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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 03 Mar 2021 at 01:44 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-03-02

Ipe DS, Sullivan MJ, Goh KGK, et al (2021)

Conserved bacterial de novo guanine biosynthesis pathway enables microbial survival and colonization in the environmental niche of the urinary tract.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

In bacteria, guaA encodes guanosine monophosphate synthetase that confers an ability to biosynthesize guanine nucleotides de novo. This enables bacterial colonization in different environments and, while guaA is widely distributed among Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, its contribution to the inhabitation of the human microbiome by commensal bacteria is unclear. We studied Streptococcus as a commensal urogenital tract bacterium and opportunistic pathogen, and explored the role of guaA in bacterial survival and colonization of urine. Analysis of guaA-deficient Streptococcus revealed guanine utilization is essential for bacterial colonization of this niche. The genomic location of guaA in other commensals of the human urogenital tract revealed substantial cross-phyla diversity and organizational structures of guaA that are divergent across phyla. Essentiality of guaA for Streptococcus colonization in the urinary tract establishes that purine biosynthesis is a critical element of the ability of this bacterium to survive and colonize in the host as part of the resident human microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Venskutonytė R, Koh A, Stenström O, et al (2021)

Structural characterization of the microbial enzyme urocanate reductase mediating imidazole propionate production.

Nature communications, 12(1):1347.

The human microbiome can produce metabolites that modulate insulin signaling. Type 2 diabetes patients have increased circulating concentrations of the microbially produced histidine metabolite, imidazole propionate (ImP) and administration of ImP in mice resulted in impaired glucose tolerance. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota of the patients had increased capacity to produce ImP, which is mediated by the bacterial enzyme urocanate reductase (UrdA). Here, we describe the X-ray structures of the ligand-binding domains of UrdA in four different states, representing the structural transitions along the catalytic reaction pathway of this unexplored enzyme linked to disease in humans. The structures in combination with functional data provide key insights into the mechanism of action of UrdA that open new possibilities for drug development strategies targeting type 2 diabetes.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Reshetnyak VI, Burmistrov AI, IV Maev (2021)

Helicobacter pylori: Commensal, symbiont or pathogen?.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(7):545-560.

This review considers the data on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which have been accumulated over 40 years since its description as an etiological factor in gastrointestinal diseases. The majority of modern publications are devoted to the study of the pathogenic properties of the microorganism in the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer, as well as methods for its eradication. However, in recent years, there have been more and more studies which have suggested that H. pylori has a beneficial, or potentially positive, effect on the human body. The authors have attempted to objectively analyze the information accumulated in the literature on H. pylori. Some studies consider it as one of the recently identified human bacterial pathogens, and special attention is paid to the evidence suggesting that it is probably part of the composition of the human microbiome as a commensal (commensal from French to English is a table companion) or even a symbiont. The presented data discussing the presence or absence of the effect of H. pylori on human health suggest that there is an apparent ambiguity of the problem. The re-assessment of the data available on H. pylori infection is important in order to answer the question of whether it is necessary to create a program of mass H. pylori eradication or to apply a more personalized approach to treating patients with H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal diseases and to perform eradication therapy.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Oishi T, Muratani T, Tanaka T, et al (2021)

Study of normal flora in the pharynx of healthy children.

Japanese journal of infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

To improve our current understanding of normal flora in children, we investigated bacterial isolates from pharynx and nasopharynx of 173 and 233 healthy children, respectively. The bacterial isolation rates were compared among three age groups: infants (<1 year), toddlers (1-5 years), and school-age children (6-15 years). Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were the predominant bacteria in the pharynx (Streptococcus mitis/oralis, 87.3%; Streptococcus salivarius, 54.3%; Rothia mucilaginosa, 41.6%; Staphylococcus aureus, 39.3%). Among infants, Streptococcus salivarius and Neisseria subflava, which are related to the development of teeth, were significantly lower than in the other age groups (p<0.0001, S. salivarius; p<0.01, N. subflava). Gram-negative rods (GNR) predominated the nasopharynx (Moraxella catarrhalis, 32.1%; and Moraxella nonliquefaciens, 28.3%) except for Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (44.2%) of gram-positive rods. Among toddlers, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which are the most common pathogens in acute otitis media, were significantly higher than in the infant group (p<0.05 for both). Among bacterial species implicated in pediatric respiratory infection, Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 3.5% of pharyngeal samples. S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were isolated in 22.3% and 17.2% of nasopharyngeal samples, respectively. In conclusion, normal flora of the respiratory tract differs not only by sampling site but also by age group.

RevDate: 2021-02-27

Han Z, Thuy-Boun PS, Pfeiffer W, et al (2021)

Identification of an N-acetylneuraminic acid-presenting bacteria isolated from a human microbiome.

Scientific reports, 11(1):4763.

N-Acetylneuraminic acid is the most abundant sialic acid (SA) in humans and is expressed as the terminal sugar on intestinal mucus glycans. Several pathogenic bacteria harvest and display host SA on their own surfaces to evade Siglec-mediated host immunity. While previous studies have identified bacterial enzymes associated with SA catabolism, no reported methods permit the selective labeling, tracking, and quantitation of SA-presenting microbes within complex multi-microbial systems. We combined metabolic labeling, click chemistry, 16S rRNA gene, and whole-genome sequencing to track and identify SA-presenting microbes from a cultured human fecal microbiome. We isolated a new strain of Escherichia coli that incorporates SA onto its own surface and encodes for the nanT, neuA, and neuS genes necessary for harvesting and presenting SA. Our method is applicable to the identification of SA-presenting bacteria from human, animal, and environmental microbiomes, as well as providing an entry point for the investigation of surface-expressed SA-associated structures.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Carrieri AP, Haiminen N, Maudsley-Barton S, et al (2021)

Explainable AI reveals changes in skin microbiome composition linked to phenotypic differences.

Scientific reports, 11(1):4565.

Alterations in the human microbiome have been observed in a variety of conditions such as asthma, gingivitis, dermatitis and cancer, and much remains to be learned about the links between the microbiome and human health. The fusion of artificial intelligence with rich microbiome datasets can offer an improved understanding of the microbiome's role in human health. To gain actionable insights it is essential to consider both the predictive power and the transparency of the models by providing explanations for the predictions. We combine the collection of leg skin microbiome samples from two healthy cohorts of women with the application of an explainable artificial intelligence (EAI) approach that provides accurate predictions of phenotypes with explanations. The explanations are expressed in terms of variations in the relative abundance of key microbes that drive the predictions. We predict skin hydration, subject's age, pre/post-menopausal status and smoking status from the leg skin microbiome. The changes in microbial composition linked to skin hydration can accelerate the development of personalized treatments for healthy skin, while those associated with age may offer insights into the skin aging process. The leg microbiome signatures associated with smoking and menopausal status are consistent with previous findings from oral/respiratory tract microbiomes and vaginal/gut microbiomes respectively. This suggests that easily accessible microbiome samples could be used to investigate health-related phenotypes, offering potential for non-invasive diagnosis and condition monitoring. Our EAI approach sets the stage for new work focused on understanding the complex relationships between microbial communities and phenotypes. Our approach can be applied to predict any condition from microbiome samples and has the potential to accelerate the development of microbiome-based personalized therapeutics and non-invasive diagnostics.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Kleine Bardenhorst S, Berger T, Klawonn F, et al (2021)

Data Analysis Strategies for Microbiome Studies in Human Populations-a Systematic Review of Current Practice.

mSystems, 6(1):.

Reproducibility is a major issue in microbiome studies, which is partly caused by missing consensus about data analysis strategies. The complex nature of microbiome data, which are high-dimensional, zero-inflated, and compositional, makes them challenging to analyze, as they often violate assumptions of classic statistical methods. With advances in human microbiome research, research questions and study designs increase in complexity so that more sophisticated data analysis concepts are applied. To improve current practice of the analysis of microbiome studies, it is important to understand what kind of research questions are asked and which tools are used to answer these questions. We conducted a systematic literature review considering all publications focusing on the analysis of human microbiome data from June 2018 to June 2019. Of 1,444 studies screened, 419 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Information about research questions, study designs, and analysis strategies were extracted. The results confirmed the expected shift to more advanced research questions, as one-third of the studies analyzed clustered data. Although heterogeneity in the methods used was found at any stage of the analysis process, it was largest for differential abundance testing. Especially if the underlying data structure was clustered, we identified a lack of use of methods that appropriately addressed the underlying data structure while taking into account additional dependencies in the data. Our results confirm considerable heterogeneity in analysis strategies among microbiome studies; increasingly complex research questions require better guidance for analysis strategies.IMPORTANCE The human microbiome has emerged as an important factor in the development of health and disease. Growing interest in this topic has led to an increasing number of studies investigating the human microbiome using high-throughput sequencing methods. However, the development of suitable analytical methods for analyzing microbiome data has not kept pace with the rapid progression in the field. It is crucial to understand current practice to identify the scope for development. Our results highlight the need for an extensive evaluation of the strengths and shortcomings of existing methods in order to guide the choice of proper analysis strategies. We have identified where new methods could be designed to address more advanced research questions while taking into account the complex structure of the data.

RevDate: 2021-02-20

Ho SX, Min N, Wong EPY, et al (2021)

Characterization of oral virome and microbiome revealed distinctive microbiome disruptions in paediatric patients with hand, foot and mouth disease.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):19.

While the underlying determinants are unclear, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations with varying severity in different individuals. Recently, many studies identified the human microbiome as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Therefore, we here investigated the ecological dynamics of the oral microbiome changes during the HFMD infection. After targeted enrichment of all known vertebrate viruses, the virome profiles of symptomatic and asymptomatic HFMD patients were examined and revealed to be significantly altered from those of healthy individuals, with nine discriminative viruses detected. Further characterization of the prokaryotic microbiome revealed an elevated level of Streptococcus sp. as the most important signature of the symptomatic HFMD cohort, positively correlating to the level of enterovirus A RNA. In addition, we found that while coxsackievirus A5 is detected in saliva RNA of all asymptomatic cases, coxsackievirus A6 dominates the majority of the symptomatic cohort.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Coyte KZ, Rao C, Rakoff-Nahoum S, et al (2021)

Ecological rules for the assembly of microbiome communities.

PLoS biology, 19(2):e3001116 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-20-03182 [Epub ahead of print].

Humans and many other hosts establish a diverse community of beneficial microbes anew each generation. The order and identity of incoming symbionts is critical for health, but what determines the success of the assembly process remains poorly understood. Here we develop ecological theory to identify factors important for microbial community assembly. Our method maps out all feasible pathways for the assembly of a given microbiome-with analogies to the mutational maps underlying fitness landscapes in evolutionary biology. Building these "assembly maps" reveals a tradeoff at the heart of the assembly process. Ecological dependencies between members of the microbiota make assembly predictable-and can provide metabolic benefits to the host-but these dependencies may also create barriers to assembly. This effect occurs because interdependent species can fail to establish when each relies on the other to colonize first. We support our predictions with published data from the assembly of the preterm infant microbiota, where we find that ecological dependence is associated with a predictable order of arrival. Our models also suggest that hosts can overcome barriers to assembly via mechanisms that either promote the uptake of multiple symbiont species in one step or feed early colonizers. This predicted importance of host feeding is supported by published data on the impacts of breast milk in the assembly of the human microbiome. We conclude that both microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions are important for the trajectory of microbiome assembly.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Joseph TA, I Pe'er (2021)

An Introduction to Whole-Metagenome Shotgun Sequencing Studies.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2243:107-122.

Microbial communities are found across diverse environments, including within and across the human body. As many microbes are unculturable in the lab, much of what is known about a microbiome-a collection of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses inhabiting an environment--is from the sequencing of DNA from within the constituent community. Here, we provide an introduction to whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing studies, a ubiquitous approach for characterizing microbial communities, by reviewing three major research areas in metagenomics: assembly, community profiling, and functional profiling. Though not exhaustive, these areas encompass a large component of the metagenomics literature. We discuss each area in depth, the challenges posed by whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing, and approaches fundamental to the solutions of each. We conclude by discussing promising areas for future research. Though our emphasis is on the human microbiome, the methods discussed are broadly applicable across study systems.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Brandão P, M Gonçalves-Henriques (2020)

The Impact of Female Genital Microbiota on Fertility and Assisted Reproductive Treatments.

Journal of family & reproductive health, 14(3):131-149.

Objective: To review publish data about human microbiome. It is known to modulate many body functions. In the field of Reproductive Medicine, the main question is in what extent may female genital tract microbiome influence fertility, both by spontaneous conception or after Assisted Reproductive Treatments (ART). The aim of this work is to review publish data about this matter. Materials and methods: This is a systematic review on the effect of the microbiota of the female genital tract on human fertility and on the outcomes of ART. Results: Fourteen articles were retrieved, concerning female lower genital tract and endometrium microbiota, including 5 case-controls studies about its impact on fertility, 8 cohort studies regarding ART outcomes and 1 mixed study. The main variables considered were richness and diversity of species, Lactobacillus dominance and the role of other bacteria. Results and conclusions of the various studies were quite diverse and incoherent. Despite the inconsistency of the studies, it seems that vaginal, cervical and endometrial microbiome may eventually play a role. Whether high richness and diversity of species, low amounts of Lactobacillus spp. or the presence of other bacteria, such as Gardnerella spp., may adversely affect reproductive outcomes is not clear. Conclusion: The influence of female genital microbiota on the ability to conceive is still unclear, due to the paucity and inconsistency of published data.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Homburger SA, Drits-Esser D, Malone M, et al (2015)

Microbes As Friends, Not Foes: Shifting the Focus from Pathogenesis to Symbiosis.

The American biology teacher, 77(9):659-668.

Until about two decades ago, the standard method of studying a microbe was to isolate it, grow it in culture, stain it, and examine it under a microscope. Today, new genomic tools are helping expand our view of the microbial world. Instead of viewing them as "germs" to be eliminated, we are beginning to perceive our microbes as an extension of ourselves - an important organ with unique functions essential to our well-being. Scientists even came up with a new term, "microbiome," to define our microbes' genes as an important counterpart to our human genome. With new information about the human microbiome comes the challenge of shifting biology students' focus from casting microbes as pathogens toward appreciating microbes as symbionts. "The Human Microbiome," a curriculum supplement produced by the Genetic Science Learning Center, emphasizes that microbes living in and on our bodies perform neutral and beneficial functions, that human microbiota form thriving ecosystems, and that disruptions to our microbial ecosystems may have consequences. In this article, we describe the curriculum materials, provide strategies for incorporating this cutting-edge topic into biology classrooms, list connections to the Next Generation Science Standards, and report on recent research testing the curriculum supplement's effectiveness for student learning.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

Goldberg Y, J Friedman (2021)

Positive interactions within and between populations decrease the likelihood of evolutionary rescue.

PLoS computational biology, 17(2):e1008732 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-20-01712 [Epub ahead of print].

Positive interactions, including intraspecies cooperation and interspecies mutualisms, play crucial roles in shaping the structure and function of many ecosystems, ranging from plant communities to the human microbiome. While the evolutionary forces that form and maintain positive interactions have been investigated extensively, the influence of positive interactions on the ability of species to adapt to new environments is still poorly understood. Here, we use numerical simulations and theoretical analyses to study how positive interactions impact the likelihood that populations survive after an environment deteriorates, such that survival in the new environment requires quick adaptation via the rise of new mutants-a scenario known as evolutionary rescue. We find that the probability of evolutionary rescue in populations engaged in positive interactions is reduced significantly. In cooperating populations, this reduction is largely due to the fact that survival may require at least a minimal number of individuals, meaning that adapted mutants must arise and spread before the population declines below this threshold. In mutualistic populations, the rescue probability is decreased further due to two additional effects-the need for both mutualistic partners to adapt to the new environment, and competition between the two species. Finally, we show that the presence of cheaters reduces the likelihood of evolutionary rescue even further, making it extremely unlikely. These results indicate that while positive interactions may be beneficial in stable environments, they can hinder adaptation to changing environments and thereby elevate the risk of population collapse. Furthermore, these results may hint at the selective pressures that drove co-dependent unicellular species to form more adaptable organisms able to differentiate into multiple phenotypes, including multicellular life.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

Brimberry M, Toma MA, Hines KM, et al (2021)

HutW from Vibrio cholerae Is an Anaerobic Heme-Degrading Enzyme with Unique Functional Properties.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing antibiotic resistance, and a growing recognition of the importance of the human microbiome, demand that new therapeutic targets be identified. Characterization of metabolic pathways that are unique to enteric pathogens represents a promising approach. Iron is often the rate-limiting factor for growth, and Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has been shown to contain numerous genes that function in the acquisition of iron from the environment. Included in this arsenal of genes are operons dedicated to obtaining iron from heme and heme-containing proteins. Given the persistence of cholera, an important outstanding question is whether V. cholerae is capable of anaerobic heme degradation as was recently reported for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. In this work, we demonstrate that HutW from V. cholerae is a radical S-adenosylmethionine methyl transferase involved in the anaerobic opening of the porphyrin ring of heme. However, in contrast to the enzyme ChuW, found in enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, there are notable differences in the mechanism and products of the HutW reaction. Of particular interest are data that demonstrate HutW will catalyze ring opening as well as tetrapyrrole reduction and can utilize reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as an electron source. The biochemical and biophysical properties of HutW are presented, and the evolutionary implications are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Bendriss G, Al-Ali D, Shafiq A, et al (2020)

Targeting the gut microbiome: A brief report on the awareness, practice, and readiness to engage in clinical interventions in Qatar.

Qatar medical journal, 2020(3):47.

BACKGROUND: There has been a growing global interest in the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of diseases and the potentials of targeting the microbiome in clinical interventions. Very few clinical studies in Qatar focused on gut microbiome. This study aimed to assess the awareness of healthcare professionals, scientists, and the general public on the role of gut microbiota in health and diseases and, more specifically, in disorders of the gut-brain axis such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) or gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. It also aimed to evaluate the readiness of the population to engage in clinical trials involving dietary interventions or fecal transplants.

METHODS: A total of 156 participants were recruited to answer questionnaires-from healthcare professionals and scientists (HSs; n = 44) and the general public (n = 112). Participants from the general public self-reported their diagnosis of NDDs-autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 36)-or GI diseases or disorders (n = 18) or as having none of them (n = 58). Two questionnaires for HSs and for the general public were distributed, and basic descriptive and statistical analyses were conducted using the Fisher's exact test.

RESULTS: Among the participating HSs, 95% admitted that they had minimum to no knowledge on the role of gut microbes in health and diseases, and only 15.9% felt that their peers were knowledgeable about it. Nevertheless, 97.7% of HSs thought that gut microbiota should be considered when devising treatment plans as 79.1% believed that gut dysbiosis is involved in the pathogenesis of diseases. For the general public, 54% stated that they have read about studies on the potential benefits of microbes in the prevention, treatment, and management of diseases, with a higher proportion of them belonging to the GI group (p = 0.0523). The GI group was also more aware of the existence of the use of fecal transplants for treating their condition (p = 0.01935). Awareness was also reflected in participants' attempts to engage in dietary changes, as 40% tried a dietary intervention, which has noticeably changed their or their child's symptoms. This study reported a highly significant association between being exposed to multiple antibiotic courses before three years of age and being part of the NDD group (p = 0.0003). Public readiness to engage in interventions that target the gut microbiome, such as intensive dietary interventions or even fecal transplants, was perceived by HSs to be lower than what was stated by the public, with 87.96% of public being ready to engage in intensive dietary interventions and 66.98% in fecal transplants.

CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the role of gut microbes in health and diseases, and especially through the gut-brain axis, is still unclear in both the scientific community and general public. While acknowledging the importance of gut microbes, the lack of information regarding the link between lifestyle and gut microbes is considered to hold the public in the precontemplation/contemplation stages of the transtheoretical model of behavioral change. An interdisciplinary approach to new knowledge produced by microbiome studies is needed to run awareness campaigns and continue professional development activities on the benefits of lifestyle-based modulation of gut microbiome, thus engaging the general public in lifestyle changes and facilitating clinical research in human microbiome investigations in Qatar.

RevDate: 2021-02-17

Yao T, Wang Z, Liang X, et al (2021)

Signatures of vaginal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene: potential bio-geographical application in Chinese Han from three regions of China.

International journal of legal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is expected to be a new and promising tool for classification of human epithelial materials. Vaginal fluids are one of the most common biological samples in forensic sexual assault cases, and its identification is crucial to accurately determine the nature of the case. With the development of molecular biology technologies, the concept of vaginal microflora in different physiological states, ethnic groups, and geography is constantly improved. In this study, we conducted high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene in vaginal samples from Henan, Guangdong, and Xinjiang populations, in an attempt to reveal more information about the vaginal microflora in different regions. The results showed that the bio-geographical factors might affect the relative abundance of some vaginal microflora, but there was no significant difference in the composition of dominant bacteria in the vagina, which was mainly composed of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella. However, prediction models based on the random forest algorithm suggested that we might be able to distinguish vaginal fluids from populations of different regions according to the species-level OTUs in low abundance. It is promising that microbiome-based methods could provide more personal information when being attempted to trace the origin of body fluids.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Stavropoulou E, Kantartzi K, Tsigalou C, et al (2020)

Unraveling the Interconnection Patterns Across Lung Microbiome, Respiratory Diseases, and COVID-19.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:619075.

Albeit the lungs were thought to be sterile, recent scientific data reported a microbial microbiota in the lungs of healthy individuals. Apparently, new developments in technological approachesincluding genome sequencing methodologies contributed in the identification of the microbiota and shed light on the role of the gut and lung microbiomes in the development of respiratory diseases. Moreover, knowledge of the human microbiome in health may act as a tool for evaluating characteristic shifts in the case of disease. This review paper discusses the development of respiratory disease linked to the intestinal dysbiosis which influences the lung immunity and microbiome. The gastrointestinal-lung dialogue provides interesting aspects in the pathogenesis of the respiratory diseases. Lastly, we were further interested on the role of this interconnection in the progression and physiopathology of newly emergedCOVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Shafaei A, Rees J, Christophersen CT, et al (2021)

Extraction and quantitative determination of bile acids in feces.

Analytica chimica acta, 1150:338224.

With rapid advances in gut microbiome research, fecal bile acids are increasingly being monitored as potential biomarkers of diet related disease susceptibility. As such, rapid, robust and reliable methods for their analysis are of increasing importance. Herein is described a simple extraction method for the analysis of bile acids in feces suitable for subsequent quantification by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. A C18 column separated the analytes with excellent peak shape and retention time repeatability maintained across 800 injections. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy was greater than 80%. Recoveries ranged from 83.58 to 122.41%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were in the range 2.5-15 nM, respectively. The optimized method involved extracting bile acids from wet feces with minimal clean up. A second aliquot of fecal material was dried and weighed to correct for water content. Extracting from dried feces showed reduced recovery that could be corrected for by spiking the feces with deuterated standards prior to drying. Storage of the extracts and standards in a refrigerated autosampler prior to analysis on the LC-MS is necessary. Multiple freeze-thaws of both extracts and standards lead to poor recoveries for some bile acids. The method was successfully applied to 100 human fecal samples.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Maslennikov R, Poluektova E, Ivashkin V, et al (2021)

Diarrhoea in adults with coronavirus disease-beyond incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infectious diseases (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Diarrhoea is a relatively common manifestation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but there is no systematic review which comprehensively describes it beyond its incidence and impact on prognosis. This study aims to provide a detailed systematic review of diarrhoea in adults with COVID-19.

METHODS: A PUBMED and Scopus search (until 7 September 2020) was performed. Studies that were limited to describing incidence of diarrhoea and its effect on prognosis were excluded.

RESULTS: Twenty-six papers including 7860 patients with COVID-19 were subjected to synthesis. Mean duration of diarrhoea was 4.2 (3.6-4.9) days (range 1-16 days), whereas mean bowel movement count was 4.6 (3.8-5.3) and maximum was 20 per day. Diarrhoea started on an average 5.1 (3.8-6.5) days after disease onset but was the first manifestation in 4.3% patients. Stool occult blood was detected in 6.8% of patients with diarrhoea, while 53.3% cases had watery diarrhoea. Patients with diarrhoea also had elevated faecal calprotectin. Viral genome in faeces was detected more often in patients with diarrhoea and most often in patients without respiratory symptoms. Fever, myalgia and respiratory symptoms were observed with the same incidence in patients with and without diarrhoea. Similarly, there were no differences noted in complete blood count and most inflammation biomarkers between patients with and without diarrhoea. However, nausea, vomiting abdominal pain, sneezing and headache were more common in patients with diarrhoea. Diarrhoea was the main manifestation of COVID-19 in 6.1% of cases and this form of the disease had specific features.

CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhoea in COVID-19 needs further investigation.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Mousavi-Derazmahalleh M, Stott A, Lines R, et al (2021)

eDNAFlow, an automated, reproducible and scalable workflow for analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) sequences exploiting Nextflow and Singularity.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Metabarcoding of Environmental DNA (eDNA) when coupled with high throughput sequencing is revolutionising the way biodiversity can be monitored across a wide range of applications. However, the large number of tools deployed in downstream bioinformatic analyses often places a challenge in configuration and maintenance of a workflow, and consequently limits the research reproducibility. Furthermore, scalability needs to be considered to handle the growing amount of data due to increase in sequence output and the scale of project. Here, we describe eDNAFlow, a fully automated workflow that employs a number of state-of-the-art applications to process eDNA data from raw sequences (single-end or paired-end) to generation of curated and non-curated zero-radius operational taxonomic units (ZOTUs) and their abundance tables. This pipeline is based on Nextflow and Singularity which enable a scalable, portable and reproducible workflow using software containers on a local computer, clouds and high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. Finally, we present an in-house Python script to assign taxonomy to ZOTUs based on user specified thresholds for assigning Lowest Common Ancestor (LCA). We demonstrate the utility and efficiency of the pipeline using an example of a published coral diversity biomonitoring study. Our results were congruent with the aforementioned study. The scalability of the pipeline is also demonstrated through analysis of a large data set containing 154 samples. To our knowledge, this is the first automated bioinformatic pipeline for eDNA analysis using two powerful tools: Nextflow and Singularity. This pipeline addresses two major challenges in the analysis of eDNA data; scalability and reproducibility.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Schwartz DJ, Langdon AE, G Dantas (2021)

Correction to: Understanding the impact of antibiotic perturbation on the human microbiome.

Genome medicine, 13(1):26.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Ianiro G, Mullish BH, Hvas CL, et al (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and donor recruitment for FMT.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Mennini M, Reddel S, Del Chierico F, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota Profile in Children with IgE-Mediated Cow's Milk Allergy and Cow's Milk Sensitization and Probiotic Intestinal Persistence Evaluation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(4): pii:ijms22041649.

Food allergy (FA) and, in particular, IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy is associated with compositional and functional changes of gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of cow's milk allergic (CMA) infants with that of cow's milk sensitized (CMS) infants and Healthy controls. The effect of the intake of a mixture of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BB536, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis M-63 on gut microbiota modulation of CMA infants and probiotic persistence was also investigated. Gut microbiota of CMA infants resulted to be characterized by a dysbiotic status with a prevalence of some bacteria as Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Prevotella, Actinobacillus and Streptococcus. Among the three strains administered, B.longum subsp. infantis colonized the gastrointestinal tract and persisted in the gut microbiota of infants with CMA for 60 days. This colonization was associated with perturbations of the gut microbiota, specifically with the increase of Akkermansia and Ruminococcus. Multi-strain probiotic formulations can be studied for their persistence in the intestine by monitoring specific bacterial probes persistence and exploiting microbiota profiling modulation before the evaluation of their therapeutic effects.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Deek RA, H Li (2020)

A Zero-Inflated Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model for Microbiome Studies.

Frontiers in genetics, 11:602594.

The human microbiome consists of a community of microbes in varying abundances and is shown to be associated with many diseases. An important first step in many microbiome studies is to identify possible distinct microbial communities in a given data set and to identify the important bacterial taxa that characterize these communities. The data from typical microbiome studies are high dimensional count data with excessive zeros due to both absence of species (structural zeros) and low sequencing depth or dropout. Although methods have been developed for identifying the microbial communities based on mixture models of counts, these methods do not account for excessive zeros observed in the data and do not differentiate structural from sampling zeros. In this paper, we introduce a zero-inflated Latent Dirichlet Allocation model (zinLDA) for sparse count data observed in microbiome studies. zinLDA builds on the flexible Latent Dirichlet Allocation model and allows for zero inflation in observed counts. We develop an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling procedure to fit the model. Results from our simulations show zinLDA provides better fits to the data and is able to separate structural zeros from sampling zeros. We apply zinLDA to the data set from the American Gut Project and identify microbial communities characterized by different bacterial genera.

RevDate: 2021-02-07

Zisimopoulos A, Klavdianou O, Theodossiadis P, et al (2021)

The role of microbiome in age-related macular degeneration: A review of the literature.

Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift fur Augenheilkunde pii:000515026 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive, multifactorial, degenerative disease and the leading cause of severe visual loss in the elderly population. The exact pathogenesis of AMD remains elusive, being the combination of genetic, environmental, metabolic and functional processes. Better understanding of the disease's pathophysiology leads to new treatment targets. Human microbiome seems to be a potential therapeutic pathway for AMD, as it has been recently proven to play a role in its pathogenesis.

SUMMARY: This review shed light into the association between microbiome and AMD. Key messages: The current evidence based on the existing literature shows that there are differences in taxonomical and functional profiles in human microbiome between patients with AMD and controls, suggesting that microbiome is implicated in AMD onset and progression, being a link between AMD and nutrition/diet. Additionally, specific bacterial classes have been proposed as potential biomarkers for AMD diagnosis. Further randomized clinical studies with large sample are needed to elucidate the role of microbiome in AMD and to draw more solid conclusions.

RevDate: 2021-02-05

Moysidou CM, RM Owens (2021)

Advances in modelling the human microbiome-gut-brain axis in vitro.

Biochemical Society transactions pii:227811 [Epub ahead of print].

The human gut microbiome has emerged as a key player in the bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis, affecting various aspects of homeostasis and pathophysiology. Until recently, the majority of studies that seek to explore the mechanisms underlying the microbiome-gut-brain axis cross-talk, relied almost exclusively on animal models, and particularly gnotobiotic mice. Despite the great progress made with these models, various limitations, including ethical considerations and interspecies differences that limit the translatability of data to human systems, pushed researchers to seek for alternatives. Over the past decades, the field of in vitro modelling of tissues has experienced tremendous growth, thanks to advances in 3D cell biology, materials, science and bioengineering, pushing further the borders of our ability to more faithfully emulate the in vivo situation. The discovery of stem cells has offered a new source of cells, while their use in generating gastrointestinal and brain organoids, among other tissues, has enabled the development of novel 3D tissues that better mimic the native tissue structure and function, compared with traditional assays. In parallel, organs-on-chips technology and bioengineered tissues have emerged as highly promising alternatives to animal models for a wide range of applications. Here, we discuss how recent advances and trends in this area can be applied in host-microbe and host-pathogen interaction studies. In addition, we highlight paradigm shifts in engineering more robust human microbiome-gut-brain axis models and their potential to expand our understanding of this complex system and hence explore novel, microbiome-based therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2021-02-05

Rong R, Jiang S, Xu L, et al (2021)

MB-GAN: Microbiome Simulation via Generative Adversarial Network.

GigaScience, 10(2):.

BACKGROUND: Trillions of microbes inhabit the human body and have a profound effect on human health. The recent development of metagenome-wide association studies and other quantitative analysis methods accelerate the discovery of the associations between human microbiome and diseases. To assess the strengths and limitations of these analytical tools, simulating realistic microbiome datasets is critically important. However, simulating the real microbiome data is challenging because it is difficult to model their correlation structure using explicit statistical models.

RESULTS: To address the challenge of simulating realistic microbiome data, we designed a novel simulation framework termed MB-GAN, by using a generative adversarial network (GAN) and utilizing methodology advancements from the deep learning community. MB-GAN can automatically learn from given microbial abundances and compute simulated abundances that are indistinguishable from them. In practice, MB-GAN showed the following advantages. First, MB-GAN avoids explicit statistical modeling assumptions, and it only requires real datasets as inputs. Second, unlike the traditional GANs, MB-GAN is easily applicable and can converge efficiently.

CONCLUSIONS: By applying MB-GAN to a case-control gut microbiome study of 396 samples, we demonstrated that the simulated data and the original data had similar first-order and second-order properties, including sparsity, diversities, and taxa-taxa correlations. These advantages are suitable for further microbiome methodology development where high-fidelity microbiome data are needed.

RevDate: 2021-02-07

Abe K, Hirayama M, Ohno K, et al (2021)

Hierarchical non-negative matrix factorization using clinical information for microbial communities.

BMC genomics, 22(1):104.

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome forms very complex communities that consist of hundreds to thousands of different microorganisms that not only affect the host, but also participate in disease processes. Several state-of-the-art methods have been proposed for learning the structure of microbial communities and to investigate the relationship between microorganisms and host environmental factors. However, these methods were mainly designed to model and analyze single microbial communities that do not interact with or depend on other communities. Such methods therefore cannot comprehend the properties between interdependent systems in communities that affect host behavior and disease processes.

RESULTS: We introduce a novel hierarchical Bayesian framework, called BALSAMICO (BAyesian Latent Semantic Analysis of MIcrobial COmmunities), which uses microbial metagenome data to discover the underlying microbial community structures and the associations between microbiota and their environmental factors. BALSAMICO models mixtures of communities in the framework of nonnegative matrix factorization, taking into account environmental factors. We proposes an efficient procedure for estimating parameters. A simulation then evaluates the accuracy of the estimated parameters. Finally, the method is used to analyze clinical data. In this analysis, we successfully detected bacteria related to colorectal cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the method not only accurately estimates the parameters needed to analyze the connections between communities of microbiota and their environments, but also allows for the effective detection of these communities in real-world circumstances.

RevDate: 2021-02-05

Nalbantoglu OU (2021)

Information Theoretic Metagenome Assembly Allows the Discovery of Disease Biomarkers in Human Microbiome.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(2): pii:e23020187.

Quantitative metagenomics is an important field that has delivered successful microbiome biomarkers associated with host phenotypes. The current convention mainly depends on unsupervised assembly of metagenomic contigs with a possibility of leaving interesting genetic material unassembled. Additionally, biomarkers are commonly defined on the differential relative abundance of compositional or functional units. Accumulating evidence supports that microbial genetic variations are as important as the differential abundance content, implying the need for novel methods accounting for the genetic variations in metagenomics studies. We propose an information theoretic metagenome assembly algorithm, discovering genomic fragments with maximal self-information, defined by the empirical distributions of nucleotides across the phenotypes and quantified with the help of statistical tests. Our algorithm infers fragments populating the most informative genetic variants in a single contig, named supervariant fragments. Experiments on simulated metagenomes, as well as on a colorectal cancer and an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease dataset consistently discovered sequences strongly associated with the disease phenotypes. Moreover, the discriminatory power of these putative biomarkers was mainly attributed to the genetic variations rather than relative abundance. Our results support that a focus on metagenomics methods considering microbiome population genetics might be useful in discovering disease biomarkers with a great potential of translating to molecular diagnostics and biotherapeutics applications.

RevDate: 2021-02-05

Haque A, H Woolery-Lloyd (2021)

Inflammaging in Dermatology: A New Frontier for Research.

Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, 20(2):144-149.

As humans age, our ability to manage certain types of inflammation is reduced. As a result, we experience chronic, low-grade inflammation, which has been termed &ldquo;inflammaging&rdquo;. This type of low-level inflammation is driven by a progressive increase in pro- inflammatory systemic cytokines over time. Inflammaging is thought to contribute to many age-related chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease, and even certain cancers. Recent studies suggest that the human microbiome may play a critical role in inflammaging. As the largest organ of the body and home to a significant portion of the human microbiome, the skin may play a unique role in inflammaging. In this review article, we present common dermatological diseases through the lens of inflammaging, look at how our skin may play a role in reducing inflammaging, and highlight the need for further focused research in this area. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(2):144-149. doi:10.36849/JDD.2021.5481.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Oliva M, Mulet-Margalef N, Ochoa-De-Olza M, et al (2021)

Tumor-Associated Microbiome: Where Do We Stand?.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(3):.

The study of the human microbiome in oncology is a growing and rapidly evolving field. In the past few years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of studies investigating associations of microbiome and cancer, from oncogenesis and cancer progression to resistance or sensitivity to specific anticancer therapies. The gut microbiome is now known to play a significant role in antitumor immune responses and in predicting the efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in cancer patients. Beyond the gut, the tumor-associated microbiome-microbe communities located either in the tumor or within its body compartment-seems to interact with the local microenvironment and the tumor immune contexture, ultimately impacting cancer progression and treatment outcome. However, pre-clinical research focusing on causality and mechanistic pathways as well as proof-of-concept studies are still needed to fully understand the potential clinical utility of microbiome in cancer patients. Moreover, there is a need for the standardization of methodology and the implementation of quality control across microbiome studies to allow for a better interpretation and greater comparability of the results reported between them. This review summarizes the accumulating evidence in the field and discusses the current and upcoming challenges of microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Palosuo K, Karisola P, Savinko T, et al (2021)

A randomized, open-label trial of hen's egg oral immunotherapy: efficacy and humoral immune responses in 50 children.

The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice pii:S2213-2198(21)00078-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Egg allergy is the second most common food allergy in children. Persistent food allergy increases the risk of anaphylaxis and reduces the quality of life.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of oral immunotherapy (OIT) with raw egg white powder and study its effects on humoral responses in children with persistent egg allergy.

METHODS: Fifty children aged 6-17 years with egg allergy, diagnosed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, were randomized 3:2 to 8 months of OIT with a maintenance dose of 1 g of egg white protein or 6 months of avoidance after which the avoidance group crossed over to OIT. We examined changes in IgE, IgG4, and IgA concentrations to Gal d 1-4 during OIT compared to avoidance and assessed clinical reactivity at 8 and 18 months.

RESULTS: After 8 months, 22/50 children (44%) on OIT and 1/21 (4.8%) on egg avoidance were desensitized to the target dose, 23/50 (46%) were partially desensitized (dose < 1 g), and 5/50 (10%) discontinued. IgG4 concentrations to Gal d 1-4 and IgA to Gal d 1-2 increased significantly, while IgE to Gal d 2 decreased. A heatmap analysis of the IgE patterns revealed three distinct clusters linked with the clinical outcome. High baseline egg white-specific IgE (EW-IgE) and polysensitization to Gal d 1-4 related with failure to achieve the maintenance dose at 8 months. After 18 months of treatment, 36/50 patients (72%) were desensitized and 8/50 (16%) partially desensitized.

CONCLUSION: OIT with raw egg enables liberation of egg products into the daily diet in most patients. Subjects with high EW-IgE concentrations and sensitization to multiple egg allergen components at baseline benefit from prolonged treatment.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Fuller KS, C Torres Rivera (2020)

A Culturally Responsive Curricular Revision to Improve Engagement and Learning in an Undergraduate Microbiology Lab Course.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:577852.

We seek to increase student engagement and success to subsequently lead to increased retention and degree attainment for students at our Hispanic-serving institution. We hypothesized that using a culturally responsive approach in an undergraduate microbiology lab would increase engagement and learning gains. Using a culturally responsive approach allowed students to start their learning from their own place of understanding-centering students' lived experiences. Students interviewed family members to learn about "home remedies," and then devised experiments to test whether those home remedies affected growth of bacteria commonly implicated in gastrointestinal distress (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli) or sore throat (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae). As a final assessment, students generated project posters which they presented at a class symposium. Implementation of a culturally responsive research experience focused on the gut microbiome resulted in increased learning gains as evidenced by movement up Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Scale. Student feedback indicated increased engagement, increased confidence in communicating science and a deeper understanding and appreciation for microbiology. Taken together, the results indicate that students appreciate a more culturally responsive and student-centered approach to learning in microbiology and encourages expansion of this approach to other modules in the course. This paper includes responsive data to support this claim, as well as a sample course calendar and supplementary learning material to support the human microbiome approach to microbiology.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Shah V (2021)

Letter to the Editor: Microbiota in the Respiratory System-A Possible Explanation to Age and Sex Variability in Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.

Microbiology insights, 14:1178636120988604.

The Human respiratory tract is colonized by a variety of microbes and the microbiota change as we age. In this perspective, literature support is presented for the hypothesis that the respiratory system microbiota could explain the differential age and sex breakdown amongst COVID-19 patients. The number of patients in the older and elderly adult group is higher than the other age groups. The perspective presents the possibility that certain genera of bacteria present in the respiratory system microbiota in children and young adults could be directly or through eliciting an immune response from the host, prevent full-fledged infection of SARS-CoV-2. The possibility also exists that the microbiota in older adults and the elderly population have bacteria that make it easier for the virus to cause infection. I call upon the scientific community to investigate the link between human microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility to further understand the viral pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Blaustein RA, Michelitsch LM, Glawe AJ, et al (2021)

Toothbrush microbiomes feature a meeting ground for human oral and environmental microbiota.

Microbiome, 9(1):32.

BACKGROUND: While indoor microbiomes impact our health and well-being, much remains unknown about taxonomic and functional transitions that occur in human-derived microbial communities once they are transferred away from human hosts. Toothbrushes are a model to investigate the potential response of oral-derived microbiota to conditions of the built environment. Here, we characterize metagenomes of toothbrushes from 34 subjects to define the toothbrush microbiome and resistome and possible influential factors.

RESULTS: Toothbrush microbiomes often comprised a dominant subset of human oral taxa and less abundant or site-specific environmental strains. Although toothbrushes contained lower taxonomic diversity than oral-associated counterparts (determined by comparison with the Human Microbiome Project), they had relatively broader antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) profiles. Toothbrush resistomes were enriched with a variety of ARGs, notably those conferring multidrug efflux and putative resistance to triclosan, which were primarily attributable to versatile environmental taxa. Toothbrush microbial communities and resistomes correlated with a variety of factors linked to personal health, dental hygiene, and bathroom features.

CONCLUSIONS: Selective pressures in the built environment may shape the dynamic mixture of human (primarily oral-associated) and environmental microbiota that encounter each other on toothbrushes. Harboring a microbial diversity and resistome distinct from human-associated counterparts suggests toothbrushes could potentially serve as a reservoir that may enable the transfer of ARGs. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-02-14

Cohen I, Ruff WE, EE Longbrake (2021)

Influence of immunomodulatory drugs on the gut microbiota.

Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine pii:S1931-5244(21)00023-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Immunomodulatory medications are a mainstay of treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancies. In addition to their direct effects on immune cells, these medications also impact the gut microbiota. Drug-induced shifts in commensal microbes can lead to indirect but important changes in the immune response. We performed a comprehensive literature search focusing on immunotherapy/microbe interactions. Immunotherapies were categorized into 5 subtypes based on their mechanisms of action: cell trafficking inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunomodulators, antiproliferative drugs, and inflammatory cytokine inhibitors. Although no consistent relationships were observed between types of immunotherapy and microbiota, most immunotherapies were associated with shifts in specific colonizing bacterial taxa. The relationships between colonizing microbes and drug efficacy were not well-studied for autoimmune diseases. In contrast, the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer was tied to the baseline composition of the gut microbiota. There was a paucity of high-quality data; existing data were generated using heterogeneous sampling and analytic techniques, and most studies involved small numbers of participants. Further work is needed to elucidate the extent and clinical significance of immunotherapy effects on the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Helve O, Dikareva E, Stefanovic V, et al (2021)

Protocol for oral transplantation of maternal fecal microbiota to newborn infants born by cesarean section.

STAR protocols, 2(1):100271.

Infants born by cesarean section have an intestinal microbiota that differs from that of infants delivered vaginally. Here, we report a protocol for performing oral transplantation of maternal fecal microbiota to newborn infants born by elective cesarean section. The crucial step of this protocol is the health screening process. This protocol can only be applied to healthy mothers and infants. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Korpela et al. (2020).

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Arbizu RA, Collins D, Wilson RC, et al (2021)

Evidence for Differentiation of Colon Tissue Microbiota in Patients with and without Postoperative Hirschsprung's Associated Enterocolitis: A Pilot Study.

Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition, 24(1):30-37.

Purpose: To investigate the differences in the colon microbiota composition of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) patients with and without a history of postoperative Hirschsprung's associated enterocolitis (HAEC).

Methods: Colon tissue microbiota was characterized by bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and 16S rDNA sequencing for taxonomic classification and comparison.

Results: The sequence diversity richness within samples was significantly higher in samples from patients with a history of postoperative HAEC. We observed an increased relative abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria in HAEC patients and Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in HSCR patients and, an increased relative abundance of the genera Dolosigranulum, Roseouria and Streptococcus in HAEC patients and Propionibacterium and Delftia in HSCR patients.

Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that the colon tissue microbiota composition is different in HSCR patients with and without postoperative HAEC.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Livson S, Jarva H, Kalliala I, et al (2020)

Activation of the Complement System in the Lower Genital Tract During Pregnancy and Delivery.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:563073.

Background: Human pregnancy alters profoundly the immune system. The local involvement and mechanisms of activation of the complement system in the cervicovaginal milieu during pregnancy and delivery remain unexplored.

Objectives: To determine whether normal pregnancy and delivery are associated with local activation of complement or changes in the immunoglobulin profile in the cervix.

Study Design: This study was designed to assess IgA, IgG, and complement activation in the cervicovaginal area in three groups of patients: i) 49 pregnant women (week 41+3-42+0) not in active labor, ii) 24 women in active labor (38+4-42+2), and iii) a control group of nonpregnant women (n=23) at child-bearing age. We collected mucosal samples from the lateral fornix of the vagina and external cervix during routine visits and delivery. The Western blot technique was used to detect complement C3 and its activation products. For semiquantitative analysis, the bands of the electrophoresed proteins in gels were digitized on a flatbed photo scanner and analyzed. IgA and IgG were analyzed by Western blotting and quantified by ELISA. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's Multiple Comparison tests were used for statistical comparisons.

Results: A higher abundance but lower activation level of C3 in both the external cervix (P<0.001) and lateral fornix of the vagina (P<0.001) was observed during delivery (58 ± 22, n= 24) in comparison to the groups of nonpregnant (72 ± 13%; mean ± SD, n=23) and pregnant women (78 ± 22%, n=49). Complement activating IgG was detected in higher abundance than IgA in the cervicovaginal secretions of pregnant women. In a small proportion samples also C3-IgG complexes were detected.

Conclusions: Our results reveal an unexpectedly strong activation of the complement system and the presence IgG immunoglobulins in the cervicovaginal area during pregnancy, active labor, and among nonpregnant women. In contrast to the higher amounts of C3 in the cervicovaginal secretions during labor, its activation level was lower. Complement activating IgG was detected in higher concentrations than IgA in the mucosal secretions during pregnancy and labor. Taken together our results imply the presence a locally operating humoral immune system in the cervicovaginal mucosa.

RevDate: 2021-01-27

Karjalainen EK, Renkonen-Sinisalo L, Satokari R, et al (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Chronic Pouchitis: A Randomized, Parallel, Double-Blinded Clinical Trial.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:6121233 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In ulcerative colitis, a pouchitis is the most common long-term adverse effect after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Approximately 5% of patients develop chronic antibiotic-dependent or antibiotic-refractory pouchitis without any effective treatment. The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of chronic pouchitis.

METHODS: This was a single-center, double-blinded, parallel group trial comparing donor fecal microbiota transplantation with placebo (autologous transplant) in chronic pouchitis. Twenty-six patients were recruited at the Helsinki University Hospital between December 2017 and August 2018 and were randomly allocated a 1:1 ratio to either donor fecal microbiota transplantation or placebo. The protocol included 2 transplantations into the pouch on weeks 0 and 4, and patients were followed up for 52 weeks.

RESULTS: Nine patients in the intervention group and 8 patients in the placebo group relapsed during the 52-week follow-up, and the relapse-free survival did not differ between the groups (P = 0.183, log-rank; hazard ratio, 1.90 [95% confidence interval, 0.73-4.98; P = 0.190]). In the subgroup analysis of patients using continuous antibiotics before the study, the relapse-free survival was shorter in the intervention group (P = 0.004, log-rank; hazard ratio, 13.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.47-116.60; P = 0.021]). No major adverse effects were reported.

CONCLUSIONS: The fecal microbiota transplantation treatment regime used in our study was not effective in the treatment of chronic pouchitis. The safety profile of fecal microbiota transplantation was good.

CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03378921.

RevDate: 2021-01-27

Karjalainen EK, Renkonen-Sinisalo L, Satokari R, et al (2021)

Author's Reply: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Chronic Pouchitis: Promising Novel Therapeutic or Lost Cause?.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:6121232 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Li X, Trivedi U, Brejnrod AD, et al (2020)

The microbiome of captive hamadryas baboons.

Animal microbiome, 2(1):25.

BACKGROUND: The hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a highly social primate that lives in complex multilevel societies exhibiting a wide range of group behaviors akin to humans. In contrast to the widely studied human microbiome, there is a paucity of information on the host-associated microbiomes of nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here, our goal was to understand the microbial composition throughout different body sites of cohabiting baboons.

RESULTS: We analyzed 170 oral, oropharyngeal, cervical, uterine, vaginal, nasal and rectal samples from 16 hamadryas baboons via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Additionally, raw Miseq sequencing data from 1041 comparable publicly available samples from the human oral cavity, gut and vagina were reanalyzed using the same pipeline. We compared the baboon and human microbiome of the oral cavity, gut and vagina, showing that the baboon microbiome is distinct from the human. Baboon cohabitants share similar microbial profiles in their cervix, uterus, vagina, and gut. The oral cavity, gut and vagina shared more bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) in group living baboons than in humans. The shared ASVs had significantly positive correlations between most body sites, suggesting a potential bacterial exchange throughout the body. No significant differences in gut microbiome composition were detected within the maternity line and between maternity lines, suggesting that the offspring gut microbiota is shaped primarily through bacterial exchange among cohabitants. Finally, Lactobacillus was not so predominant in baboon vagina as in the human vagina but was the most abundant genus in the baboon gut.

CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide comprehensive analyses of the baboon microbiota across different body sites. We contrast this to human body sites and find substantially different microbiomes. This group of cohabitating baboons generally showed higher microbial diversity and remarkable similarities between body sites than were observed in humans. These data and findings from one group of baboons can form the basis of future microbiome studies in baboons and be used as a reference in research where the microbiome is expected to impact human modeling with baboons.

RevDate: 2021-01-27

Garcia EM, Serrano MG, Edupuganti L, et al (2021)

Sequence Comparison of Vaginolysin from Different Gardnerella Species.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2): pii:pathogens10020086.

Gardnerella vaginalis has recently been split into 13 distinct species. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that species-specific variations in the vaginolysin (VLY) amino acid sequence could influence the interaction between the toxin and vaginal epithelial cells and that VLY variation may be one factor that distinguishes less virulent or commensal strains from more virulent strains. This was assessed by bioinformatic analyses of publicly available Gardnerella spp. sequences and quantification of cytotoxicity and cytokine production from purified, recombinantly produced versions of VLY. After identifying conserved differences that could distinguish distinct VLY types, we analyzed metagenomic data from a cohort of female subjects from the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project to investigate whether these different VLY types exhibited any significant associations with symptoms or Gardnerella spp.-relative abundance in vaginal swab samples. While Type 1 VLY was most prevalent among the subjects and may be associated with increased reports of symptoms, subjects with Type 2 VLY dominant profiles exhibited increased relative Gardnerella spp. abundance. Our findings suggest that amino acid differences alter the interaction of VLY with vaginal keratinocytes, which may potentiate differences in bacterial vaginosis (BV) immunopathology in vivo.

RevDate: 2021-02-05
CmpDate: 2021-02-05

Rusanen J, Kareinen L, Levanov L, et al (2021)

A 10-Minute "Mix and Read" Antibody Assay for SARS-CoV-2.

Viruses, 13(2): pii:v13020143.

Accurate and rapid diagnostic tools are needed for management of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Antibody tests enable detection of individuals past the initial phase of infection and help examine vaccine responses. The major targets of human antibody response in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are the spike glycoprotein (SP) and nucleocapsid protein (NP). We have developed a rapid homogenous approach for antibody detection termed LFRET (protein L-based time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer immunoassay). In LFRET, fluorophore-labeled protein L and antigen are brought to close proximity by antigen-specific patient immunoglobulins of any isotype, resulting in TR-FRET signal. We set up LFRET assays for antibodies against SP and NP and evaluated their diagnostic performance using a panel of 77 serum/plasma samples from 44 individuals with COVID-19 and 52 negative controls. Moreover, using a previously described SP and a novel NP construct, we set up enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 SP and NP. We then compared the LFRET assays with these ELISAs and with a SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization test (MNT). We found the LFRET assays to parallel ELISAs in sensitivity (90-95% vs. 90-100%) and specificity (100% vs. 94-100%). In identifying individuals with or without a detectable neutralizing antibody response, LFRET outperformed ELISA in specificity (91-96% vs. 82-87%), while demonstrating an equal sensitivity (98%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the applicability of LFRET, a 10-min "mix and read" assay, to detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Grenda A, P Krawczyk (2021)

Cancer trigger or remedy: two faces of the human microbiome.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 105(4):1395-1405.

Currently, increasing attention cancer treatment has focused on molecularly targeted therapies and more recently on immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints. However, even such advanced treatment may be ineffective. The reasons for this are sought, inter alia, in the human microbiome. In our intestines, there are bacteria that are beneficial to us, but pathogenic microorganisms may also be present. Microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) is now perceived as one of the gateways to cancer. However, it is feasible to use bacteria and their metabolites to restore the natural, beneficial microbiome during oncological treatment. Akkermansia mucinifila, Enterococcus hirae, or Faecalibacterium prausnitzii are bacteria that exhibit this beneficial potential. Greater benefits of therapy can be observed in cancer patients enriched in these bacterial species and treated with anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we present issues related to the role of bacteria in carcinogenesis and their therapeutic potential "supporting" modern anti-cancer therapies.Key Points• Bacteria can be directly or indirectly a cancer trigger.• Bacterial metabolites regulate the pathways associated with carcinogenesis.• Intestinal bacteria activate the immune system to fight cancer.

RevDate: 2021-02-06

Luo Z, Alekseyenko AV, Ogunrinde E, et al (2020)

Rigorous Plasma Microbiome Analysis Method Enables Disease Association Discovery in Clinic.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:613268.

Blood microbiome is important to investigate microbial-host interactions and the effects on systemic immune perturbations. However, this effort has met with major challenges due to low microbial biomass and background artifacts. In the current study, microbial 16S DNA sequencing was applied to analyze plasma microbiome. We have developed a quality-filtering strategy to evaluate and exclude low levels of microbial sequences, potential contaminations, and artifacts from plasma microbial 16S DNA sequencing analyses. Furthermore, we have applied our technique in three cohorts, including tobacco-smokers, HIV-infected individuals, and individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as corresponding controls. More than 97% of total sequence data was removed using stringent quality-filtering strategy analyses; those removed amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) were low levels of microbial sequences, contaminations, and artifacts. The specifically enriched pathobiont bacterial ASVs have been identified in plasmas from tobacco-smokers, HIV-infected individuals, and individuals with SLE but not from control subjects. The associations between these ASVs and disease pathogenesis were demonstrated. The pathologic activities of some identified bacteria were further verified in vitro. We present a quality-filtering strategy to identify pathogenesis-associated plasma microbiome. Our approach provides a method for studying the diagnosis of subclinical microbial infection as well as for understanding the roles of microbiome-host interaction in disease pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-02-01

Simon-Soro A, Kim D, Li Y, et al (2021)

Impact of the repurposed drug thonzonium bromide on host oral-gut microbiomes.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):7.

Drug repurposing is a feasible strategy for the development of novel therapeutic applications. However, its potential use for oral treatments and impact on host microbiota remain underexplored. Here, we assessed the influences of topical oral applications of a repurposed FDA-approved drug, thonzonium bromide, on gastrointestinal microbiomes and host tissues in a rat model of dental caries designed to reduce cross-contamination associated with coprophagy. Using this model, we recapitulated the body site microbiota that mirrored the human microbiome profile. Oral microbiota was perturbed by the treatments with specific disruption of Rothia and Veillonella without affecting the global composition of the fecal microbiome. However, disturbances in the oral-gut microbial interactions were identified using nestedness and machine learning, showing increased sharing of oral taxon Sutterella in the gut microbiota. Host-tissue analyses revealed caries reduction on teeth by thonzonium bromide without cytotoxic effects, indicating bioactivity and biocompatibility when used orally. Altogether, we demonstrate how an oral treatment using a repurposed drug causes localized microbial disturbances and therapeutic effects while promoting turnover of specific oral species in the lower gut in vivo.

RevDate: 2021-01-28

Loomis KH, Wu SK, Ernlund A, et al (2021)

A mixed community of skin microbiome representatives influences cutaneous processes more than individual members.

Microbiome, 9(1):22.

BACKGROUND: Skin, the largest organ of the human body by weight, hosts a diversity of microorganisms that can influence health. The microbial residents of the skin are now appreciated for their roles in host immune interactions, wound healing, colonization resistance, and various skin disorders. Still, much remains to be discovered in terms of the host pathways influenced by skin microorganisms, as well as the higher-level skin properties impacted through these microbe-host interactions. Towards this direction, recent efforts using mouse models point to pronounced changes in the transcriptional profiles of the skin in response to the presence of a microbial community. However, there is a need to quantify the roles of microorganisms at both the individual and community-level in healthy human skin. In this study, we utilize human skin equivalents to study the effects of individual taxa and a microbial community in a precisely controlled context. Through transcriptomics analysis, we identify key genes and pathways influenced by skin microbes, and we also characterize higher-level impacts on skin processes and properties through histological analyses.

RESULTS: The presence of a microbiome on a 3D skin tissue model led to significantly altered patterns of gene expression, influencing genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, and the extracellular matrix (among others). Moreover, microbiome treatment influenced the thickness of the epidermal layer, reduced the number of actively proliferating cells, and increased filaggrin expression. Many of these findings were evident upon treatment with the mixed community, but either not detected or less pronounced in treatments by single microorganisms, underscoring the impact that a diverse skin microbiome has on the host.

CONCLUSIONS: This work contributes to the understanding of how microbiome constituents individually and collectively influence human skin processes and properties. The results show that, while it is important to understand the effect of individual microbes on the host, a full community of microbes has unique and pronounced effects on the skin. Thus, in its impacts on the host, the skin microbiome is more than the sum of its parts. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-01-27

Depommier C, Vitale RM, Iannotti FA, et al (2021)

Beneficial Effects of Akkermansia muciniphila Are Not Associated with Major Changes in the Circulating Endocannabinoidome but Linked to Higher Mono-Palmitoyl-Glycerol Levels as New PPARα Agonists.

Cells, 10(1):.

Akkermansia muciniphila is considered as one of the next-generation beneficial bacteria in the context of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Although a first proof-of-concept of its beneficial effects has been established in the context of metabolic syndrome in humans, mechanisms are not yet fully understood. This study aimed at deciphering whether the bacterium exerts its beneficial properties through the modulation of the endocannabinoidome (eCBome). Circulating levels of 25 endogenous endocannabinoid-related lipids were quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the plasma of overweight or obese individuals before and after a 3 months intervention consisting of the daily ingestion of either alive or pasteurized A. muciniphila. Results from multivariate analyses suggested that the beneficial effects of A. muciniphila were not linked to an overall modification of the eCBome. However, subsequent univariate analysis showed that the decrease in 1-Palmitoyl-glycerol (1-PG) and 2-Palmitoyl-glycerol (2-PG), two eCBome lipids, observed in the placebo group was significantly counteracted by the alive bacterium, and to a lower extent by the pasteurized form. We also discovered that 1- and 2-PG are endogenous activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). We hypothesize that PPARα activation by mono-palmitoyl-glycerols may underlie part of the beneficial metabolic effects induced by A. muciniphila in human metabolic syndrome.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Barquero-Orias D, Muñoz Moreno-Arrones O, S Vañó-Galván (2021)

Alopecia and the Microbiome: A Future Therapeutic Target?.

Actas dermo-sifiliograficas pii:S0001-7310(21)00005-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. There is evidence that in addition to microbiome variation in different areas of the body or according to ethnicity and sex, the microbiome specific to the scalp is conditioned by such factors as humidity, protection from UV light, and pH. Although little information has yet been published about the microbiome of hair follicles and its role in the pathogenesis of diseases, interest in this area of research is emerging. Studies have shown that components of the follicular microbiome influence such disorders as androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. A current hypothesis is that interventions that target the microbiome may lead to innovative therapies for many diseases.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-02-01

Finlay BB, Amato KR, Azad M, et al (2021)

The hygiene hypothesis, the COVID pandemic, and consequences for the human microbiome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(6):.

The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to affect the human microbiome in infected and uninfected individuals, having a substantial impact on human health over the long term. This pandemic intersects with a decades-long decline in microbial diversity and ancestral microbes due to hygiene, antibiotics, and urban living (the hygiene hypothesis). High-risk groups succumbing to COVID-19 include those with preexisting conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, which are also associated with microbiome abnormalities. Current pandemic control measures and practices will have broad, uneven, and potentially long-term effects for the human microbiome across the planet, given the implementation of physical separation, extensive hygiene, travel barriers, and other measures that influence overall microbial loss and inability for reinoculation. Although much remains uncertain or unknown about the virus and its consequences, implementing pandemic control practices could significantly affect the microbiome. In this Perspective, we explore many facets of COVID-19-induced societal changes and their possible effects on the microbiome, and discuss current and future challenges regarding the interplay between this pandemic and the microbiome. Recent recognition of the microbiome's influence on human health makes it critical to consider both how the microbiome, shaped by biosocial processes, affects susceptibility to the coronavirus and, conversely, how COVID-19 disease and prevention measures may affect the microbiome. This knowledge may prove key in prevention and treatment, and long-term biological and social outcomes of this pandemic.

RevDate: 2021-01-23

Boddy SL, Giovannelli I, Sassani M, et al (2021)

The gut microbiome: a key player in the complexity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

BMC medicine, 19(1):13.

BACKGROUND: Much progress has been made in mapping genetic abnormalities linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the majority of cases still present with no known underlying cause. Furthermore, even in families with a shared genetic abnormality there is significant phenotypic variability, suggesting that non-genetic elements may modify pathogenesis. Identification of such disease-modifiers is important as they might represent new therapeutic targets. A growing body of research has begun to shed light on the role played by the gut microbiome in health and disease with a number of studies linking abnormalities to ALS.

MAIN BODY: The microbiome refers to the genes belonging to the myriad different microorganisms that live within and upon us, collectively known as the microbiota. Most of these microbes are found in the intestines, where they play important roles in digestion and the generation of key metabolites including neurotransmitters. The gut microbiota is an important aspect of the environment in which our bodies operate and inter-individual differences may be key to explaining the different disease outcomes seen in ALS. Work has begun to investigate animal models of the disease, and the gut microbiomes of people living with ALS, revealing changes in the microbial communities of these groups. The current body of knowledge will be summarised in this review. Advances in microbiome sequencing methods will be highlighted, as their improved resolution now enables researchers to further explore differences at a functional level. Proposed mechanisms connecting the gut microbiome to neurodegeneration will also be considered, including direct effects via metabolites released into the host circulation and indirect effects on bioavailability of nutrients and even medications.

CONCLUSION: Profiling of the gut microbiome has the potential to add an environmental component to rapidly advancing studies of ALS genetics and move research a step further towards personalised medicine for this disease. Moreover, should compelling evidence of upstream neurotoxicity or neuroprotection initiated by gut microbiota emerge, modification of the microbiome will represent a potential new avenue for disease modifying therapies. For an intractable condition with few current therapeutic options, further research into the ALS microbiome is of crucial importance.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Cuñé Castellana J (2021)

[Microbioma and lithiasis.].

Archivos espanoles de urologia, 74(1):157-170.

Human microbiome understanding and its relationship with health has represented a revolution in biomedicine, facilitated by the emergence of new molecular microbiology techniques. Lithiasic pathology has not been alien to this new approach to etiological knowledge. As a result of this research activity, it has been possible to elucidate the importance of the intestine-kidney axis, understood as the impact of the intestinal microbiota on nephrourinary health. In this regard the ability to use oxalate as an energy source by certain intestinal microorganisms has been used as a target form odulators of the intestinal microbiota in order to correcthyperoxaluria, both primary and secondary. However,the importance of the microbiome configuration, and its role in oxalocalcic lithiasis, transcends the existence of certain trophic networks. In particular, intestinal microbiome has the ability to promote tubular lesions resulting from oxidative stress caused by chronic low-grade inflammation, closely linked to the composition of the microbiota and the dialogue established with the immune system at the intestinal level. The importance of the urobiome, a stable microbia lstructure residing in the urinary tract, allowed to calibrate the importance of urinary microorganisms in lithiasic pathology, breaking with the paradigm of urine sterility in healthy conditions. Thus, recent studies suggest that the composition and structure of the urobiome have a crucial impact on infectious but also non-infectious lithiasis, since certain microorganisms can act as nucleants and promoters of the lithogenic process. Associated with the advances in the study of binomial microbiota and lithiasic pathology, new ways are opened for patient management, in terms of prevention and treatment, based on intervention on the microbiome. Future therapeutic arsenal, in addition to probiotics and prebiotics, will integrate consortia of different microbial groups and microbiota transplantation, both urinary and intestinal.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Strickland AB, M Shi (2021)

Mechanisms of fungal dissemination.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS [Epub ahead of print].

Fungal infections are an increasing threat to global public health. There are more than six million fungal species worldwide, but less than 1% are known to infect humans. Most of these fungal infections are superficial, affecting the hair, skin and nails, but some species are capable of causing life-threatening diseases. The most common of these include Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. These fungi are typically innocuous and even constitute a part of the human microbiome, but if these pathogens disseminate throughout the body, they can cause fatal infections which account for more than one million deaths worldwide each year. Thus, systemic dissemination of fungi is a critical step in the development of these deadly infections. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how fungi disseminate from the initial infection sites to the bloodstream, how immune cells eliminate fungi from circulation and how fungi leave the blood and enter distant organs, highlighting some recent advances and offering some perspectives on future directions.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Tanes C, Bittinger K, Gao Y, et al (2021)

Role of dietary fiber in the recovery of the human gut microbiome and its metabolome.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(20)30674-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota metabolites may be important for host health, yet few studies investigate the correlation between human gut microbiome and production of fecal metabolites and their impact on the plasma metabolome. Since gut microbiota metabolites are influenced by diet, we performed a longitudinal analysis of the impact of three divergent diets, vegan, omnivore, and a synthetic enteral nutrition (EEN) diet lacking fiber, on the human gut microbiome and its metabolome, including after a microbiota depletion intervention. Omnivore and vegan, but not EEN, diets altered fecal amino acid levels by supporting the growth of Firmicutes capable of amino acid metabolism. This correlated with relative abundance of a sizable number of fecal amino acid metabolites, some not previously associated with the gut microbiota. The effect on the plasma metabolome, in contrast, were modest. The impact of diet, particularly fiber, on the human microbiome influences broad classes of metabolites that may modify health.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

Lee YT, Mohd Ismail NI, LK Wei (2021)

Microbiome and ischemic stroke: A systematic review.

PloS one, 16(1):e0245038.

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is one of the non-communicable diseases that contribute to the significant number of deaths worldwide. However, the relationship between microbiome and ischemic stroke remained unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to perform systematic review on the relationship between human microbiome and ischemic stroke.

METHODS: A systematic review on ischemic stroke was carried out for all articles obtained from databases until 22nd October 2020. Main findings were extracted from all the eligible studies.

RESULTS: Eighteen eligible studies were included in the systematic review. These studies suggested that aging, inflammation, and different microbial compositions could contribute to ischemic stroke. Phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes also appeared to manipulate post-stroke outcome. The important role of microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids and trimethylamine N-oxide in ischemic stroke were also highlighted.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systematic review that investigates the relationship between microbiome and ischemic stroke. Aging and inflammation contribute to differential microbial compositions and predispose individuals to ischemic stroke.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Elshahed MS, Miron A, Aprotosoaie AC, et al (2021)

Pectin in diet: Interactions with the human microbiome, role in gut homeostasis, and nutrient-drug interactions.

Carbohydrate polymers, 255:117388.

Pectins are a part of daily diet as well as food additives that are indigestible polysaccharides by human enzymes, however, they can be easily degraded by gut bacteria with the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Knowledge of pectin gut homeostasis and further how pectin affect gut bacterial communities is insufficient and limited. This review focuses on providing the whole story of how pectin functions as prebiotics in the gut. Understanding the interplay between functional and immunological responses inside animal or human gut as influenced by pectin in diets is provided. The interaction between pectin and gut microbiota is presented from both sides, in terms of how pectin affects gut microbiome and or the fermentation products produced in response by gut bacteria. This knowledge can be used to define preferred dietary pectins, targeting beneficial bacteria, and favoring balanced microbiota communities in the gut to maximize pectins' health benefits.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Hövels M, Kosciow K, U Deppenmeier (2021)

Characterization of a novel endo-levanase from Azotobacter chroococcum DSM 2286 and its application for the production of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides.

Carbohydrate polymers, 255:117384.

Prebiotics are known for their ability to modulate the composition of the human microbiome and mediate health-promoting benefits. Endo-levanases, which hydrolyze levan into short-chain FOS, could be used for the production of levan-based prebiotics. The novel endo-levanase (LevB2286) from Azotobacter chroococcum DSM 2286, combines an exceptionally high specific activity with advantageous hydrolytic properties. Starting from levan isolated from Timothy grass, LevB2286 produced FOS ranging from DP 2 - 8. In contrast to endo-levanases described in the literature, LevB2286 formed minor amounts of fructose and levanbiose, even with greatly extended incubation. The combined activity of LevB2286 and the levansucrase LevS1417 from Gluconobacter japonicus LMG 1417 led to a one-step synthesis of levan-type FOS from sucrose. 387.4 ± 17.3 g L-1 FOS were produced within 48 h by the production strategy based on crude cell extract of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing levS1417 and levB2286 simultaneously.

RevDate: 2021-01-28

Silverstein RB, IU Mysorekar (2021)

Group therapy on in utero colonization: seeking common truths and a way forward.

Microbiome, 9(1):7.

The human microbiome refers to the genetic composition of microorganisms in a particular location in the human body. Emerging evidence over the past many years suggests that the microbiome constitute drivers of human fate almost at par with our genome and epigenome. It is now well accepted after decades of disbelief that a broad understanding of human development, health, physiology, and disease requires understanding of the microbiome along with the genome and epigenome. We are learning daily of the interdependent relationships between microbiome/microbiota and immune responses, mood, cancer progression, response to therapies, aging, obesity, antibiotic usage, and overusage and much more. The next frontier in microbiome field is understanding when does this influence begin? Does the human microbiome initiate at the time of birth or are developing human fetuses already primed with microbes and their products in utero. In this commentary, we reflect on evidence gathered thus far on this question and identify the unknown common truths. We present a way forward to continue understanding our microbial colleagues and our interwoven fates.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Sanders D, Grunden A, RR Dunn (2021)

A review of clothing microbiology: the history of clothing and the role of microbes in textiles.

Biology letters, 17(1):20200700.

Humans have worn clothing for thousands of years, and since its invention, clothing has evolved from its simple utilitarian function for survival to become an integral part of society. While much consideration has been given to the broad environmental impacts of the textile and laundering industries, little is known about the impact wearing clothing has had on the human microbiome, particularly that of the skin, despite our long history with clothing. This review discusses the history of clothing and the evolution of textiles, what is and is not known about microbial persistence on and degradation of various fibres, and what opportunities for the industrial and environmental application of clothing microbiology exist for the future.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Laursen MF, Bahl MI, TR Licht (2021)

Settlers of our inner surface - Factors shaping the gut microbiota from birth to toddlerhood.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:6081092 [Epub ahead of print].

During the first three years of life, the microbial ecosystem within the human gut undergoes a process that is unlike what happens in this ecosystem at any other time of our life. This period in time is considered a highly important developmental window, where the gut microbiota is much less resilient and much more responsive to external and environmental factors than seen in the adult gut. While advanced bioinformatics and clinical correlation studies have received extensive focus within studies of the human microbiome, basic microbial growth physiology has attracted much less attention, although it plays a pivotal role to understand the developing gut microbiota during early life. In this review, we will thus take a microbial ecology perspective on the analysis of factors that influence the temporal development of the infant gut microbiota. Such factors include sources of microbes that seed the intestinal environment, physico-chemical (abiotic) conditions influencing microbial growth, and the availability of nutrients needed by the intestinal microbes.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Koidl L, E Untersmayr (2021)

The clinical implications of the microbiome in the development of allergy diseases.

Expert review of clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: A substantial number of patients worldwide are affected by allergies. Emerging evidence suggests that the individual microbial composition might contribute to the development of allergies or might even protect from allergic diseases. Areas covered: This review provides a detailed summary regarding available knowledge on the composition of a healthy human microbiome at allergy relevant body sites. It highlights factors influencing the microbiota composition. Furthermore, recent findings on the mutual interaction of the microbiota with the innate and adaptive immune system are reported. In the final part, this knowledge is combined to discuss microbial implications for food allergy, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and skin allergies. Literature for this review was gathered by searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases between October and December 2020. Expert opinion: Due to the highly individual composition, it is currently not possible to define the characteristics of a site-specific microbiome in health and disease. Mainly effects of bacterial communities have been investigated, while fungal or viral influences are not yet well understood. The communication between microbial communities found in different organs impact on allergy development. Thus, a personalized approach is essential to beneficially influence these complex interactions and to modulate the host-specific microbiota in allergies.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Campbell PM, Humphreys GJ, Summers AM, et al (2020)

Does the Microbiome Affect the Outcome of Renal Transplantation?.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:558644.

The role of the human microbiome in health and disease is becoming increasingly apparent. Emerging evidence suggests that the microbiome is affected by solid organ transplantation. Kidney transplantation is the gold standard treatment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), the advanced stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The question of how ESRD and transplantation affect the microbiome and vice versa includes how the microbiome is affected by increased concentrations of toxins such as urea and creatinine (which are elevated in ESRD), whether restoration of renal function following transplantation alters the composition of the microbiome, and the impact of lifelong administration of immunosuppressive drugs on the microbiome. Changes in microbiome composition and activity have been reported in ESRD and in therapeutic immunosuppression, but the effect on the outcome of transplantation is not well-understood. Here, we consider the current evidence that changes in kidney function and immunosuppression following transplantation influence the oral, gut, and urinary microbiomes in kidney transplant patients. The potential for changes in these microbiomes to lead to disease, systemic inflammation, or rejection of the organ itself is discussed, along with the possibility that restoration of kidney function might re-establish orthobiosis.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Yu L (2021)

Restoring Good Health in Elderly with Diverse Gut Microbiome and Food Intake Restriction to Combat COVID-19.

Indian journal of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 continues to be an ongoing global threat. The elderly with underlying health conditions like cardiovascular and lung diseases, diabetes, obesity, are the most vulnerable to this disease. Curing the pre-existing health conditions will greatly increase a person's resilience to COVID-19 and lower the death rate of the old people. Digestion and immunity form an integrated nutrition acquisition process, especially in obtaining essential amino acids and essential fatty acids from living microbial cells. A mature strong immunity coupled with gut dysbiosis in adults is the main cause of nutritional disorders like morbid obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Nutrition disorders in return worsen dysbiosis. Human microbiome has an intrinsic duality. While a diverse microbiome provides a full spectrum of essential nutrients to our body, nutrition disorders fuel overgrowth of microbiota (dysbiosis) at many sites on or inside our body, and are the main causes of chronic inflammation at these sites. In the case of COVID-19, nutritional disorder impairs the immunity, causes hyperinflammation, and leads to the protracted overload of cytokines by the immune system, i.e., the cytokine storm. Autophagy induced by restrictive eating is an ideal inhibitor of microbiota overgrowth, as autophagy deprives microbiota of excessive nutrition for replication. Autophagy also attenuates inflammation. Therefore, as a precaution, the author suggests restoring good health in the elderly with the support from a diverse gut microbiome and daily regular food intake restriction, so as to lower the risk of developing into severe case even if they are infected by COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-01-10

Pineider J, Reisch J, Harris-Tryon T, et al (2021)

Knowledge and attitude towards the human microbiome: a single-center cross-sectional survey.

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology pii:S0190-9622(21)00102-X [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-02-06

Tytgat HLP, Rasinkangas P, Ritari J, et al (2021)

Selection and characterization of a SpaCBA pilus-secreting food-grade derivative of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 105(3):1123-1131.

Many studies have established the functional properties of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, previously known as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, marketed worldwide as a probiotic. The extraordinary capacity of L. rhamnosus GG to bind to human mucus and influence the immune system especially stand out. Earlier, we have shown the key role of its SpaCBA sortase-dependent pili encoded by the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster herein. These heterotrimeric pili consist of a shaft pilin SpaA, a basal pilin SpaB, and tip pilin SpaC that contains a mucus-binding domain. Here, we set out to characterize a food-grade non-GMO mutant of L. rhamnosus GG, strain PA11, which secretes its pilins, rather than coupling them to the cell surface, due to a defect in the housekeeping sortase A. The sortase-negative strain PA11 was extensively characterized using functional genomics and biochemical approaches and found to secrete the SpaCBA pili into the supernatant. Given the functional importance and uniqueness of the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG, strain PA11 offers novel opportunities towards the characterization and further therapeutic application of SpaCBA pili and their low-cost, large-scale production. KEY POINTS: •Creation of pilus-secreting mutant (PA11) of the key probiotic LGG. •Strain PA11 is defective in a functional housekeeping sortase SrtA. •Strain PA11 opens novel biotherapeutic application avenues. Graphical abstract.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Li W, KE Nelson (2021)

Microbial Species that Initially Colonize the Human Gut at Birth or in Early Childhood Can Stay in Human Body for Lifetime.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, many studies have described the composition and function of the human microbiome at different body sites and suggested a role for the microbiome in various diseases and health conditions. Some studies, using longitudinal samples, have also suggested how the microbiome changes over time due to disease, diet, development, travel, and other environmental factors. However, to date, no study has demonstrated whether the microorganisms established at birth or in early childhood, either transmitted from parents or obtained from the environment, can stay in the human body until adult or senior age. To directly answer this question is difficult, because microbiome samples at childhood and at later adulthood for the same individual will need to be compared and the field is not old enough to have allowed for that type of sample collection. Here, using a metagenomic approach, we analyzed 1004 gut microbiome samples from senior adults (65 ± 7.8 years) from the TwinsUK cohort. Our data indicate that many species in the human gut acquired in early childhood can stay for a lifetime until senior ages. We identified the rare genomic variants (single nucleotide variation and indels) for 27 prevalent species with enough sequencing coverage for confident genomic variant identification. We found that for some species, twin pairs, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, share significantly more rare variants than unrelated subject pairs. But no significant difference is found between MZ and DZ twin pairs. These observations strongly suggest that these species acquired in early childhood remained in these persons until senior adulthood.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Jing G, Zhang Y, Cui W, et al (2021)

Meta-Apo improves accuracy of 16S-amplicon-based prediction of microbiome function.

BMC genomics, 22(1):9.

BACKGROUND: Due to their much lower costs in experiment and computation than metagenomic whole-genome sequencing (WGS), 16S rRNA gene amplicons have been widely used for predicting the functional profiles of microbiome, via software tools such as PICRUSt 2. However, due to the potential PCR bias and gene profile variation among phylogenetically related genomes, functional profiles predicted from 16S amplicons may deviate from WGS-derived ones, resulting in misleading results.

RESULTS: Here we present Meta-Apo, which greatly reduces or even eliminates such deviation, thus deduces much more consistent diversity patterns between the two approaches. Tests of Meta-Apo on > 5000 16S-rRNA amplicon human microbiome samples from 4 body sites showed the deviation between the two strategies is significantly reduced by using only 15 WGS-amplicon training sample pairs. Moreover, Meta-Apo enables cross-platform functional comparison between WGS and amplicon samples, thus greatly improve 16S-based microbiome diagnosis, e.g. accuracy of gingivitis diagnosis via 16S-derived functional profiles was elevated from 65 to 95% by WGS-based classification. Therefore, with the low cost of 16S-amplicon sequencing, Meta-Apo can produce a reliable, high-resolution view of microbiome function equivalent to that offered by shotgun WGS.

CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that large-scale, function-oriented microbiome sequencing projects can probably benefit from the lower cost of 16S-amplicon strategy, without sacrificing the precision in functional reconstruction that otherwise requires WGS. An optimized C++ implementation of Meta-Apo is available on GitHub (https://github.com/qibebt-bioinfo/meta-apo) under a GNU GPL license. It takes the functional profiles of a few paired WGS:16S-amplicon samples as training, and outputs the calibrated functional profiles for the much larger number of 16S-amplicon samples.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Clements TW, Tolonen M, Ball CG, et al (2021)

Secondary Peritonitis and Intra-Abdominal Sepsis: An Increasingly Global Disease in Search of Better Systemic Therapies.

Scandinavian journal of surgery : SJS : official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Secondary peritonitis and intra-abdominal sepsis are a global health problem. The life-threatening systemic insult that results from intra-abdominal sepsis has been extensively studied and remains somewhat poorly understood. While local surgical therapy for perforation of the abdominal viscera is an age-old therapy, systemic therapies to control the subsequent systemic inflammatory response are scarce. Advancements in critical care have led to improved outcomes in secondary peritonitis. The understanding of the effect of secondary peritonitis on the human microbiome is an evolving field and has yielded potential therapeutic targets. This review of secondary peritonitis discusses the history, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and future directions of the management of secondary peritonitis. Ongoing clinical studies in the treatment of secondary peritonitis and the open abdomen are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-01-06
CmpDate: 2021-01-06

Kakabadze E, Grdzelishvili N, Sanikidze L, et al (2020)

REVIVAL OF MICROBIAL THERAPEUTICS, WITH EMPHASIS ON PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS (REVIEW).

Georgian medical news.

The idea to use living microorganisms for disease prevention and treatment was introduced a century ago, but yet the full potential and benefits of microbial therapeutics has not been entirely understood. In the light of developments of human microbiome studies, probiotics are gaining new momentum, where health benefit conferring by Lactobacillus are emerging as one of the novel approaches in the treatment and prophylactics of dysbiosis. The present review focuses on the origin and development of the probiotic's concept, mechanisms of action and anticipated use of probiotic Lactobacillus as well as of microbial therapeutics. The required regulatory frameworks associated with probiotic use and marketing are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-01-26

D'Onofrio V, Del Chierico F, Belci P, et al (2020)

Effects of a Synbiotic Formula on Functional Bowel Disorders and Gut Microbiota Profile during Long-Term Home Enteral Nutrition (LTHEN): A Pilot Study.

Nutrients, 13(1):.

Long-term enteral nutrition (LTEN) can induce gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis and gastrointestinal related symptoms, such as constipation or diarrhoea. To date, the treatment of constipation is based on the use of laxatives and prebiotics. Only recently have probiotics and synbiotics been considered, the latter modulating the GM and regulating intestinal functions. This randomized open-label intervention study evaluated the effects of synbiotic treatment on the GM profile, its functional activity and on intestinal functions in long-term home EN (LTHEN) patients. Twenty LTHEN patients were recruited to take enteral formula plus one sachet/day of synbiotic (intervention group, IG) or enteral formula (control group, CG) for four months and evaluated for constipation, stool consistency, and GM and metabolite profiles. In IG patients, statistically significant reduction of constipation and increase of stool consistency were observed after four months (T1), compared to CG subjects. GM ecology analyses revealed a decrease in the microbial diversity of both IC and CG groups. Biodiversity increased at T1 for 5/11 IG patients and Methanobrevibacter was identified as the biomarker correlated to the richness increase. Moreover, the increase of short chain fatty acids and the reduction of harmful molecules have been correlated to synbiotic administration. Synbiotics improve constipation symptoms and influences Methanobrevibacter growth in LTHEN patients.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Dohlman AB, Arguijo Mendoza D, Ding S, et al (2021)

The cancer microbiome atlas: a pan-cancer comparative analysis to distinguish tissue-resident microbiota from contaminants.

Cell host & microbe, 29(2):281-298.e5.

Studying the microbial composition of internal organs and their associations with disease remains challenging due to the difficulty of acquiring clinical biopsies. We designed a statistical model to analyze the prevalence of species across sample types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), revealing that species equiprevalent across sample types are predominantly contaminants, bearing unique signatures from each TCGA-designated sequencing center. Removing such species mitigated batch effects and isolated the tissue-resident microbiome, which was validated by original matched TCGA samples. Gene copies and nucleotide variants can further distinguish mixed-evidence species. We, thus, present The Cancer Microbiome Atlas (TCMA), a collection of curated, decontaminated microbial compositions of oropharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and colorectal tissues. This led to the discovery of prognostic species and blood signatures of mucosal barrier injuries and enabled systematic matched microbe-host multi-omic analyses, which will help guide future studies of the microbiome's role in human health and disease.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Fang C, Wu L, Zhu C, et al (2020)

A potential therapeutic strategy for prostatic disease by targeting the oral microbiome.

Medicinal research reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Nowadays, human microbiome research is rapidly growing and emerging evidence has witnessed the critical role that oral microbiome plays in the process of human health and disease. Oral microbial dysbiosis has been confirmed as a contributory cause for diseases in multiple body systems, ranging from the oral cavity to the gastrointestinal, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and even nervous system. As research progressing, oral microbiome-based diagnosis and therapy are proposed and applied, which may represent potential drug targets in systemic diseases. Recent studies have uncovered the possible association between periodontal disease and prostatic disease, suggesting new prevention and therapeutic treatment for the disease by targeting periodontal pathogens. Thus, we performed this review to first explore the association between the oral microbiome and prostatic disease, according to current knowledge based on published articles, and then mainly focus on the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms and the potential prevention and treatment derived from these mechanistic studies.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Turunen Katri A, A Kantele (2020)

Revisiting travellers' diarrhoea justifying antibiotic treatment: prospective study.

Journal of travel medicine pii:6054204 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: As antimicrobials increase the risk of acquiring multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, unnecessary antibiotics should be avoided for travellers' diarrhoea (TD). Antibiotics are recommended in TD accompanied by fever or incapacitation (TD justifying use of antibiotics, TDjuAB). Seeking tools for reducing antibiotic use, we explored factors predisposing to TDjuAB and scrutinized antibiotic treatment among those with TDjuAB and those with diarrhoea not justifying antibiotics.

METHODS: We conducted a study among 370 prospectively recruited visitors to the tropics. Stool samples and questionnaires were collected before and after travel. Enteric pathogens were analysed by qPCR for enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC) E. coli/Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia and Vibrio cholerae, and for ETEC's toxins LT (heat-labile), STh (human heat-stable) and STp (porcine heat-stable). TD was defined by the WHO criteria and TDjuAB as diarrhoea accompanied by fever, and/or disrupting or preventing daily activities. Multivariable analysis was applied-separately for travel-related factors and pathogens-to identify risk factors for TDjuAB(+).

RESULTS: Among the 370 travellers, TD was contracted by 253 (68%), categorized as TDjuAB(+) in 93/253 (37%) and TDjuAB(-) in 160/253 (63%) of the cases. Antibiotics were used for TD by 41% in TDjuAB(+) and by 7% in the TDjuAB(-) group. Relative risk ratios (RRR) s are presented for both the TDjuAB(+) and the TDjuAB(-) groups. TDjuAB(+) was associated with long travel duration and young age. Among the 298 subjects not having taken antibiotics, increased RRRs were found e.g. for findings of Campylobacter coli/jejuni and ETEC's STh toxin.

CONCLUSIONS: The first to analyse risk factors for TDjuAB, our study presents RRRs for demographic and behavioural factors and for various pathogens. Only less than half of those in the TDjuAB(+) group took antibiotics, which demonstrates that most cases meeting the current criteria recover without antimicrobial treatment.

RevDate: 2021-02-03
CmpDate: 2021-02-03

Handa S, Reyna A, Wiryaman T, et al (2021)

Determinants of adenine-mutagenesis in diversity-generating retroelements.

Nucleic acids research, 49(2):1033-1045.

Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) vary protein sequences to the greatest extent known in the natural world. These elements are encoded by constituents of the human microbiome and the microbial 'dark matter'. Variation occurs through adenine-mutagenesis, in which genetic information in RNA is reverse transcribed faithfully to cDNA for all template bases but adenine. We investigated the determinants of adenine-mutagenesis in the prototypical Bordetella bacteriophage DGR through an in vitro system composed of the reverse transcriptase bRT, Avd protein, and a specific RNA. We found that the catalytic efficiency for correct incorporation during reverse transcription by the bRT-Avd complex was strikingly low for all template bases, with the lowest occurring for adenine. Misincorporation across a template adenine was only somewhat lower in efficiency than correct incorporation. We found that the C6, but not the N1 or C2, purine substituent was a key determinant of adenine-mutagenesis. bRT-Avd was insensitive to the C6 amine of adenine but recognized the C6 carbonyl of guanine. We also identified two bRT amino acids predicted to nonspecifically contact incoming dNTPs, R74 and I181, as promoters of adenine-mutagenesis. Our results suggest that the overall low catalytic efficiency of bRT-Avd is intimately tied to its ability to carry out adenine-mutagenesis.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Lääveri T, Antikainen J, Mero S, et al (2020)

Bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens analysed by qPCR: Findings from a prospective study of travellers' diarrhoea.

Travel medicine and infectious disease, 40:101957 pii:S1477-8939(20)30454-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The diagnostics of travellers' diarrhoea (TD) has been revolutionised by multiplex qPCR assays. While mostly of bacterial aetiology, viruses and parasites account for the disease among 10-20% of travellers. Despite this, prospective studies applying qPCR assays remain scarce that cover not only bacteria, such as the various diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), but also viral and parasitic pathogens.

METHOD: We analysed by qPCR pre- and post-travel stool samples of 146 Finnish travellers for bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens: enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC) E. coli; Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia and Vibrio cholerae; norovirus G1 and G2, rotavirus, enteroviruses, and sapovirus; and Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cryptosporidium. Symptoms and medication data during travel were collected by questionnaires.

RESULTS: We detected bacterial pathogens in 102/146 samples (69.9%; EAEC, EPEC, ETEC most common), viral ones in 13 (8.9%; norovirus most common), and parasitic ones in one (0.7%; Giardia). Noroviruses were associated with severe symptoms (23.5% versus non-severe 4.9%). In the TD group, 41.7% (5/12) of those with viral pathogens (vs. 13.3%; 11/83 without) took antibiotics.

CONCLUSION: Viral pathogens, particularly noroviruses, prevail in severe TD. The symptoms of viral disease are often severe and lead to unwarranted use of antibiotics.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Van Ende M, Timmermans B, Vanreppelen G, et al (2021)

The involvement of the Candida glabrata trehalase enzymes in stress resistance and gut colonization.

Virulence, 12(1):329-345.

Candida glabrata is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and is frequently present in the human microbiome. It has a high relative resistance to environmental stresses and several antifungal drugs. An important component involved in microbial stress tolerance is trehalose. In this work, we characterized the three C. glabrata trehalase enzymes Ath1, Nth1 and Nth2. Single, double and triple deletion strains were constructed and characterized both in vitro and in vivo to determine the role of these enzymes in virulence. Ath1 was found to be located in the periplasm and was essential for growth on trehalose as sole carbon source, while Nth1 on the other hand was important for oxidative stress resistance, an observation which was consistent by the lower survival rate of the NTH1 deletion strain in human macrophages. No significant phenotype was observed for Nth2. The triple deletion strain was unable to establish a stable colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in mice indicating the importance of having trehalase activity for colonization in the gut.

RevDate: 2020-12-23

Stewart AG, Satlin MJ, Schlebusch S, et al (2020)

Completing the Picture - Capturing the Resistome in Antibiotic Clinical Trials.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:6044700 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the accepted dogma that antibiotic use is the largest contributor to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and human microbiome disruption, our knowledge of specific antibiotic-microbiome effects remains basic. Detection of associations between new or old antimicrobials and specific AMR burden is patchy and heterogeneous. Various microbiome analysis tools have become available that enable accurate descriptions of antibiotic effects on microbial communities in vivo over a period of time. Microbiome analysis of treatment groups in antibiotic clinical trials, powered to measure clinically meaningful endpoints would greatly assist the antibiotic development pipeline and clinician antibiotic decision making.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Martins D, Mendes F, F Schmitt (2020)

Microbiome: A Supportive or a Leading Actor in Lung Cancer?.

Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology pii:000511556 [Epub ahead of print].

Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Despite the major diagnostic and therapeutic innovations, the effect on mortality has been modest and the overall survival is still poor. Better understanding of the pathology of these tumors is necessary in order to develop personalized therapeutic strategies in lung cancer patients. Human microbiome has been associated with normal physiology and function, and increasing evidence points towards a key role of the microbiome in promoting the progression of lung disease. Studies have shown that although poorly understood, lung has a distinctive microbiome that may an important role in lung cancer development and progression, and interactions between microbial populations have the potential to influence disease, suggesting that microbiome can be an emerging target in cancer therapeutics. We will review mechanisms how the lung microbiota influences carcinogenesis, focusing on the bacterial dysbiosis and inflammation. Moreover, we will discuss the link between the microbiome and cancer and the consequences induced by the immune system, as the host microbiota plays an essential role in activating and modulating the immune response. We summarize current research advances in the lung microbiome and demonstrate the potential to exploit microbiome as a mechanism to prevent carcinogenesis and modulate therapeutic strategy, suggesting microbiome as a valuable approach in lung cancer patients.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Tranberg A, Klarin B, Johansson J, et al (2020)

Efficacy of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299 and 299v against nosocomial oropharyngeal pathogens in vitro and as an oral prophylactic treatment in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

MicrobiologyOpen [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Disturbance in the oropharyngeal microbiota is common in hospitalized patients and contributes to the development of nosocomial pneumonia. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299 and 299v (Lp299 and Lp299v) are probiotic bacteria with beneficial effects on the human microbiome.

AIM: To investigate how Lp299 and Lp299v affect the growth of nosocomial oropharyngeal pathogens in vitro and to evaluate the efficacy in vivo when these probiotics are administered prophylactically in hospitalized patients.

METHODS: The in vitro effect of Lp299 and Lp299v on nosocomial respiratory tract pathogens was evaluated using two methods, the co-culture and agar overlay. In the clinical study, patients were randomized to orally receive either probiotics or placebo twice daily during their hospital stay. Oropharyngeal swabs were analyzed at inclusion and every fourth day throughout hospitalization.

FINDINGS: All tested pathogens were completely inhibited by both Lp299 and Lp299v using the agar-overlay method. In the co-culture experiment, Lp299 and Lp299v significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the growth of all pathogens except for Enterococcus faecalis co-incubated with Lp299. In the clinical study, daily oral treatment with Lp299 and Lp299v did not influence the development of disturbed oropharyngeal microbiota or nosocomial infection. Proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics, and steroid treatment were identified as risk factors for developing disturbed oropharyngeal microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: Lp299 and Lp299v inhibited pathogen growth in vitro but did not affect the oropharyngeal microbiota in vivo. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier for this study is NCT02303301.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Holster S, Repsilber D, Geng D, et al (2020)

Correlations between microbiota and metabolites after faecal microbiota transfer in irritable bowel syndrome.

Beneficial microbes [Epub ahead of print].

Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the infusion of donor faecal material into the intestine of a patient with the aim to restore a disturbed gut microbiota. In this study, it was investigated whether FMT has an effect on faecal microbial composition, its functional capacity, faecal metabolite profiles and their interactions in 16 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Faecal samples from eight different time points before and until six months after allogenic FMT (faecal material from a healthy donor) as well as autologous FMT (own faecal material) were analysed by 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GS-MS). The results showed that the allogenic FMT resulted in alterations in the microbial composition that were detectable up to six months, whereas after autologous FMT this was not the case. Similar results were found for the functional profiles, which were predicted from the phylogenetic sequencing data. While both allogenic FMT as well as autologous FMT did not have an effect on the faecal metabolites measured in this study, correlations between the microbial composition and the metabolites showed that the microbe-metabolite interactions seemed to be disrupted after allogenic FMT compared to autologous FMT. This shows that FMT can lead to altered interactions between the gut microbiota and its metabolites in IBS patients. Further research should investigate if and how this affects efficacy of FMT treatments.

RevDate: 2020-12-23

Yin X, Altman T, Rutherford E, et al (2020)

A Comparative Evaluation of Tools to Predict Metabolite Profiles From Microbiome Sequencing Data.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:595910.

Metabolomic analyses of human gut microbiome samples can unveil the metabolic potential of host tissues and the numerous microorganisms they support, concurrently. As such, metabolomic information bears immense potential to improve disease diagnosis and therapeutic drug discovery. Unfortunately, as cohort sizes increase, comprehensive metabolomic profiling becomes costly and logistically difficult to perform at a large scale. To address these difficulties, we tested the feasibility of predicting the metabolites of a microbial community based solely on microbiome sequencing data. Paired microbiome sequencing (16S rRNA gene amplicons, shotgun metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics) and metabolome (mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) datasets were collected from six independent studies spanning multiple diseases. We used these datasets to evaluate two reference-based gene-to-metabolite prediction pipelines and a machine-learning (ML) based metabolic profile prediction approach. With the pre-trained model on over 900 microbiome-metabolome paired samples, the ML approach yielded the most accurate predictions (i.e., highest F1 scores) of metabolite occurrences in the human gut and outperformed reference-based pipelines in predicting differential metabolites between case and control subjects. Our findings demonstrate the possibility of predicting metabolites from microbiome sequencing data, while highlighting certain limitations in detecting differential metabolites, and provide a framework to evaluate metabolite prediction pipelines, which will ultimately facilitate future investigations on microbial metabolites and human health.

RevDate: 2021-01-10

Aho EL, Ogle JM, AM Finck (2020)

The Human Microbiome as a Focus of Antibiotic Discovery: Neisseria mucosa Displays Activity Against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:577762.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are a serious global health problem. This organism has developed disturbing levels of antibiotic resistance, resulting in the need for new approaches to prevent and treat gonorrhea. The genus Neisseria also includes several members of the human microbiome that live in close association with an array of microbial partners in a variety of niches. We designed an undergraduate antibiotic discovery project to examine a panel of nonpathogenic Neisseria species for their ability to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Five strains belonging to the N. mucosa species group displayed activity against other Neisseria in delayed antagonism assays; three of these were active against N. gonorrhoeae. The antimicrobial compound secreted by N. mucosa NRL 9300 remained active in the presence of catalase, trypsin, and HEPES buffer, and effectively inhibited a DNA uptake mutant of N. gonorrhoeae. Antimicrobial activity was also retained in an ethyl acetate extract of plate grown N. mucosa NRL 9300. These data suggest N. mucosa produces an antimicrobial secondary metabolite that is distinct from previously described antigonococcal agents. This work also serves as a demonstration project that could easily be adapted to studying other members of the human microbiome in undergraduate settings. We offer the perspective that both introductory and more advanced course-based and apprentice-style antibiotic discovery projects focused on the microbiome have the potential to enrich undergraduate curricula and we describe transferrable techniques and strategies to facilitate project design.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Łusiak-Szelachowska M, Weber-Dąbrowska B, Żaczek M, et al (2020)

The Presence of Bacteriophages in the Human Body: Good, Bad or Neutral?.

Microorganisms, 8(12):.

The presence of bacteriophages (phages) in the human body may impact bacterial microbiota and modulate immunity. The role of phages in human microbiome studies and diseases is poorly understood. However, the correlation between a greater abundance of phages in the gut in ulcerative colitis and diabetes has been suggested. Furthermore, most phages found at different sites in the human body are temperate, so their therapeutic effects and their potential beneficial effects remain unclear. Hence, far, no correlation has been observed between the presence of widespread crAssphage in the human population and human health and diseases. Here, we emphasize the beneficial effects of phage transfer in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in Clostridioides difficile infection. The safety of phage use in gastrointestinal disorders has been demonstrated in clinical studies. The significance of phages in the FMT as well as in gastrointestinal disorders remains to be established. An explanation of the multifaceted role of endogenous phages for the development of phage therapy is required.

RevDate: 2021-01-31

Xu CJ, Gruzieva O, Qi C, et al (2020)

Shared DNA methylation signatures in childhood allergy: The MeDALL study.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(20)31766-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation associated with allergy might provide novel insights into the shared or unique etiology of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood allergy.

METHODS: Within the European Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) consortium, we performed an epigenome-wide association study of whole blood DNA methylation by using a cross-sectional design. Allergy was defined as having symptoms from at least 1 allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) and positive serum-specific IgE to common aeroallergens. The discovery study included 219 case patients and 417 controls at age 4 years and 228 case patients and 593 controls at age 8 years from 3 birth cohorts, with replication analyses in 325 case patients and 1111 controls. We performed additional analyses on 21 replicated sites in 785 case patients and 2124 controls by allergic symptoms only from 8 cohorts, 3 of which were not previously included in analyses.

RESULTS: We identified 80 differentially methylated CpG sites that showed a 1% to 3% methylation difference in the discovery phase, of which 21 (including 5 novel CpG sites) passed genome-wide significance after meta-analysis. All 21 CpG sites were also significantly differentially methylated with allergic symptoms and shared between asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. The 21 CpG sites mapped to relevant genes, including ACOT7, LMAN3, and CLDN23. All 21 CpG sties were differently methylated in asthma in isolated eosinophils, and 10 were replicated in respiratory epithelium.

CONCLUSION: Reduced whole blood DNA methylation at 21 CpG sites was significantly associated with childhood allergy. The findings provide novel insights into the shared molecular mechanisms underlying asthma, rhinitis, and eczema.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Piñar G, Sclocchi MC, Pinzari F, et al (2020)

The Microbiome of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: A Bio-Archive of Their History.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:593401.

Seven emblematic Leonardo da Vinci's drawings were investigated through third generation sequencing technology (Nanopore). In addition, SEM analyses were carried out to acquire photographic documentation and to infer the nature of the micro-objects removed from the surface of the drawings. The Nanopore generated microbiomes can be used as a "bio-archive" of the drawings, offering a kind of fingerprint for current and future biological comparisons. This information might help to create a biological catalog of the drawings (cataloging), a microbiome-fingerprint for each single analyzed drawing, as a reference dataset for future studies (monitoring) and last but not least a bio-archive of the history of each single object (added value). Results showed a relatively high contamination with human DNA and a surprising dominance of bacteria over fungi. However, it was possible to identify typical bacteria of the human microbiome, which are mere contaminants introduced by handling of the drawings as well as other microorganisms that seem to have been introduced through vectors, such as insects and their droppings, visible through the SEM analyses. All drawings showed very specific bio-archives, but a core microbiome of bacteria and fungi that are repeatedly found in this type of material as true degraders were identified, such as members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes among bacteria, and fungi belonging to the classes Sordariomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. In addition, some similarities were observed that could be influenced by their geographical location (Rome or Turin), indicating the influence of this factor and denoting the importance of environmental and storage conditions on the specific microbiomes.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Kolmeder CA, WM de Vos (2021)

Roadmap to functional characterization of the human intestinal microbiota in its interaction with the host.

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 194:113751.

It is known for more than 100 years that the intestinal microbes are important for the host's health and the last decade this is being intensely studied with a focus on the mechanistic aspects. Among the fundamental functions of the intestinal microbiome are the priming of the immune system, the production of essential vitamins and the energy harvest from foods. By now, several dozens of diseases, both intestinal and non-intestinal related, have been associated with the intestinal microbiome. Initially, this was based on the description of the composition between groups of different health status or treatment arms based on phylogenetic approaches based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. This way of analysis has mostly moved to the analysis of all the genes or transcripts of the microbiome i.e. metagenomics and meta-transcriptomics. Differences are regularly found but these have to be taken with caution as we still do not know what the majority of genes of the intestinal microbiome are capable of doing. To circumvent this caveat researchers are studying the proteins and the metabolites of the microbiome and the host via metaproteomics and metabolomics approaches. However, also here the complexity is high and only a fraction of signals obtained with high throughput instruments can be identified and assigned to a known protein or molecule. Therefore, modern microbiome research needs advancement of existing and development of new analytical techniques. The usage of model systems like intestinal organoids where samples can be taken and processed rapidly as well as microfluidics systems may help. This review aims to elucidate what we know about the functionality of the human intestinal microbiome, what technologies are advancing this knowledge, and what innovations are still required to further evolve this actively developing field.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Sidorina A, Catesini G, Levi Mortera S, et al (2020)

Combined proteomic and lipidomic studies in Pompe disease allow a better disease mechanism understanding.

Journal of inherited metabolic disease [Epub ahead of print].

Pompe disease (PD) is caused by deficiency of the enzyme acid α-glucosidase resulting in glycogen accumulation in lysosomes. Clinical symptoms include skeletal myopathy, respiratory failure, and cardiac hypertrophy. We studied plasma proteomic and lipidomic profiles in 12 PD patients compared to age-matched controls. The proteomic profiles were analyzed by nLC-MS/MS SWATH method. Wide-targeted lipidomic analysis was performed by LC-IMS/MS, allowing to quantify >1100 lipid species, spanning 13 classes. Significant differences were found for 16 proteins, with four showing the most relevant changes (GPLD1, PON1, LDHB, PKM). Lipidomic analysis showed elevated levels of three phosphatidylcholines and of the free fatty acid 22:4, and reduced levels of six lysophosphatidylcholines. Up-regulated glycolytic enzymes (LDHB and PKM) are involved in autophagy and glycogen metabolism, while down-regulated PON1 and GPLD1 combined with lipidomic data indicate an abnormal phospholipid metabolism. Reduced GPLD1 and dysregulation of lipids with acyl-chains characteristic of GPI-anchor structure suggest the potential involvement of GPI-anchor system in PD. Results of proteomic analysis displayed the involvement of multiple cellular functions affecting inflammatory, immune and antioxidant responses, autophagy, Ca2+ -homeostasis, and cell adhesion. The combined multi-omic approach revealed new biosignatures in PD, providing novel insights in disease pathophysiology with potential future clinical application.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

van Tilburg Bernardes E, Gutierrez MW, MC Arrieta (2020)

The Fungal Microbiome and Asthma.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:583418.

Asthma is a group of inflammatory conditions that compromises the airways of a continuously increasing number of people around the globe. Its complex etiology comprises both genetic and environmental aspects, with the intestinal and lung microbiomes emerging as newly implicated factors that can drive and aggravate asthma. Longitudinal infant cohort studies combined with mechanistic studies in animal models have identified microbial signatures causally associated with subsequent asthma risk. The recent inclusion of fungi in human microbiome surveys has revealed that microbiome signatures associated with asthma risk are not limited to bacteria, and that fungi are also implicated in asthma development in susceptible individuals. In this review, we examine the unique properties of human-associated and environmental fungi, which confer them the ability to influence immune development and allergic responses. The important contribution of fungi to asthma development and exacerbations prompts for their inclusion in current and future asthma studies in humans and animal models.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Gomes JÁP, Frizon L, VF Demeda (2020)

Ocular Surface Microbiome in Health and Disease.

Asia-Pacific journal of ophthalmology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 9(6):505-511.

The ocular surface is exposed continuously to the environment and, as a consequence, to a variety of different microbes. After the results of the Human Microbiome Project became publicly available, international research groups started to focus interest on exploring the ocular surface microbiome and its physiopathological relationship to the eye. For example, numerous research studies the existence of the ocular surface's bacterial flora, typically gathering cultures from healthy patients and finding few variations in the bacterial species. More recently, culture-independent methods, including 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing, are being used to define the ocular microbiome. These newer methods suggest that the microbial communities have a greater diversity than previously reported. These communities seem to serve an immune-modulating function and maintain relationships with other microbes and organs, even distant ones. This review summarizes the literature exploring the ocular microbiome, both in health and in different diseases.

RevDate: 2020-12-19

Utter DR, Borisy GG, Eren AM, et al (2020)

Metapangenomics of the oral microbiome provides insights into habitat adaptation and cultivar diversity.

Genome biology, 21(1):293.

BACKGROUND: The increasing availability of microbial genomes and environmental shotgun metagenomes provides unprecedented access to the genomic differences within related bacteria. The human oral microbiome with its diverse habitats and abundant, relatively well-characterized microbial inhabitants presents an opportunity to investigate bacterial population structures at an ecosystem scale.

RESULTS: Here, we employ a metapangenomic approach that combines public genomes with Human Microbiome Project (HMP) metagenomes to study the diversity of microbial residents of three oral habitats: tongue dorsum, buccal mucosa, and supragingival plaque. For two exemplar taxa, Haemophilus parainfluenzae and the genus Rothia, metapangenomes reveal distinct genomic groups based on shared genome content. H. parainfluenzae genomes separate into three distinct subgroups with differential abundance between oral habitats. Functional enrichment analyses identify an operon encoding oxaloacetate decarboxylase as diagnostic for the tongue-abundant subgroup. For the genus Rothia, grouping by shared genome content recapitulates species-level taxonomy and habitat preferences. However, while most R. mucilaginosa are restricted to the tongue as expected, two genomes represent a cryptic population of R. mucilaginosa in many buccal mucosa samples. For both H. parainfluenzae and the genus Rothia, we identify not only limitations in the ability of cultivated organisms to represent populations in their native environment, but also specifically which cultivar gene sequences are absent or ubiquitous.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insights into population structure and biogeography in the mouth and form specific hypotheses about habitat adaptation. These results illustrate the power of combining metagenomes and pangenomes to investigate the ecology and evolution of bacteria across analytical scales.

RevDate: 2021-01-29

Kantele A, Lääveri T, Kareinen L, et al (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 infections among healthcare workers at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, spring 2020: Serosurvey, symptoms and risk factors.

Travel medicine and infectious disease, 39:101949 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Exposure, risks and immunity of healthcare workers (HCWs), a vital resource during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, warrant special attention.

METHODS: HCWs at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, filled in questionnaires and provided serum samples for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody screening by Euroimmun IgG assay in March-April 2020. Positive/equivocal findings were confirmed by Abbott and microneutralization tests. Positivity by two of the three assays or RT-PCR indicated a Covid-19 case (CoV+).

RESULTS: The rate of CoV(+) was 3.3% (36/1095) and seropositivity 3.0% (33/1095). CoV(+) was associated with contact with a known Covid-19 case, and working on a Covid-19-dedicated ward or one with cases among staff. The rate in the Covid-19-dedicated ICU was negligible. Smoking and age <55 years were associated with decreased risk. CoV(+) was strongly associated with ageusia, anosmia, myalgia, fatigue, fever, and chest pressure. Seropositivity was recorded for 89.3% of those with prior documented RT-PCR-positivity and 2.4% of those RT-PCR-negative. The rate of previously unidentified cases was 0.7% (8/1067) and asymptomatic ones 0% (0/36).

CONCLUSION: Undiagnosed and asymptomatic cases among HCWs proved rare. An increased risk was associated with Covid-19-dedicated wards. Particularly high rates were seen for wards with liberal HCW-HCW contacts, highlighting the importance of social distancing also among HCWs.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Aluthge ND, Tom WA, Bartenslager AC, et al (2020)

Differential longitudinal establishment of human fecal bacterial communities in germ-free porcine and murine models.

Communications biology, 3(1):760.

The majority of microbiome studies focused on understanding mechanistic relationships between the host and the microbiota have used mice and other rodents as the model of choice. However, the domestic pig is a relevant model that is currently underutilized for human microbiome investigations. In this study, we performed a direct comparison of the engraftment of fecal bacterial communities from human donors between human microbiota-associated (HMA) piglet and mouse models under identical dietary conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes using amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) revealed that with the exception of early microbiota from infants, the more mature microbiotas tested established better in the HMA piglets compared to HMA mice. Of interest was the greater transplantation success of members belonging to phylum Firmicutes in the HMA piglets compared to the HMA mice. Together, these results provide evidence for the HMA piglet model potentially being more broadly applicable for donors with more mature microbiotas while the HMA mouse model might be more relevant for developing microbiotas such as those of infants. This study also emphasizes the necessity to exercise caution in extrapolating findings from HMA animals to humans, since up to 28% of taxa from some donors failed to colonize either model.

RevDate: 2021-02-02

Ghemrawi M, Torres AR, Duncan G, et al (2021)

The genital microbiome and its potential for detecting sexual assault.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 51:102432.

Since its inception, the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has provided key discoveries that can be applied to forensics, in addition to those of obvious medical value. Whether for postmortem interval estimation, geolocation, or human identification, there are many applications of the microbiome as an investigative lead for forensic casework. The human skin microbiome has shown great potential for use in studies of transfer and human identification, however there has been little focus on the genital microbiome, in particular penile skin which differs from other body sites. Our preliminary data on both the penile and vaginal microbiome demonstrates potential value in cases of sexual assault. In this study we describe genital microbial signatures based on the analysis of five male and five female genital samples and compare these results to those from longitudinal studies. Selected taxa, e.g., Gardnerella, Lactobacilli, Finegoldia, Peptoniphilus, and Anaerococci, are shown to be candidate constituents of the genital microbiome that merit investigation for use in sexual assault casework.

RevDate: 2021-01-25

Tsonis O, Gkrozou F, M Paschopoulos (2020)

Microbiome affecting reproductive outcome in ARTs.

Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction, 50(3):102036 pii:S2468-7847(20)30412-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Current scientific evidence reveals the importance of the human microbiome in health and disease. The presence of microbiota within the male and female reproductive tract has been well-documented and present theories imply that a possible disruption of their concentrations may have adverse effects on reproductive health and reproductive outcomes. Altered endometrial and vaginal microbiome could potential affect the reproductive outcome in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. Analysis of seminal fluids could also facilitate a prompt and appropriate approach in cases of abnormal male reproductive microflora. Essential knowledge on this subject could provide fertility experts better understanding with regards to unexplained fertility, increasing the success rates of ARTs. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on the microbiota of the male and female reproductive tract and its impact on the success rates of ARTs in infertile couples.

RevDate: 2021-01-26
CmpDate: 2021-01-26

Creasy HH, Felix V, Aluvathingal J, et al (2021)

HMPDACC: a Human Microbiome Project Multi-omic data resource.

Nucleic acids research, 49(D1):D734-D742.

The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) explored microbial communities of the human body in both healthy and disease states. Two phases of the HMP (HMP and iHMP) together generated >48TB of data (public and controlled access) from multiple, varied omics studies of both the microbiome and associated hosts. The Human Microbiome Project Data Coordination Center (HMPDACC) was established to provide a portal to access data and resources produced by the HMP. The HMPDACC provides a unified data repository, multi-faceted search functionality, analysis pipelines and standardized protocols to facilitate community use of HMP data. Recent efforts have been put toward making HMP data more findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable. HMPDACC resources are freely available at www.hmpdacc.org.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Vural M, Gilbert B, Üstün I, et al (2020)

Mini-Review: Human Microbiome and Rheumatic Diseases.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:491160.

Rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy are the most common inflammatory rheumatic diseases. As the human microbiome is involved in the immune homeostasis, it has the potential to be a key factor in the development of autoimmune diseases and rheumatic diseases. In this article, we review the role of various human microbiota on the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases, focusing on spondylarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Koffert J, Lahti L, Nylund L, et al (2020)

Partial restoration of normal intestinal microbiota in morbidly obese women six months after bariatric surgery.

PeerJ, 8:e10442.

We studied the impact of bariatric surgery on the intestinal microbiota of morbidly obese study subjects. A total of 13 morbidly obese women (five of which had type 2 diabetes) and 14 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited and the microbiota composition of fecal samples were determined by using a phylogenetic microarray. Sampling of the patients took place just one month before and 6 months after the operation. Within six months after bariatric surgery, the obese subjects had lost on average a quarter of their weight whereas four of the five of the diabetic subjects were in remission. Bariatric surgery was associated with an increased microbial community richness and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio. In addition, we observed an increased relative abundance of facultative anaerobes, such as Streptococcus spp., and a reduction in specific butyrate-producing Firmicutes. The observed postoperative alterations in intestinal microbiota reflect adaptation to the changing conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, such as energy restriction and the inability to process fiber-rich foods after bariatric surgery.

RevDate: 2021-02-08

Anonymous (2020)

Correction to "Do we have the guts to go? The abdominal compartment, intra-abdominal hypertension, the human microbiome and exploration class space missions".

Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie, 63(6):E609.

RevDate: 2020-12-10

Ventin-Holmberg R, Eberl A, Saqib S, et al (2020)

Bacterial and fungal profiles as markers of infliximab drug response in inflammatory bowel disease.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:6029424 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are globally increasing chronic gastro-intestinal inflammatory disorders associating with altered gut microbiota. Infliximab (IFX), a TNF-alpha blocker, is used to treat IBD patients successfully though one third of the patients do not respond to therapy. No reliable biomarkers are available for prediction of IFX response.

AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the faecal bacterial and fungal communities during IFX therapy and find predictors for IFX treatment response in IBD patients.

METHODS: 72 IBD patients (25 CD and 47 UC) started IFX therapy and were followed for one year or until IFX treatment was discontinued. Amplicon sequencing approach targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS 1 region separately was used to determine the microbiota profiles in faecal samples collected before IFX therapy, two, six, twelve weeks and one year after initiation of therapy. The response to IFX was evaluated by colonoscopy and clinically at twelve weeks after initiation.

RESULTS: Both the faecal bacterial and fungal profiles differed significantly between response groups before start of IFX treatment. Non-responders had lower abundances of short chain fatty acid producers, particularly of the class Clostridia and higher abundances of pro-inflammatory bacteria and fungi, such as the genus Candida, compared to responders. This was further indicated by bacterial taxa predicting the response in both CD and UC patients (area under curve > 0.8).

CONCLUSIONS: Faecal bacterial and fungal microbiota composition could provide a predictive tool to estimate IFX response in IBD patients.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )