able to predict the microbiome origins previously unseen, our balanced model correctly judged them to be NOT-from-training-cities over 80% of the time. Our function-based outlook on microbiomes also allowed us to note similarities between both regionally close and far-away cities. Curiously, we identified the depletion in mycobacterial functions as a signature of cities in New Zealand, while photosynthesis related functions fingerprinted New York, Porto and Tokyo.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the power of our high-speed function annotation method, mi-faser, by analysing ~ 400 shotgun metagenomes in 2 days, with the results recapitulating functional signals of different city subway microbiomes. We also showed the importance of balanced data in avoiding over-estimated performance. Our results revealed similarities between both geographically close (Ofa and Ilorin) and distant (Boston and Porto, Lisbon and New York) city subway microbiomes. The photosynthesis related functional signatures of NYC were previously unseen in taxonomy studies, highlighting the strength of functional analysis.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Daisley BA, Pitek AP, Chmiel JA, et al (2019)

Novel probiotic approach to counter Paenibacillus larvae infection in honey bees.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0541-6 [Epub ahead of print].

American foulbrood (AFB) is a highly virulent disease afflicting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The causative organism, Paenibacillus larvae, attacks honey bee brood and renders entire hives dysfunctional during active disease states, but more commonly resides in hives asymptomatically as inactive spores that elude even vigilant beekeepers. The mechanism of this pathogenic transition is not fully understood, and no cure exists for AFB. Here, we evaluated how hive supplementation with probiotic lactobacilli (delivered through a nutrient patty; BioPatty) affected colony resistance towards a naturally occurring AFB outbreak. Results demonstrated a significantly lower pathogen load and proteolytic activity of honey bee larvae from BioPatty-treated hives. Interestingly, a distinctive shift in the microbiota composition of adult nurse bees occurred irrespective of treatment group during the monitoring period, but only vehicle-supplemented nurse bees exhibited higher P. larvae loads. In vitro experiments utilizing laboratory-reared honey bee larvae showed Lactobacillus plantarum Lp39, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus kunkeei BR-1 (contained in the BioPatty) could reduce pathogen load, upregulate expression of key immune genes, and improve survival during P. larvae infection. These findings suggest the usage of a lactobacilli-containing hive supplement, which is practical and affordable for beekeepers, may be effective for reducing enzootic pathogen-related hive losses.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Royston KJ, Adedokun B, OI Olopade (2019)

Race, the microbiome and colorectal cancer.

World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 11(10):773-787.

In the past decade, more cancer researchers have begun to understand the significance of cancer prevention, which has prompted a shift in the increasing body of scientific literature. An area of fascination and great potential is the human microbiome. Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota has significant roles in an individual's ability to avoid cancer, with considerable focus on the gut microbiome and colorectal cancer. That in mind, racial disparities with regard to colorectal cancer treatment and prevention are generally understudied despite higher incidence and mortality rates among Non-Hispanic Blacks compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. A comprehension of ethnic differences with relation to colorectal cancer, dietary habits and the microbiome is a meritorious area of investigation. This review highlights literature that identifies and bridges the gap in understanding the role of the human microbiome in racial disparities across colorectal cancer. Herein, we explore the differences in the gut microbiota, common short chain fatty acids produced in abundance by microbes, and their association with racial differences in cancer acquisition.

RevDate: 2019-10-26

Musso P, Chiappini E, R Bernardini (2019)

Human microbiome and allergic diseases in children: pathogenetic role and therapeutic options.

Current pediatric reviews pii:CPR-EPUB-101899 [Epub ahead of print].

The recent and extensive study of the microbiome has provided an enormous amount of data concerning the type and possible functions of microorganisms present in the gut, airways, genital tract, and skin. These data showed interpersonal differences in the composition of the microbiome and these differences suggest a link between the microbiome, the immune modulation, and the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This research is particularly relevant in paediatrics, since allergic diseases are constantly increasing and there is evidence in the paediatric age that shows that the composition of the microbiome in the foetal and neonatal period plays a key role in the development of the immune system: vaginal delivery, breastfeeding, childhood spent in rural environments and/or in contact with animals result in a greater biodiversity of the microbiome with the presence of protective species that reduce the activation of Th2 lymphocytes, involved in allergic reactions. Further studies are necessary to better understand the microbiota role in the pathogenesis of atopy in order to understand if specific probiotics and prebiotics, administered orally or topically, can affect the microbiota composition and modulate immune system functions, producing a therapeutic effect in the treatment of allergic diseases. This narrative review analysed the available literature regarding the correlation between the microbiome and the development of allergic diseases and with special focus on paediatric studies. The skin, gut or lung dysbiosis can be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of allergies and the remodulation of the microbiome becomes an important therapeutic challenge.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Klimko AI, Cherdyntseva TA, Brioukhanov AL, et al (2019)

In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins pii:10.1007/s12602-019-09599-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Research of human microbiome demonstrates that in order to develop next generation of probiotic agents, it is necessary to choose bacterial strains featured by special properties, such as the ability of the cells to attach to intestinal walls, resistance to bile and acids, bacteriocin synthesis, antioxidative and antipathogenic activity, and survivability in intestines. Thirty-three strains of lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus genera from the Lomonosov Moscow State University Collection of Microorganisms (CM MSU) have been tested for important probiotic properties which assist these bacteria to settle effectively in intestines: cell adhesion, ability to form biofilms, agglutination with lectin (concanavalin A), and antimicrobial activity. The results of experiments clearly demonstrate that all these properties can be classified as strain characteristics and differ even within the same species. Besides the cultures of Lactobacillus with good agglutination ability with concanavalin A (Lact. caucasicus CM MSU 155, Lact. brevis CM MSU 521), we also discovered strains with high adhesion properties (Lact. acidophilus CM MSU 146-89% affinity for hexadecane; Lact. paracasei CM MSU 527-85%; Lact. plantarum CM MSU 508-78%; Lact. caucasicus CM MSU 155-70%; and Lact. delbrueckii CM MSU 571-57%), biofilm formation ability with a hydrophobic carrier (Lact. plantarum CM MSU 588-OD590 of crystal violet extracts = 1.336; Lact. brevis CM MSU 521-OD590 = 1.207; and Lact. brevis CM MSU 535-OD590 = 1.151), and with high antimicrobial activity specially to Staphylococcus aureus. Lact. brevis CM MSU 521 possesses the best property combination, which makes it potentially applicable as a very good lactic acid probiotic strain.

RevDate: 2019-11-01

Engevik MA, Morra CN, Röth D, et al (2019)

Microbial Metabolic Capacity for Intestinal Folate Production and Modulation of Host Folate Receptors.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2305.

Microbial metabolites, including B complex vitamins contribute to diverse aspects of human health. Folate, or vitamin B9, refers to a broad category of biomolecules that include pterin, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), and glutamate subunits. Folates are required for DNA synthesis and epigenetic regulation. In addition to dietary nutrients, the gut microbiota has been recognized as a source of B complex vitamins, including folate. This study evaluated the predicted folate synthesis capabilities in the genomes of human commensal microbes identified in the Human Microbiome Project and folate production by representative strains of six human intestinal bacterial phyla. Bacterial folate synthesis genes were ubiquitous across 512 gastrointestinal reference genomes with 13% of the genomes containing all genes required for complete de novo folate synthesis. An additional 39% of the genomes had the genetic capacity to synthesize folates in the presence of pABA, an upstream intermediate that can be obtained through diet or from other intestinal microbes. Bacterial folate synthesis was assessed during exponential and stationary phase growth through the evaluation of expression of select folate synthesis genes, quantification of total folate production, and analysis of folate polyglutamylation. Increased expression of key folate synthesis genes was apparent in exponential phase, and increased folate polyglutamylation occurred during late stationary phase. Of the folate producers, we focused on the commensal Lactobacillus reuteri to examine host-microbe interactions in relation to folate and examined folate receptors in the physiologically relevant human enteroid model. RNAseq data revealed segment-specific folate receptor distribution. Treatment of human colonoid monolayers with conditioned media (CM) from wild-type L. reuteri did not influence the expression of key folate transporters proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) or reduced folate carrier (RFC). However, CM from L. reuteri containing a site-specific inactivation of the folC gene, which prevents the bacteria from synthesizing a polyglutamate tail on folate, significantly upregulated RFC expression. No effects were observed using L. reuteri with a site inactivation of folC2, which results in no folate production. This work sheds light on the contributions of microbial folate to overall folate status and mammalian host metabolism.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Sonnenburg JL, ED Sonnenburg (2019)

Vulnerability of the industrialized microbiota.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 366(6464):.

The human body is an ecosystem that is home to a complex array of microbes known as the microbiome or microbiota. This ecosystem plays an important role in human health, but as a result of recent lifestyle changes occurring around the planet, whole populations are seeing a major shift in their gut microbiota. Measures meant to kill or limit exposure to pathogenic microbes, such as antibiotics and sanitation, combined with other factors such as processed food, have had unintended consequences for the human microbial ecosystem, including changes that may be difficult to reverse. Microbiota alteration and the accompanying loss of certain functional attributes might result in the microbial communities of people living in industrialized societies being suboptimal for human health. As macroecologists, conservationists, and climate scientists race to document, understand, predict, and delay global changes in our wider environment, microbiota scientists may benefit by using analogous approaches to study and protect our intimate microbial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-12-17

Hellweger FL, Vick C, Rückbeil F, et al (2019)

Fresh Ideas Bloom in Gut Healthcare to Cross-Fertilize Lake Management.

Environmental science & technology, 53(24):14099-14112.

Harmful bacteria may be the most significant threat to human gut and lake ecosystem health, and they are often managed using similar tools, like poisoning with antibiotics or algicides. Out-of-the-box thinking in human microbiome engineering is leading to novel methods, like engineering bacteria to kill pathogens, "persuade" them not to produce toxins, or "mop up" their toxins. The bacterial agent can be given a competitive edge via an exclusive nutrient, and they can be engineered to commit suicide once their work is done. Viruses can kill pathogens with specific DNA sequences or knock out their antibiotic resistance genes using CRISPR technology. Some of these ideas may work for lakes. We critically review novel methods for managing harmful bacteria in the gut from the perspective of managing toxic cyanobacteria in lakes, and discuss practical aspects such as modifying bacteria using genetic engineering or directed evolution, mass culturing and controlling the agents. A key knowledge gap is in the ecology of strains, like toxigenic vs nontoxigenic Microcystis, including allelopathic and Black Queen interactions. Some of the "gut methods" may have future potential for lakes, but there presently is no substitute for established management approaches, including reducing N and P nutrient inputs, and mitigating climate change.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2019-12-30

Greathouse KL, Sinha R, E Vogtmann (2019)

DNA extraction for human microbiome studies: the issue of standardization.

Genome biology, 20(1):212.

Among the laboratory and bioinformatic processing steps for human microbiome studies, a lack of consistency in DNA extraction methodologies is hindering the ability to compare results between studies and sometimes leading to errant conclusions. The purpose of this article is to highlight the issues related to DNA extraction methods and to suggest minimum standard requirements that should be followed to ensure consistency and reproducibility.

RevDate: 2020-01-11

Altay O, Nielsen J, Uhlen M, et al (2019)

Systems biology perspective for studying the gut microbiota in human physiology and liver diseases.

EBioMedicine, 49:364-373.

The advancement in high-throughput sequencing technologies and systems biology approaches have revolutionized our understanding of biological systems and opened a new path to investigate unacknowledged biological phenomena. In parallel, the field of human microbiome research has greatly evolved and the relative contribution of the gut microbiome to health and disease have been systematically explored. This review provides an overview of the network-based and translational systems biology-based studies focusing on the function and composition of gut microbiota. We also discussed the association between the gut microbiome and the overall human physiology, as well as hepatic diseases and other metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2019-10-22

Renson A, Herd P, JB Dowd (2019)

Sick Individuals and Sick (Microbial) Populations: Challenges in Epidemiology and the Microbiome.

Annual review of public health [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome represents a new frontier in understanding the biology of human health. While epidemiology in this area is still in its infancy, its scope will likely expand dramatically over the coming years. To rise to the challenge, we argue that epidemiology should capitalize on its population perspective as a critical complement to molecular microbiome research, allowing for the illumination of contextual mechanisms that may vary more across populations rather than among individuals. We first briefly review current research on social context and the gut microbiome, focusing specifically on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. Next, we reflect on the current state of microbiome epidemiology through the lens of one specific area, the association of the gut microbiome and metabolic disorders. We identify key methodological shortcomings of current epidemiological research in this area, including extensive selection bias, the use of noncompositionally robust measures, and a lack of attention to social factors as confounders or effect modifiers. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 41 is April 1, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2020-01-17
CmpDate: 2019-12-20

Baker JL, He X, W Shi (2019)

Precision Reengineering of the Oral Microbiome for Caries Management.

Advances in dental research, 30(2):34-39.

Technological advancements have revolutionized our understanding of the complexity and importance of the human microbiome. This progress has also emphasized the need for precision therapeutics, as it has underscored the dilemmas, such as dysbiosis and increasing antibiotic resistance, associated with current, broad-spectrum treatment modalities. Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease worldwide, accompanied by a tremendous financial and social burden, despite widespread and efficacious fluoride and hygienic regimens. Over the past several decades, various precision approaches to combat dental caries, including vaccines, probiotics, and antimicrobial compounds, have been pursued. Despite the distinct overall conceptual strengths of each approach, for various reasons, there are currently no approved precision antibiotic therapeutics to prevent dental caries. Specifically targeted antimicrobial peptides (STAMPs) are synthetic molecules that combine the antibiotic moiety of a traditional antimicrobial peptide with a targeting domain to provide specificity against a particular organism. Conjoining the killing domain from the antimicrobial, novispirin G10, and a targeting domain derived from the Streptococcus mutans pheromone, CSP, the STAMP C16G2 was designed to provide targeted killing of S. mutans, widely considered the keystone species in dental caries pathogenesis. C16G2 was able to selectively eliminate S. mutans from complex ecosystems while leaving closely related, yet health-associated, oral species unharmed. This remodeling of the dental plaque community is expected to have significant advantages compared to conventional broad-spectrum mouthwashes, as the intact, surviving community is apt to prevent reinfection by pathogens. Following successful phase I clinical trials that evaluated the safety and basic microbiology of C16G2 treatments, the phase II trials of several C16G2 formulations are currently in progress. C16G2 represents an exciting advance in precision therapeutics, and the STAMP platform provides vast opportunities for both the development of additional therapeutics and the overall study of microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Cao L, Gurevich A, Alexander KL, et al (2019)

MetaMiner: A Scalable Peptidogenomics Approach for Discovery of Ribosomal Peptide Natural Products with Blind Modifications from Microbial Communities.

Cell systems, 9(6):600-608.e4.

Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are an important class of natural products that contain antibiotics and a variety of other bioactive compounds. The existing methods for discovery of RiPPs by combining genome mining and computational mass spectrometry are limited to discovering specific classes of RiPPs from small datasets, and these methods fail to handle unknown post-translational modifications. Here, we present MetaMiner, a software tool for addressing these challenges that is compatible with large-scale screening platforms for natural product discovery. After searching millions of spectra in the Global Natural Products Social (GNPS) molecular networking infrastructure against just eight genomic and metagenomic datasets, MetaMiner discovered 31 known and seven unknown RiPPs from diverse microbial communities, including human microbiome and lichen microbiome, and microorganisms isolated from the International Space Station.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Dobrange E, Peshev D, Loedolff B, et al (2019)

Fructans as Immunomodulatory and Antiviral Agents: The Case of Echinacea.

Biomolecules, 9(10):.

Throughout history, medicinal purposes of plants have been studied, documented, and acknowledged as an integral part of human healthcare systems. The development of modern medicine still relies largely on this historical knowledge of the use and preparation of plants and their extracts. Further research into the human microbiome highlights the interaction between immunomodulatory responses and plant-derived, prebiotic compounds. One such group of compounds includes the inulin-type fructans (ITFs), which may also act as signaling molecules and antioxidants. These multifunctional compounds occur in a small proportion of plants, many of which have recognized medicinal properties. Echinacea is a well-known medicinal plant and products derived from it are sold globally for its cold- and flu-preventative and general health-promoting properties. Despite the well-documented phytochemical profile of Echinacea plants and products, little research has looked into the possible role of ITFs in these products. This review aims to highlight the occurrence of ITFs in Echinacea derived formulations and the potential role they play in immunomodulation.

RevDate: 2019-11-22
CmpDate: 2019-11-22

Lam KL, PC Cheung (2019)

Carbohydrate-Based Prebiotics in Targeted Modulation of Gut Microbiome.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 67(45):12335-12340.

The Human Microbiome Project has prompted unprecedented advancement in microbiome science. Personalized microbiome modulation with precision (PMMP) is one of the emerging yet challenging fields in microbiome research. Carbohydrate-based prebiotics (CBPs) have been shown to modulate the gut microbiome to various extents according to different structural characteristics, such as degree of polymerization, branching, glycosidic linkage, monosaccharide profile, and chemical modification. Subsequently, a targeted modulation of the microbiome might be achieved by using CBPs with a specific structure. A multidimensional database can be established based on the structure-microbiome and structure-microbial-marker relationships. Such relationships could facilitate the development of synbiotics and PMMP.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )