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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 Oct 2021 at 01:48 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-10-22

Pärnänen KMM, Hultman J, Markkanen M, et al (2021)

Early-life formula feeding is associated with infant gut microbiota alterations and an increased antibiotic resistance load.

The American journal of clinical nutrition pii:6408461 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Infants are at a high risk of acquiring fatal infections, and their treatment relies on functioning antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in high numbers in antibiotic-naive infants' gut microbiomes, and infant mortality caused by resistant infections is high. The role of antibiotics in shaping the infant resistome has been studied, but there is limited knowledge on other factors which affect the antibiotic resistance burden of the infant gut.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the impact of early exposure to formula on the ARG load in neonates and infants born either pre- or full-term. Our hypotheses were that diet causes a selective pressure that influences the microbial community of the infant gut, and formula exposure would increase the abundance of taxa that carry ARGs.

DESIGN: Cross-sectionally sampled gut metagenomes of 46 neonates were used to build a generalized linear model to determine the impact of diet on ARG loads in neonates. The model was cross-validated using neonate metagenomes gathered from public databases using our custom statistical pipeline for cross-validation.

RESULTS: Formula-fed neonates had higher relative abundances of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Clostridioides difficile. The relative abundance of ARGs carried by gut bacteria was 69% higher in the formula receiving group (fold change 1.69, (95% CI 1.12, 2.55), P = 0.013, n = 180) compared to exclusively human milk-fed infants. The formula-fed infants also had significantly less typical infant bacteria such as bifidobacteria that have potential health benefits.

CONCLUSIONS: The novel finding that formula exposure is correlated with a higher neonatal ARG burden lays the foundation that clinicians should consider feeding mode in addition to antibiotic use during the first months of life to minimize the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant gut bacteria in infants.Clinical trial registry number: The Institutional Review Board of Pennsylvania State University https://irb.upenn.edu/, USA (IRB #35925) approved the study.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Conta G, Del Chierico F, Reddel S, et al (2021)

Longitudinal Multi-Omics Study of a Mother-Infant Dyad from Breastfeeding to Weaning: An Individualized Approach to Understand the Interactions Among Diet, Fecal Metabolome and Microbiota Composition.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 8:688440.

The development of the human gut microbiota is characterized by a dynamic sequence of events from birth to adulthood, which make the gut microbiota unique for everyone. Its composition and metabolism may play a critical role in the intestinal homeostasis and health. We propose a study on a single mother-infant dyad to follow the dynamics of an infant fecal microbiota and metabolome changes in relation to breast milk composition during the lactation period and evaluate the changes induced by introduction of complementary food during the weaning period. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was performed on breast milk and, together with 16S RNA targeted-metagenomics analysis, also on infant stool samples of a mother-infant dyad collected over a period running from the exclusive breastfeeding diet to weaning. Breast milk samples and neonatal stool samples were collected from the 4th to the 10th month of life. Both specimens were collected from day 103 to day 175, while from day 219-268 only stool samples were examined. An exploratory and a predictive analysis were carried out by means of Common component and specific weight analysis and multi-block partial least squares discriminant analysis, respectively. Stools collected during breastfeeding and during a mixed fruit/breastfeeding diet were characterized by high levels of fucosyl-oligosaccharides and glycolysis intermediates, including succinate and formate. The transition to a semi-solid food diet was characterized by several changes in fecal parameters: increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels, including acetate, propionate and butyrate, dissapearance of HMOs and the shift in the community composition, mainly occurring within the Firmicutes phylum. The variations in the fecal metabolome reflected the infant's diet transition, while the composition of the microbiota followed a more complex and still unstable behavior.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Parkin K, Christophersen CT, Verhasselt V, et al (2021)

Risk Factors for Gut Dysbiosis in Early Life.

Microorganisms, 9(10): pii:microorganisms9102066.

Dysbiosis refers to a reduction in microbial diversity, combined with a loss of beneficial taxa, and an increase in pathogenic microorganisms. Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota can have a substantial effect on the nervous and immune systems, contributing to the onset of several inflammatory diseases. Epidemiological studies provided insight in how changes in the living environment have contributed to an overall loss of diversity and key taxa in the gut microbiome, coinciding with increased reports of atopy and allergic diseases. The gut microbiome begins development at birth, with major transition periods occurring around the commencement of breastfeeding, and the introduction of solid foods. As such, the development of the gut microbiome remains highly plastic and easily influenced by environmental factors until around three years of age. Developing a diverse and rich gut microbiome during this sensitive period is crucial to setting up a stable gut microbiome into adulthood and to prevent gut dysbiosis. Currently, the delivery route, antibiotic exposure, and diet are the best studied drivers of gut microbiome development, as well as risk factors of gut dysbiosis during infancy. This review focuses on recent evidence regarding key environmental factors that contribute to promoting gut dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Dinis-Oliveira RJ (2021)

The Auto-Brewery Syndrome: A Perfect Metabolic "Storm" with Clinical and Forensic Implications.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(20): pii:jcm10204637.

Auto-brewery syndrome (ABS) is a rare, unstudied, unknown, and underreported phenomenon in modern medicine. Patients with this syndrome become inebriated and may suffer the medical and social implications of alcoholism, including arrest for inebriated driving. The pathophysiology of ABS is reportedly due to a fungal type dysbiosis of the gut that ferments some carbohydrates into ethanol and may mimic a food allergy or intolerance. This syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic obstruction or hypomotility presenting with elevated breath and blood alcohol concentrations, especially after a high carbohydrate intake. A glucose challenge test should be performed as the confirmatory test. Treatment typically includes antifungal drugs combined with changes in lifestyle and nutrition. Additional studies are particularly needed on the human microbiome to shed light on how imbalances of commensal bacteria in the gut allow yeast to colonize on a pathological level.

RevDate: 2021-10-23

Zhao Y, Jaber V, WJ Lukiw (2021)

Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome-Derived Pro-inflammatory Neurotoxins in Alzheimer's Disease.

Journal of aging science, 9(Suppl 5):.

The microbiome contained within the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract constitutes a highly complex, dynamic and interactive internal prokaryotic ecosystem that possesses a staggering diversity, speciation and complexity. This repository of microbes comprises the largest interactive source and highest density of microbes anywhere in nature, collectively constituting the largest 'diffuse organ system' in the human body. Through the extracellular fluid (ECF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), lymphatic and glymphatic circulation, endocrine, systemic and neurovascular circulation and/or central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS, PNS) microbiome-derived signaling strongly impacts the health, well-being and vitality of the human host. Recent data from the Human Microbiome Initiative (HMI) and the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) consortium have classified over ~200 thousand diverse, non-redundant prokaryotic genomes in the human GI-tract microbiome involving about ~5 thousand different GI-tract microbes that all together encode almost ~200 million different protein sequences. While the largest proportion of different microbiome-derived proteins, lipoproteins and nucleic acids provide essential microorganism-specific gene products necessary to support microbial structure, function and viability, many of these same components are also shed from the outer cell wall of different Gram-negative bacterial species into surrounding biofluids which eventually enter the systemic circulation. Several of these microbial-derived secreted molecular species represent some of the most pro-inflammatory and noxious neurotoxins known. These neurotoxins disrupt cell-cell adhesion and easily translocate across aged or damaged plasma membranes and into the systemic circulation, brain, and CNS and PNS compartments. For example, microbial lipoprotein glycoconjugates such as Gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bacterial amyloids and more recently small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) microbial-derived neurotoxins have been found by many independent research groups to reside within the brain cells and CNS tissues of aged patients affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This 'Commentary' will highlight the most recent findings on these microbial-derived secreted toxins, their neurotropic properties and the potential contribution of these neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory microbial exudates to age-related inflammatory neurodegeneration, with specific reference to the human GI-tract abundant Gram-negative anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis and to AD wherever possible.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Li S, Su B, He QS, et al (2021)

Alterations in the oral microbiome in HIV infection: causes, effects and potential interventions.

Chinese medical journal pii:00029330-900000000-98354 [Epub ahead of print].

ABSTRACT: A massive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes has been described in early and acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, leading to an imbalance between the human microbiome and immune responses. In recent years, a growing interest in the alterations in gut microbiota in HIV infection has led to many studies; however, only few studies have been conducted to explore the importance of oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals. Evidence has indicated the dysbiosis of oral microbiota in people living with HIV (PLWH). Potential mechanisms might be related to the immunodeficiency in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals, including changes in secretory components such as reduced levels of enzymes and proteins in saliva and altered cellular components involved in the reduction and dysfunction of innate and adaptive immune cells. As a result, disrupted oral immunity in HIV-infected individuals leads to an imbalance between the oral microbiome and local immune responses, which may contribute to the development of HIV-related diseases and HIV-associated non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome comorbidities. Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant decrease in occurrence of the opportunistic oral infections in HIV-infected individuals, the dysbiosis in oral microbiome persists. Furthermore, several studies with the aim to investigate the ability of probiotics to regulate the dysbiosis of oral microbiota in HIV-infected individuals are ongoing. However, the effects of ART and probiotics on oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals remain unclear. In this article, we review the composition of the oral microbiome in healthy and HIV-infected individuals and the possible effect of oral microbiome on HIV-associated oral diseases. We also discuss how ART and probiotics influence the oral microbiome in HIV infection. We believe that a deeper understanding of composition and function of the oral microbiome is critical for the development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for HIV infection.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Karimova M, Moyes D, Ide M, et al (2021)

The Human Microbiome in immunobullous disorders and lichen planus.

Clinical and experimental dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

For several decades, there has been a significant growth in the incidence of autoimmune diseases. Studies indicate that genetic factors may not be the only trigger for disease development and that dysbiosis of the microbiome may be another mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The role of the microbiome in the development of common skin disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne, and rosacea is increasingly well understood. However, few studies have focused on lichen planus and the rare acquired immunobullous diseases (AIBD), both mucocutaneous groups of disorders linked to skin, oral and gut microbiomes. This review provides an insight into the current understanding of how the microbiome may contribute to the development of autoimmunity as well as themaintenance and exacerbation of acquired immunobullous and lichenoid diseases. These mechanisms may have implications for future preventive and therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Roura E, Depoortere I, M Navarro (2019)

Review: Chemosensing of nutrients and non-nutrients in the human and porcine gastrointestinal tract.

Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 13(11):2714-2726.

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an interface between the external and internal milieus that requires continuous monitoring for nutrients or pathogens and toxic chemicals. The study of the physiological/molecular mechanisms, mediating the responses to the monitoring of the GIT contents, has been referred to as chemosensory science. While most of the progress in this area of research has been obtained in laboratory rodents and humans, significant steps forward have also been reported in pigs. The objective of this review was to update the current knowledge on nutrient chemosensing in pigs in light of recent advances in humans and laboratory rodents. A second objective relates to informing the existence of nutrient sensors with their functionality, particularly linked to the gut peptides relevant to the onset/offset of appetite. Several cell types of the intestinal epithelium such as Paneth, goblet, tuft and enteroendocrine cells (EECs) contain subsets of chemosensory receptors also found on the tongue as part of the taste system. In particular, EECs show specific co-expression patterns between nutrient sensors and/or transceptors (transport proteins with sensing functions) and anorexigenic hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), amongst others. In addition, the administration of bitter compounds has an inhibitory effect on GIT motility and on appetite through GLP-1-, CCK-, ghrelin- and PYY-labelled EECs in the human small intestine and colon. Furthermore, the mammalian chemosensory system is the target of some bacterial metabolites. Recent studies on the human microbiome have discovered that commensal bacteria have developed strategies to stimulate chemosensory receptors and trigger host cellular functions. Finally, the study of gene polymorphisms related to nutrient sensors explains differences in food choices, food intake and appetite between individuals.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Earle SG, Lobanovska M, Lavender H, et al (2021)

Genome-wide association studies reveal the role of polymorphisms affecting factor H binding protein expression in host invasion by Neisseria meningitidis.

PLoS pathogens, 17(10):e1009992 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-21-01153 [Epub ahead of print].

Many invasive bacterial diseases are caused by organisms that are ordinarily harmless components of the human microbiome. Effective interventions against these microbes require an understanding of the processes whereby symbiotic or commensal relationships transition into pathology. Here, we describe bacterial genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Neisseria meningitidis, a common commensal of the human respiratory tract that is nevertheless a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. An initial GWAS discovered bacterial genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) versus carriage in several loci across the meningococcal genome, encoding antigens and other extracellular components, confirming the polygenic nature of the invasive phenotype. In particular, there was a significant peak of association around the fHbp locus, encoding factor H binding protein (fHbp), which promotes bacterial immune evasion of human complement by recruiting complement factor H (CFH) to the meningococcal surface. The association around fHbp with IMD was confirmed by a validation GWAS, and we found that the SNPs identified in the validation affected the 5' region of fHbp mRNA, altering secondary RNA structures, thereby increasing fHbp expression and enhancing bacterial escape from complement-mediated killing. This finding is consistent with the known link between complement deficiencies and CFH variation with human susceptibility to IMD. These observations demonstrate the importance of human and bacterial genetic variation across the fHbp:CFH interface in determining IMD susceptibility, the transition from carriage to disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-20

Tan-Torres AL, Brooks JP, Singh B, et al (2021)

Machine learning clustering and classification of human microbiome source body sites.

Forensic science international, 328:111008 pii:S0379-0738(21)00328-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Distinct microbial signatures associated with specific human body sites can play a role in the identification of biological materials recovered from the crime scene, but at present, methods that have capability to predict origin of biological materials based on such signatures are limited. Metagenomic sequencing and machine learning (ML) offer a promising enhancement to current identification protocols. We use ML for forensic source body site identification using shotgun metagenomic sequenced data to verify the presence of microbiomic signatures capable of discriminating between source body sites and then show that accurate prediction is possible. The consistency between cluster membership and actual source body site (purity) exceeded 99% at the genus taxonomy using off-the-shelf ML clustering algorithms. Similar results were obtained at the family level. Accurate predictions were observed for genus, family, and order taxonomies, as well as with a core set of 51 genera. The accurate outcomes from our replicable process should encourage forensic scientists to seriously consider integrating ML predictors into their source body site identification protocols.

RevDate: 2021-10-15

Ji X, Sun T, Xie S, et al (2021)

Upregulation of CPNE7 in mesenchymal stromal cells promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis through the NF-κB pathway.

Cell death discovery, 7(1):294.

A remarkable shift in Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) plays an important role in cancer metastasis, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. CPNE7, a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, mediates signal transduction and metastasis in many tumours. Here, we demonstrated that MSCs derived from OSCC (OSCC-MSCs) promoted the metastasis of OSCC cells by transwell assay and animal models through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) (p < 0.05). RNA-sequencing, ELISA, neutralizing antibody and CXCR2 inhibitor assay confirmed that CXCL8 secreted by OSCC-MSCs was associated with the upregulated expression of CPNE7 by immunohistochemical and western blotting (p < 0.05). This is mechanistically linked to the activation of CPNE7 to NF-κB pathway-induced metastasis, including phosphorylated p65 and IκBa. CPNE7 silencing inhibited metastatic abilities and the expression of CXCL8, phosphorylated p65, IκBa, and p65 nuclear translocation by western blotting and immunofluorescence, while CPNE7 overexpression markedly promoted these events (p < 0.05). We also identified that Nucleolin could be bind CPNE7 and IκBa by co-immunoprecipitation. Together, our results suggest that upregulation of CPNE7 in MSCs interacted with surface receptor -Nucleolin and then combined with IκBa to promoted phosphorylated IκBa and p65 nuclear translocation to active NF-κB pathway, and then regulates CXCL8 secretion to promote the metastasis of OSCC cells. Therefore, CPNE7 in MSCs could be promising therapeutic targets in OSCC.

RevDate: 2021-10-08

Sergazy S, Gulyayev A, Amangeldiyeva A, et al (2021)

Antiradical and Cytoprotective Properties of Allium nutans L. Honey Against CCL4-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:687763.

The aim of this study is determine the in vitro and in vivo antiradical properties and the cytoprotective activity of Allium nutans L. honey extract. The antiradical properties of the extracts were investigated in rabbit alveolar macrophages and human foreskin fibroblast (hFFs) cells in the presence of doxorubicin, a cytotoxic substance using DPPH and ABTS assays. The cytoprotective activities were determined using 18 Wistar rats divided into three different groups, a negative control, and two other groups with experimentally induced hepatotoxicity by a single intraperitoneal injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) oil solution. A positive control group, received drinking water only and an experimental group that was treated with Allium nutans L. honey extracts for 7 days. In vitro treatment with Allium nutans L. honey extracts resulted in 78% reduction in radical activity in DPPH and 91.6% inhibition using the ABTS. Also, honey extracts were able to preserve 100% of cell viability in the presence of the cytotoxic, doxorubicin. Furthermore, the treatment with honey extracts resulted in a significant reduction in damage to the structure of liver tissue, as well significant reduction in the levels of ALT and AST in the experimental group compared to the control group.

RevDate: 2021-10-14

Elton S (2021)

Intimate ecosystems: the microbiome and the ecological determinants of health.

Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique [Epub ahead of print].

The ecological determinants of health make explicit the ways in which human health and well-being depend on the biosphere and its systems. Water, oxygen, and food are listed along with soil systems, water systems, material for shelter, energy, the ozone layer and a stable climate. Research in the sciences is uncovering the critical role that the earth microbiome, including the human microbiome, plays in human health. The relationship between commensal microbiota and the systems of the human body, as well as the ways in which these systems are interdependent with other ecosystems such as food systems, invites revisiting the ecological determinants of health. In this commentary, I argue that microbiota, including the human microbiome, should be considered ecological determinants of health. Such a characterization would recognize the importance of the microbiome to human health. It would also frame this as a public health issue and raise questions about health equity, including who benefits from the knowledge produced through biomedical research.

RevDate: 2021-10-14

Glowacki RWP, Engelhart MJ, PP Ahern (2021)

Controlled Complexity: Optimized Systems to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Host Physiology.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:735562.

The profound impact of the gut microbiome on host health has led to a revolution in biomedical research, motivating researchers from disparate fields to define the specific molecular mechanisms that mediate host-beneficial effects. The advent of genomic technologies allied to the use of model microbiomes in gnotobiotic mouse models has transformed our understanding of intestinal microbial ecology and the impact of the microbiome on the host. However, despite incredible advances, our understanding of the host-microbiome dialogue that shapes host physiology is still in its infancy. Progress has been limited by challenges associated with developing model systems that are both tractable enough to provide key mechanistic insights while also reflecting the enormous complexity of the gut ecosystem. Simplified model microbiomes have facilitated detailed interrogation of transcriptional and metabolic functions of the microbiome but do not recapitulate the interactions seen in complex communities. Conversely, intact complex communities from mice or humans provide a more physiologically relevant community type, but can limit our ability to uncover high-resolution insights into microbiome function. Moreover, complex microbiomes from lab-derived mice or humans often do not readily imprint human-like phenotypes. Therefore, improved model microbiomes that are highly defined and tractable, but that more accurately recapitulate human microbiome-induced phenotypic variation are required to improve understanding of fundamental processes governing host-microbiome mutualism. This improved understanding will enhance the translational relevance of studies that address how the microbiome promotes host health and influences disease states. Microbial exposures in wild mice, both symbiotic and infectious in nature, have recently been established to more readily recapitulate human-like phenotypes. The development of synthetic model communities from such "wild mice" therefore represents an attractive strategy to overcome the limitations of current approaches. Advances in microbial culturing approaches that allow for the generation of large and diverse libraries of isolates, coupled to ever more affordable large-scale genomic sequencing, mean that we are now ideally positioned to develop such systems. Furthermore, the development of sophisticated in vitro systems is allowing for detailed insights into host-microbiome interactions to be obtained. Here we discuss the need to leverage such approaches and highlight key challenges that remain to be addressed.

RevDate: 2021-10-13

Ivashkin V, Fomin V, Moiseev S, et al (2021)

Efficacy of a Probiotic Consisting of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus PDV 1705, Bifidobacterium bifidum PDV 0903, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis PDV 1911, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum PDV 2301 in the Treatment of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

The treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and COVID-19-associated diarrhea remains challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a multi-strain probiotic in the treatment of COVID-19. This was a randomized, controlled, single-center, open-label trial (NCT04854941). Inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 and pneumonia were randomly assigned to a group that received a multi-strain probiotic (PRO group) or to the control group (CON group). There were 99 and 101 patients in the PRO and CON groups, respectively. No significant differences in mortality, total duration of disease and hospital stay, incidence of intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation or oxygen support, liver injury development, and changes in inflammatory biomarker levels were observed between the PRO and CON groups among all included patients as well as among subgroups delineated based on age younger or older than 65 years, and subgroups with chronic cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Diarrhea on admission was observed in 11.5% of patients; it resolved earlier in the PRO group than in the CON group (2 [1-4] vs. 4 [3-6] days; p = 0.049). Hospital-acquired diarrhea developed less frequently in the PRO group than in the CON group among patients who received a single antibiotic (0% vs. 12.5%; p = 0.023) unlike among those who received > 1 antibiotic (10.5% vs. 13.3%; p = 0.696). The studied probiotic had no significant effect on mortality and changes in most biomarkers in COVID-19. However, it was effective in treating diarrhea associated with COVID-19 and in preventing hospital-acquired diarrhea in patients who received a single antibiotic.

RevDate: 2021-10-13

Vanhaecke T, Bretin O, Poirel M, et al (2021)

Drinking Water Source and Intake Are Associated with Distinct Gut Microbiota Signatures in US and UK Populations.

The Journal of nutrition pii:6395031 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The microbiome of the digestive tract exerts fundamental roles in host physiology. Extrinsic factors including lifestyle and diet are widely recognized as key drivers of gut and oral microbiome compositions. Although drinking water is among the food items consumed in the largest amount, little is known about its potential impact on the microbiome.

OBJECTIVES: We explored the associations of plain drinking water source and intake with gut and oral microbiota compositions in a population-based cohort.

METHODS: Microbiota, health, lifestyle, and food intake data were extracted from the American Gut Project public database. Associations of drinking water source (bottled, tap, filtered, or well water) and intake with global microbiota composition were evaluated using linear and logistic models adjusted for anthropometric, diet, and lifestyle factors in 3413 and 3794 individuals, respectively (fecal samples; 56% female, median [IQR] age: 48 [36-59] y; median [IQR] BMI: 23.3 [20.9-26.3] kg/m2), and in 283 and 309 individuals, respectively (oral samples).

RESULTS: Drinking water source ranked among the key contributing factors explaining the gut microbiota variation, accounting for 13% [Faith's phylogenetic diversity (Faith's PD)] and 47% (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) of the age effect size. Drinking water source was associated with differences in gut microbiota signatures, as revealed by β diversity analyses (P < 0.05; Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, weighted UniFrac distance). Subjects drinking mostly well water had higher fecal α diversity (P < 0.05; Faith's PD, observed amplicon sequence variants), higher Dorea, and lower Bacteroides, Odoribacter, and Streptococcus than the other groups. Low water drinkers also exhibited gut microbiota differences compared with high water drinkers (P < 0.05; Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, unweighted UniFrac distance) and a higher abundance of Campylobacter. No associations were found between oral microbiota composition and drinking water consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that drinking water may be an important factor in shaping the human gut microbiome and that integrating drinking water source and intake as covariates in future microbiome analyses is warranted.

RevDate: 2021-10-13

Arikawa K, Ide K, Kogawa M, et al (2021)

Recovery of strain-resolved genomes from human microbiome through an integration framework of single-cell genomics and metagenomics.

Microbiome, 9(1):202.

BACKGROUND: Obtaining high-quality (HQ) reference genomes from microbial communities is crucial for understanding the phylogeny and function of uncultured microbes in complex microbial ecosystems. Despite improvements in bioinformatic approaches to generate curated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), existing metagenome binners obtain population consensus genomes but they are nowhere comparable to genomes sequenced from isolates in terms of strain level resolution. Here, we present a framework for the integration of single-cell genomics and metagenomics, referred to as single-cell (sc) metagenomics, to reconstruct strain-resolved genomes from microbial communities at once.

RESULTS: Our sc-metagenomics integration framework, termed SMAGLinker, uses single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) generated using microfluidic technology as binning guides and integrates them with metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to recover improved draft genomes. We compared sc-metagenomics with the metagenomics-alone approach using conventional metagenome binners. The sc-metagenomics approach showed precise contig binning and higher recovery rates (>97%) of rRNA and plasmids than conventional metagenomics in genome reconstruction from the cell mock community. In human microbiota samples, sc-metagenomics recovered the largest number of genomes with a total of 103 gut microbial genomes (21 HQ, with 65 showing >90% completeness) and 45 skin microbial genomes (10 HQ, with 40 showing >90% completeness), respectively. Conventional metagenomics recovered one Staphylococcus hominis genome, whereas sc-metagenomics recovered two S. hominis genomes from identical skin microbiota sample. Single-cell sequencing revealed that these S. hominis genomes were derived from two distinct strains harboring specifically different plasmids. We found that all conventional S. hominis MAGs had a substantial lack or excess of genome sequences and contamination from other Staphylococcus species (S. epidermidis).

CONCLUSIONS: SMAGLinker enabled us to obtain strain-resolved genomes in the mock community and human microbiota samples by assigning metagenomic sequences correctly and covering both highly conserved genes such as rRNA genes and unique extrachromosomal elements, including plasmids. SMAGLinker will provide HQ genomes that are difficult to obtain using metagenomics alone and will facilitate the understanding of microbial ecosystems by elucidating detailed metabolic pathways and horizontal gene transfer networks. SMAGLinker is available at https://github.com/kojiari/smaglinker . Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-10-13

Dohnálek J, Dušková J, Tishchenko G, et al (2021)

Chitinase Chit62J4 Essential for Chitin Processing by Human Microbiome Bacterium Clostridium paraputrificum J4.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(19): pii:molecules26195978.

Commensal bacterium Clostridium paraputrificum J4 produces several extracellular chitinolytic enzymes including a 62 kDa chitinase Chit62J4 active toward 4-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-d-chitobioside (pNGG). We characterized the crude enzyme from bacterial culture fluid, recombinant enzyme rChit62J4, and its catalytic domain rChit62J4cat. This major chitinase, securing nutrition of the bacterium in the human intestinal tract when supplied with chitin, has a pH optimum of 5.5 and processes pNGG with Km = 0.24 mM and kcat = 30.0 s-1. Sequence comparison of the amino acid sequence of Chit62J4, determined during bacterial genome sequencing, characterizes the enzyme as a family 18 glycosyl hydrolase with a four-domain structure. The catalytic domain has the typical TIM barrel structure and the accessory domains-2x Fn3/Big3 and a carbohydrate binding module-that likely supports enzyme activity on chitin fibers. The catalytic domain is highly homologous to a single-domain chitinase of Bacillus cereus NCTU2. However, the catalytic profiles significantly differ between the two enzymes despite almost identical catalytic sites. The shift of pI and pH optimum of the commensal enzyme toward acidic values compared to the soil bacterium is the likely environmental adaptation that provides C. paraputrificum J4 a competitive advantage over other commensal bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-10-13

Suojalehto H, Ndika J, Lindström I, et al (2021)

Transcriptomic Profiling of Adult-Onset Asthma Related to Damp and Moldy Buildings and Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(19): pii:ijms221910679.

A subset of adult-onset asthma patients attribute their symptoms to damp and moldy buildings. Symptoms of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) may resemble asthma and these two entities overlap. We aimed to evaluate if a distinct clinical subtype of asthma related to damp and moldy buildings can be identified, to unravel its corresponding pathomechanistic gene signatures, and to investigate potential molecular similarities with IEI. Fifty female adult-onset asthma patients were categorized based on exposure to building dampness and molds during disease initiation. IEI patients (n = 17) and healthy subjects (n = 21) were also included yielding 88 study subjects. IEI was scored with the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) questionnaire. Inflammation was evaluated by blood cell type profiling and cytokine measurements. Disease mechanisms were investigated via gene set variation analysis of RNA from nasal biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Nasal biopsy gene expression and plasma cytokine profiles suggested airway and systemic inflammation in asthma without exposure to dampness (AND). Similar evidence of inflammation was absent in patients with dampness-and-mold-related asthma (AAD). Gene expression signatures revealed a greater degree of similarity between IEI and dampness-related asthma than between IEI patients and asthma not associated to dampness and mold. Blood cell transcriptome of IEI subjects showed strong suppression of immune cell activation, migration, and movement. QEESI scores correlated to blood cell gene expression of all study subjects. Transcriptomic analysis revealed clear pathomechanisms for AND but not AAD patients. Furthermore, we found a distinct molecular pathological profile in nasal and blood immune cells of IEI subjects, including several differentially expressed genes that were also identified in AAD samples, suggesting IEI-type mechanisms.

RevDate: 2021-10-13

Georgiou K, Marinov B, Farooqi AA, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota in Lung Cancer: Where Do We Stand?.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(19): pii:ijms221910429.

The gut microbiota (GM) is considered to constitute a powerful "organ" capable of influencing the majority of the metabolic, nutritional, physiological, and immunological processes of the human body. To date, five microbial-mediated mechanisms have been revealed that either endorse or inhibit tumorigenesis. Although the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are distant physically, they have common embryonic origin and similarity in structure. The lung microbiota is far less understood, and it is suggested that the crosslink between the human microbiome and lung cancer is a complex, multifactorial relationship. Several pathways linking their respective microbiota have reinforced the existence of a gut-lung axis (GLA). Regarding implications of specific GM in lung cancer therapy, a few studies showed that the GM considerably affects immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy by altering the differentiation of regulatory T cells and thus resulting in changes in immunomodulation mechanisms, as discovered by assessing drug metabolism directly and by assessing the host immune modulation response. Additionally, the GM may increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment in lung cancer. The mechanism underlying the role of the GLA in the pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer and its capability for diagnosis, manipulation, and treatment need to be further explored.

RevDate: 2021-10-12

Chipashvili O, Utter DR, Bedree JK, et al (2021)

Episymbiotic Saccharibacteria suppresses gingival inflammation and bone loss in mice through host bacterial modulation.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(21)00425-X [Epub ahead of print].

Saccharibacteria (TM7) are obligate epibionts living on the surface of their host bacteria and are strongly correlated with dysbiotic microbiomes during periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases, suggesting they are putative pathogens. However, due to the recalcitrance of TM7 cultivation, causal research to investigate their role in inflammatory diseases is lacking. Here, we isolated multiple TM7 species on their host bacteria from periodontitis patients. These TM7 species reduce inflammation and consequential bone loss by modulating host bacterial pathogenicity in a mouse ligature-induced periodontitis model. Two host bacterial functions involved in collagen binding and utilization of eukaryotic sialic acid are required for inducing bone loss and are altered by TM7 association. This TM7-mediated downregulation of host bacterial pathogenicity is shown for multiple TM7/host bacteria pairs, suggesting that, in contrast to their suspected pathogenic role, TM7 could protect mammalian hosts from inflammatory damage induced by their host bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-10-12

De Wolfe TJ, Arefin MR, Benezra A, et al (2021)

Chasing Ghosts: Race, Racism, and the Future of Microbiome Research.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

In this article, we argue that a careful examination of human microbiome science's relationship with race and racism is necessary to foster equitable social and ecological relations in the field. We point to the origins and evolution of the problematic use of race in microbiome literature by demonstrating the increased usage of race both explicitly and implicitly in and beyond the human microbiome sciences. We demonstrate how these uses limit the future of rigorous and just microbiome research. We conclude with an outline of alternative actionable ways to build a more effective, antiracist microbiome science.

RevDate: 2021-10-10

Giraldo PC, Sanches JM, Sparvolli LG, et al (2021)

Relationship between Papillomavirus vaccine, vaginal microbiome, and local cytokine response: an exploratory research.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The influence of vaccination on composition of the human microbiome at distinct sites has been recognized as an essential component in the development of new vaccine strategies. The HPV vaccine is widely used to prevent cervical cancer; however, the influence of HPV vaccine on the vaginal microbiota has not been previously investigated. In his study, we performed an initial characterization of the microbiome and cytokine composition in the vagina following administration of the bivalent vaccine against HPV 16/18.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this exploratory study, fifteen women between 18 and 40 years received three doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®). Cervicovaginal samples were collected before the first dose and 30 days after the third dose. HPV genotyping was performed by the XGEN Flow Chip technique. The cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12p70, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 were quantitated by multiplex immunoassay. The vaginal microbiome was identified by analysis of the V3/V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS: The most abundant bacterial species in the vaginal microbiome was Lactobacillus crispatus, followed by L. iners. Bacterial diversity and dominant organisms were unchanged following vaccination. Small decreases in levels of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed following HPV vaccination, but there was no association between vaginal cytokine levels and microbiome composition.

CONCLUSION: Vaginal microbiome is not altered following administration of the standard three-dose HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted (Cervarix®) vaccine.

RevDate: 2021-10-07

Medeiros Filho F, do Nascimento APB, Costa MOCE, et al (2021)

A Systematic Strategy to Find Potential Therapeutic Targets for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Integrated Computational Models.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 8:728129 pii:728129.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that has been a constant global health problem due to its ability to cause infection at different body sites and its resistance to a broad spectrum of clinically available antibiotics. The World Health Organization classified multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa among the top-ranked organisms that require urgent research and development of effective therapeutic options. Several approaches have been taken to achieve these goals, but they all depend on discovering potential drug targets. The large amount of data obtained from sequencing technologies has been used to create computational models of organisms, which provide a powerful tool for better understanding their biological behavior. In the present work, we applied a method to integrate transcriptome data with genome-scale metabolic networks of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We submitted both metabolic and integrated models to dynamic simulations and compared their performance with published in vitro growth curves. In addition, we used these models to identify potential therapeutic targets and compared the results to analyze the assumption that computational models enriched with biological measurements can provide more selective and (or) specific predictions. Our results demonstrate that dynamic simulations from integrated models result in more accurate growth curves and flux distribution more coherent with biological observations. Moreover, identifying drug targets from integrated models is more selective as the predicted genes were a subset of those found in the metabolic models. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 26 non-host homologous targets. Among them, we highlighted five top-ranked genes based on lesser conservation with the human microbiome. Overall, some of the genes identified in this work have already been proposed by different approaches and (or) are already investigated as targets to antimicrobial compounds, reinforcing the benefit of using integrated models as a starting point to selecting biologically relevant therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2021-10-06

Gierse LC, Meene A, Schultz D, et al (2021)

Influenza A H1N1 Induced Disturbance of the Respiratory and Fecal Microbiome of German Landrace Pigs - a Multi-Omics Characterization.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Seasonal influenza outbreaks represent a large burden for the health care system as well as the economy. While the role of the microbiome has been elucidated in the context of various diseases, the impact of respiratory viral infections on the human microbiome is largely unknown. In this study, swine was used as an animal model to characterize the temporal dynamics of the respiratory and gastrointestinal microbiome in response to an influenza A virus (IAV) infection. A multi-omics approach was applied on fecal samples to identify alterations in microbiome composition and function during IAV infection. We observed significantly altered microbial richness and diversity in the gastrointestinal microbiome after IAV infection. In particular, increased abundances of Prevotellaceae were detected, while Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae decreased. Moreover, our metaproteomics data indicated that the functional composition of the microbiome was heavily affected by the influenza infection. For instance, we identified decreased amounts of flagellin, correlating with reduced abundances of Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae, possibly indicating involvement of a direct immune response toward flagellated Clostridia during IAV infection. Furthermore, enzymes involved in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) synthesis were identified in higher abundances, while metabolome analyses revealed rather stable concentrations of SCFAs. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize effects on the composition and natural development of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. Our results showed that IAV infection resulted in significant changes in the abundance of Moraxellaceae and Pasteurellaceae in the upper respiratory tract. Surprisingly, temporal development of the respiratory microbiome structure was not affected. IMPORTANCE Here, we used swine as a biomedical model to elucidate the impact of influenza A H1N1 infection on structure and function of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract microbiome by employing a multi-omics analytical approach. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the temporal development of the porcine microbiome and to provide insights into the functional capacity of the gastrointestinal microbiome during influenza A virus infection.

RevDate: 2021-10-06

Lv S, Wang Y, Zhang W, et al (2021)

Trimethylamine oxide: a potential target for heart failure therapy.

Heart (British Cardiac Society) pii:heartjnl-2021-320054 [Epub ahead of print].

Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome in the late stage of cardiovascular disease and is associated with high prevalence, mortality and rehospitalisation rate. The pathophysiological mechanisms of HF have experienced the initial 'water-sodium retention' mode to 'abnormal hemodynamics' mode, and subsequent to 'abnormal activation of neuroendocrine' mode, which has extensively promoted the reform of HF treatment and updated the treatment concept. Since the Human Microbiome Project commencement, the study on intestinal microecology has swiftly developed, providing a new direction to reveal the occurrence of diseases and the mechanisms behind drug effects. Intestinal microecology comprises the gastrointestinal lumen, epithelial secretion, food entering the intestine, intestinal flora and metabolites. Choline and L-carnitine in the diet are metabolised to trimethylamine (TMA) by the intestinal micro-organisms, with TMA being absorbed into the blood. TMA then enters the liver through the portal vein circulation and is oxidised to trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) by the hepatic flavin-containing mono-oxygenase (FMO) family, especially FMO3. The circulating TMAO levels are associated with adverse outcomes in HF (mortality and readmission), and lower TMAO levels indicate better prognosis. As HF progresses, the concentration of TMAO in patients gradually increases. Whether the circulating TMAO level can be decreased by intervening with the intestinal microflora or relevant enzymes, thereby affecting the prognosis of patients with HF, has become a research hotspot. Therefore, based on the HF intestinal hypothesis, exploring the treatment strategy for HF targeting the TMAO metabolite of the intestinal flora may update the treatment concept in HF and improve its therapeutic effect.

RevDate: 2021-10-05

Boix-Amorós A, Piras E, Bu K, et al (2021)

Viral Inactivation Impacts Microbiome Estimates in a Tissue-Specific Manner.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The global emergence of novel pathogenic viruses presents an important challenge for research, as high biosafety levels are required to process samples. While inactivation of infectious agents facilitates the use of less stringent safety conditions, its effect on other biological entities of interest present in the sample is generally unknown. Here, we analyzed the effect of five inactivation methods (heat, ethanol, formaldehyde, psoralen, and TRIzol) on microbiome composition and diversity in samples collected from four different body sites (gut, nasal, oral, and skin) and compared them against untreated samples from the same tissues. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing and estimated abundance and diversity of bacterial taxa present in all samples. Nasal and skin samples were the most affected by inactivation, with ethanol and TRIzol inducing the largest changes in composition, and heat, formaldehyde, TRIzol, and psoralen inducing the largest changes in diversity. Oral and stool microbiomes were more robust to inactivation, with no significant changes in diversity and only moderate changes in composition. Firmicutes was the taxonomic group least affected by inactivation, while Bacteroidetes had a notable enrichment in nasal samples and moderate enrichment in fecal and oral samples. Actinobacteria were more notably depleted in fecal and skin samples, and Proteobacteria exhibited a more variable behavior depending on sample type and inactivation method. Overall, our results demonstrate that inactivation methods can alter the microbiome in a tissue-specific manner and that careful consideration should be given to the choice of method based on the sample type under study. IMPORTANCE Understanding how viral infections impact and are modulated by the microbiome is an important problem in basic research but is also of high clinical relevance under the current pandemic. To facilitate the study of interactions between microbial communities and pathogenic viruses under safe conditions, the infectious agent is generally inactivated prior to processing samples. The effect of this inactivation process in the microbiome is, however, unknown. Further, it is unclear whether biases introduced by inactivation methods are dependent on the sample type under study. Estimating the magnitude and nature of the changes induced by different methods in samples collected from various body sites thus provides important information for current and future studies that require inactivation of pathogenic agents.

RevDate: 2021-10-01

Kajova M, Khawaja T, Kangas J, et al (2021)

Import of multidrug-resistant bacteria from abroad through interhospital transfers, Finland, 2010-2019.

Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 26(39):.

BackgroundWhile 20-80% of regular visitors to (sub)tropical regions become colonised by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), those hospitalised abroad often also carry other multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria on return; the rates are presumed to be highest for interhospital transfers.AimThis observational study assessed MDR bacterial colonisation among patients transferred directly from hospitals abroad to Helsinki University Hospital. We investigated predisposing factors, clinical infections and associated fatalities.MethodsData were derived from screening and from diagnostic samples collected between 2010 and 2019. Risk factors of colonisation were identified by multivariable analysis. Microbiologically verified symptomatic infections and infection-related mortality were recorded during post-transfer hospitalisation.ResultsColonisation rates proved highest for transfers from Asia (69/96; 71.9%) and lowest for those within Europe (99/524; 18.9%). Of all 698 patients, 208 (29.8%) were colonised; among those, 163 (78.4%) carried ESBL-PE, 28 (13.5%) MDR Acinetobacter species, 25 (12.0%) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 25 (12.0%) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, 14 (6.7%) carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and 12 (5.8%) MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 46 strains tested carbapenemase gene-positive. In multivariable analysis, geographical region, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic use abroad proved to be risk factors for colonisation. Clinical MDR infections, two of them fatal (1.0%), were recorded for 22 of 208 (10.6%) MDR carriers.ConclusionsColonisation by MDR bacteria was common among patients transferred from foreign hospitals. Region of hospitalisation, ICU treatment and antibiotic use were identified as predisposing factors. Within 30 days after transfer, MDR colonisation manifested as clinical infection in more than 10% of the carriers.

RevDate: 2021-10-01

Toni T, Alverdy J, V Gershuni (2021)

Re-examining chemically defined liquid diets through the lens of the microbiome.

Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

Trends in nutritional science are rapidly shifting as information regarding the value of eating unprocessed foods and its salutary effect on the human microbiome emerge. Unravelling the evolution and ecology by which humans have harboured a microbiome that participates in every facet of health and disease is daunting. Most strikingly, the host habitat has sought out naturally occurring foodstuff that can fulfil its own metabolic needs and also the needs of its microbiota, each of which remain inexorably connected to one another. With the introduction of modern medicine and complexities of critical care, came the assumption that the best way to feed a critically ill patient is by delivering fibre-free chemically defined sterile liquid foods (that is, total enteral nutrition). In this Perspective, we uncover the potential flaws in this assumption and discuss how emerging technology in microbiome sciences might inform the best method of feeding malnourished and critically ill patients.

RevDate: 2021-09-30

Buckel W (2021)

Energy Conservation in Fermentations of Anaerobic Bacteria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:703525.

Anaerobic bacteria ferment carbohydrates and amino acids to obtain energy for growth. Due to the absence of oxygen and other inorganic electron acceptors, the substrate of a fermentation has to serve as electron donor as well as acceptor, which results in low free energies as compared to that of aerobic oxidations. Until about 10 years ago, anaerobes were thought to exclusively use substrate level phosphorylation (SLP), by which only part of the available energy could be conserved. Therefore, anaerobes were regarded as unproductive and inefficient energy conservers. The discovery of electrochemical Na+ gradients generated by biotin-dependent decarboxylations or by reduction of NAD+ with ferredoxin changed this view. Reduced ferredoxin is provided by oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoacids and the recently discovered flavin based electron bifurcation (FBEB). In this review, the two different fermentation pathways of glutamate to ammonia, CO2, acetate, butyrate and H2 via 3-methylaspartate or via 2-hydroxyglutarate by members of the Firmicutes are discussed as prototypical examples in which all processes characteristic for fermentations occur. Though the fermentations proceed on two entirely different pathways, the maximum theoretical amount of ATP is conserved in each pathway. The occurrence of the 3-methylaspartate pathway in clostridia from soil and the 2-hydroxyglutarate pathway in the human microbiome of the large intestine is traced back to the oxygen-sensitivity of the radical enzymes. The coenzyme B12-dependent glutamate mutase in the 3-methylaspartate pathway tolerates oxygen, whereas 2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase is extremely oxygen-sensitive and can only survive in the gut, where the combustion of butyrate produced by the microbiome consumes the oxygen and provides a strict anaerobic environment. Examples of coenzyme B12-dependent eliminases are given, which in the gut are replaced by simpler extremely oxygen sensitive glycyl radical enzymes.

RevDate: 2021-09-30

Montanari C, Parolisi S, Borghi E, et al (2021)

Dysbiosis, Host Metabolism, and Non-communicable Diseases: Trialogue in the Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

Frontiers in physiology, 12:716520.

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) represent a complex system model, in need of a shift of approach exploring the main factors mediating the regulation of the system, internal or external and overcoming the traditional concept of biochemical and genetic defects. In this context, among the established factors influencing the metabolic flux, i.e., diet, lifestyle, antibiotics, xenobiotics, infectious agents, also the individual gut microbiota should be considered. A healthy gut microbiota contributes in maintaining human health by providing unique metabolic functions to the human host. Many patients with IEMs are on special diets, the main treatment for these diseases. Hence, IEMs represent a good model to evaluate how specific dietary patterns, in terms of macronutrients composition and quality of nutrients, can be related to a characteristic microbiota associated with a specific clinical phenotype ("enterophenotype"). In the present review, we aim at reporting the possible links existing between dysbiosis, a condition reported in IEMs patients, and a pro-inflammatory status, through an altered "gut-liver" cross-talk network and a major oxidative stress, with a repercussion on the health status of the patient, increasing the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). On this basis, more attention should be paid to the nutritional status assessment and the clinical and biochemical signs of possible onset of comorbidities, with the goal of improving the long-term wellbeing in IEMs. A balanced intestinal ecosystem has been shown to positively contribute to patient health and its perturbation may influence the clinical spectrum of individuals with IEMs. For this, reaching eubiosis through the improvement of the quality of dietary products and mixtures, the use of pre-, pro- and postbiotics, could represent both a preventive and therapeutic strategy in these complex diseases.

RevDate: 2021-09-30

Kussmann M, Obermueller M, Spettel K, et al (2021)

In vitro evaluation of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs against rheumatoid arthritis associated pathogens of the oral microflora.

RMD open, 7(3):.

OBJECTIVES: In the past, the human microbiome has consistently been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and disease activity. Here, we investigate the antimicrobial activity of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) against typical representatives of the oral microflora that have been associated with RA.

METHODS: DMARDs were screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria that are associated with the pathogenesis of the disease and/or frequently isolated from the oral microflora of patients with RA. Screening was done by an agar diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial active substances were then determined by broth dilution.

RESULTS: Aurothiomalate and sulfasalazine demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but with MICs ranging from 18 to >280 µg/mL and 150 to >600 µg/mL, respectively, only at supratherapeutic concentrations. Methotrexate showed antimicrobial activity only against Fusobacterium nucleatum and Viridans streptococci. The corresponding MICs were 3.75 to >30 µg/mL and 0.5-15 µg/mL, respectively, thus at least for streptococci, within the therapeutically achievable range. No other DMARD tested showed antimicrobial activity in the agar diffusion screening assay.

CONCLUSION: Methotrexate, sulfasalazine and aurothiomalate showed antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of RA associated pathogens of the oral microflora. While methotrexate showed relevant antimicrobial activity, and to a more limited extent aurothiomalate, sulfasalazine was active only at far supratherapeutic systemic concentrations. Nevertheless, given the highly species-dependent antimicrobial activity and the multiple ways it can affect the human microbiome, our results suggest a link between antimicrobially active antirheumatic drugs and their potential effect in the treatment of RA.

RevDate: 2021-09-29

Chen X, Liu L, Chu Q, et al (2021)

Large-scale identification of extracellular plant miRNAs in mammals implicates their dietary intake.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257878 pii:PONE-D-20-36081.

Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed to function in cross-kingdom gene regulation. Among these, plant-derived miRNAs of dietary origin have been reported to survive the harsh conditions of the human digestive system, enter the circulatory system, and regulate gene expression and metabolic function. However, definitive evidence supporting the presence of plant-derived miRNAs of dietary origin in mammals has been difficult to obtain due to limited sample sizes. We have developed a bioinformatics pipeline (ePmiRNA_finder) that provides strident miRNA classification and applied it to analyze 421 small RNA sequencing data sets from 10 types of human body fluids and tissues and comparative samples from carnivores and herbivores. A total of 35 miRNAs were identified that map to plants typically found in the human diet and these miRNAs were found in at least one human blood sample and their abundance was significantly different when compared to samples from human microbiome or cow. The plant-derived miRNA profiles were body fluid/tissue-specific and highly abundant in the brain and the breast milk samples, indicating selective absorption and/or the ability to be transported across tissue/organ barriers. Our data provide conclusive evidence for the presence of plant-derived miRNAs as a consequence of dietary intake and their cross-kingdom regulatory function within human circulating system.

RevDate: 2021-09-29

Mero S, Timonen S, Lääveri T, et al (2021)

Prevalence of diarrhoeal pathogens among children under five years of age with and without diarrhoea in Guinea-Bissau.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 15(9):e0009709 pii:PNTD-D-21-00526 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income regions, remains scarcely studied in many countries, such as Guinea-Bissau. Stool sample drying enables later qPCR analyses of pathogens without concern about electricity shortages.

METHODS: Dried stool samples of children under five years treated at the Bandim Health Centre in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau were screened by qPCR for nine enteric bacteria, five viruses, and four parasites. The findings of children having and not having diarrhoea were compared in age groups 0-11 and 12-59 months.

RESULTS: Of the 429 children- 228 with and 201 without diarrhoea- 96.9% and 93.5% had bacterial, 62.7% and 44.3% viral, and 52.6% and 48.3% parasitic pathogen findings, respectively. Enteroaggregarive Escherichia coli (EAEC; 60.5% versus 66.7%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; 61.4% versus 62.7%), Campylobacter (53.2% versus 51.8%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC; 54.4% versus 44.3%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. Diarrhoea was associated with enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)/Shigella (63.3%), astrovirus (75.0%), norovirus GII (72.6%) and Cryptosporidium (71.2%). The only pathogen associated with severe diarrhoea was EIEC/Shigella (p<0.001). EAEC was found more frequent among the infants, and EIEC/Shigella, Giardia duodenalis and Dientamoeba fragilis among the older children.

CONCLUSIONS: Stool pathogens proved common among all the children regardless of them having diarrhoea or not.

RevDate: 2021-09-28

Huus KE, RE Ley (2021)

Blowing Hot and Cold: Body Temperature and the Microbiome.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The intestinal microbiome influences host health, and its responsiveness to diet and disease is increasingly well studied. However, our understanding of the factors driving microbiome variation remain limited. Temperature is a core factor that controls microbial growth, but its impact on the microbiome remains to be fully explored. Although commonly assumed to be a constant 37°C, normal body temperatures vary across the animal kingdom, while individual body temperature is affected by multiple factors, including circadian rhythm, age, environmental temperature stress, and immune activation. Changes in body temperature via hypo- and hyperthermia have been shown to influence the gut microbiota in a variety of animals, with consistent effects on community diversity and stability. It is known that temperature directly modulates the growth and virulence of gastrointestinal pathogens; however, the effect of temperature on gut commensals is not well studied. Further, body temperature can influence other host factors, such as appetite and immunity, with indirect effects on the microbiome. In this minireview, we discuss the evidence linking body temperature and the intestinal microbiome and their implications for microbiome function during hypothermia, heat stress, and fever.

RevDate: 2021-09-28

Aggarwala V, Mogno I, Li Z, et al (2021)

Precise quantification of bacterial strains after fecal microbiota transplantation delineates long-term engraftment and explains outcomes.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully applied to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in humans, but a precise method to measure which bacterial strains stably engraft in recipients and evaluate their association with clinical outcomes is lacking. We assembled a collection of >1,000 different bacterial strains that were cultured from the fecal samples of 22 FMT donors and recipients. Using our strain collection combined with metagenomic sequencing data from the same samples, we developed a statistical approach named Strainer for the detection and tracking of bacterial strains from metagenomic sequencing data. We applied Strainer to evaluate a cohort of 13 FMT longitudinal clinical interventions and detected stable engraftment of 71% of donor microbiota strains in recipients up to 5 years post-FMT. We found that 80% of recipient gut bacterial strains pre-FMT were eliminated by FMT and that post-FMT the strains present persisted up to 5 years later, together with environmentally acquired strains. Quantification of donor bacterial strain engraftment in recipients independently explained (precision 100%, recall 95%) the clinical outcomes (relapse or success) after initial and repeat FMT. We report a compendium of bacterial species and strains that consistently engraft in recipients over time that could be used in defined live biotherapeutic products as an alternative to FMT. Our analytical framework and Strainer can be applied to systematically evaluate either FMT or defined live bacterial therapeutic studies by quantification of strain engraftment in recipients.

RevDate: 2021-09-28

Dietert RR (2021)

Microbiome First Medicine in Health and Safety.

Biomedicines, 9(9): pii:biomedicines9091099.

Microbiome First Medicine is a suggested 21st century healthcare paradigm that prioritizes the entire human, the human superorganism, beginning with the microbiome. To date, much of medicine has protected and treated patients as if they were a single species. This has resulted in unintended damage to the microbiome and an epidemic of chronic disorders [e.g., noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs)]. Along with NCDs came loss of colonization resistance, increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, and increasing multimorbidity and polypharmacy over the life course. To move toward sustainable healthcare, the human microbiome needs to be front and center. This paper presents microbiome-human physiology from the view of systems biology regulation. It also details the ongoing NCD epidemic including the role of existing drugs and other factors that damage the human microbiome. Examples are provided for two entryway NCDs, asthma and obesity, regarding their extensive network of comorbid NCDs. Finally, the challenges of ensuring safety for the microbiome are detailed. Under Microbiome-First Medicine and considering the importance of keystone bacteria and critical windows of development, changes in even a few microbiota-prioritized medical decisions could make a significant difference in health across the life course.

RevDate: 2021-09-27

Jaakkola K, Virtanen K, Lahti P, et al (2021)

Comparative Genome Analysis and Spore Heat Resistance Assay Reveal a New Component to Population Structure and Genome Epidemiology Within Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin-Carrying Isolates.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:717176.

Clostridium perfringens causes a variety of human and animal enteric diseases including food poisoning, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and necrotic enteritis. Yet, the reservoirs of enteropathogenic enterotoxin-producing strains remain unknown. We conducted a genomic comparison of 290 strains and a heat resistance phenotyping of 30 C. perfringens strains to elucidate the population structure and ecology of this pathogen. C. perfringens genomes shared a conserved genetic backbone with more than half of the genes of an average genome conserved in >95% of strains. The cpe-carrying isolates were found to share genetic context: the cpe-carrying plasmids had different distribution patterns within the genetic lineages and the estimated pan genome of cpe-carrying isolates had a larger core genome and a smaller accessory genome compared to that of 290 strains. We characterize cpe-negative strains related to chromosomal cpe-carrying strains elucidating the origin of these strains and disclose two distinct groups of chromosomal cpe-carrying strains with different virulence characteristics, spore heat resistance properties, and, presumably, ecological niche. Finally, an antibiotic-associated diarrhea isolate carrying two copies of the enterotoxin cpe gene and the associated genetic lineage with the potential for the emergence of similar strains are outlined. With C. perfringens as an example, implications of input genome quality for pan genome analysis are discussed. Our study furthers the understanding of genome epidemiology and population structure of enteropathogenic C. perfringens and brings new insight into this important pathogen and its reservoirs.

RevDate: 2021-09-27

Busing JD, Buendia M, Choksi Y, et al (2021)

Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis-Metagenomic, Metatranscriptomic, and Metabolomic Changes: A Systematic Review.

Frontiers in physiology, 12:731034.

Background: Our understanding of human gut microbiota has expanded in recent years with the introduction of high-throughput sequencing methods. These technologies allow for the study of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metabolomic bacterial alterations as they relate to human disease. Work in this area has described the human gut microbiome in both healthy individuals and those with chronic gastrointestinal diseases, such as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Objectives: A systematic review of the current available literature on metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metabolomic changes in EoE was performed. Methods: This review was performed following the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. All relevant publications up to March 2021 were retrieved using the search engines PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. They were then extracted, assessed, and reviewed. Only original studies published in English were included. Results: A total of 46 potential manuscripts were identified for review. Twelve met criteria for further review based on relevance screening and 9 met criteria for inclusion, including 6 studies describing the microbiome in EoE and 3 detailing metabolomic/tissue biochemistry alterations in EoE. No published studies examined metatranscriptomic changes. Samples for microbiome analysis were obtained via esophageal biopsy (n = 3), esophageal string test (n = 1), salivary sampling (n = 1), or stool specimen (n = 1). Samples analyzing tissue biochemistry were obtained via esophageal biopsy (n = 2) and blood plasma (n = 1). There were notable differences in how samples were collected and analyzed. Metabolomic and tissue biochemical alterations were described using Raman spectroscopy, which demonstrated distinct differences in the spectral intensities of glycogen, lipid, and protein content compared to controls. Finally, research in proteomics identified an increase in the pro-fibrotic protein thrombospondin-1 in patients with EoE compared with controls. Conclusions: While there are notable changes in the microbiome, these differ with the collection technique and method of analysis utilized. Techniques characterizing metabolomics and tissue biochemistry are now being utilized to further study patients with EoE. The lack of published data related to the human microbiome, metagenome, metatranscriptome, and metabolome in patients with EoE highlights the need for further research in these areas.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Kumpitsch C, Fischmeister FPS, Mahnert A, et al (2021)

Reduced B12 uptake and increased gastrointestinal formate are associated with archaeome-mediated breath methane emission in humans.

Microbiome, 9(1):193.

BACKGROUND: Methane is an end product of microbial fermentation in the human gastrointestinal tract. This gas is solely produced by an archaeal subpopulation of the human microbiome. Increased methane production has been associated with abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, IBD, CRC or other conditions. Twenty percent of the (healthy) Western populations innately exhale substantially higher amounts (>5 ppm) of this gas. The underlying principle for differential methane emission and its effect on human health is not sufficiently understood.

RESULTS: We assessed the breath methane content, the gastrointestinal microbiome, its function and metabolome, and dietary intake of one-hundred healthy young adults (female: n = 52, male: n = 48; mean age =24.1). On the basis of the amount of methane emitted, participants were grouped into high methane emitters (CH4 breath content 5-75 ppm) and low emitters (CH4 < 5 ppm). The microbiomes of high methane emitters were characterized by a 1000-fold increase in Methanobrevibacter smithii. This archaeon co-occurred with a bacterial community specialized on dietary fibre degradation, which included members of Ruminococcaceae and Christensenellaceae. As confirmed by metagenomics and metabolomics, the biology of high methane producers was further characterized by increased formate and acetate levels in the gut. These metabolites were strongly correlated with dietary habits, such as vitamin, fat and fibre intake, and microbiome function, altogether driving archaeal methanogenesis.

CONCLUSIONS: This study enlightens the complex, multi-level interplay of host diet, genetics and microbiome composition/function leading to two fundamentally different gastrointestinal phenotypes and identifies novel points of therapeutic action in methane-associated disorders. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-09-26

Bajerski F, Nagel M, J Overmann (2021)

Microbial occurrence in liquid nitrogen storage tanks: a challenge for cryobanking?.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Modern biobanks maintain valuable living materials for medical diagnostics, reproduction medicine, and conservation purposes. To guarantee high quality during long-term storage and to avoid metabolic activities, cryostorage is often conducted in the N2 vapour phase or in liquid nitrogen (LN) at temperatures below - 150 °C. One potential risk of cryostorage is microbial cross contamination in the LN storage tanks. The current review summarises data on the occurrence of microorganisms that may compromise the safety and quality of biological materials during long-term storage. We assess the potential for the microbial contamination of LN in storage tanks holding different biological materials based on the detection by culture-based and molecular approaches. The samples themselves, the LN, the human microbiome, and the surrounding environment are possible routes of contamination and can cause cross contaminations via the LN phase. In general, the results showed that LN is typically not the source of major contaminations and only a few studies provided evidence for a risk of microbial cross contamination. So far, culture-based and culture-independent techniques detected only low amounts of microbial cells, indicating that cross contamination may occur at a very low frequency. To further minimise the potential risk of microbial cross contaminations, we recommend reducing the formation of ice crystals in cryotanks that can entrap environmental microorganisms and using sealed or second sample packing. A short survey demonstrated the awareness for microbial contaminations of storage containers among different culture collections. Although most participants consider the risk of cross contaminations in LN storage tanks as low, they prevent potential contaminations by using sealed devices and - 150 °C freezers. It is concluded that the overall risk for cross contaminations in biobanks is relatively low when following standard operating procedures (SOPs). We evaluated the potential sources in detail and summarised our results in a risk assessment spreadsheet which can be used for the quality management of biobanks. KEY POINTS: • Identification of potential contaminants and their sources in LN storage tanks. • Recommendations to reduce this risk of LN storage tank contamination. • Development of a risk assessment spreadsheet to support quality management.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Klein K, Garkov D, Rütschlin S, et al (2021)

QSDB-a graphical Quorum Sensing Database.

Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2021: pii:6375033.

The human microbiome is largely shaped by the chemical interactions of its microbial members, which includes cross-talk via shared signals or quenching of the signalling of other species. Quorum sensing is a process that allows microbes to coordinate their behaviour in dependence of their population density and to adjust gene expression accordingly. We present the Quorum Sensing Database (QSDB), a comprehensive database of all published sensing and quenching relations between organisms and signalling molecules of the human microbiome, as well as an interactive web interface that allows browsing the database, provides graphical depictions of sensing mechanisms as Systems Biology Graphical Notation diagrams and links to other databases. Database URL: QSDB (Quorum Sensing DataBase) is freely available via an interactive web interface and as a downloadable csv file at http://qsdb.org.

RevDate: 2021-09-23

Zafar H, MH Saier (Jr) (2021)

Comparative Analyses of the Transport Proteins Encoded within the Genomes of nine Bifidobacterium Species.

Microbial physiology pii:000518954 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome influences human health in both negative and positive ways. Studies on the transportomes of these organisms yield information that may be utilized for various purposes, including the identification of novel drug targets and the manufacture of improved probiotic strains. Moreover, these genomic analyses help to improve our understanding of the physiology and metabolic capabilities of these organisms. The present study is a continuation of our studies on the transport proteins of the major gut microbes. Bifidobacterium species are essential members of the human gut microbiome, and they initiate colonization of the gut at birth, providing health benefits that last a lifetime. In this study we analyze the transportomes of nine bifidobacterial species: B. adolescentis, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. catenulatum, B. dentium, B. longum subsp. infantis, B. longum subsp. longum, and B. pseudocatenulatum. All of these species have proven probiotic characteristics and exert beneficial effects on human health. Surprisingly, we found that all nine of these species have similar pore-forming toxins and drug exporters that may play roles in pathogenesis. These species have transporters for amino acids, carbohydrates, and proteins, essential for their organismal lifestyles and adaption to their respective ecological niches. The strictly probiotic species, B. bifidum, however, contains fewer such transporters, thus indicative of limited interactions with host cells and other gut microbial counterparts. The results of this study were compared with those of our previous studies on the transportomes of multiple species of Bacteroides, Escherichia coli/Salmonella, and Lactobacillus. Overall, bifidobacteria have larger transportomes (based on percentages of total proteins) than the previously examined groups of bacterial species, with a preference for primary active transport systems over secondary carriers. Taken together, these results provide useful information about the physiologies and pathogenic potentials of these probiotic organisms as reflected by their transportomes.

RevDate: 2021-09-23

Bodein A, Scott-Boyer MP, Perin O, et al (2021)

timeOmics: an R package for longitudinal multi-omics data integration.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6374493 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Multi-omics data integration enables the global analysis of biological systems and discovery of new biological insights. Multi-omics experimental designs have been further extended with a longitudinal dimension to study dynamic relationships between molecules. However, methods that integrate longitudinal multi-omics data are still in their infancy.

RESULTS: We introduce the R package timeOmics, a generic analytical framework for the integration of longitudinal multi-omics data. The framework includes pre-processing, modelling and clustering to identify molecular features strongly associated with time. We illustrate this framework in a case study to detect seasonal patterns of mRNA, metabolites, gut taxa, and clinical variables in patients with diabetes mellitus from the integrative Human Microbiome Project.

AVAILABILITY: timeOmics is available on Bioconductor and github.com/abodein/timeOmics.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Flores Ramos S, Brugger SD, Escapa IF, et al (2021)

Genomic Stability and Genetic Defense Systems in Dolosigranulum pigrum, a Candidate Beneficial Bacterium from the Human Microbiome.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Dolosigranulum pigrum is positively associated with indicators of health in multiple epidemiological studies of human nasal microbiota. Knowledge of the basic biology of D. pigrum is a prerequisite for evaluating its potential for future therapeutic use; however, such data are very limited. To gain insight into D. pigrum's chromosomal structure, pangenome, and genomic stability, we compared the genomes of 28 D. pigrum strains that were collected across 20 years. Phylogenomic analysis showed closely related strains circulating over this period and closure of 19 genomes revealed highly conserved chromosomal synteny. Gene clusters involved in the mobilome and in defense against mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were enriched in the accessory genome versus the core genome. A systematic analysis for MGEs identified the first candidate D. pigrum prophage and insertion sequence. A systematic analysis for genetic elements that limit the spread of MGEs, including restriction modification (RM), CRISPR-Cas, and deity-named defense systems, revealed strain-level diversity in host defense systems that localized to specific genomic sites, including one RM system hot spot. Analysis of CRISPR spacers pointed to a wealth of MGEs against which D. pigrum defends itself. These results reveal a role for horizontal gene transfer and mobile genetic elements in strain diversification while highlighting that in D. pigrum this occurs within the context of a highly stable chromosomal organization protected by a variety of defense mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Dolosigranulum pigrum is a candidate beneficial bacterium with potential for future therapeutic use. This is based on its positive associations with characteristics of health in multiple studies of human nasal microbiota across the span of human life. For example, high levels of D. pigrum nasal colonization in adults predicts the absence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Also, D. pigrum nasal colonization in young children is associated with healthy control groups in studies of middle ear infections. Our analysis of 28 genomes revealed a remarkable stability of D. pigrum strains colonizing people in the United States across a 20-year span. We subsequently identified factors that can influence this stability, including genomic stability, phage predators, the role of MGEs in strain-level variation, and defenses against MGEs. Finally, these D. pigrum strains also lacked predicted virulence factors. Overall, these findings add additional support to the potential for D. pigrum as a therapeutic bacterium.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Dery KJ, Kupiec-Weglinski JW, TS Dong (2021)

The human microbiome in transplantation: the past, present, and future.

Current opinion in organ transplantation pii:00075200-900000000-98811 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 20 years, DNA sequencing technology has transformed human microbiome research from identity characterizations to metagenomics approaches that reveal how microbials correlate with human health and disease. New studies are showing unprecedented opportunity for deep characterization of the human microbial ecosystem, with benefits to the field of organ transplantation.

RECENT FINDINGS: In the present review, we focus on past milestones of human-associated microbiota research, paying homage to microbiota pioneers. We highlight the role of sequencing efforts to provide insights beyond taxonomic identification. Recent advances in microbiome technology is now integrating high-throughput datasets, giving rise to multi'omics - a comprehensive assessment modeling dynamic biologic networks. Studies that show benefits and mechanisms in peritransplant antibiotic (Abx)-conditioned recipients are reviewed. We describe how next-generation microbial sequencing has the potential to combine with new technologies like phage therapy (PT) to translate into life-saving therapeutics.

SUMMARY: The study of the microbiome is advancing the field of transplantation by enhancing our knowledge of precision medicine. Sequencing technology has allowed the use of the microbiome as a biomarker to risk stratify patients. Further research is needed to better understand how microbiomes shape transplantation outcomes while informing immune cell - tissue crosstalk platforms.

RevDate: 2021-09-23

Samarrai R, Frank S, Lum A, et al (2021)

Defining the microbiome of the head and neck: A contemporary review.

American journal of otolaryngology, 43(1):103224 pii:S0196-0709(21)00325-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to define the microbiome of the head and neck by characterizing and distinguishing the commensal bacteria from pathogenic species.

STUDY DESIGN: Literature review.

METHODS: Pubmed and Google scholar databases were queried for relevant articles. Keywords such as "middle ear microbiome", "outer ear microbiome", "sinonasal microbiome", "tonsil microbiome", and "laryngeal microbiome" were utilized separately to identify articles pertaining to each topic of study. All applicable abstracts were chosen for initial review and relevant abstracts were then selected for review of the full texts. Articles that did not study the human microbiome, those not written primarily in English, those that were not readily available for full review, and case reports were excluded from the study.

RESULTS: Limited studies that investigate the microbial environments of isolated anatomic subsites in the head and neck exist, however the comprehensive microbiome of the head and neck has yet to be completely defined. Based on this review, various studies of the ears, larynx, tonsils and sinus microbiomes exist and yield valuable information, however they are limited in scope and anatomic subsite. In this literature review, these studies are compiled in order to create a comprehensive text inclusive of the known microbial elements of the major anatomic subsites of the head and neck, namely the tonsils, larynx, sinus, outer ear and middle ear.

CONCLUSIONS: The significance of the human microbiome in identifying and preventing disease has been established in various physiologic systems, however there is limited research on the microbiome of the head and neck. Understanding the microbiome of the head and neck can help differentiate disease-prone patients from normal patients and guide treatment regimens and antibiotic usage, to aid in resistance control and limit adverse effects of antibiotic overuse. Understanding the elements that lead to dysbiosis can help treat and even prevent common conditions as tonsillitis and rhinosinusitis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review to serve as an initial background for future studies to define the head and neck microbiome distinguished by all relevant subsites.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Ezzamouri B, Shoaie S, R Ledesma-Amaro (2021)

Synergies of Systems Biology and Synthetic Biology in Human Microbiome Studies.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:681982.

A number of studies have shown that the microbial communities of the human body are integral for the maintenance of human health. Advances in next-generation sequencing have enabled rapid and large-scale quantification of the composition of microbial communities in health and disease. Microorganisms mediate diverse host responses including metabolic pathways and immune responses. Using a system biology approach to further understand the underlying alterations of the microbiota in physiological and pathological states can help reveal potential novel therapeutic and diagnostic interventions within the field of synthetic biology. Tools such as biosensors, memory arrays, and engineered bacteria can rewire the microbiome environment. In this article, we review the computational tools used to study microbiome communities and the current limitations of these methods. We evaluate how genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) can advance our understanding of the microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions. Moreover, we present how synergies between these system biology approaches and synthetic biology can be harnessed in human microbiome studies to improve future therapeutics and diagnostics and highlight important knowledge gaps for future research in these rapidly evolving fields.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Pinto D, Trink A, Giuliani G, et al (2021)

Protective effects of sunscreen (50+) and octatrienoic acid 0.1% in actinic keratosis and UV damages.

Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research pii:jim-2021-001972 [Epub ahead of print].

Actinic keratosis is a form of dysplastic epidermal lesion resulting from chronic and excessive UV exposure with a certain risk of becoming cancerous. Current guidelines advocated the use of sunscreens to prevent photodamage. An efficient photoprotection must involve both primary protective factors such as UV filters and secondary factors (eg, antioxidants) able to disrupt the photochemical and genetic cascade triggered by UVs. An in vitro model of human skin (Phenion FT) was used to assess the photoprotective potential of a sunscreen containing inorganic sun-filters (50+ SPF) and 0.1% octatrienoic acid (KERA'+) after UVA (10 J/cm2) and UVB (25 mJ/cm2) by means of evaluation of the number of sunburn cells (SBCs) and apoptotic keratinocytes. Also resulting alterations in the gene expression of markers involved in apoptosis (Tumor protein 53), inflammation/immunosuppression (IL-6 and IL-8), oxidative stress (oxidative stress response enzyme heme oxygenase 1), remodeling (metalloproteinase 1) and cell-cell adhesion (E-cadherin) were investigated. Gene expression was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. This work demonstrated that the sunscreen preparations under study (with and without 0.1% octatrienoic acid, respectively) can be distinguished about their ability to prevent UVs-induced damage. Synergism between the inorganic filters and 0.1% octatrienoic acid was found (KERA'+) on all end points analyzed and this effect was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Our data revealed that topical application of a sunscreen containing inorganic filters (50+SPF) and 0.1% octatrienoic acid can protect from SBC formation, reduce the number of apoptotic keratinocytes and protect from the main molecular alterations caused by UV radiations.

RevDate: 2021-09-20
CmpDate: 2021-09-17

Wang C, Hu J, Blaser MJ, et al (2021)

Microbial trend analysis for common dynamic trend, group comparison, and classification in longitudinal microbiome study.

BMC genomics, 22(1):667.

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome is inherently dynamic and its dynamic nature plays a critical role in maintaining health and driving disease. With an increasing number of longitudinal microbiome studies, scientists are eager to learn the comprehensive characterization of microbial dynamics and their implications to the health and disease-related phenotypes. However, due to the challenging structure of longitudinal microbiome data, few analytic methods are available to characterize the microbial dynamics over time.

RESULTS: We propose a microbial trend analysis (MTA) framework for the high-dimensional and phylogenetically-based longitudinal microbiome data. In particular, MTA can perform three tasks: 1) capture the common microbial dynamic trends for a group of subjects at the community level and identify the dominant taxa; 2) examine whether or not the microbial overall dynamic trends are significantly different between groups; 3) classify an individual subject based on its longitudinal microbial profiling. Our extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed MTA framework is robust and powerful in hypothesis testing, taxon identification, and subject classification. Our real data analyses further illustrate the utility of MTA through a longitudinal study in mice.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed MTA framework is an attractive and effective tool in investigating dynamic microbial pattern from longitudinal microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Wernke KM, Tirla A, Xue M, et al (2021)

Probing Microbiome Genotoxicity: A Stable Colibactin Provides Insight into Structure-Activity Relationships and Facilitates Mechanism of Action Studies.

Journal of the American Chemical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Colibactin is a genotoxic metabolite produced by commensal-pathogenic members of the human microbiome that possess the clb (aka pks) biosynthetic gene cluster. clb+ bacteria induce tumorigenesis in models of intestinal inflammation and have been causally linked to oncogenesis in humans. While colibactin is believed underlie these effects, it has not been possible to study the molecule directly due to its instability. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological studies of colibactin 742 (4), a stable colibactin derivative. We show that colibactin 742 (4) induces DNA interstrand-cross-links, activation of the Fanconi Anemia DNA repair pathway, and G2/M arrest in a manner similar to clb+E. coli. The linear precursor 9, which mimics the biosynthetic precursor to colibactin, also recapitulates the bacterial phenotype. In the course of this work, we discovered a novel cyclization pathway that was previously undetected in MS-based studies of colibactin, suggesting a refinement to the natural product structure and its mode of DNA binding. Colibactin 742 (4) and its precursor 9 will allow researchers to study colibactin's genotoxic effects independent of the producing organism for the first time.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Brycki JD, Chen See JR, Letson GR, et al (2021)

Temporal Transcriptomics of Gut Escherichia coli in Caenorhabditis elegans Models of Aging.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Host-bacterial interactions over the course of aging are understudied due to complexities of the human microbiome and challenges of collecting samples that span a lifetime. To investigate the role of host-microbial interactions in aging, we performed transcriptomics using wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans (N2) and three long-lived mutants (daf-2, eat-2, and asm-3) fed Escherichia coli OP50 and sampled at days 5, 7.5, and 10 of adulthood. We found host age is a better predictor of the E. coli expression profiles than host genotype. Specifically, host age was associated with clustering (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA], P = 0.001) and variation (Adonis, P = 0.001, R2 = 11.5%) among E. coli expression profiles, whereas host genotype was not (PERMANOVA, P > 0.05; Adonis, P > 0.05, R2 = 5.9%). Differential analysis of the E. coli transcriptome yielded 22 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and 100 KEGG genes enriched when samples were grouped by time point [LDA, linear discriminant analysis; log(LDA), ≥2; P ≤ 0.05], including several involved in biofilm formation. Coexpression analysis of host and bacterial genes yielded six modules of C. elegans genes that were coexpressed with one bacterial regulator gene over time. The three most significant bacterial regulators included genes relating to biofilm formation, lipopolysaccharide production, and thiamine biosynthesis. Age was significantly associated with clustering and variation among transcriptomic samples, supporting the idea that microbes are active and plastic within C. elegans throughout life. Coexpression analysis further revealed interactions between E. coli and C. elegans that occurred over time, building on a growing literature of host-microbial interactions. IMPORTANCE Previous research has reported effects of the microbiome on health span and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, including interactions with evolutionarily conserved pathways in humans. We build on this literature by reporting the gene expression of Escherichia coli OP50 in wild-type (N2) and three long-lived mutants of C. elegans. The manuscript represents the first study, to our knowledge, to perform temporal host-microbial transcriptomics in the model organism C. elegans. Understanding changes to the microbial transcriptome over time is an important step toward elucidating host-microbial interactions and their potential relationship to aging. We found that age was significantly associated with clustering and variation among transcriptomic samples, supporting the idea that microbes are active and plastic within C. elegans throughout life. Coexpression analysis further revealed interactions between E. coli and C. elegans that occurred over time, which contributes to our growing knowledge about host-microbial interactions.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Patel P, Poudel A, Kafle S, et al (2021)

Influence of Microbiome and Antibiotics on the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Cureus, 13(8):e16829.

The human microbiome mainly consists of bacteria and interacts closely with the immune system. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are used to treat several types of cancers. Recently, it has been identified that the gut microbiome plays a role in the effectiveness of immunotherapy. This study aims to analyze the effect of microbiome and antibiotics on the effectiveness of ICI in cancer patients and the measures to improve efficacy based on that. A detailed review was conducted on articles published in PubMed and Science Direct in the last five years i.e., 2016 to 2021. A total of 16 articles involving 1293 patients with cancer who were receiving immunotherapy, were deemed eligible to be included in the final review. Data were extracted from the eligible articles and were checked for quality appraisal. All 16 articles revealed the effect of either gut microbiome or antibiotics or both on ICI. Based on our findings, we found that the microbiome enriched in different microorganisms responded differently to the ICI and that antibiotics negatively impacted the effectiveness of ICI. The time at which patients receiving ICI were prescribed antibiotics influenced the effect of ICI. Antibiotics and different microbiome also affected progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Carr C, Wilcox H, Burton JP, et al (2021)

Deciphering the low abundance microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257471.

16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from clinically uninfected hip and knee implant samples has revealed polymicrobial populations. However, previous studies assessed 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a technique for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections, leaving the microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants largely unstudied. These communities of microorganisms might play important roles in aspects of host health, such as aseptic loosening. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the bacterial composition of presumed aseptic joint implant microbiota using next generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and it evaluated this method for future investigations. 248 samples were collected from implants of 41 patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty revision for presumed aseptic failure. DNA was extracted using two methodologies-one optimized for high throughput and the other for human samples-and amplicons of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. Sequencing data were analyzed and compared with ancillary specific PCR and microbiological culture. Computational tools (SourceTracker and decontam) were used to detect and compensate for environmental and processing contaminants. Microbial diversity of patient samples was higher than that of open-air controls and differentially abundant taxa were detected between these conditions, possibly reflecting a true microbiota that is present in clinically uninfected joint implants. However, positive control-associated artifacts and DNA extraction methodology significantly affected sequencing results. As well, sequencing failed to identify Cutibacterium acnes in most culture- and PCR-positive samples. These challenges limited characterization of bacteria in presumed aseptic implants, but genera were identified for further investigation. In all, we provide further support for the hypothesis that there is likely a microbiota present in clinically uninfected joint implants, and we show that methods other than 16S rRNA gene sequencing may be ideal for its characterization. This work has illuminated the importance of further study of microbiota of clinically uninfected joint implants with novel molecular and computational tools to further eliminate contaminants and artifacts that arise in low bacterial abundance samples.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Leclerc M, Bedu-Ferrari C, Etienne-Mesmin L, et al (2021)

Nitric Oxide Impacts Human Gut Microbiota Diversity and Functionalities.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The disruption of gut microbiota homeostasis has been associated with numerous diseases and with a disproportionate inflammatory response, including overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in the intestinal lumen. However, the influence of NO on the human gut microbiota has not been well characterized yet. We used in vitro fermentation systems inoculated with human fecal samples to monitor the effect of repetitive NO pulses on the gut microbiota. NO exposure increased the redox potential and modified the fermentation profile and gas production. The overall metabolome was modified, reflecting less strict anaerobic conditions and shifts in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism. NO exposure led to a microbial shift in diversity with a decrease in Clostridium leptum group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii biomass and an increased abundance of the Dialister genus. Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis operational taxonomic unit abundance increased, and strains from those species isolated after NO stress showed resistance to high NO concentrations. As a whole, NO quickly changed microbial fermentations, functions, and composition in a pulse- and dose-dependent manner. NO could shift, over time, the trophic chain to conditions that are unfavorable for strict anaerobic microbial processes, implying that a prolonged or uncontrolled inflammation has detrimental and irreversible consequences on the human microbiome. IMPORTANCE Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory diseases. The human inflammatory response leads to an overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in the gut. However, so far, the influence of NO on the human gut microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used in vitro fermentation systems with human fecal samples to understand the effect of NO on the microbiota: NO modified the microbial composition and its functionality. High NO concentration depleted the microbiota of beneficial butyrate-producing species and favored potentially deleterious species (E. coli, E. faecalis, and P. mirabilis), which we showed can sustain high NO concentrations. Our work shows that NO may participate in the vicious circle of inflammation, leading to detrimental and irreversible consequences on human health.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Smith DRM, Temime L, L Opatowski (2021)

Microbiome-pathogen interactions drive epidemiological dynamics of antibiotic resistance: a modelling study applied to nosocomial pathogen control.

eLife, 10: pii:68764 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome can protect against colonization with pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), but its impacts on the spread of antibiotic resistance are poorly understood. We propose a mathematical modelling framework for ARB epidemiology formalizing within-host ARB-microbiome competition, and impacts of antibiotic consumption on microbiome function. Applied to the healthcare setting, we demonstrate a trade-off whereby antibiotics simultaneously clear bacterial pathogens and increase host susceptibility to their colonization, and compare this framework with a traditional strain-based approach. At the population level, microbiome interactions drive ARB incidence, but not resistance rates, reflecting distinct epidemiological relevance of different forces of competition. Simulating a range of public health interventions (contact precautions, antibiotic stewardship, microbiome recovery therapy) and pathogens (Clostridioides difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae) highlights how species-specific within-host ecological interactions drive intervention efficacy. We find limited impact of contact precautions for Enterobacteriaceae prevention, and a promising role for microbiome-targeted interventions to limit ARB spread.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Korpela K (2021)

Impact of Delivery Mode on Infant Gut Microbiota.

Annals of nutrition & metabolism pii:000518498 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial colonization of the neonate is an important feature of normal birth. The gut microbiota has a central role in the programming of the host's metabolism and immune function, with both immediate and long-term health consequences. During vaginal birth, the infant is exposed to diverse maternal microbes, of which specific faecal microbes colonize the infant's gut. C-section eliminates the infant's contact with maternal microbes, preventing vertical transmission of gut microbes. Consequently, infants are colonized by bacteria from the environment, including potential pathogens from the hospital environment. Recent studies have shown that intrapartum antibiotic exposure has a C-section-like effect on the infant gut microbiota. While the composition of the gut microbiota largely normalizes during the first year of life, epidemiological studies suggest that the aberrant early microbial exposures have long-term immunological and metabolic consequences. Because of the high prevalence of procedures that prevent normal gut microbiota development, effective methods to normalize the gut microbiota of neonates are urgently needed. Even more importantly, attention should be paid to the microbiota imbalance in C-section-born and antibiotic-exposed infants in clinical practice. Breastfeeding and probiotics are particularly important for infants with disrupted gut colonization.

RevDate: 2021-09-12

Houf J (2021)

Faecal microbiota transplants: towards a healthy disgust scepticism.

Medical humanities pii:medhum-2020-012135 [Epub ahead of print].

This paper engages with the obstacle of disgust surrounding the use of faecal microbiota transplants (FMT). In discourse about the human microbiome and microbiota-based therapies (like FMT), disgust has become an unavoidable emotion for physicians, patients and caregivers interested in these therapies. Additionally, microbiota therapies and microbiomes are challenging our conception of an individual biological self. As these two discourses converge with FMT, it becomes necessary to understand how they are working together. To do this, this paper explores the way disgust functions in the formation of subjects. Scholarship about disgust can be categorised into two approaches: disgust as a deep wisdom or disgust scepticism. The former approach focuses on the physiological, embodied aspects of our disgust reactions as evidence of 'truth' in disgusting encounters, and the latter recognises the way disgust is culturally contingent and adapted for use in moral and social determinations of good and bad. However, both positions accept the use of disgust as a defence against 'toxins and diseases'. Yet, as this paper argues, we should take the sceptical approach further. The disgust sceptical approach, particularly as developed by Sarah Ahmed, does more than just challenge disgust's role in moral deliberations. It also demands sceptical reflection on disgust as a universal defence against 'toxins and diseases'. Much as disgust can be co-opted to support oppression, it too can be co-opted to reconstitute a false vision of human subjectivity-the coherent, contained and exceptional human subject situated above the natural world. The human microbiome, faecal therapeutics and being disgusted give us an opportunity to recognise ourselves as more-than-human subjects.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Cullin N, Azevedo Antunes C, Straussman R, et al (2021)

Microbiome and cancer.

Cancer cell pii:S1535-6108(21)00446-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome constitutes a complex multikingdom community that symbiotically interacts with the host across multiple body sites. Host-microbiome interactions impact multiple physiological processes and a variety of multifactorial disease conditions. In the past decade, microbiome communities have been suggested to influence the development, progression, metastasis formation, and treatment response of multiple cancer types. While causal evidence of microbial impacts on cancer biology is only beginning to be unraveled, enhanced molecular understanding of such cancer-modulating interactions and impacts on cancer treatment are considered of major scientific importance and clinical relevance. In this review, we describe the molecular pathogenic mechanisms shared throughout microbial niches that contribute to the initiation and progression of cancer. We highlight advances, limitations, challenges, and prospects in understanding how the microbiome may causally impact cancer and its treatment responsiveness, and how microorganisms or their secreted bioactive metabolites may be potentially harnessed and targeted as precision cancer therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Bron PA, Catalayud M, Marzorati M, et al (2021)

Delivery of Metabolically Neuroactive Probiotics to the Human Gut.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(17):.

The human microbiome is a rich factory for metabolite production and emerging data has led to the concept that orally administered microbial strains can synthesize metabolites with neuroactive potential. Recent research from ex vivo and murine models suggests translational potential for microbes to regulate anxiety and depression through the gut-brain axis. However, so far, less emphasis has been placed on the selection of specific microbial strains known to produce the required key metabolites and the formulation in which microbial compositions are delivered to the gut. Here, we describe a double-capsule technology to deliver high numbers of metabolically active cells derived from the 24-strain probiotic product SH-DS01 to the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, where immune responses and adsorption of metabolites into the bloodstream occur. Based on its genome sequence, Limosilactobacillus reuteri SD-LRE2-IT was predicted to have the genetic capacity to de novo produce a specific metabolite of interest to brain health, vitamin B12, which could be confirmed in vitro. Taken together, our data conceptualizes the importance of rationally defined microbial strain characterization based on genomics and metabolomics data, combined with carefully designed capsule technology for delivery of live cells and concomitant functionality in and beyond the gut ecosystem.

RevDate: 2021-09-21
CmpDate: 2021-09-21

Allen-Vercoe E (2021)

Commensals make the most of their hosts.

Cell host & microbe, 29(9):1337-1339.

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Brown et al. reveal a large group of genes within the human microbiome that code for ADP-ribosyltransferases that are predicted to manipulate host cells. Previously studied for pathogens, these host modification mechanisms may also be common properties of commensals.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Wiqoyah N, Mertaniasih NM, Artama WT, et al (2021)

Microbiome in sputum as a potential biomarker of chronicity in pulmonary resistant to rifampicin-tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis patients.

International journal of mycobacteriology, 10(3):260-267.

Background: Cases of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in South-east Asia including Indonesia are still high. The presence of mixed infections in TB cases has been reported. Several studies revealed the role of the human microbiome in TB. This study purposes to characterize microbiome which can be a potential biomarker of chronicity in TB or MDR-TB.

Methods: Sputum samples of pulmonary TB patients confirmed MDR-TB and resistant to rifampicin TB (RR-TB) were conducted Metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of UniFrac's showing the community structure of microbiome in MDR-TB comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) is different from RR-TB noncomorbid DM (P = 0.003).

Results: Proteobacteria microbiome in MDR-TB comorbid DM was more abundant than in RR-TB noncomorbid DM. Actinobacteria found in the small quantity in RR-TB and MDR-TB. Diversity of microbiome genera was greater in RR-TB. The linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis represents a genus biomarker whose abundance shows significant differences between groups, genus Rothia as a potential biomarker for RR-TB noncomorbid DM.

Conclusions: Interesting findings is the community structure of microbiome in MDR-TB and RR-TB. In chronic TB such as recurrent, associated MDR-TB should attention to the findings of a small number of Actinobacteria could be a biomarker of TB which is also a determinant in patient taking combined anti-TB drugs of choice.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Lymberopoulos E, Gentili GI, Alomari M, et al (2021)

Topological Data Analysis Highlights Novel Geographical Signatures of the Human Gut Microbiome.

Frontiers in artificial intelligence, 4:680564.

Background: There is growing interest in the connection between the gut microbiome and human health and disease. Conventional approaches to analyse microbiome data typically entail dimensionality reduction and assume linearity of the observed relationships, however, the microbiome is a highly complex ecosystem marked by non-linear relationships. In this study, we use topological data analysis (TDA) to explore differences and similarities between the gut microbiome across several countries. Methods: We used curated adult microbiome data at the genus level from the GMrepo database. The dataset contains OTU and demographical data of over 4,400 samples from 19 studies, spanning 12 countries. We analysed the data with tmap, an integrative framework for TDA specifically designed for stratification and enrichment analysis of population-based gut microbiome datasets. Results: We find associations between specific microbial genera and groups of countries. Specifically, both the USA and UK were significantly co-enriched with the proinflammatory genera Lachnoclostridium and Ruminiclostridium, while France and New Zealand were co-enriched with other, butyrate-producing, taxa of the order Clostridiales. Conclusion: The TDA approach demonstrates the overlap and distinctions of microbiome composition between and within countries. This yields unique insights into complex associations in the dataset, a finding not possible with conventional approaches. It highlights the potential utility of TDA as a complementary tool in microbiome research, particularly for large population-scale datasets, and suggests further analysis on the effects of diet and other regionally varying factors.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Qin J, Shi X, Xu J, et al (2021)

Characterization of the Genitourinary Microbiome of 1,165 Middle-Aged and Elderly Healthy Individuals.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:673969.

Accumulated evidence shows that complex microbial communities resides in the healthy human urinary tract and can change in urological disorders. However, there lacks a comprehensive profiling of the genitourinary microbiota in healthy cohort. Here, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of midstream urine specimens from 1,172 middle-aged and elderly healthy individuals. The core microbiota included 6 dominant genera (mean relative abundance >5%), including Prevotella, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Escherichia-Shigella, and Veillonella, and 131 low-abundance genera (0.01-5%), displaying a distinct microbiome profiles to that of host-matched gut microbiota. The composition and diversity of genitourinary microbiome (GM) were distinct between genders and may fluctuate with ages. Several urotypes were identified by the stratification of microbiome profiles, which were mainly dominated by the six most predominant genera. The prevalence of urotypes was disparate between genders, and the male sample additionally harbored other urotypes dominated by Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, or Sphingomonas. Peptoniphilus, Ezakiella, and Porphyromonas were co-occurred and co-abundant, and they may play crucial roles as keystone genera and be associated with increased microbial diversity. Our results delineated the microbial structure and diversity landscape of the GM in healthy middle-aged and elderly adults and provided insights into the influence of gender and age to it.

RevDate: 2021-09-04

Vandamme P, Peeters C, Seth-Smith HMB, et al (2021)

Gulosibacter hominis sp. nov.: a novel human microbiome bacterium that may cause opportunistic infections.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

We present genomic, phylogenomic, and phenotypic taxonomic data to demonstrate that three human ear isolates represent a novel species within the genus Gulosibacter. These isolates could not be identified reliably using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry during routine diagnostic work, but partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belonged to the genus Gulosibacter. Overall genomic relatedness indices between the draft genome sequences of the three isolates and of the type strains of established Gulosibacter species confirmed that the three isolates represented a single novel Gulosibacter species. A biochemical characterisation yielded differential tests between the novel and established Gulosibacter species, which could also be differentiated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We propose to formally classify these three isolates into Gulosibacter hominis sp. nov., with 401352-2018 T (= LMG 31778 T, CCUG 74795 T) as the type strain. The whole-genome sequence of strain 401352-2018 T has a size of 2,340,181 bp and a G+C content of 62.04 mol%. A Gulosibacter pangenome analysis revealed 467 gene clusters that were exclusively present in G. hominis genomes. While these G. hominis specific gene clusters were enriched in several COG functional categories, this analysis did not reveal functions that suggested a role in the human microbiome, nor did it explain the occurrence of G. hominis in ear infections. The absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance determinants and virulence factors in the G. hominis genomes, and an analysis of publicly available 16S rRNA gene sequences and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data sets suggested that G. hominis is a member of the human skin microbiota that may occasionally be involved in opportunistic infections.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Babino G, Caccavale S, Pinto D, et al (2021)

A Randomized Double-Blind Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate the Long-Term Effects of a Medical Device Containing 0.3% Octatrienoic Acid in the Treatment of Grade III Actinic Keratosis.

Dermatology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Actinic keratosis (AK) consists of skin lesions with a milder degree of keratinocytic atypia. It can be also referred to as "field of cancerization," which can potentially evolve to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Several therapeutic options are currently available, but not all are indicated on hyperkeratotic lesions. This study aimed to test the efficacy and tolerability of a medical device containing 2,4,6-octatrienoic acid and urea for the treatment of hyperkeratotic AK lesions.

METHODS: Seventy male and female subjects with grade III AK were enrolled in this randomized double-blind parallel-group study. The product was applied once daily for three consecutive months. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction in the mean number of AK lesions per subject from baseline (T0) to the end of the trial (T1) and 3 months after the end of the treatment period (T2). Therefore, clearance of target AK lesions at the end of the treatment period and local skin reaction score (LSR) versus baseline were evaluated.

RESULTS: There was a decrease of mean values from baseline to visit T2 in both treatment groups, but the decrease (versus baseline values) was more evident in the Kerà K2 group than in the placebo group (-42.78, SD 26.53, versus -6.20, SD 31.57), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). For 70 subjects (56.7%) in the Kerà K2 group and 3 (11.54%) in the placebo group, a significant (p < 0.005) partial clearance was evidenced. The product was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported during the duration of the trial. Subject self-assessment of acceptability, local tolerability, and the cosmetic result was good at both T1 and T2 for both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The medical device has demonstrated good efficacy in the reduction of visible AKs, encouraging its use.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

D'Huys L, Vitale R, Ruppeka-Rupeika E, et al (2021)

Assessing the Resolution of Methyltransferase-Mediated DNA Optical Mapping.

ACS omega, 6(33):21276-21283.

Interest in the human microbiome is growing and has been, for the past decade, leading to new insights into disease etiology and general human biology. Stimulated by these advances and in a parallel trend, new DNA sequencing platforms have been developed, radically expanding the possibilities in microbiome research. While DNA sequencing plays a pivotal role in this field, there are some technological hurdles that are yet to be overcome. Targeting of the 16S rRNA gene with amplicon sequencing, for instance, is frequently used for sample composition profiling due to its short sample-to-result time and low cost, which counterbalance its low resolution (genus to species level). On the other hand, more comprehensive methods, namely, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and shallow shotgun sequencing, are capable of yielding single-gene- and functional-level resolution at a higher cost and much higher sample processing time. It goes without saying that the existing gap between these two types of approaches still calls for the development of a fast, robust, and low-cost analytical platform. In search of the latter, we investigated the taxonomic resolution of methyltransferase-mediated DNA optical mapping and found that strain-level identification can be achieved with both global and whole-genome analyses as well as using a unique identifier (UI) database. In addition, we demonstrated that UI selection in DNA optical mapping, unlike variable region selection in 16S amplicon sequencing, is not limited to any genomic location, explaining the increase in resolution. This latter aspect was highlighted by SCCmec typing in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a simulated data set. In conclusion, we propose DNA optical mapping as a method that has the potential to be highly complementary to current sequencing platforms.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Zhang Y, Thompson KN, Branck T, et al (2021)

Metatranscriptomics for the Human Microbiome and Microbial Community Functional Profiling.

Annual review of biomedical data science, 4:279-311.

Shotgun metatranscriptomics (MTX) is an increasingly practical way to survey microbial community gene function and regulation at scale. This review begins by summarizing the motivations for community transcriptomics and the history of the field. We then explore the principles, best practices, and challenges of contemporary MTX workflows: beginning with laboratory methods for isolation and sequencing of community RNA, followed by informatics methods for quantifying RNA features, and finally statistical methods for detecting differential expression in a community context. In thesecond half of the review, we survey important biological findings from the MTX literature, drawing examples from the human microbiome, other (nonhuman) host-associated microbiomes, and the environment. Across these examples, MTX methods prove invaluable for probing microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions, the dynamics of energy harvest and chemical cycling, and responses to environmental stresses. We conclude with a review of open challenges in the MTX field, including making assays and analyses more robust, accessible, and adaptable to new technologies; deciphering roles for millions of uncharacterized microbial transcripts; and solving applied problems such as biomarker discovery and development of microbial therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Chen H, Ma Y, Liu Z, et al (2021)

Circulating microbiome DNA: An emerging paradigm for cancer liquid biopsy.

Cancer letters, 521:82-87 pii:S0304-3835(21)00432-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiosis of the human microbiome has long been reported to be closely associated with various cancers. Accumulating studies have shown that microbial dysbiosis can accelerate tumorigenesis through tumor-promoting inflammation, DNA damage, and inducing immune evasion. Differential composition of microbiome could be novel biomarkers for cancer detection or biomarkers of successful immunotherapy. More importantly, emerging evidence demonstrates that alterations of circulating microbiome DNA (cmDNA) could serve as promising noninvasive biomarkers for cancer detection. It has been reported that distinct circulating bacterial DNA could distinguish prostate cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma patients from healthy populations. Therefore, in this review, we summarized current literature on microbial biomarkers for cancer detection and unraveled the potential of cmDNA as a promising cancer detection tool.

RevDate: 2021-09-23
CmpDate: 2021-09-06

Cho HW, YB Eom (2021)

Forensic Analysis of Human Microbiome in Skin and Body Fluids Based on Geographic Location.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:695191.

High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the in silico forensic analysis of human microbiome. Specific microbial species or communities obtained from the crime scene provide evidence of human contacts and their body fluids. The microbial community is influenced by geographic, ethnic, lifestyle, and environmental factors such as urbanization. An understanding of the effects of these external stressors on the human microbiome and determination of stable and changing elements are important in selecting appropriate targets for investigation. In this study, the Forensic Microbiome Database (FMD) (http://www.fmd.jcvi.org) containing the microbiome data of various locations in the human body in 35 countries was used. We focused on skin, saliva, vaginal fluid, and stool and found that the microbiome distribution differed according to the body part as well as the geographic location. In the case of skin samples, Staphylococcus species were higher than Corynebacterium species among Asians compared with Americans. Holdemanella and Fusobacterium were specific in the saliva of Koreans and Japanese populations. Lactobacillus was found in the vaginal fluids of individuals in all countries, whereas Serratia and Enterobacter were endemic to Bolivia and Congo, respectively. This study is the first attempt to collate and describe the observed variation in microbiomes from the forensic microbiome database. As additional microbiome databases are reported by studies worldwide, the diversity of the applications may exceed and expand beyond the initial identification of the host.

RevDate: 2021-09-06
CmpDate: 2021-09-06

Vork L, Penders J, Jalanka J, et al (2021)

Does Day-to-Day Variability in Stool Consistency Link to the Fecal Microbiota Composition?.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:639667.

Introduction: Stool consistency has been associated with fecal microbial composition. Stool consistency often varies over time, in subjects with and without gastrointestinal disorders, raising the question whether variability in the microbial composition should be considered in microbiota studies. We evaluated within-subject day-to-day variability in stool consistency and the association with the fecal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy subjects, over seven days.

Methods: Twelve IBS patients and 12 healthy subjects collected fecal samples during seven consecutive days. Stool consistency was determined by the patient-reported Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) and fecal dry weight percentage. 16S rRNA V4 gene sequencing was performed and microbial richness (alpha diversity; Chao1 index, observed number of species, effective Shannon index) and microbial community structure (beta diversity; Bray-Curtis distance, generalized UniFrac, and taxa abundance on family level) were determined.

Results: Linear mixed-effects models showed significant associations between stool consistency and microbial richness, but no time effect. This implies that between-subject but not within-subject variation in microbiota over time can partially be explained by variation in stool consistency. Redundancy analysis showed a significant association between stool consistency and microbial community structure, but additional linear mixed-effects models did not demonstrate a time effect on this.

Conclusion: This study supports an association between stool consistency and fecal microbiota, but no effect of day-to-day fluctuations in stool consistency within seven days. This consolidates the importance of considering stool consistency in gut microbiota research, though confirms the validity of single fecal sampling to represent an individual's microbiota at a given time point. NCT00775060.

RevDate: 2021-09-11

Li JJ, Zhu M, Kashyap PC, et al (2021)

The role of microbiome in pancreatic cancer.

Cancer metastasis reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies of the human microbiome have offered new insights into how the microbiome can impact cancer development and treatment. Specifically, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the microbiota has been shown to modulate PDAC risk, contribute to tumorigenesis, impact the tumor microenvironment, and alter treatment response. These findings provide rationale for further investigations into leveraging the microbiome to develop new strategies to diagnose and treat PDAC patients. There is growing evidence that microbiome analyses have the potential to become easily performed, non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. More excitingly, there is now emerging interest in developing interventions based on the modulation of microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary changes, and antibiotics are all potential strategies to augment the efficacy of current therapeutics and reduce toxicities. While there are still challenges to overcome, this is a rapidly growing field that holds promise for translation into clinical practice and provides a new approach to improving patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Javelle E, Mayet A, Million M, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota in Military International Travelers with Doxycycline Malaria Prophylaxis: Towards the Risk of a Simpson Paradox in the Human Microbiome Field.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(8):.

Dysbiosis, developed upon antibiotic administration, results in loss of diversity and shifts in the abundance of gut microbes. Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic widely used for malaria prophylaxis in travelers. We prospectively studied changes in the fecal microbiota of 15 French soldiers after a 4-month mission to Mali with doxycycline malaria prophylaxis, compared to changes in the microbiota of 28 soldiers deployed to Iraq and Lebanon without doxycycline. Stool samples were collected with clinical data before and after missions, and 16S rRNA sequenced on MiSeq targeting the V3-V4 region. Doxycycline exposure resulted in increased alpha-biodiversity and no significant beta-dissimilarities. It led to expansion in Bacteroides, with a reduction in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, as in the group deployed without doxycycline. Doxycycline did not alter the community structure and was specifically associated with a reduction in Escherichia and expression of Rothia. Differences in the microbiota existed at baseline between military units but not within the studied groups. This group-effect highlighted the risk of a Simpson paradox in microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Dalal P, D Sharma (2021)

Microbe defines the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drug: a complete paradigm.

FEMS microbiology letters, 368(17):.

The human body harbors a diverse microbiome that regulates host physiology and disease development. Several studies have also been reported where the human microbiome interferes with the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Reports have also suggested the use of microbes in specific targeting and drug delivery. This review mainly focuses on the alteration in the efficacy of the drug by human microbiota. We have also discussed how the diversity in microbes can determine the therapeutic outcomes of a particular drug. The pathways involved in the alteration are also focused, with some highlights on microbes being used in cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2021-09-16
CmpDate: 2021-09-16

Kouvela A, Zaravinos A, V Stamatopoulou (2021)

Adaptor Molecules Epitranscriptome Reprograms Bacterial Pathogenicity.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(16):.

The strong decoration of tRNAs with post-transcriptional modifications provides an unprecedented adaptability of this class of non-coding RNAs leading to the regulation of bacterial growth and pathogenicity. Accumulating data indicate that tRNA post-transcriptional modifications possess a central role in both the formation of bacterial cell wall and the modulation of transcription and translation fidelity, but also in the expression of virulence factors. Evolutionary conserved modifications in tRNA nucleosides ensure the proper folding and stability redounding to a totally functional molecule. However, environmental factors including stress conditions can cause various alterations in tRNA modifications, disturbing the pathogen homeostasis. Post-transcriptional modifications adjacent to the anticodon stem-loop, for instance, have been tightly linked to bacterial infectivity. Currently, advances in high throughput methodologies have facilitated the identification and functional investigation of such tRNA modifications offering a broader pool of putative alternative molecular targets and therapeutic avenues against bacterial infections. Herein, we focus on tRNA epitranscriptome shaping regarding modifications with a key role in bacterial infectivity including opportunistic pathogens of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Yano Y, Etemadi A, CC Abnet (2021)

Microbiome and Cancers of the Esophagus: A Review.

Microorganisms, 9(8):.

Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive malignant disease ranking amongst the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world. The two main histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have distinct geographic and temporal patterns and risk factor profiles. Despite decades of research, the factors underlying these geo-temporal patterns are still not fully understood. The human microbiome has recently been implicated in various health conditions and disease, and it is possible that the microbiome may play an important role in the etiology of EC. Although studies of the microbiome and EC are still in their early stages, we review our current understanding of the potential links between ESCC, EAC, and bacterial communities in the oral cavity and esophagus. We also provide a summary of the epidemiology of EC and highlight some key challenges and future directions.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Insolia L, Kenney A, Chiaromonte F, et al (2021)

Simultaneous feature selection and outlier detection with optimality guarantees.

Biometrics [Epub ahead of print].

Biomedical research is increasingly data rich, with studies comprising ever growing numbers of features. The larger a study, the higher the likelihood that a substantial portion of the features may be redundant and/or contain contamination (outlying values). This poses serious challenges, which are exacerbated in cases where the sample sizes are relatively small. Effective and efficient approaches to perform sparse estimation in the presence of outliers are critical for these studies, and have received considerable attention in the last decade. We contribute to this area considering high-dimensional regressions contaminated by multiple mean-shift outliers affecting both the response and the design matrix. We develop a general framework and use mixed-integer programming to simultaneously perform feature selection and outlier detection with provably optimal guarantees. We prove theoretical properties for our approach, that is, a necessary and sufficient condition for the robustly strong oracle property, where the number of features can increase exponentially with the sample size; the optimal estimation of parameters; and the breakdown point of the resulting estimates. Moreover, we provide computationally efficient procedures to tune integer constraints and warm-start the algorithm. We show the superior performance of our proposal compared to existing heuristic methods through simulations and use it to study the relationships between childhood obesity and the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-08-31
CmpDate: 2021-08-31

Wilson M, Mello MJ, PA Gruppuso (2021)

Antibiotics and the Human Microbiome: A Survey of Prescribing Clinicians' Knowledge and Opinions Regarding the Link between Antibiotic-Induced Dysbiosis and Immune-Mediated Disease.

Rhode Island medical journal (2013), 104(7):59-63.

Altered composition or function of the human micro- biome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Antibiotic use is a well-studied cause of dysbiosis. We conducted an electronic survey of 351 antibiotic-prescribing clinicians in Rhode Island to evaluate antibiotic prescription patterns, knowledge and opinions regarding the importance of the human microbiome and its relation to antibiotics and the immune system. We found that clinicians view the health of the human microbiome as important when prescribing antibiotics; however, they do not feel well-informed or confident in their knowledge about the microbiome or its relevance to patient health. A higher level of self- reported knowledge about the microbiome was associated with increased importance placed on the microbiome and its relevance to medical practice. Our results indicate that clinicians may benefit from continuing medical education on the link between antibiotic-induced dysbiosis and immune-mediated disease.

RevDate: 2021-08-26

Gabaldón T (2021)

Roles of the human microbiome in cancer.

Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition, 10(4):558-560.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Caballero AM, Villagrán VAS, Serna AJ, et al (2021)

Challenges in the production and use of probiotics as therapeuticals in cancer treatment or prevention.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology pii:6356962 [Epub ahead of print].

Probiotics were defined as microbial strains that confer health benefits to their consumers. The concept has evolved during the last twenty years, and today metabolites produced by the strains, known as postbiotics, and even dead cells, known as paraprobiotics are closely associated to them. The isolation of commensal strains from human microbiome has led to the development of next generation probiotics. This review aims to present an overview of the developments in the area of cancer prevention and treatment, intimately related to advances in the knowledge of the microbiome role in its genesis and therapy. Strain identification and characterization, production processes, delivery strategies and clinical evaluation are crucial to translate results into the market with solid scientific support. Examples of recent tools in isolation, strain typification, quality control and development of new probiotic strains are described. Probiotics market and regulation were originally developed in the food sector, but these new strategies will impact the pharmaceutical and health sectors, requiring new considerations in regulatory frameworks.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Ammer-Herrmenau C, Pfisterer N, van den Berg T, et al (2021)

Comprehensive Wet-Bench and Bioinformatics Workflow for Complex Microbiota Using Oxford Nanopore Technologies.

mSystems, 6(4):e0075021.

The advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has recently provided an astonishing insight into the composition and function of the human microbiome. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become the gold standard for advanced microbiome analysis; however, 3rd generation real-time sequencing, such as Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT), enables rapid sequencing from several kilobases to >2 Mb with high resolution. Despite the wide availability and the enormous potential for clinical and translational applications, ONT is poorly standardized in terms of sampling and storage conditions, DNA extraction, library creation, and bioinformatic classification. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis pipeline with sampling, storage, DNA extraction, library preparation, and bioinformatic evaluation for complex microbiomes sequenced with ONT. Our findings from buccal and rectal swabs and DNA extraction experiments indicate that methods that were approved for NGS microbiome analysis cannot be simply adapted to ONT. We recommend using swabs and DNA extractions protocols with extended washing steps. Both 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing achieved reliable and reproducible results. Our benchmarking experiments reveal thresholds for analysis parameters that achieved excellent precision, recall, and area under the precision recall values and is superior to existing classifiers (Kraken2, Kaiju, and MetaMaps). Hence, our workflow provides an experimental and bioinformatic pipeline to perform a highly accurate analysis of complex microbial structures from buccal and rectal swabs. IMPORTANCE Advanced microbiome analysis relies on sequencing of short DNA fragments from microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and viruses. More recently, long fragment DNA sequencing of 3rd generation sequencing has gained increasing importance and can be rapidly conducted within a few hours due to its potential real-time sequencing. However, the analysis and correct identification of the microbiome relies on a multitude of factors, such as the method of sampling, DNA extraction, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. Scientists have used different protocols in the past that do not allow us to compare results across different studies and research fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive workflow from DNA extraction, sequencing, and bioinformatic workflow that allows rapid and accurate analysis of human buccal and rectal swabs with reproducible protocols. This workflow can be readily applied by many scientists from various research fields that aim to use long-fragment microbiome sequencing.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Grover K, Gregory S, Gibbs JF, et al (2021)

A discussion of the gut microbiome's development, determinants, and dysbiosis in cancers of the esophagus and stomach.

Journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 12(Suppl 2):S290-S300.

The microbiome refers to a population of microbes that colonize the skin, nasopharynx, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. The human microbiome consists of bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and phages. Recent advances in genomic sequencing have catalyzed a deeper understanding of complex microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions. Dysregulation of these interactions, or dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract, has been implicated in a growing list of pathologies including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, depression, Parkinson's disease, autism, and various gastrointestinal cancers. Gastric and esophageal cancer, for example, continue to remain as two of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, therefore there is an increased emphasis on investigating the role of dysbiosis on these cancers. In this review, we discuss the development and structure of the gut microbiome, its homeostatic and dysbiotic mechanisms, and the key microbes in esophageal and gastric carcinogenesis with a focus on bacterial biology. Further clarification of these pathways and discovery of diagnostic or therapeutic targets could have broad impacts on global subpopulations. It is important to understand the nature of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome and its potentional risk factors for dysbiosis in order to tailor its application to the individual patient and create an era of highly personalized, precision medicine.

RevDate: 2021-08-26

Chuzel L, Fossa SL, Boisvert ML, et al (2021)

Combining functional metagenomics and glycoanalytics to identify enzymes that facilitate structural characterization of sulfated N-glycans.

Microbial cell factories, 20(1):162.

BACKGROUND: Sulfate modification of N-glycans is important for several biological functions such as clearance of pituitary hormones or immunoregulation. Yet, the prevalence of this N-glycan modification and its functions remain largely unexplored. Characterization of N-glycans bearing sulfate modifications is hampered in part by a lack of enzymes that enable site-specific detection of N-glycan sulfation. In this study, we used functional metagenomic screening to identify enzymes that act upon sulfated N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Using multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (xCGE-LIF) -based glycoanalysis we proved their ability to act upon GlcNAc-6-SO4 on N-glycans.

RESULTS: Our screen identified a sugar-specific sulfatase that specifically removes sulfate from GlcNAc-6-SO4 when it is in a terminal position on an N-glycan. Additionally, in the absence of calcium, this sulfatase binds to the sulfated glycan but does not remove the sulfate group, suggesting it could be used for selective isolation of sulfated N-glycans. Further, we describe isolation of a sulfate-dependent hexosaminidase that removes intact GlcNAc-6-SO4 (but not asulfated GlcNAc) from a terminal position on N-glycans. Finally, the use of these enzymes to detect the presence of sulfated N-glycans by xCGE-LIF is demonstrated.

CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using functional metagenomic screening combined with glycoanalytics to discover enzymes that act upon chemical modifications of glycans. The discovered enzymes represent new specificities that can help resolve the presence of GlcNAc-6-SO4 in N-glycan structural analyses.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Li W, Hang S, Fang Y, et al (2021)

A bacterial bile acid metabolite modulates Treg activity through the nuclear hormone receptor NR4A1.

Cell host & microbe, 29(9):1366-1377.e9.

Bile acids act as signaling molecules that regulate immune homeostasis, including the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into distinct T cell subsets. The bile acid metabolite isoallolithocholic acid (isoalloLCA) enhances the differentiation of anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Treg cells) by facilitating the formation of a permissive chromatin structure in the promoter region of the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). Here, we identify gut bacteria that synthesize isoalloLCA from 3-oxolithocholic acid and uncover a gene cluster responsible for the conversion in members of the abundant human gut bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. We also show that the nuclear hormone receptor NR4A1 is required for the effect of isoalloLCA on Treg cells. Moreover, the levels of isoalloLCA and its biosynthetic genes are significantly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, suggesting that isoalloLCA and its bacterial producers may play a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans.

RevDate: 2021-08-23

Yu ZK, Xie RL, You R, et al (2021)

The role of the bacterial microbiome in the treatment of cancer.

BMC cancer, 21(1):934.

The human microbiome is defined as the microorganisms that reside in or on the human body, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, and their genomes. The human microbiome participates in the modulation of human metabolism by influencing several intricate pathways. The association between specific bacteria or viruses and the efficacy of cancer treatments and the occurrence of treatment-related toxicity in cancer patients has been reported. However, the understanding of the interaction between the host microbiome and the cancer treatment response is limited, and the microbiome potentially plays a greater role in the treatment of cancer than reported to date. Here, we provide a thorough review of the potential role of the gut and locally resident bacterial microbiota in modulating responses to different cancer therapeutics to demonstrate the association between the gut or locally resident bacterial microbiota and cancer therapy. Probable mechanisms, such as metabolism, the immune response and the translocation of microbiome constituents, are discussed to promote future research into the association between the microbiome and other types of cancer. We conclude that the interaction between the host immune system and the microbiome may be the basis of the role of the microbiome in cancer therapies. Future research on the association between host immunity and the microbiome may improve the efficacy of several cancer treatments and provide insights into the cause of treatment-related side effects.

RevDate: 2021-08-23

Gopinath D, RK Menon (2021)

Increasing Reproducibility in Oral Microbiome Research.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2327:1-15.

Evidence on the role of the oral microbiome in health and disease is changing the way we understand, diagnose, and treat ailments. Numerous studies on diseases affecting the oral cavity have revealed a large amount of data that is invaluable for the advancements in diagnosing and treating these diseases. However, the clinical translation of most of these exploratory data is stalled by variable methodology between studies and non-uniform reporting of the data.Understanding the key areas that are gateways to bias in microbiome studies is imperative to overcome this challenge faced by oral microbiome research. Bias can be multifactorial and may be introduced in a microbiome research study during the formulation of the study design, sample collection and storage, or the sample processing protocols before sequencing. This chapter summarizes the recommendations from literature to eliminate bias in the microbiome research studies and to ensure the reproducibility of the microbiome research data.

RevDate: 2021-08-25

Huck O, Mulhall H, Rubin G, et al (2021)

Response to letter to the editor: "Akkermansia muciniphila reduces Porphyromonas gingivalis induced inflammation and periodontal bone destruction".

RevDate: 2021-08-20

Mazur M, Tomczak H, Lodyga M, et al (2021)

The microbiome of the human skin and its variability in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

Postepy dermatologii i alergologii, 38(2):205-209.

The human organism is inhabited by very diverse microorganisms, which constitute the so-called human microbiome and are necessary for the proper functioning of the macroorganism. The correct microbiome ensures homeostasis of the body. A disturbance in its homeostasis leads to dysbiosis. Such deviations may also be related to the development of inflammatory skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. This review aims to analyse the most current published data on the microbiome of the human skin and examine its role in cutaneous skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. This review was compiled by collaborating dermatologists specializing in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. A comprehensive review of current literature was done using PubMed and limited to relevant case reports and original papers on the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis and/or psoriasis. It has not been yet established whether changes in the microbiome are the cause or consequence of disease (atopic dermatitis/psoriasis). However, it was found that in the cases where pathological microflora predominated, an intensification of lesion severity is observed, while with clinical improvement, commensal microflora is restored. Modification of the composition of the microflora may lead to changes in the activation of the immune system and eventually to the development of inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects on the microbiome may include antibiotics, poor diet, stress and adverse environmental conditions. However, more research is needed to identify exact details and mechanisms.

RevDate: 2021-08-22

Kværner AS, Birkeland E, Bucher-Johannessen C, et al (2021)

The CRCbiome study: a large prospective cohort study examining the role of lifestyle and the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer screening participants.

BMC cancer, 21(1):930.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality. However, current screening methods are either hampered by invasiveness or suboptimal performance, limiting their effectiveness as primary screening methods. To aid in the development of a non-invasive screening test with improved sensitivity and specificity, we have initiated a prospective biomarker study (CRCbiome), nested within a large randomized CRC screening trial in Norway. We aim to develop a microbiome-based classification algorithm to identify advanced colorectal lesions in screening participants testing positive for an immunochemical fecal occult blood test (FIT). We will also examine interactions with host factors, diet, lifestyle and prescription drugs. The prospective nature of the study also enables the analysis of changes in the gut microbiome following the removal of precancerous lesions.

METHODS: The CRCbiome study recruits participants enrolled in the Bowel Cancer Screening in Norway (BCSN) study, a randomized trial initiated in 2012 comparing once-only sigmoidoscopy to repeated biennial FIT, where women and men aged 50-74 years at study entry are invited to participate. Since 2017, participants randomized to FIT screening with a positive test result have been invited to join the CRCbiome study. Self-reported diet, lifestyle and demographic data are collected prior to colonoscopy after the positive FIT-test (baseline). Screening data, including colonoscopy findings are obtained from the BCSN database. Fecal samples for gut microbiome analyses are collected both before and 2 and 12 months after colonoscopy. Samples are analyzed using metagenome sequencing, with taxonomy profiles, and gene and pathway content as primary measures. CRCbiome data will also be linked to national registries to obtain information on prescription histories and cancer relevant outcomes occurring during the 10 year follow-up period.

DISCUSSION: The CRCbiome study will increase our understanding of how the gut microbiome, in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors, influences the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. This knowledge will be crucial to develop microbiome-based screening tools for CRC. By evaluating biomarker performance in a screening setting, using samples from the target population, the generalizability of the findings to future screening cohorts is likely to be high.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01538550 .

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Adriaenssens EM (2021)

Phage Diversity in the Human Gut Microbiome: a Taxonomist's Perspective.

mSystems, 6(4):e0079921.

Bacteriophages (phages) have been known for over a century, but only in the last 2 decades have we really come to appreciate how abundant and diverse they are. With that realization, research groups across the globe have shown the importance of phage-based processes in a myriad of environments, including the global oceans and soils, and as part of the human microbiome. Through advances in sequencing technology, genomics, and bioinformatics, we know that the morphological diversity of bacteriophages originally used for taxonomy is eclipsed by their genomic diversity. Because we currently do not have a complete taxonomic framework or naming scheme to describe this diversity, crucial information from virome and microbiome studies is being lost. In this commentary, I will discuss recent advances in taxonomy and its importance for studies of the microbiome with examples of the human gut phageome and make recommendations for future analyses.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Esvap E, KO Ulgen (2021)

Advances in Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling toward Microbial Community Analysis of the Human Microbiome.

ACS synthetic biology, 10(9):2121-2137.

A genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) represents metabolic pathways of an organism in a mathematical form and can be built using biochemistry and genome annotation data. GEMs are invaluable for understanding organisms since they analyze the metabolic capabilities and behaviors quantitatively and can predict phenotypes. The development of high-throughput data collection techniques led to an immense increase in omics data such as metagenomics, which expand our knowledge on the human microbiome, but this also created a need for systematic analysis of these data. In recent years, GEMs have also been reconstructed for microbial species, including human gut microbiota, and methods for the analysis of microbial communities have been developed to examine the interaction between the organisms or the host. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive guide for the applications of GEMs in microbial community analysis. Starting with GEM repositories, automatic GEM reconstruction tools, and quality control of models, this review will give insights into microbe-microbe and microbe-host interaction predictions and optimization of microbial community models. Recent studies that utilize microbial GEMs and personalized models to infer the influence of microbiota on human diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) or Parkinson's disease are exemplified. Being powerful system biology tools for both species-level and community-level analysis of microbes, GEMs integrated with omics data and machine learning techniques will be indispensable for studying the microbiome and their effects on human physiology as well as for deciphering the mechanisms behind human diseases.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Knippel RJ, Drewes JL, CL Sears (2021)

The Cancer Microbiome: Recent Highlights and Knowledge Gaps.

Cancer discovery pii:2159-8290.CD-21-0324 [Epub ahead of print].

knowledge of the human microbiome, which is likely a critical factor in the initiation, progression, and prognosis of multiple forms of cancer, is rapidly expanding. In this review, we focus on recent investigations to discern putative, causative microbial species and the microbiome composition and structure currently associated with procarcinogenesis and tumorigenesis at select body sites. We specifically highlight forms of cancer, gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal, that have significant bacterial associations and well-defined experimental evidence with the aim of generating directions for future experimental and translational investigations to develop a clearer understanding of the multifaceted mechanisms by which microbiota affect cancer formation. SIGNIFICANCE: Emerging and, for some cancers, strong experimental and translational data support the contribution of the microbiome to cancer biology and disease progression. Disrupting microbiome features and pathways contributing to cancer may provide new approaches to improving cancer outcomes in patients.

RevDate: 2021-09-06
CmpDate: 2021-09-06

van Dongen KCW, Linkens AMA, Wetzels SMW, et al (2021)

Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) increase their concentration in plasma and tissues, result in inflammation and modulate gut microbial composition in mice; evidence for reversibility.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 147:110547.

SCOPE: Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are associated with negative biological effects, possibly due to accumulation in plasma and tissues and through modulation of inflammation and gut microbiota. Whether these biological consequences are reversible by limiting dietary AGE intake is unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Young healthy C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow (n = 10) or a baked chow high AGE-diet (n = 10) (~1.8-6.9 fold increased protein-bound Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1)) for 10 weeks or a switch diet with baked chow for 5 weeks followed by 5 weeks of standard chow (n = 10). We assessed accumulation of AGEs in plasma, kidney, and liver and measured inflammatory markers and gut microbial composition. After 10 weeks of baked chow, a substantial panel of AGEs were increased in plasma, liver, and kidney. These increases were normalized after the switch diet. The inflammatory z-score increased after the baked chow diet. Gut microbial composition differed significantly between groups, with enriched Dubosiella spp. dominating these alterations.

CONCLUSION: A high AGE-diet led to an increase of AGEs in plasma, kidney, and liver and to more inflammation and modification of the gut microbiota. These effects were reversed or discontinued by a diet lower in AGEs.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Alenius H, Sinkko H, Moitinho-Silva L, et al (2021)

The power and potential of BIOMAP to elucidate host-microbiome interplay in skin inflammatory diseases.

Experimental dermatology, 30(10):1517-1531.

The two most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases are atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. The underpinnings of the remarkable degree of clinical heterogeneity of AD and psoriasis are poorly understood and, as a consequence, disease onset and progression are unpredictable and the optimal type and time point for intervention are as yet unknown. The BIOMAP project is the first IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative) project dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of AD and psoriasis and to identify potential biomarkers responsible for the variation in disease outcome. The consortium includes 7 large pharmaceutical companies and 25 non-industry partners including academia. Since there is mounting evidence supporting an important role for microbial exposures and our microbiota as factors mediating immune polarization and AD and psoriasis pathogenesis, an entire work package is dedicated to the investigation of skin and gut microbiome linked to AD or psoriasis. The large collaborative BIOMAP project will enable the integration of patient cohorts, data and knowledge in unprecedented proportions. The project has a unique opportunity with a potential to bridge and fill the gaps between current problems and solutions. This review highlights the power and potential of the BIOMAP project in the investigation of microbe-host interplay in AD and psoriasis.

RevDate: 2021-08-14

Jana UK, Kango N, B Pletschke (2021)

Hemicellulose-Derived Oligosaccharides: Emerging Prebiotics in Disease Alleviation.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:670817.

The gut microbiota in the human body is an important component that plays a pivotal role in the ability of the host to prevent diseases and recover from these diseases. If the human microbiome changes for any reason, it affects the overall functioning of the host. Healthy and vigorous gut microbiota require dietary fiber supplementation. Recently, oligosaccharides have been found to play a significant role in the modulation of microbiota. Several such oligosaccharides, i.e., xylooligosaccharides (XOS), mannooligosaccharides (MOS), and arabino-xylooligosaccharides (AXOS), are derived from hemicellulosic macromolecules such as xylan, mannan, and arabino-xylan, respectively. These oligosaccharides serve as substrates for the probiotic production of health-promoting substances (short-chain fatty acids, branched chain amino acids etc.), which confer a variety of health benefits, including the prevention of some dreaded diseases. Among hemicellulose-derived oligosaccharides (HDOs), XOS have been largely explored, whereas, studies on MOS and AXOS are currently underway. HDOs, upon ingestion, help reduce morbidities by lowering populations of harmful or pathogenic bacteria. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are mainly utilized for the uptake of oligosaccharides in probiotics. Butyrate generated by the selective fermentation of oligosaccharides, along with other short-chain fatty acids, reduces gut inflammation. Overall, oligosaccharides derived from hemicelluloses show a similar potential as conventional prebiotics and can be supplemented as functional foods. This review summarizes the role of HDOs in the alleviation of autoimmune diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease), diabetes, urinary tract infection, cardiovascular diseases, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through the modulation of the gut microbiota. The mechanism of oligosaccharide utilization and disease mitigation is also explained.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Fremin BJ, Nicolaou C, AS Bhatt (2021)

Simultaneous ribosome profiling of hundreds of microbes from the human microbiome.

Nature protocols [Epub ahead of print].

Ribosome profiling enables sequencing of ribosome-bound fragments of RNA, revealing which transcripts are being translated as well as the position of ribosomes along mRNAs. Although ribosome profiling has been applied to cultured bacterial isolates, its application to uncultured, mixed communities has been challenging. We present MetaRibo-Seq, a protocol that enables the application of ribosome profiling directly to the human fecal microbiome. MetaRibo-Seq is a benchmarked method that includes several modifications to existing ribosome profiling protocols, specifically addressing challenges involving fecal sample storage, purity and input requirements. We also provide a computational workflow to quality control and trim reads, de novo assemble a reference metagenome with metagenomic reads, align MetaRibo-Seq reads to the reference, and assess MetaRibo-Seq library quality (https://github.com/bhattlab/bhattlab_workflows/tree/master/metariboseq). This MetaRibo-Seq protocol enables researchers in standard molecular biology laboratories to study translation in the fecal microbiome in ~5 d.

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Ahmed E, K Hens (2021)

Microbiome in Precision Psychiatry: An Overview of the Ethical Challenges Regarding Microbiome Big Data and Microbiome-Based Interventions.

AJOB neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

There has been a spurt in both fundamental and translational research that examines the underlying mechanisms of the human microbiome in psychiatric disorders. The personalized and dynamic features of the human microbiome suggest the potential of its manipulation for precision psychiatry in ways to improve mental health and avoid disease. However, findings in the field of microbiome also raise philosophical and ethical questions. From a philosophical point of view, they may yet be another attempt at providing a biological cause for phenomena that ultimately cannot be so easily localized. From an ethical point of view, it is relevant that the human gut microbiome comprises data on the individual's lifestyle, disease history, previous medications, and mental health. Massive datasets of microbiome sequences are collected to facilitate comparative studies to identify specific links between the microbiome and mental health. Although this emerging research domain may show promise for psychiatric patients, it is surrounded by ethical challenges regarding patient privacy, health risks, effects on personal identity, and concerns about responsibility. This narrative overview displays the roles and advances of microbiome research in psychiatry and discusses the philosophical and ethical implications of microbiome big data and microbiome-based interventions for psychiatric patients. We also investigate whether these issues are really "new," or "old wine in new bottles."

RevDate: 2021-08-31
CmpDate: 2021-08-23

Bui TPN, Mannerås-Holm L, Puschmann R, et al (2021)

Conversion of dietary inositol into propionate and acetate by commensal Anaerostipes associates with host health.

Nature communications, 12(1):4798.

We describe the anaerobic conversion of inositol stereoisomers to propionate and acetate by the abundant intestinal genus Anaerostipes. A inositol pathway was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance using [13C]-inositols, mass spectrometry and proteogenomic analyses in A. rhamnosivorans, identifying 3-oxoacid CoA transferase as a key enzyme involved in both 3-oxopropionyl-CoA and propionate formation. This pathway also allowed conversion of phytate-derived inositol into propionate as shown with [13C]-phytate in fecal samples amended with A. rhamnosivorans. Metabolic and (meta)genomic analyses explained the adaptation of Anaerostipes spp. to inositol-containing substrates and identified a propionate-production gene cluster to be inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers in (pre)diabetes cohorts. Co-administration of myo-inositol with live A. rhamnosivorans in western-diet fed mice reduced fasting-glucose levels comparing to heat-killed A. rhamnosivorans after 6-weeks treatment. Altogether, these data suggest a potential beneficial role for intestinal Anaerostipes spp. in promoting host health.

RevDate: 2021-08-18

Skurnik M, Jaakkola S, Mattinen L, et al (2021)

Bacteriophages fEV-1 and fD1 Infect Yersinia pestis.

Viruses, 13(7):.

Bacteriophages vB_YpeM_fEV-1 (fEV-1) and vB_YpeM_fD1 (fD1) were isolated from incoming sewage water samples in Turku, Finland, using Yersinia pestis strains EV76 and KIM D27 as enrichment hosts, respectively. Genomic analysis and transmission electron microscopy established that fEV-1 is a novel type of dwarf myovirus, while fD1 is a T4-like myovirus. The genome sizes are 38 and 167 kb, respectively. To date, the morphology and genome sequences of some dwarf myoviruses have been described; however, a proteome characterization such as the one presented here, has currently been lacking for this group of viruses. Notably, fEV-1 is the first dwarf myovirus described for Y. pestis. The host range of fEV-1 was restricted strictly to Y. pestis strains, while that of fD1 also included other members of Enterobacterales such as Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In this study, we present the life cycles, genomes, and proteomes of two Yersinia myoviruses, fEV-1 and fD1.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Puca P, Petito V, Laterza L, et al (2021)

Bariatric procedures and microbiota: patient selection and outcome prediction.

Therapeutic advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy, 14:26317745211014746.

Obesity is a major health issue throughout the world and bariatric surgery plays a key role in its management and treatment. The role of microbiota in determining the pathogenesis of obesity has been widely studied, while its role in determining the outcome of bariatric surgery is an emerging issue that will be an outcome in near future studies. Studies on mice first showed the key role of microbiota in determining obesity, highlighting the fat mass increase in mice transplanted with microbiota from fat individuals, as well as the different microbiota composition between mice undergone to low-fat or high-fat diets. This led to characterize the asset of microbiota composition in obesity: increased abundance of Firmicutes, reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes and other taxonomical features. Variations on the composition of gut microbiome have been detected in patients undergone to diet and/or bariatric surgery procedures. Patients undergone to restricting diets showed lower level of trimethylamine N-oxide and other metabolites strictly associated to microbiome, as well as patients treated with bariatric surgery showed, after the procedure, changes in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and other phyla with a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Eventually, studies have been led about the effects that the modification of microbiota could have on obesity itself, mainly focusing on elements like fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics such as inulin. This series of studies and considerations represent the first step in order to select patients eligible to bariatric surgery and to predict their outcome.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )