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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Jun 2022 at 01:46 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-06-28

Farias da Cruz M, Baraúna Magno M, Alves Jural L, et al (2022)

Probiotics and dairy products in dentistry: A bibliometric and critical review of randomized clinical trials.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 157:111228.

The oral environment is an essential part of the human microbiome. The consumption of probiotic products may improve the oral microbiota and reduce the risk of diseases. This paper presents a bibliometric and critical review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used probiotics to analyze oral parameters in humans. RCTs carried out with no age, gender, and ethnicity restrictions and published in the pre-COVID-19 period were included. Furthermore, the utilization of probiotic dairy products to improve oral health is discussed. The bibliometric review demonstrated that 'Microbiology,' 'Dental caries,' and 'Streptococcus mutants' were the most highlighted keywords. Furthermore, Sweden and India have the highest number of publications. The most prevalent outcomes were 'salivary parameters,' 'periodontal disease,' and 'dental caries.' The most used vehicles for probiotic administration were pharmaceutical formulas and dairy products. The administration of probiotic dairy products could modify the oral microbiota (reductions in S. mutans counts), influence the caries development and periodontal disease in children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly, and improve gingival health. The main probiotic dairy products investigated were milk, fermented milk, yogurt, kefir, curd, and cheese. Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SD1 was the most used probiotic culture. The studies demonstrated that the probiotic effect lasted 2-4 weeks after discontinuing consumption. However, the results depended on the subject type, study design, probiotic strain and concentration, and dairy product type. In conclusion, probiotic dairy products are promising alternatives to improve oral health.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Kervinen K, Holster T, Saqib S, et al (2022)

Parity and gestational age are associated with vaginal microbiota composition in term and late term pregnancies.

EBioMedicine, 81:104107 pii:S2352-3964(22)00288-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Vaginal microbiota and its potential contribution to preterm birth is under intense research. However, only few studies have investigated the vaginal microbiota in later stages of pregnancy or at the onset of labour.

METHODS: We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to analyse cross-sectional vaginal swab samples from 324 Finnish women between 37-42 weeks of gestation, sampled before elective caesarean section, at the onset of spontaneous labour, and in pregnancies lasting ≥41 weeks of gestation. Microbiota data were combined with comprehensive clinical data to identify factors associated with microbiota variation.

FINDINGS: Vaginal microbiota composition associated strongly with advancing gestational age and parity, i.e. presence of previous deliveries. Absence of previous deliveries was a strong predictor of Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota, and the relative abundance of L. crispatus was higher in late term pregnancies, especially among nulliparous women.

INTERPRETATION: This study identified late term pregnancy and reproductive history as factors underlying high abundance of gynaecological health-associated L. crispatus in pregnant women. Our results suggest that the vaginal microbiota affects or reflects the regulation of the duration of gestation and labour onset, with potentially vast clinical utilities. Further studies are needed to address the causality and the mechanisms on how previous labour, but not pregnancy, affects the vaginal microbiota. Parity and gestational age should be accounted for in future studies on vaginal microbiota and reproductive outcomes.

FUNDING: This research was supported by EU H2020 programme Sweet Crosstalk ITN (814102), Academy of Finland, State Research Funding, and University of Helsinki.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Vernocchi P, Ristori MV, Guerrera S, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota Ecology and Inferred Functions in Children With ASD Compared to Neurotypical Subjects.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:871086.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder. The communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system seems driven by gut microbiota (GM). Herein, we provide GM profiling, considering GI functional symptoms, neurological impairment, and dietary habits. Forty-one and 35 fecal samples collected from ASD and neurotypical children (CTRLs), respectively, (age range, 3-15 years) were analyzed by 16S targeted-metagenomics (the V3-V4 region) and inflammation and permeability markers (i.e., sIgA, zonulin lysozyme), and then correlated with subjects' metadata. Our ASD cohort was characterized as follows: 30/41 (73%) with GI functional symptoms; 24/41 (58%) picky eaters (PEs), with one or more dietary needs, including 10/41 (24%) with food selectivity (FS); 36/41 (88%) presenting high and medium autism severity symptoms (HMASSs). Among the cohort with GI symptoms, 28/30 (93%) showed HMASSs, 17/30 (57%) were picky eaters and only 8/30 (27%) with food selectivity. The remaining 11/41 (27%) ASDs without GI symptoms that were characterized by HMASS for 8/11 (72%) and 7/11 (63%) were picky eaters. GM ecology was investigated for the overall ASD cohort versus CTRLs; ASDs with GI and without GI, respectively, versus CTRLs; ASD with GI versus ASD without GI; ASDs with HMASS versus low ASSs; PEs versus no-PEs; and FS versus absence of FS. In particular, the GM of ASDs, compared to CTRLs, was characterized by the increase of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Rikenellaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Klebsiella, Bacteroides, Roseburia, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Sutterella, Staphylococcus, and Haemophilus. Moreover, Sutterella, Roseburia and Fusobacterium were associated to ASD with GI symptoms compared to CTRLs. Interestingly, ASD with GI symptoms showed higher value of zonulin and lower levels of lysozyme, which were also characterized by differentially expressed predicted functional pathways. Multiple machine learning models classified correctly 80% overall ASDs, compared with CTRLs, based on Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Staphylococcus, Sutterella, and Haemophilus features. In conclusion, in our patient cohort, regardless of the evaluation of many factors potentially modulating the GM profile, the major phenotypic determinant affecting the GM was represented by GI hallmarks and patients' age.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Kelly MS, Bunyavanich S, Phipatanakul W, et al (2022)

The Environmental Microbiome, Allergic Disease and Asthma.

The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice pii:S2213-2198(22)00591-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The environmental microbiome represents the entirety of the microbes and their metabolites that we encounter in our environments. A growing body of evidence supports the role of the environmental microbiome in risk for and severity of allergic diseases and asthma. The environmental microbiome represents a ubiquitous, lifelong exposure to non-self antigens. During the critical window between birth and one year of life, interactions between our early immune system and the environmental microbiome have two consequences: our individual microbiome is populated by environmental microbes, and our immune system is trained regarding which antigens to tolerate. During this time, a diversity of exposures appears largely protective, dramatically decreasing the risk of developing allergic diseases and asthma. As we grow older, our interactions with the environmental microbiome change. While it continues to exert influence over the composition of the human microbiome, the environmental microbiome becomes increasingly a source for antigenic stimulation and infection. The same microbial exposure protective against disease development may exacerbate disease severity. While much has been learned about the importance of the environmental microbiome in allergic disease, much more remains to be understood about these complicated interactions between our environment, our microbiome, our immune system and disease.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Pang Z, Launonen H, Korpela R, et al (2022)

Local aldosterone synthesis in the large intestine of mouse: An ex vivo incubation study.

The Journal of international medical research, 50(6):3000605221105163.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulation of local aldosterone synthesis by physiological stimulants in the murine gut.

METHODS: Male mice were fed for 14 days with normal, high (1.6%) or low (0.01%) sodium diets. Tissue liver receptor homolog-1 and aldosterone in the colon and caecum were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Released corticosterone and aldosterone in tissue incubation experiments after stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) and dibutyryl-cAMP (DBA; the second messenger of adrenocorticotropic hormone) were assayed using an ELISA. Tissue aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) protein levels were measured using an ELISA and Western blots.

RESULTS: In incubated colon tissues, aldosterone synthase levels were increased by a low-sodium diet; and by Ang II and DBA in the normal diet group. Release of aldosterone into the incubation buffer was increased from the colon by a low-sodium diet and decreased by a high-sodium diet in parallel with changes in aldosterone synthase levels. In mice fed a normal diet, colon incubation with both Ang II and DBA increased the release of aldosterone as well as its precursor corticosterone.

CONCLUSION: Local aldosterone synthesis in the large intestine is stimulated by a low-sodium diet, dibutyryl-cAMP and Ang II similar to the adrenal glands.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

García-Mato E, Martínez-Lamas L, Álvarez-Fernández M, et al (2022)

Molecular Detection of Streptococcus downii sp. nov. from Dental Plaque Samples from Patients with Down Syndrome and Non-Syndromic Individuals.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061098.

A new bacterial species has recently been identified in the dental plaque of an adolescent with Down syndrome. The species is known as Streptococcus downii sp. nov. (abbreviated to S. downii), and it inhibits the growth of S. mutans and certain periodontal pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of S. downii in the oral cavity of individuals with Down syndrome. Methods: A specific polymerase chain reaction for the operon of bacteriocin (class IIb lactobin A/cerein 7B family) was designed to detect S. downii in individuals with Down syndrome (n = 200) and in the general population (n = 100). We also compared the whole genome of S. downii and the regions related to its bacteriocins against 127 metagenomes of supragingival plaque of the "Human Microbiome Project". Results: We detected the specific gene of the S. downii bacteriocin in an individual with Down syndrome (Cq, 34.52; GE/μL, 13.0) and in an individual of the non-syndromic control group (Cq, 34.78 Cq; GE/μL, 4.93). The prevalence of S. downii was ≤1% both in Down syndrome and in the general population, which did not allow for clinical-microbiological correlations to be established. This result was confirmed by detecting only one metagenome with an ANIm with approximately 95% homology and with 100% homology with ORFs that code class IIb lactobiocin A/cerein 7B bacteriocins among the 127 metagenomes of the "Human Microbiome Project" tested. Conclusions: The detection rate of S. downii in the supragingival dental plaque was very low, both in the Down syndrome individuals and in the non-syndromic controls. A clinical-microbiological correlation could therefore not be established.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Graziani C, Laterza L, Talocco C, et al (2022)

Intestinal Permeability and Dysbiosis in Female Patients with Recurrent Cystitis: A Pilot Study.

Journal of personalized medicine, 12(6): pii:jpm12061005.

Recurrent cystitis (RC) is a common disease, especially in females. Anatomical, behavioral and genetic predisposing factors are associated with the ascending retrograde route, which often causes bladder infections. RC seems to be mainly caused by agents derived from the intestinal microbiota, and most frequently by Escherichia coli. Intestinal contiguity contributes to the etiopathogenesis of RC and an alteration in intestinal permeability could have a major role in RC. The aim of this pilot study is to assess gut microbiome dysbiosis and intestinal permeability in female patients with RC. Patients with RC (n = 16) were enrolled and compared with healthy female subjects (n = 15) and patients with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (n = 238). We calculated the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score/Urinary Tract Infection Symptom Assessment (ACSS/UTISA) and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) scores and evaluated intestinal permeability and the fecal microbiome in the first two cohorts. Patients with RC showed an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms compared with healthy controls. Of the patients with RC, 88% showed an increased intestinal permeability with reduced biodiversity of gut microbiota compared to healthy controls, and 68% of the RC patients had a final diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. Similarly, GI patients reported a higher incidence of urinary symptoms with a diagnosis of RC in 20%. Gut barrier impairment seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of RC. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of microbiota and intestinal permeability in urinary tract infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Guan Z, Q Feng (2022)

Chitosan and Chitooligosaccharide: The Promising Non-Plant-Derived Prebiotics with Multiple Biological Activities.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126761.

Biodegradable chitin is the second-most abundant natural polysaccharide, widely existing in the exoskeletons of crabs, shrimps, insects, and the cell walls of fungi. Chitosan and chitooligosaccharide (COS, also named chitosan oligosaccharide) are the two most important deacetylated derivatives of chitin. Compared with chitin, chitosan and COS not only have more satisfactory physicochemical properties but also exhibit additional biological activities, which cause them to be widely applied in the fields of food, medicine, and agriculture. Additionally, due to their significant ability to improve gut microbiota, chitosan and COS are deemed prospective prebiotics. Here, we introduced the production, physicochemical properties, applications, and pharmacokinetic characteristics of chitosan and COS. Furthermore, we summarized the latest research on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Research progress on the prebiotic functions of chitosan and COS is particularly reviewed. We creatively analyzed and discussed the mechanisms and correlations underlying these activities of chitosan and COS and their physicochemical properties. Our work enriched people's understanding of these non-plant-derived prebiotics. Based on this review, the future directions of research on chitosan and COS are explored. Collectively, optimizing the production technology of chitin derivatives and enriching understanding of their biological functions will shed more light on their capability to improve human health.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Wu Q, O'Malley J, Datta S, et al (2022)

MarZIC: A Marginal Mediation Model for Zero-Inflated Compositional Mediators with Applications to Microbiome Data.

Genes, 13(6): pii:genes13061049.

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome can contribute to pathogeneses of many complex diseases by mediating disease-leading causal pathways. However, standard mediation analysis methods are not adequate to analyze the microbiome as a mediator due to the excessive number of zero-valued sequencing reads in the data and that the relative abundances have to sum to one. The two main challenges raised by the zero-inflated data structure are: (a) disentangling the mediation effect induced by the point mass at zero; and (b) identifying the observed zero-valued data points that are not zero (i.e., false zeros).

METHODS: We develop a novel marginal mediation analysis method under the potential-outcomes framework to address the issues. We also show that the marginal model can account for the compositional structure of microbiome data.

RESULTS: The mediation effect can be decomposed into two components that are inherent to the two-part nature of zero-inflated distributions. With probabilistic models to account for observing zeros, we also address the challenge with false zeros. A comprehensive simulation study and the application in a real microbiome study showcase our approach in comparison with existing approaches.

CONCLUSIONS: When analyzing the zero-inflated microbiome composition as the mediators, MarZIC approach has better performance than standard causal mediation analysis approaches and existing competing approach.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Grada A, Ghannoum MA, CG Bunick (2022)

Sarecycline Demonstrates Clinical Effectiveness against Staphylococcal Infections and Inflammatory Dermatoses: Evidence for Improving Antibiotic Stewardship in Dermatology.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6): pii:antibiotics11060722.

Tetracycline class antibiotics are widely used for multiple skin diseases, including acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, cutaneous infections, inflammatory dermatoses, and autoimmune blistering disorders. Concerns about antibiotic resistance and protecting the human/host microbiome beg the question whether broad-spectrum tetracyclines such as doxycycline and minocycline should be prescribed at such a high rate by dermatologists when a narrow-spectrum tetracycline derivative, sarecycline, exists. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of oral sarecycline against cutaneous staphylococcal infections, eyelid stye, and mucous membrane pemphigoid to determine whether sarecycline is a viable option for clinicians to practice improved antibiotic stewardship. We observed significant improvement in staphylococcal infections and inflammatory dermatoses with courses of oral sarecycline as short as 9 days, with no reported adverse events. These clinical findings are consistent with in vitro microbiological data and anti-inflammatory properties of sarecycline. Our data provides a strong rationale for clinicians to use narrow-spectrum sarecycline rather than broad-spectrum tetracyclines as a first-line agent in treating staphylococcal skin infections and inflammatory skin diseases for which tetracyclines are currently commonly employed. Such advancement in the practice paradigm in dermatology will enhance antibiotic stewardship, reduce risk of antibiotic resistance, protect the human microbiome, and provide patients with precision medicine care.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Cani PD, Depommier C, Derrien M, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Akkermansia muciniphila: paradigm for next-generation beneficial microorganisms.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Sharp C, KR Foster (2022)

Host control and the evolution of cooperation in host microbiomes.

Nature communications, 13(1):3567.

Humans, and many other species, are host to diverse symbionts. It is often suggested that the mutual benefits of host-microbe relationships can alone explain cooperative evolution. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis with evolutionary modelling. Our model predicts that mutual benefits are insufficient to drive cooperation in systems like the human microbiome, because of competition between symbionts. However, cooperation can emerge if hosts can exert control over symbionts, so long as there are constraints that limit symbiont counter evolution. We test our model with genomic data of two bacterial traits monitored by animal immune systems. In both cases, bacteria have evolved as predicted under host control, tending to lose flagella and maintain butyrate production when host-associated. Moreover, an analysis of bacteria that retain flagella supports the evolution of host control, via toll-like receptor 5, which limits symbiont counter evolution. Our work puts host control mechanisms, including the immune system, at the centre of microbiome evolution.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Dai W, Li C, Li T, et al (2022)

Super-taxon in human microbiome are identified to be associated with colorectal cancer.

BMC bioinformatics, 23(1):243.

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities in the human body, also known as human microbiota, impact human health, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the different roles that microbial communities play in healthy and disease hosts remain largely unknown. The microbial communities are typically recorded through the taxa counts of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The sparsity and high correlations among OTUs pose major challenges for understanding the microbiota-disease relation. Furthermore, the taxa data are structured in the sense that OTUs are related evolutionarily by a hierarchical structure.

RESULTS: In this study, we borrow the idea of super-variant from statistical genetics, and propose a new concept called super-taxon to exploit hierarchical structure of taxa for microbiome studies, which is essentially a combination of taxonomic units. Specifically, we model a genus which consists of a set of OTUs at low hierarchy and is designed to reflect both marginal and joint effects of OTUs associated with the risk of CRC to address these issues. We first demonstrate the power of super-taxon in detecting highly correlated OTUs. Then, we identify CRC-associated OTUs in two publicly available datasets via a discovery-validation procedure. Specifically, four species of two genera are found to be associated with CRC: Parvimonas micra, Parvimonas sp., Peptostreptococcus stomatis, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. More importantly, for the first time, we report the joint effect of Parvimonas micra and Parvimonas sp. (p = 0.0084) as well as that of Peptostrepto-coccus stomatis and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (p = 8.21e-06) on CRC. The proposed approach provides a novel and useful tool for identifying disease-related microbes by taking the hierarchical structure of taxa into account and further sheds new lights on their potential joint effects as a community in disease development.

CONCLUSIONS: Our work shows that proposed approaches are effective to study the microbiota-disease relation taking into account for the sparsity, hierarchical and correlated structure among microbes.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Zhang L, Jonscher KR, Zhang Z, et al (2022)

Islet autoantibody seroconversion in type-1 diabetes is associated with metagenome-assembled genomes in infant gut microbiomes.

Nature communications, 13(1):3551.

The immune system of some genetically susceptible children can be triggered by certain environmental factors to produce islet autoantibodies (IA) against pancreatic β cells, which greatly increases their risk for Type-1 diabetes. An environmental factor under active investigation is the gut microbiome due to its important role in immune system education. Here, we study gut metagenomes that are de-novo-assembled in 887 at-risk children in the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) project. Our results reveal a small set of core protein families, present in >50% of the subjects, which account for 64% of the sequencing reads. Time-series binning generates 21,536 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from 883 species, including 176 species that hitherto have no MAG representation in previous comprehensive human microbiome surveys. IA seroconversion is positively associated with 2373 MAGs and negatively with 1549 MAGs. Comparative genomics analysis identifies lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis in Bacteroides MAGs and sulfate reduction in Anaerostipes MAGs as functional signatures of MAGs with positive IA-association. The functional signatures in the MAGs with negative IA-association include carbohydrate degradation in lactic acid bacteria MAGs and nitrate reduction in Escherichia MAGs. Overall, our results show a distinct set of gut microorganisms associated with IA seroconversion and uncovered the functional genomics signatures of these IA-associated microorganisms.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Smith G, Manzano Marín A, Reyes-Prieto M, et al (2022)

Human follicular mites: Ectoparasites becoming symbionts.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6604544 [Epub ahead of print].

Most humans carry mites in the hair follicles of their skin for their entire lives. Follicular mites are the only metazoans tha continuously live on humans. We propose that Demodex folliculorum (Acari) represents a transitional stage from a host-injuring obligate parasite to an obligate symbiont. Here, we describe the profound impact of this transition on the genome and physiology of the mite. Genome sequencing revealed that the permanent host association of D. folliculorum led to an extensive genome reduction through relaxed selection and genetic drift, resulting in the smallest number of protein-coding genes yet identified among panarthropods. Confocal microscopy revealed that this gene loss coincided with an extreme reduction in the number of cells. Single uninucleate muscle cells are sufficient to operate each of the three segments that form each walking leg. While it has been assumed that the reduction of the cell number in parasites starts early in development, we identified a greater total number of cells in the last developmental stage (nymph) than in the terminal adult stage, suggesting that reduction starts at the adult or ultimate stage of development. This is the first evolutionary step in an arthropod species adopting a reductive, parasitic or endosymbiotic lifestyle. Somatic nuclei show underreplication at the diploid stage. Novel eye structures or photoreceptors as well as a unique human host melatonin-guided day/night rhythm are proposed for the first time. The loss of DNA repair genes coupled with extreme endogamy might have set this mite species on an evolutionary dead-end trajectory.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Anonymous (2022)

Retraction: Human microbiome and homeostasis: Insights into the key role of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Yoon YC, Ahn BH, Min JW, et al (2022)

Stimulatory Effects of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Leuconostoc holzapfelii That Exists in Human Scalp on Hair Growth in Human Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells.

Current issues in molecular biology, 44(2):845-866 pii:cimb44020058.

Human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) located in hair follicles (HFs) play a pivotal role in hair follicle morphogenesis, hair cycling, and hair growth. Over the past few decades, probiotic bacteria (PB) have been reported to have beneficial effects such as improved skin health, anti-obesity, and immuno-modulation for conditions including atopic dermatitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PB can secrete 50~150 nm sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing microbial DNA, miRNA, proteins, lipids, and cell wall components. These EVs can regulate communication between bacteria or between bacteria and their host. Although numerous biological effects of PB-EVs have been reported, the physiological roles of Leuconostoc holzapfelii (hs-Lh), which is isolated from human scalp tissue, and the extracellular vesicles derived from them (hs-LhEVs) are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of hs-LhEVs on hair growth in HFDPCs. We show that hs-LhEVs increase cell proliferation, migration, and regulate the cell cycle. Furthermore, hs-LhEVs were found to modulate the mRNA expression of hair-growth-related genes in vitro. These data demonstrate that hs-LhEVs can reduce apoptosis by modulating the cell cycle and promote hair growth by regulation via the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Jo CS, Myung CH, Yoon YC, et al (2022)

The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Extracellular Vesicles from Korean Women in Their 20s on Skin Aging.

Current issues in molecular biology, 44(2):526-540 pii:cimb44020036.

Extracellular vesicles, which are highly conserved in most cells, contain biologically active substances. The vesicles and substances interact with cells and impact physiological mechanisms. The skin is the most external organ and is in direct contact with the external environment. Photoaging and skin damage are caused by extrinsic factors. The formation of wrinkles is a major indicator of skin aging and is caused by a decrease in collagen and hyaluronic acid. MMP-1 expression is also increased. Due to accruing damage, skin aging reduces the ability of the skin barrier, thereby lowering the skin's ability to contain water and increasing the amount of water loss. L. plantarum suppresses various harmful bacteria by secreting an antimicrobial substance. L. plantarum is also found in the skin, and research on the interactions between the bacteria and the skin is in progress. Although several studies have investigated L. plantarum, there are only a limited number of studies on extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from L. plantarum, especially in relation to skin aging. Herein, we isolated EVs that were secreted from L. plantarum of women in their 20s (LpEVs). We then investigated the effect of LpEVs on skin aging in CCD986sk. We showed that LpEVs modulated the mRNA expression of ECM related genes in vitro. Furthermore, LpEVs suppressed wrinkle formation and pigmentation in clinical trials. These results demonstrated that LpEVs have a great effect on skin aging by regulating ECM related genes. In addition, our study offers important evidence on the depigmentation effect of LpEVs.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Krawczyk KT, Locht C, M Kowalewicz-Kulbat (2022)

Halophilic Archaea Halorhabdus Rudnickae and Natrinema Salaciae Activate Human Dendritic Cells and Orient T Helper Cell Responses.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:833635.

Halophilic archaea are procaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria, known to thrive in hypersaline environments, including salt lakes, salterns, brines and salty food. They have also been identified in the human microbiome. The biological significance of halophiles for human health has rarely been examined. The interactions between halophilic archaea and human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells have not been identified so far. Here, we show for the first time that the halophilic archaea Halorhabdus rudnickae and Natrinema salaciae activate human monocyte-derived DCs, induce DC maturation, cytokine production and autologous T cell activation. In vitro both strains induced DC up-regulation of the cell-surface receptors CD86, CD80 and CD83, and cytokine production, including IL-12p40, IL-10 and TNF-α, but not IL-23 and IL-12p70. Furthermore, autologous CD4+ T cells produced significantly higher amounts of IFN-γ and IL-13, but not IL-17A when co-cultured with halophile-stimulated DCs in comparison to T cells co-cultured with unstimulated DCs. IFN-γ was almost exclusively produced by naïve T cells, while IL-13 was produced by both naïve and memory CD4+ T cells. Our findings thus show that halophilic archaea are recognized by human DCs and are able to induce a balanced cytokine response. The immunomodulatory functions of halophilic archaea and their potential ability to re-establish the immune balance may perhaps participate in the beneficial effects of halotherapies.

RevDate: 2022-06-19

Juarez VM, Montalbine AN, A Singh (2022)

Microbiome as an immune regulator in health, disease, and therapeutics.

Advanced drug delivery reviews pii:S0169-409X(22)00290-3 [Epub ahead of print].

New discoveries in drugs and drug delivery systems are focused on identifying and delivering a pharmacologically effective agent, potentially targeting a specific molecular component. However, current drug discovery and therapeutic delivery approaches do not necessarily exploit the complex regulatory network of an indispensable microbiota that has been engineered through evolutionary processes in humans or has been altered by environmental exposure or diseases. The human microbiome, in all its complexity, plays an integral role in the maintenance of host functions such as metabolism and immunity. However, dysregulation in this intricate ecosystem has been linked with a variety of diseases, ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to cancer. Therapeutics and bacteria have an undeniable effect on each other and understanding the interplay between microbes and drugs could lead to new therapies, or to changes in how existing drugs are delivered. In addition, targeting the human microbiome using engineered therapeutics has the potential to address global health challenges. Here, we present the challenges and cutting-edge developments in microbiome-immune cell interactions and outline novel targeting strategies to advance drug discovery and therapeutics, which are defining a new era of personalized and precision medicine.

RevDate: 2022-06-18

Shetty SA, Kostopoulos I, Geerlings SY, et al (2022)

Dynamic metabolic interactions and trophic roles of human gut microbes identified using a minimal microbiome exhibiting ecological properties.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Microbe-microbe interactions in the human gut are influenced by host-derived glycans and diet. The high complexity of the gut microbiome poses a major challenge for unraveling the metabolic interactions and trophic roles of key microbes. Synthetic minimal microbiomes provide a pragmatic approach to investigate their ecology including metabolic interactions. Here, we rationally designed a synthetic microbiome termed Mucin and Diet based Minimal Microbiome (MDb-MM) by taking into account known physiological features of 16 key bacteria. We combined 16S rRNA gene-based composition analysis, metabolite measurements and metatranscriptomics to investigate community dynamics, stability, inter-species metabolic interactions and their trophic roles. The 16 species co-existed in the in vitro gut ecosystems containing a mixture of complex substrates representing dietary fibers and mucin. The triplicate MDb-MM's followed the Taylor's power law and exhibited strikingly similar ecological and metabolic patterns. The MDb-MM exhibited resistance and resilience to temporal perturbations as evidenced by the abundance and metabolic end products. Microbe-specific temporal dynamics in transcriptional niche overlap and trophic interaction network explained the observed co-existence in a competitive minimal microbiome. Overall, the present study provides crucial insights into the co-existence, metabolic niches and trophic roles of key intestinal microbes in a highly dynamic and competitive in vitro ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Shaffer JP, Carpenter CS, Martino C, et al (2022)

A comparison of six DNA extraction protocols for 16S, ITS and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities.

BioTechniques [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities contain a broad phylogenetic diversity of organisms; however, the majority of methods center on describing bacteria and archaea. Fungi are important symbionts in many ecosystems and are potentially important members of the human microbiome, beyond those that can cause disease. To expand our analysis of microbial communities to include data from the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, five candidate DNA extraction kits were compared against our standardized protocol for describing bacteria and archaea using 16S rRNA gene amplicon- and shotgun metagenomics sequencing. The results are presented considering a diverse panel of host-associated and environmental sample types and comparing the cost, processing time, well-to-well contamination, DNA yield, limit of detection and microbial community composition among protocols. Across all criteria, the MagMAX Microbiome kit was found to perform best. The PowerSoil Pro kit performed comparably but with increased cost per sample and overall processing time. The Zymo MagBead, NucleoMag Food and Norgen Stool kits were included.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-17

Ley R (2022)

The human microbiome: there is much left to do.

Nature, 606(7914):435.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Anipindi M, D Bitetto (2022)

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Uses of the Microbiome in the Field of Oncology.

Cureus, 14(5):e24890.

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and it can affect almost every part of the human body. Effective screening and early diagnosis of cancers is extremely difficult due to the multifactorial etiology of the disease and delayed presentation of the patients. The available treatments are usually not specific to the affected organ system, leading to intolerable systemic side effects and early withdrawal from therapies. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed an association of specific microbiome signatures with individual cancers. The cancer-related human microbiome has also been shown to affect the response of tissues to chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation. This is an excellent opportunity for us to design specific screening markers using the microbiome to prevent cancers and diagnose them early. We can also develop precise treatments that can target cancer-affected specific organ systems and probably use a lesser dose of chemotherapy or radiation for the same effect. This prevents adverse effects and early cessation of treatments. However, we need further studies to exactly clarify and characterize these associations. In this review article, we focus on the association of the microbiome with individual cancers and highlight its future role in cancer screenings, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatments.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Laÿna D, Jannel R, CDD Rupprecht (2022)

Living through multispecies societies: Approaching the microbiome with Imanishi Kinji.

Endeavour pii:S0160-9327(22)00014-X [Epub ahead of print].

Recent research about the microbiome points to a picture in which we, humans, are 'living through' nature, and nature itself is living in us. Our bodies are hosting-and depend on-the multiple species that constitute human microbiota. This article will discuss current research on the microbiome through the ideas of Japanese ecologist Imanishi Kinji (1902-1992). First, some of Imanishi's key ideas regarding the world of living beings and multispecies societies are presented. Second, seven types of relationships concerning the human microbiome, human beings, and the environment are explored. Third, inspired by Imanishi's work, this paper develops the idea of dynamic, porous, and complex multispecies societies in which different living beings or species are codependent on others, including microbiota and human beings.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Swafford AD, Khandelwal S, S Bhute (2021)

Potential Immune-Microbiome Interactions in Breast Cancer May Advance Treatment: What's Holding Us Back?.

Critical reviews in immunology, 41(6):27-42.

The impact of the human microbiome, the diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit nearly every niche in the human body, in shaping the immune response to dysbiotic events is apparent if poorly understood, particularly in complex, evolving disease states such as breast cancer. The impacts can be both indirect via metabolites and immune-interactions along the skin, gut, and oral cavities where the microbial communities are most abundant, or direct in the tumor microenvironment where microbial activities can promote growth or clearance of cancerous cells. Based on reports of using gut microbial signatures to predict therapeutic efficacy, the role that gut microbes and their metabolites may play in shaping the success or failure of immunotherapy has been extensively reviewed. In this review, we dissect the evidence for the direct and distal impact of microbes on oncogenesis, tumor growth and the immune responses to combat or promote tolerance of breast cancer tumors. Implementation of robust, valid analyses and methods are lacking in the field, and we provide recommendations for researchers and clinicians to work together to characterize the micro-biome-immune-breast cancer interactions that will hopefully enable the next generation of biomarkers and targets for improving disease outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Maslinska M, Kostyra-Grabczak K, Królicki L, et al (2021)

The Role of the Microbiome in Sjogren's Syndrome.

Critical reviews in immunology, 41(6):13-26.

The human microbiome is a living ecosystem existing within the host organism, determined by a balance between pathogenic microorganisms, symbionts, and commensals. The disturbance of microbiome composition-dysbiosis-often resulting in the excess of commensal numbers, may push the immune system towards activation of inflammatory and autoimmune processes. Changes in the microbiome of gut, eyes, and mouth may play a significant role in the development and course of autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjogren's syndrome. This autoimmune disease is associated with changes in the protective barrier of the epithelium, which is an important part of the antimicrobial defense. The development of pSS may be influenced by a mechanism of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and self antigens leading to the initiation of anti-Ro60 antibody response. The knowledge of the influence of the state of microbiome on pSS may translate into the prophylaxis of the progression of dryness symptoms. The aim of this review is to present various aspects related to the human microbiome and Sjogren's syndrome.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Passos GA, VK Chaturvedi (2021)

Preface Special Issue: Microbiome-Immune System Interactions.

Critical reviews in immunology, 41(6):v.

Body homeostasis, immune response to microbial infections or vaccination, control of cancer onset or autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, as well as autism or other behavioral disorders, among other examples, are now recognized to be associated with the complex constitution of the body's microbiome. Recent findings demonstrate that the microbial composition, i.e., pathogenic, symbionts, and commensal viruses, bacteria, or yeast mainly in the gut, is strongly associated with susceptibility/resistance to several classes of diseases or its therapeutic response. This Special Issue focuses on the processes that link the human microbiome to three classes of diseases; immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and cancer. Review articles cover aspects of the recent progress in selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency, Sjörgren's syndrome, breast cancer.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Ene A, Stegman N, Wolfe A, et al (2022)

Genomic insights into Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus paragasseri.

PeerJ, 10:e13479 pii:13479.

Background: Antimicrobial and antifungal species are essential members of the healthy human microbiota. Several different species of lactobacilli that naturally inhabit the human body have been explored for their probiotic capabilities including strains of the species Lactobacillus gasseri. However, L. gasseri (identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing) has been associated with urogenital symptoms. Recently a new sister taxon of L. gasseri was described: L. paragasseri. L. paragasseri is also posited to have probiotic qualities.

Methods: Here, we present a genomic investigation of all (n = 79) publicly available genome assemblies for both species. These strains include isolates from the vaginal tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, oral cavity, wounds, and lungs.

Results: The two species cannot be distinguished from short-read sequencing of the 16S rRNA as the full-length gene sequences differ only by two nucleotides. Based upon average nucleotide identity (ANI), we identified 20 strains deposited as L. gasseri that are in fact representatives of L. paragasseri. Investigation of the genic content of the strains of these two species suggests recent divergence and/or frequent gene exchange between the two species. The genomes frequently harbored intact prophage sequences, including prophages identified in strains of both species. To further explore the antimicrobial potential associated with both species, genome assemblies were examined for biosynthetic gene clusters. Gassericin T and S were identified in 46 of the genome assemblies, with all L. paragasseri strains including one or both bacteriocins. This suggests that the properties once ascribed to L. gasseri may better represent the L. paragasseri species.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Ozma MA, Abbasi A, Akrami S, et al (2022)

Postbiotics as the key mediators of the gut microbiota-host interactions.

Le infezioni in medicina, 30(2):180-193 pii:1124-9390_30_2_2022_180-193.

The priority of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2022 is to reduce all causes related to mortality. In this regard, microbial bioactive compounds with characteristics such as optimal compatibility and close interaction with the host immune system are considered a novel therapeutic approach. The fermentation process is one of the most well-known pathways involved in the natural synthesis of a diverse range of postbiotics. However, some postbiotics are a type of probiotic response behavior to environmental stimuli that usually play well-known biological roles. Also, postbiotics with unique structure and function are key mediators between intestinal microbiota and host cellular processes/metabolic pathways that play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis. By further understanding the nature of parent microbial cells, factors affecting their metabolic pathways, and the development of compatible extraction and identification methods, it is possible to achieve certain formulations of postbiotics with special efficiencies, which in turn will significantly improve the performance of health systems (especially in developing countries) toward a wide range of acute/chronic diseases. The present review aims to describe the fundamental role of postbiotics as the key mediators of the microbiota-host interactions. Besides, it presents the available current evidence regarding the interaction between postbiotics and host cells through potential cell receptors, stimulation/improvement of immune system function, and the enhancement of the composition and function of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-06-12

Song WJ, Kang WY, Liu XM, et al (2022)

[Study on the dynamic changes of oral microbiota in type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis after initial periodontal therapy].

Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology, 57(6):585-594.

Objectives: To clarify the effect of initial periodontal therapy on the dynamic changes of oral (saliva, dorsal tongue and subgingival plaque) microbiota in periodontitis patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 14 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP group) and 14 CP patients with T2DM (CP-T2DM group) were included from Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology,Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University. The microbial samples were collected from saliva, dorsal tongue and subgingival plaque of first molars at baseline, 1.5 and 3 months after initial periodontal therapy, and were detected by 16S rRNA (V3-V4 region) gene sequencing. The sequencing data were analyzed to obtain microbial distribution and community structure information. The same professional periodontist evaluated the periodontal status of patients according to periodontitis detection indices before and after initial periodontal therapy. Meanwhile, patients' blood samples were collected and related metabolic indices were evaluated. Results: After initial periodontal therapy, the glycosylated hemoglobin levels [(7.46±1.69)%] in CP-T2DM group were significantly improved than that at baseline [(7.65±1.34)%] (t=0.52,P=0.610). The probing depth of the sampling sites [CP group: (2.94±0.46) mm, CP-T2DM group: (2.95±0.35) mm] and bleeding index (CP group: 1.91±0.42, CP-T2DM group: 1.67±0.49) at 3 months after treatment were significantly decreased than the probing depth [CP group: (3.99±0.77) mm, CP-T2DM group: (3.80±0.76) mm] (F=25.61, P<0.001; F=17.63, P<0.001) and bleeding index (CP group: 3.03±0.52, CP-T2DM group: 2.54±0.65) (F=28.43, P<0.001; F=20.21, P<0.001) at baseline. The flora analysis showed that the α and β diversity indices of the same sites in the CP and CP-T2DM groups did not change significantly before and after the initial therapy, but the bacterial abundance at each site changed. There were commonalities and differences in the microbial composition of each site in the CP and CP-T2DM groups. Among them, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in saliva and dorsal tongue samples of the two groups after treatment was basically consistent with the change trend in the subgingival plaque microbes. In the subgingival plaque of the CP group, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria showed a gradual increase with the prolongation of initial periodontal therapy; while in the CP-T2DM group, it showed a trend of first increase and then decrease. Syntrophy, Dethiosulfate, Methanobacteriaceae and TG5 in CP and CP-T2DM groups were all significantly dominant bacteria in subgingival plaque at baseline (P<0.05). Moreover, in the CP-T2DM group Spirochetes also showed a significant advantage. At 1.5 months after treatment, Rhizobacteria, Alcaligenes, Comamomons, Delftia, Blautella, etc. were dominant in subgingival plaque (P<0.05). Firmicutes, Clostridia/Clostridiales, Enterococci and Ruminococci showed significant differences at 3 months (P<0.05). Conclusions: Plaques in saliva and tongue dorsal could reflect the effects of initial periodontal therapy on the dynamic changes of microorganisms to a certain extent. CP and CP-T2DM patients had differences in microbial composition and responses to initial periodontal therapy.

RevDate: 2022-06-11

Mills JG, Selway CA, Thomas T, et al (2022)

Schoolyard Biodiversity Determines Short-Term Recovery of Disturbed Skin Microbiota in Children.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Creating biodiverse urban habitat has been proposed, with growing empirical support, as an intervention for increasing human microbial diversity and reducing associated diseases. However, ecological understanding of urban biodiversity interventions on human skin microbiota remains limited. Here, we experimentally test the hypotheses that disturbed skin microbiota recover better in outdoor schoolyard environments and that greater biodiversity provides a greater response. Repeating the experiment three times, we disturbed skin microbiota of fifty-seven healthy 10-to-11-year-old students with a skin swab (i.e., cleaning), then exposed them to one school environment-either a 'classroom' (n = 20), 'sports field' (n = 14), or biodiverse 'forest' (n = 23)-for 45 min. Another skin swab followed the exposure to compare 'before' and 'after' microbial communities. After 45 min, the disturbance immediately followed by outdoor exposure, especially the 'forest', had an enriching and diversifying effect on skin microbiota, while 'classroom' exposure homogenised inter-personal variability. Each effect compounded over consecutive days indicating longer-term exposure outcomes. The experimental disturbance also reduced the core skin microbiota, and only outdoor environments were able to replenish lost species richness to core membership (n species > 50% prevalent). Overall, we find that environmental setting, especially including biodiversity, is important in human microbiota recovery periods and that the outdoors provide resilience to skin communities. This work also has implications for the inclusion of short periods of outside or forest exposure in school scheduling. Future investigations of the health impacts of permanent urban biodiversity interventions are needed.

RevDate: 2022-06-11

Diociaiuti A, Giancristoforo S, Calò Carducci FI, et al (2022)

Auricular leishmaniasis in a child successfully treated with intralesional amphotericin B.

Pediatric dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most frequent form of leishmaniasis. The auricle is an extremely rare site for CL in the Old World. Auricular CL may be mistaken for other entities, such as relapsing polychondritis (RP). Here we report a pediatric case of Old World auricular CL mimicking RP in a child successfully treated with intralesional liposomal amphotericin B.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Chen Y, Rudolph S, Longo BN, et al (2022)

Bioengineered 3D tissue model of intestine epithelium with oxygen gradients to sustain human gut microbiome.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

The human gut microbiome is crucial to host physiology and health. Therefore, stable in vitro coculture of primary human intestinal cells with a microbiome community is essential for understanding intestinal disease progression and revealing novel therapeutic targets. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold system to regenerate an in vitro human intestinal epithelium that recapitulates many functional characteristics of the in vivo small intestine. The epithelium, derived from human intestinal enteroids, contains mature intestinal epithelial cell types and possesses selectively permeable barrier functions. Importantly, by properly positioning the scaffolds cultured under normal atmospheric conditions, two physiologically relevant oxygen gradients, a proximal-to-distal oxygen gradient along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a radial oxygen gradient across the epithelium, were distinguished in the tissues when the lumens were faced up and down in cultures, respectively. Furthermore, the presence of the low oxygen gradients supported the coculture of intestinal epithelial cells along with a complex living commensal gut microbiome (including obligate anaerobes) to simulate temporal microbiome dynamics in the native human gut. This unique silk scaffold platform may enable the exploration of microbiota-related mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and host-pathogen dynamics in infectious diseases including the potential to explore the human microbiome-gut-brain axis and potential novel microbiome-based therapeutics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Wedenoja S, Saarikivi A, Mälkönen J, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota in congenital chloride diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease.

PloS one, 17(6):e0269561 pii:PONE-D-21-40434.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Subjects with congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; a defect in solute carrier family 26 member 3 (SLC26A3)) are prone to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated fecal microbiota in CLD and CLD-associated IBD. We also tested whether microbiota is modulated by supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with CLD for an observational 3-week follow-up study. Thereafter, 16 consented to oral butyrate substitution for a 3-week observational period. Fecal samples, collected once a week, were assayed for calprotectin and potential markers of inflammation, and studied by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing and compared to that of 19 healthy controls and 43 controls with Crohn's disease. Data on intestinal symptoms, diet and quality of life were collected.

RESULTS: Patients with CLD had increased abundances of Proteobacteria, Veillonella, and Prevotella, and lower abundances of normally dominant taxa Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae when compared with healthy controls and Crohn´s disease. No major differences in fecal microbiota were found between CLD and CLD-associated IBD (including two with yet untreated IBD). Butyrate was poorly tolerated and showed no major effects on fecal microbiota or biomarkers in CLD.

CONCLUSIONS: Fecal microbiota in CLD is different from that of healthy subjects or Crohn´s disease. Unexpectedly, no changes in the microbiota or fecal markers characterized CLD-associated IBD, an entity with high frequency among patients with CLD.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Hou Y, Tan T, Guo Z, et al (2022)

Gram-selective antibacterial peptide hydrogels.

Biomaterials science [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome plays fundamental roles in human health and disease. However, widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics severely disrupt human-related microbial communities, eventually leading to resistant bacteria, posing a growing threat to global medical health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising antimicrobial agents that barely cause bacterial resistance. Excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities have been achieved using hydrogels self-assembled from AMPs, but there is still a lack of AMP hydrogels that can target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Herein, several hydrogels self-assembled from AMPs, termed IK1, IK3, and IK4, were designed and synthesized. In vitro antibacterial results indicated that the IK1 and IK4 hydrogels specifically targeted Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while the IK3 hydrogel targeted both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The desired broad-spectrum or Gram-selective AMP hydrogels are believed to be obtained through the rational design of the hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, and charge properties of the peptide molecules. Good in vivo Gram-selective antibacterial properties and the ability to promote wound healing have been demonstrated via treating mouse wound models with these AMP hydrogels. We believe that these Gram-selective AMP hydrogels could potentially have important applications in treating common recurring infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Dedrick RM, Smith BE, Cristinziano M, et al (2022)

Phage Therapy of Mycobacterium Infections: Compassionate-use of Phages in Twenty Patients with Drug-Resistant Mycobacterial Disease.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:6604409 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) infections, particularly Mycobacterium abscessus, are increasingly common among patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchiectatic lung diseases. Treatment is challenging due to intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophage therapy represents a potentially novel approach. Relatively few active lytic phages are available and there is great variation in phage susceptibilities among M. abscessus isolates, requiring personalized phage identification.

METHODS: Mycobacterium isolates from 200 culture-positive patients with symptomatic disease were screened for phage susceptibilities. One or more lytic phages were identified for 55 isolates. Phages were administered intravenously, by aerosolization, or both to 20 patients on a compassionate use basis and patients were monitored for adverse reactions, clinical and microbiologic responses, the emergence of phage resistance, and phage neutralization in serum, sputum, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

RESULTS: No adverse reactions attributed to therapy were seen in any patient regardless of the pathogen, phages administered, or the route of delivery. Favorable clinical or microbiological responses were observed in 11 patients. Neutralizing antibodies were identified in serum after initiation of phage delivery intravenously in eight patients, potentially contributing to lack of treatment response in four cases but were not consistently associated with unfavorable responses in others. Eleven patients were treated with only a single phage, and no phage resistance was observed in any of these.

CONCLUSIONS: Phage treatment of Mycobacterium infections is challenging due to the limited repertoire of therapeutically useful phages, but favorable clinical outcomes in patients lacking any other treatment options support continued development of adjunctive phage therapy for some mycobacterial infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Shahzad M, Andrews SC, Z Ul-Haq (2022)

Exploring the role of Microbiome in Susceptibility, Treatment Response and Outcome among Tuberculosis Patients from Pakistan: study protocol for a prospective cohort study (Micro-STOP).

BMJ open, 12(6):e058463 pii:bmjopen-2021-058463.

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a common infectious disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Successful treatment of the disease requires prolonged intake (6-8 months) of multiple antibiotics with potentially detrimental consequences on the composition and functional potential of the human microbiome. The protocol described in the current study aims to identify microbiome (oral and gut) signatures associated with TB pathogenesis, treatment response and outcome in humans.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Four hundred and fifty, newly diagnosed patients with TB from three district levels (Peshawar, Mardan and Swat) TB diagnosis and treatment centres, will be recruited in this non-interventional, prospective cohort study and will be followed and monitored until treatment completion. Demographic and dietary intake data, anthropometric measurement and blood, stool and salivary rinse samples will be collected at baseline, day 15, month-2 and end of the treatment. Additionally, we will recruit age (±3 years) and sex-matched healthy controls (n=30). Blood sampling will allow monitoring of the immune response during the treatment, while salivary rinse and faecal samples will allow monitoring of dynamic changes in oral and gut microbiome diversity. Within this prospective cohort study, a nested case-control study design will be conducted to assess perturbations in oral and gut microbiome diversity (microbial dysbiosis) and immune response and compare between the patients groups (treatment success vs failure).

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethics approval from the Ethic Board of Khyber Medical University Peshawar, and administrative approval from Provincial TB Control Programme of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study results will be presented in national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04985994.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Girgis HZ (2022)

MeShClust v3.0: high-quality clustering of DNA sequences using the mean shift algorithm and alignment-free identity scores.

BMC genomics, 23(1):423.

BACKGROUND: Tools for accurately clustering biological sequences are among the most important tools in computational biology. Two pioneering tools for clustering sequences are CD-HIT and UCLUST, both of which are fast and consume reasonable amounts of memory; however, there is a big room for improvement in terms of cluster quality. Motivated by this opportunity for improving cluster quality, we applied the mean shift algorithm in MeShClust v1.0. The mean shift algorithm is an instance of unsupervised learning. Its strong theoretical foundation guarantees the convergence to the true cluster centers. Our implementation of the mean shift algorithm in MeShClust v1.0 was a step forward. In this work, we scale up the algorithm by adapting an out-of-core strategy while utilizing alignment-free identity scores in a new tool: MeShClust v3.0.

RESULTS: We evaluated CD-HIT, MeShClust v1.0, MeShClust v3.0, and UCLUST on 22 synthetic sets and five real sets. These data sets were designed or selected for testing the tools in terms of scalability and different similarity levels among sequences comprising clusters. On the synthetic data sets, MeShClust v3.0 outperformed the related tools on all sets in terms of cluster quality. On two real data sets obtained from human microbiome and maize transposons, MeShClust v3.0 outperformed the related tools by wide margins, achieving 55%-300% improvement in cluster quality. On another set that includes degenerate viral sequences, MeShClust v3.0 came third. On two bacterial sets, MeShClust v3.0 was the only applicable tool because of the long sequences in these sets. MeShClust v3.0 requires more time and memory than the related tools; almost all personal computers at the time of this writing can accommodate such requirements. MeShClust v3.0 can estimate an important parameter that controls cluster membership with high accuracy.

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the high quality of clusters produced by MeShClust v3.0 and its ability to apply the mean shift algorithm to large data sets and long sequences. Because clustering tools are utilized in many studies, providing high-quality clusters will help with deriving accurate biological knowledge.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Chueachavalit C, Meephansan J, Payungporn S, et al (2022)

Comparison of Malassezia spp. colonization between human skin exposed to high and low ambient air pollution.

Experimental dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The skin microbiota is essential for human health; altered skin microbiome colonization and homeostasis may be associated with several inflammatory skin conditions and other inflammatory diseases. The effects of particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) on the skin and the skin microbiome are poorly understood. Malassezia spp. are commensal fungi commonly found on the human skin, and they also play a pathogenic role in various skin diseases. It is hypothesized that the exposure of human skin to air pollution with a high concentration of PM2.5 might be associated with Malassezia spp. colonization. The aim of this study was to compare Malassezia spp. colonization on healthy human skin between people living in two major cities in Thailand with different air qualities: one city with highly polluted ambient air and the other with less polluted air.

METHODS: Skin microbiome samples from 66 participants were collected using swabbing and scraping techniques. The skin fungal composition was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA.

RESULTS: A significant difference was found in alpha and beta diversities and the relative abundance of fungal profiles between the groups. The relative abundance of Malassezia spp. was found to be significantly higher in the highly polluted area than in the less polluted area.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ambient air polluted with high concentrations of PM2.5 may alter Malassezia spp. colonization on healthy human skin, which could lead to dysbiosis of the cutaneous ecosystem and eventually result in some skin disorders.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Chen Q, Lin S, C Song (2022)

An Adaptive and Robust Test for Microbial Community Analysis.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:846258 pii:846258.

In microbiome studies, researchers measure the abundance of each operational taxon unit (OTU) and are often interested in testing the association between the microbiota and the clinical outcome while conditional on certain covariates. Two types of approaches exists for this testing purpose: the OTU-level tests that assess the association between each OTU and the outcome, and the community-level tests that examine the microbial community all together. It is of considerable interest to develop methods that enjoy both the flexibility of OTU-level tests and the biological relevance of community-level tests. We proposed MiAF, a method that adaptively combines p-values from the OTU-level tests to construct a community-level test. By borrowing the flexibility of OTU-level tests, the proposed method has great potential to generate a series of community-level tests that suit a range of different microbiome profiles, while achieving the desirable high statistical power of community-level testing methods. Using simulation study and real data applications in a smoker throat microbiome study and a HIV patient stool microbiome study, we demonstrated that MiAF has comparable or better power than methods that are specifically designed for community-level tests. The proposed method also provides a natural heuristic taxa selection.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Wang L, Zhang W, Wu X, et al (2022)

MIAOME: Human microbiome affect the host epigenome.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 20:2455-2463 pii:S2001-0370(22)00180-5.

Besides the genetic factors having tremendous influences on the regulations of the epigenome, the microenvironmental factors have recently gained extensive attention for their roles in affecting the host epigenome. There are three major types of microenvironmental factors: microbiota-derived metabolites (MDM), microbiota-derived components (MDC) and microbiota-secreted proteins (MSP). These factors can regulate host physiology by modifying host gene expression through the three highly interconnected epigenetic mechanisms (e.g. histone modifications, DNA modifications, and non-coding RNAs). However, no database was available to provide the comprehensive factors of these types. Herein, a database entitled 'Human Microbiome Affect The Host Epigenome (MIAOME)' was constructed. Based on the types of epigenetic modifications confirmed in the literature review, the MIAOME database captures 1068 (63 genus, 281 species, 707 strains, etc.) human microbes, 91 unique microbiota-derived metabolites & components (16 fatty acids, 10 bile acids, 10 phenolic compounds, 10 vitamins, 9 tryptophan metabolites, etc.) derived from 967 microbes; 50 microbes that secreted 40 proteins; 98 microbes that directly influence the host epigenetic modification, and provides 3 classifications of the epigenome, including (1) 4 types of DNA modifications, (2) 20 histone modifications and (3) 490 ncRNAs regulations, involved in 160 human diseases. All in all, MIAOME has compiled the information on the microenvironmental factors influence host epigenome through the scientific literature and biochemical databases, and allows the collective considerations among the different types of factors. It can be freely assessed without login requirement by all users at: http://miaome.idrblab.net/ttd/.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Cohen LJ, Han SM, Lau P, et al (2022)

Unraveling function and diversity of bacterial lectins in the human microbiome.

Nature communications, 13(1):3101.

The mechanisms by which commensal organisms affect human physiology remain poorly understood. Lectins are non-enzymatic carbohydrate binding proteins that all organisms employ as part of establishing a niche, evading host-defenses and protecting against pathogens. Although lectins have been extensively studied in plants, bacterial pathogens and human immune cells for their role in disease pathophysiology and as therapeutics, the role of bacterial lectins in the human microbiome is largely unexplored. Here we report on the characterization of a lectin produced by a common human associated bacterium that interacts with myeloid cells in the blood and intestine. In mouse and cell-based models, we demonstrate that this lectin induces distinct immunologic responses in peripheral and intestinal leukocytes and that these responses are specific to monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Our analysis of human microbiota sequencing data reveal thousands of unique sequences that are predicted to encode lectins, many of which are highly prevalent in the human microbiome yet completely uncharacterized. Based on the varied domain architectures of these lectins we predict they will have diverse effects on the human host. The systematic investigation of lectins in the human microbiome should improve our understanding of human health and provide new therapeutic opportunities.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Almand AT, Anderson AP, Hitt BD, et al (2022)

The influence of perceived stress on the human microbiome.

BMC research notes, 15(1):193.

OBJECTIVE: Microbial dysbiosis, a shift from commensal to pathogenic microbiota, is often associated with mental health and the gut-brain axis, where dysbiosis in the gut may be linked to dysfunction in the brain. Many studies focus on dysbiosis induced by clinical events or traumatic incidents; however, many professions in austere or demanding environments may encounter continuously compounded stressors. This study seeks to explore the relationship between microbial populations and stress, both perceived and biochemical.

RESULTS: Eight individuals enrolled in the study to provide a longitudinal assessment of the impact of stress on gut health, with four individuals providing enough samples for analysis. Eleven core microbial genera were identified, although the relative abundance of these genera and other members of the microbial population shifted over time. Although our results indicate a potential relationship between perceived stress and microbial composition of the gut, no association with biochemical stress was observed. Increases in perceived stress seem to elucidate a change in potentially beneficial Bacteroides, with a loss in Firmicutes phyla. This shift occurred in multiple individuals, whereas using cortisol as a stress biomarker showed contradictory responses. These preliminary data provide a potential mechanism for gut monitoring, while identifying targets for downstream modulation.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Naud S, Ibrahim A, Valles C, et al (2022)

Candidate Phyla Radiation, an Underappreciated Division of the Human Microbiome, and Its Impact on Health and Disease.

Clinical microbiology reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Candidate phyla radiation (CPR) is an emerging division of the bacterial domain within the human microbiota. Still poorly known, these microorganisms were first described in the environment in 1981 as "ultramicrobacteria" with a cell volume under 0.1 μm3 and were first associated with the human oral microbiota in 2007. The evolution of technology has been paramount for the study of CPR within the human microbiota. In fact, since these ultramicrobacteria have yet to be axenically cultured despite ongoing efforts, progress in imaging technology has allowed their observation and morphological description. Although their genomic abilities and taxonomy are still being studied, great strides have been made regarding their taxonomic classification, as well as their lifestyle. In addition, advancements in next-generation sequencing and the continued development of bioinformatics tools have allowed their detection as commensals in different human habitats, including the oral cavity and gastrointestinal and genital tracts, thus highlighting CPR as a nonnegligible part of the human microbiota with an impact on physiological settings. Conversely, several pathologies present dysbiosis affecting CPR levels, including inflammatory, mucosal, and infectious diseases. In this exhaustive review of the literature, we provide a historical perspective on the study of CPR, an overview of the methods available to study these organisms and a description of their taxonomy and lifestyle. In addition, their distribution in the human microbiome is presented in both homeostatic and dysbiotic settings. Future efforts should focus on developing cocultures and, if possible, axenic cultures to obtain isolates and therefore genomes that would provide a better understanding of these ultramicrobacteria, the importance of which in the human microbiome is undeniable.

RevDate: 2022-06-06
CmpDate: 2022-06-06

Stockdale SR, Harrington RS, Shkoporov AN, et al (2022)

Metagenomic assembled plasmids of the human microbiome vary across disease cohorts.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9212.

We compiled a human metagenome assembled plasmid (MAP) database and interrogated differences across multiple studies that were originally designed to investigate the composition of the human microbiome across various lifestyles, life stages and events. This was performed as plasmids enable bacteria to rapidly expand their functional capacity through mobilisation, yet their contribution to human health and disease is poorly understood. We observed that inter-sample β-diversity differences of plasmid content (plasmidome) could distinguish cohorts across a multitude of conditions. We also show that reduced intra-sample plasmidome α-diversity is consistent amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Clostridioides difficile infections. We also show that faecal microbiota transplants can restore plasmidome diversity. Overall plasmidome diversity, specific plasmids, and plasmid-encoded functions can all potentially act as biomarkers of IBD or its severity. The human plasmidome is an overlooked facet of the microbiome and should be integrated into investigations regarding the role of the microbiome in promoting health or disease. Including MAP databases in analyses will enable a greater understanding of the roles of plasmid-encoded functions within the gut microbiome and will inform future human metagenome analyses.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Bhoite SS, Han Y, Ruotolo BT, et al (2022)

Mechanistic insights into accelerated α-synuclein aggregation mediated by human microbiome-associated functional amyloids.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(22)00529-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome has been shown to have key implications in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The E. coli functional amyloid CsgA is known to accelerate α-synuclein aggregation in vitro and induce PD symptoms in mice. However, the mechanism governing CsgA-mediated acceleration of α-synuclein aggregation is unclear. Here, we show that CsgA can form stable homodimeric species that correlate with faster α-synuclein amyloid aggregation. Furthermore, we identify and characterize new CsgA homologs encoded by bacteria present in the human microbiome. These CsgA homologs display diverse aggregation kinetics, and they differ in their ability to modulate α-synuclein aggregation. Remarkably, we demonstrate that slowing down CsgA aggregation leads to increased acceleration of α-synuclein aggregation suggesting that the intrinsic amyloidogenicity of gut bacterial CsgA homologs affects their ability to accelerate α-synuclein aggregation. Finally, we identify a complex between CsgA and α-synuclein that functions as a platform to accelerate α-synuclein aggregation. Taken together, our work reveals complex interplay between bacterial amyloids and α-synuclein that better informs our understanding of PD causation.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Pausan MR, Blohs M, Mahnert A, et al (2022)

The sanitary indoor environment-a potential source for intact human-associated anaerobes.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1):44.

A healthy human microbiome relies on the interaction with and exchange of microbes that takes place between the human body and its environment. People in high-income countries spend most of their time indoors and for this reason, the built environment (BE) might represent a potent source of commensal microbes. Anaerobic microbes are of particular interest, as researchers have not yet sufficiently clarified how the human microbiome acquires oxygen-sensitive microbes. We sampled the bathrooms in ten households and used propidium monoazide (PMA) to assess the viability of the collected prokaryotes. We compared the microbiome profiles based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and confirmed our results by genetic and cultivation-based analyses. Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed that most of the microbial taxa in the BE samples are human-associated. Less than 25% of the prokaryotic signatures originate from intact cells, indicating that aerobic and stress resistant taxa display an apparent survival advantage. However, we also confirmed the presence of intact, strictly anaerobic taxa on bathroom floors, including methanogenic archaea. As methanogens are regarded as highly sensitive to aerobic conditions, oxygen-tolerance experiments were performed with human-associated isolates to validate their survival. These results show that human-associated methanogens can survive oxic conditions for at least 6 h. We collected strong evidence that supports the hypothesis that obligate anaerobic taxa can survive in the BE for a limited amount of time. This suggests that the BE serves as a potential source of anaerobic human commensals.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Guthrie L, Spencer SP, Perelman D, et al (2022)

Impact of a 7-day homogeneous diet on interpersonal variation in human gut microbiomes and metabolomes.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(22)00263-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary compounds generates a vast array of microbiome-dependent metabolites (MDMs), which are highly variable between individuals. The uremic MDMs (uMDMs) phenylacetylglutamine (PAG), p-cresol sulfate (PCS), and indoxyl sulfate (IS) accumulate during renal failure and are associated with poor outcomes. Targeted dietary interventions may reduce toxic MDM generation; however, it is unclear if inter-individual differences in diet or gut microbiome dominantly contribute to MDM variance. Here, we use a 7-day homogeneous average American diet to standardize dietary precursor availability in 21 healthy individuals. During dietary homogeneity, the coefficient of variation in PAG, PCS, and IS (primary outcome) did not decrease, nor did inter-individual variation in most identified metabolites; other microbiome metrics showed no or modest responses to the intervention. Host identity and age are dominant contributors to variability in MDMs. These results highlight the potential need to pair dietary modification with microbial therapies to control MDM profiles.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Attai H, Wilde J, Liu R, et al (2022)

Bacteriophage-Mediated Perturbation of Defined Bacterial Communities in an In Vitro Model of the Human Gut.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The study of bacteriophage communities reproducing in the gastrointestinal tract is limited by the quality of model systems supporting experimental manipulation in vitro. Traditionally, studies aiming to experimentally address phage-bacteria dynamics have utilized gnotobiotic mice inoculated with defined bacterial communities. While mouse models simulate complex interactions between microbes and their host, they also forestall the study of phage-bacteria dynamics in isolation of host factors. Here, we established a method for manipulating phage-bacteria dynamics using an in vitro chemostat bioreactor model of the distal human gut. We create defined communities representing a subset of bacteria in the feces of two human individuals, cultivated these communities in chemostat bioreactors, developed methods to purify the autochthonous viromes associated with each cultured community, and trialed a system for transmitting live or heat-killed viruses between chemostat bioreactors to decipher outcomes of virus-mediated perturbation. We found that allochthonous viromes were detectable via metagenomic sequencing against the autochthonous virome background and that shifts in bacterial community diversity and composition were detectable in relation to time posttreatment. These microbiome composition changes spanned multiple phyla, including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. We also found that compositional changes occurred when using live viruses regardless of whether intrasubject or intersubject viruses were used as the perturbation agents. Our results supported the use of chemostat bioreactors as a platform for studying complex bacteria-phage dynamics in vitro. IMPORTANCE Bacteriophages are relatively ubiquitous in the environment and are highly abundant in the human microbiome. Phages can be commonly transmitted between close contacts, but the impact that such transmissions may have on their bacteria counterparts in our microbiomes is unknown. We developed a chemostat cultivation system to simulate individual-specific features of human distal gut microbiota that can be used to transmit phages between ecosystems and measure their impacts on the microbiota. We used this system to transfer phage communities between chemostats that represented different human subjects. We found that there were significant effects on overall microbiota diversity and changes in the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, when intersubject perturbations were performed, compared to intrasubject perturbations. These changes were observed when perturbations were performed using live phages, but not when heat-killed phages were used, and they support the use of chemostat systems for studying complex human bacteria-phage dynamics.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Bryan NS, Burleigh MC, C Easton (2022)

The oral microbiome, nitric oxide and exercise performance.

Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry pii:S1089-8603(22)00054-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome comprises ∼1013-1014 microbial cells which form a symbiotic relationship with the host and play a critical role in the regulation of human metabolism. In the oral cavity, several species of bacteria are capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite; a key precursor of the signaling molecule nitric oxide. Nitric oxide has myriad physiological functions, which include the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis and the regulation of acute and chronic responses to exercise. This article provides a brief narrative review of the research that has explored how diversity and plasticity of the oral microbiome influences nitric oxide bioavailability and related physiological outcomes. There is unequivocal evidence that dysbiosis (e.g. through disease) or disruption (e.g. by use of antiseptic mouthwash or antibiotics) of the oral microbiota will suppress nitric oxide production via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and negatively impact blood pressure. Conversely, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that proliferation of nitrate-reducing bacteria via the diet or targeted probiotics can augment nitric oxide production and improve markers of oral health. Despite this, it is yet to be established whether purposefully altering the oral microbiome can have a meaningful impact on exercise performance. Future research should determine whether alterations to the composition and metabolic activity of bacteria in the mouth influence the acute responses to exercise and the physiological adaptations to exercise training.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Maestre-Carballa L, Navarro-López V, M Martinez-Garcia (2022)

A Resistome Roadmap: From the Human Body to Pristine Environments.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:858831.

A comprehensive characterization of the human body resistome [sets of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)] is yet to be done and paramount for addressing the antibiotic microbial resistance threat. Here, we study the resistome of 771 samples from five major body parts (skin, nares, vagina, gut, and oral cavity) of healthy subjects from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and addressed the potential dispersion of ARGs in pristine environments. A total of 28,714 ARGs belonging to 235 different ARG types were found in the HMP proteome dataset (n = 9.1 × 107 proteins analyzed). Our study reveals a distinct resistome profile (ARG type and abundance) between body sites and high interindividual variability. Nares had the highest ARG load (≈5.4 genes/genome) followed by the oral cavity, whereas the gut showed one of the highest ARG richness (shared with nares) but the lowest abundance (≈1.3 genes/genome). The fluroquinolone resistance genes were the most abundant in the human body, followed by macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) or tetracycline. Most ARGs belonged to common bacterial commensals and multidrug resistance trait were predominant in the nares and vagina. Many ARGs detected here were considered as low risk for human health, whereas only a few of them, such as BlaZ, dfrA14, dfrA17, or tetM, were classified as high-risk ARG. Our data also provide hope, since the spread of common ARG from the human body to pristine environments (n = 271 samples; 77 Gb of sequencing data and 2.1 × 108 proteins analyzed) thus far remains very unlikely (only one case found in an autochthonous bacterium from a pristine environment). These findings broaden our understanding of ARG in the context of the human microbiome and the One-Health Initiative of WHO uniting human host-microbes and environments as a whole.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

El-Chami C, Choudhury R, Mohammedsaeed W, et al (2022)

Multiple Proteins of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG Are Involved in the Protection of Keratinocytes From the Toxic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:875542.

We have previously shown that lysates of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG confer protection to human keratinocytes against Staphylococcus aureus. L. rhamnosus GG inhibits the growth of S. aureus as well as competitively excludes and displaces the pathogen from keratinocytes. In this study, we have specifically investigated the anti-adhesive action. We have tested the hypothesis that this activity is due to quenching of S. aureus binding sites on keratinocytes by molecules within the Lacticaseibacillus lysate. Trypsinisation or heat treatment removed the protective effect of the lysate suggesting the involvement of proteins as effector molecules. Column separation of the lysate and analysis of discrete fractions in adhesion assays identified a fraction of moderate hydrophobicity that possessed all anti-adhesive functions. Immunoblotting demonstrated that this fraction contained the pilus protein, SpaC. Recombinant SpaC inhibited staphylococcal adhesion to keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner and improved keratinocyte viability following challenge with viable S. aureus. However, SpaC did not confer the full anti-adhesive effects of the LGG lysate and excluded but did not displace S. aureus from keratinocytes. Further purification produced four protein-containing peaks (F1-F4). Of these, F4, which had the greatest column retention time, was the most efficacious in anti-staphylococcal adhesion and keratinocyte viability assays. Identification of proteins by mass spectrometry showed F4 to contain several known "moonlighting proteins"-i.e., with additional activities to the canonical function, including enolase, Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (G3P) and Elongation factor TU (EF-Tu). Of these, only enolase and TPI inhibited S. aureus adhesion and protected keratinocytes viability in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that inhibition of staphylococcal binding by the L. rhamnosus GG lysate is mediated by SpaC and specific moonlight proteins.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Brogna C, Brogna B, Bisaccia DR, et al (2022)

Could SARS-CoV-2 Have Bacteriophage Behavior or Induce the Activity of Other Bacteriophages?.

Vaccines, 10(5): pii:vaccines10050708.

SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the most studied viruses of the last century. It was assumed that the only possible host for these types of viruses was mammalian eukaryotic cells. Our recent studies show that microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract affect the severity of COVID-19 and for the first time provide indications that the virus might replicate in gut bacteria. In order to further support these findings, in the present work, cultures of bacteria from the human microbiome and SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by electron and fluorescence microscopy. The images presented in this article, in association with the nitrogen (15N) isotope-labeled culture medium experiment, suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could also infect bacteria in the gut microbiota, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 could act as a bacteriophage. Our results add new knowledge to the understanding of the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and fill gaps in the study of the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and non-mammalian cells. These findings could be useful in suggesting specific new pharmacological solutions to support the vaccination campaign.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Harutyunyan N, Kushugulova A, Hovhannisyan N, et al (2022)

One Health Probiotics as Biocontrol Agents: One Health Tomato Probiotics.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(10): pii:plants11101334.

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most popular and valuable vegetables in the world. The most common products of its industrial processing in the food industry are juice, tomato paste, various sauces, canned or sun-dried fruits and powdered products. Tomato fruits are susceptible to bacterial diseases, and bacterial contamination can be a risk factor for the safety of processed tomato products. Developments in bioinformatics allow researchers to discuss target probiotic strains from an existing large number of probiotic strains for any link in the soil-plant-animal-human chain. Based on the literature and knowledge on the "One Health" concept, this study relates to the suggestion of a new term for probiotics: "One Health probiotics", beneficial for the unity of people, animals, and the environment. Strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, having an ability to ferment a broad spectrum of plant carbohydrates, probiotic effects in human, and animal health, as well as being found in dairy products, vegetables, sauerkraut, pickles, some cheeses, fermented sausages, fish products, and rhizospheric soil, might be suggested as one of the probable candidates for "One Health" probiotics (also, for "One Health-tomato" probiotics) for the utilization in agriculture, food processing, and healthcare.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Pane S, L Putignani (2022)

Cryptosporidium: Still Open Scenarios.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(5): pii:pathogens11050515.

Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly identified as a leading cause of childhood diarrhea and malnutrition in both low-income and high-income countries. The strong impact on public health in epidemic scenarios makes it increasingly essential to identify the sources of infection and understand the transmission routes in order to apply the right prevention or treatment protocols. The objective of this literature review was to present an overview of the current state of human cryptosporidiosis, reviewing risk factors, discussing advances in the drug treatment and epidemiology, and emphasizing the need to identify a government system for reporting diagnosed cases, hitherto undervalued.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Puigbò P, Leino LI, Rainio MJ, et al (2022)

Does Glyphosate Affect the Human Microbiota?.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:life12050707.

Glyphosate is the world's most widely used agrochemical. Its use in agriculture and gardening has been proclaimed safe because humans and other animals do not have the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). However, increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated risks to humans and animals because the shikimate metabolic pathway is present in many microbes. Here, we assess the potential effect of glyphosate on healthy human microbiota. Our results demonstrate that more than one-half of human microbiome are intrinsically sensitive to glyphosate. However, further empirical studies are needed to determine the effect of glyphosate on healthy human microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Arjunan P, R Swaminathan (2022)

Do Oral Pathogens Inhabit the Eye and Play a Role in Ocular Diseases?.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(10): pii:jcm11102938.

Fascinatingly, the immune-privileged healthy eye has a small unique population of microbiota. The human microbiome project led to continuing interest in the ocular microbiome. Typically, ocular microflorae are commensals of low diversity that colonize the external and internal sites of the eye, without instigating any disorders. Ocular commensals modulate immunity and optimally regulate host defense against pathogenic invasion, both on the ocular surface and neuroretina. Yet, any alteration in this symbiotic relationship culminates in the perturbation of ocular homeostasis and shifts the equilibrium toward local or systemic inflammation and, in turn, impaired visual function. A compositional variation in the ocular microbiota is associated with surface disorders such as keratitis, blepharitis, and conjunctivitis. Nevertheless, innovative studies now implicate non-ocular microbial dysbiosis in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), uveitis, and diabetic retinopathy. Accordingly, prompt identification of the extra-ocular etiology and a methodical understanding of the mechanisms of invasion and host-microbial interaction is of paramount importance for preventative and therapeutic interventions for vision-threatening conditions. This review article aims to explore the current literature evidence to better comprehend the role of oral pathogens in the etiopathogenesis of ocular diseases, specifically AMD.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Linkens AMA, van Best N, Niessen PM, et al (2022)

A 4-Week Diet Low or High in Advanced Glycation Endproducts Has Limited Impact on Gut Microbial Composition in Abdominally Obese Individuals: The deAGEing Trial.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(10): pii:ijms23105328.

Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), abundantly present in Westernized diets, are linked to negative health outcomes, but their impact on the gut microbiota has not yet been well investigated in humans. We investigated the effects of a 4-week isocaloric and macronutrient-matched diet low or high in AGEs on the gut microbial composition of 70 abdominally obese individuals in a double-blind parallel-design randomized controlled trial (NCT03866343). Additionally, we investigated the cross-sectional associations between the habitual intake of dietary dicarbonyls, reactive precursors to AGEs, and the gut microbial composition, as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing. Despite a marked percentage difference in AGE intake, we observed no differences in microbial richness and the general community structure. Only the Anaerostipes spp. had a relative abundance >0.5% and showed differential abundance (0.5 versus 1.11%; p = 0.028, after low- or high-AGE diet, respectively). While the habitual intake of dicarbonyls was not associated with microbial richness or a general community structure, the intake of 3-deoxyglucosone was especially associated with an abundance of several genera. Thus, a 4-week diet low or high in AGEs has a limited impact on the gut microbial composition of abdominally obese humans, paralleling its previously observed limited biological consequences. The effects of dietary dicarbonyls on the gut microbiota composition deserve further investigation.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Skurnik M (2022)

Can Bacteriophages Replace Antibiotics?.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(5): pii:antibiotics11050575.

Increasing antibiotic resistance numbers force both scientists and politicians to tackle the problem, and preferably without any delay. The application of bacteriophages as precision therapy to treat bacterial infections, phage therapy, has received increasing attention during the last two decades. While it looks like phage therapy is here to stay, there is still a lot to do. Medicine regulatory authorities are working to deliver clear instructions to carry out phage therapy. Physicians need to get more practical experience on treatments with phages. In this opinion article I try to place phage therapy in the context of the health care system and state that the use phages for precision treatments will require a seamless chain of events from the patient to the phage therapy laboratory to allow for the immediate application of phages therapeutically. It is not likely that phages will replace antibiotics, however, they will be valuable in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Antibiotics will nevertheless remain the main treatment for a majority of infections.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Gavin DP, Reen FJ, Rocha-Martin J, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Genome mining and characterisation of a novel transaminase with remote stereoselectivity.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8947 pii:10.1038/s41598-022-12801-5.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Li X, Wang L, Ma S, et al (2022)

Combination of Oxalobacter Formigenes and Veillonella Parvula in Gastrointestinal Microbiota Related to Bile-Acid Metabolism as a Biomarker for Hypertensive Nephropathy.

International journal of hypertension, 2022:5999530.

The human microbiome is a mixed group of microorganisms, which individually consists of 10-100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells. The relationship between gastrointestinal microbiota and blood pressure has been verified and the intestinal microbiota of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in the distribution of bacterial species is different from the flora of people with no CKD. The purpose of this research is to study the different intestinal microbiota of hypertensive patients with and without nephropathy and to find possible biomarkers of hypertensive nephropathy (H-CKD). The subjects of this research were divided into three groups, healthy control group, hypertension group, and hypertensive nephropathy group. Sequencing, bioinformatics, and statistical analysis were performed on the 16S rRNA gene of the subjects' stool samples. This research study showed the differences of intestinal flora as biomarkers in hypertension patients with and without nephropathy; it investigated the relationship of the differences in the intestinal microbiota with bile-acid metabolism; it also explored bile-acid metabolism mechanism of intestinal microbiota differences in hypertension with or without nephropathy. In summary, the difference in the combination of O. formigenes and V. parvula in the gastrointestinal microbiota is related to bile-acid metabolism in hypertensive patients and can be one of the factors causing CKD. It is the first time to report such a biomarker or pathogenic factor of H-CKD in the world.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Hasan R, Bose S, Roy R, et al (2022)

Tumor tissue-specific bacterial biomarker panel for colorectal cancer: Bacteroides massiliensis, Alistipes species, Alistipes onderdonkii, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Corynebacterium appendicis.

Archives of microbiology, 204(6):348.

Human microbiome studies have shown diversity to exist among different ethnic populations. However, studies pertaining to the microbial composition of CRC among the Indian population have not been well explored. We aimed to decipher the microbial signature in tumor tissues from North Indian CRC patients. Next-generation sequencing of tumor and adjacent tissue-derived bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions was performed to investigate the abundance of specific microbes. The expression profile analysis deciphered a decreased diversity among the tumor-associated microbial communities. At the phyla level, Proteobacteria was differentially expressed in CRC tissues than adjacent normal. Further, DeSeq2 normalization identified 4 out of 79 distinct species (p < 0.005) only in CRC, Bacteroides massiliensis, Alistipes onderdonkii, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, and Corynebacterium appendicis. Thus, the findings suggest that microbial signatures can be used as putative biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment management of CRC.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Gulliver EL, Young RB, Chonwerawong M, et al (2022)

Review article: the future of microbiome-based therapeutics.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: From consumption of fermented foods and probiotics to emerging applications of faecal microbiota transplantation, the health benefit of manipulating the human microbiota has been exploited for millennia. Despite this history, recent technological advances are unlocking the capacity for targeted microbial manipulation as a novel therapeutic.

AIM: This review summarises the current developments in microbiome-based medicines and provides insight into the next steps required for therapeutic development.

METHODS: Here we review current and emerging approaches and assess the capabilities and weaknesses of these technologies to provide safe and effective clinical interventions. Key literature was identified through Pubmed searches with the following key words, 'microbiome', 'microbiome biomarkers', 'probiotics', 'prebiotics', 'synbiotics', 'faecal microbiota transplant', 'live biotherapeutics', 'microbiome mimetics' and 'postbiotics'.

RESULTS: Improved understanding of the human microbiome and recent technological advances provide an opportunity to develop a new generation of therapies. These therapies will range from dietary interventions, prebiotic supplementations, single probiotic bacterial strains, human donor-derived faecal microbiota transplants, rationally selected combinations of bacterial strains as live biotherapeutics, and the beneficial products or effects produced by bacterial strains, termed microbiome mimetics.

CONCLUSIONS: Although methods to identify and refine these therapeutics are continually advancing, the rapid emergence of these new approaches necessitates accepted technological and ethical frameworks for measurement, testing, laboratory practices and clinical translation.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Tong X, Yu X, Du Y, et al (2022)

Peripheral Blood Microbiome Analysis via Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Reveals the Complexity of Circulating Microbial Cell-Free DNA.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

While circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming a powerful marker for noninvasive identification of infectious pathogens in liquid biopsy specimens, a microbial cfDNA baseline in healthy individuals is urgently needed for the proper interpretation of microbial cfDNA sequencing results in clinical metagenomics. Because noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) shares many similarities with the sequencing protocol of metagenomics, we utilized the standard low-pass whole-genome-sequencing-based NIPT to establish a microbial cfDNA baseline in healthy people. Sequencing data from a total of 107,763 peripheral blood samples of healthy pregnant women undergoing NIPT screening were retrospectively collected and reanalyzed for microbiome DNA screening. It was found that more than 95% of exogenous cfDNA was from bacteria, 3% from eukaryotes, and 0.4% from viruses, indicating the gut/environment origins of many microorganisms. Overall and regional abundance patterns were well illustrated, with huge regional diversity and complexity, and unique interspecies and symbiotic relationships were observed for TORCH organisms (Toxoplasma gondii, others [Treponema pallidum {causing syphilis}, hepatitis B virus {HBV}, and human parvovirus B19 {HPV-B19}], rubella virus, cytomegalovirus [CMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) and another common virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). To sum up, our study revealed the complexity of the baseline circulating microbial cfDNA and showed that microbial cfDNA sequencing results need to be interpreted in a more comprehensive manner. IMPORTANCE While circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been becoming a powerful marker for noninvasive identification of infectious pathogens in liquid biopsy specimens, a baseline for microbial cfDNA in healthy individuals is urgently needed for the proper interpretation of microbial cfDNA sequencing results in clinical metagenomics. Standard low-pass whole-genome-sequencing-based NIPT shares many similarities with the sequencing protocol for metagenomics and could provide a microbial cfDNA baseline in healthy people; thus, a reference cfDNA data set of the human microbiome was established with sequencing data from a total of 107,763 peripheral blood samples of healthy pregnant women undergoing NIPT screening. Our study revealed the complexity of circulating microbial cfDNA and indicated that microbial cfDNA sequencing results need to be interpreted in a more comprehensive manner, especially with regard to geographic patterns and coexistence networks.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Nabizadeh E, Sadeghi J, Ahangarzadeh Rezaee M, et al (2022)

Interaction Between Altered Gut Microbiota and Sepsis: A Hypothesis or an Authentic Fact?.

Journal of intensive care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Sepsis, as an important public health concern, is one of the leading causes of death in hospitals around the world, accounting for 25% of all deaths. Nowadays, several factors contribute to the development of sepsis. The role of the gut microbiota and the response state of the aberrant immune system is dominant. The effect of the human microbiome on health is undeniable, and gut microbiota is even considered a body organ. It is now clear that the alteration in the normal balance of the microbiota (dysbiosis) is associated with a change in the status of immune system responses. Owing to the strong association between the gut microbiota and its metabolites particularly short-chain fatty acids with many illnesses, the gut microbiota has a unique position in the research of microbiologists and even clinicians. This review aimed to analyze studies' results on the association between microbiota and sepsis, with a substantial understanding of their relationship. As a result, an extensive and comprehensive search was conducted on this issue in existing databases.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Issilbayeva A, Ainabekova B, Zhetkenev S, et al (2022)

Association Study of Anticitrullinated Peptide Antibody Status with Clinical Manifestations and SNPs in Patients Affected with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Pilot Study.

Disease markers, 2022:2744762.

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that leads to disability due to articular and extra-articular damage. RA prevalence is variable. The disease is most common among females with a 3 : 1 ratio. The interaction of environmental and host factors contributes to RA development. Currently, the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) give the opportunity to uncover the RA genetic background. Anticitrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific RA antibody, associated with poor prognosis and severe course of RA, and regulated by numerous genes. Our study is aimed at investigating whether there are any clinical and genetic aspects correlate with ACPA presence in Kazakhstani patients with RA. Indeed, the available studies on this subject are focused on Caucasian and East Asian populations (mainly Japanese and Chinese), and there are scarce data from Central Asia.

Methods: Our study included 70 RA patients. Patients' blood samples were collected and genotyped for 14 SNPs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). General examination, anamnestic, and clinical and laboratory data collection were carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using R statistics. Results and Conclusion. Our study revealed a significant association of ACPA positivity with Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) and ACPA negativity with signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) genes, but not with T cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP). In addition, ACPA positivity was associated with radiographic progression, rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), age of RA onset, the patient global assessment, body mass index (BMI), and Gamma globulin.

Conclusion: Remained 11 earlier identified significantly associated in Caucasian and Asian population SNPs were not replicated in our cohort. Further studies on larger cohorts are needed to confirm our findings with higher confidence levels and stronger statistical power.

RevDate: 2022-05-22

Jian C, Silvestre MP, Middleton D, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota predicts body fat change following a low-energy diet: a PREVIEW intervention study.

Genome medicine, 14(1):54.

BACKGROUND: Low-energy diets (LEDs) comprise commercially formulated food products that provide between 800 and 1200 kcal/day (3.3-5 MJ/day) to aid body weight loss. Recent small-scale studies suggest that LEDs are associated with marked changes in the gut microbiota that may modify the effect of the LED on host metabolism and weight loss. We investigated how the gut microbiota changed during 8 weeks of total meal replacement LED and determined their associations with host response in a sub-analysis of 211 overweight adults with pre-diabetes participating in the large multicentre PREVIEW (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle intervention and population studies In Europe and around the World) clinical trial.

METHODS: Microbial community composition was analysed by Illumina sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Butyrate production capacity was estimated by qPCR targeting the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene. Bioinformatics and statistical analyses, such as comparison of alpha and beta diversity measures, correlative and differential abundances analysis, were undertaken on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 211 paired (pre- and post-LED) samples as well as their integration with the clinical, biomedical and dietary datasets for predictive modelling.

RESULTS: The overall composition of the gut microbiota changed markedly and consistently from pre- to post-LED (P = 0.001), along with increased richness and diversity (both P < 0.001). Following the intervention, the relative abundance of several genera previously associated with metabolic improvements (e.g., Akkermansia and Christensenellaceae R-7 group) was significantly increased (P < 0.001), while flagellated Pseudobutyrivibrio, acetogenic Blautia and Bifidobacterium spp. were decreased (all P < 0.001). Butyrate production capacity was reduced (P < 0.001). The changes in microbiota composition and predicted functions were significantly associated with body weight loss (P < 0.05). Baseline gut microbiota features were able to explain ~25% of variation in total body fat change (post-pre-LED).

CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiota and individual taxa were significantly influenced by the LED intervention and correlated with changes in total body fat and body weight in individuals with overweight and pre-diabetes. Despite inter-individual variation, the baseline gut microbiota was a strong predictor of total body fat change during the energy restriction period.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The PREVIEW trial was prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01777893) on January 29, 2013.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Carreira EM, Hansen ME, Yasmin SO, et al (2022)

Total Synthesis of Mutanobactins A, B from the Human Microbiome: Macrocyclization and Thiazepanone Assembly in a Single-Step.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) [Epub ahead of print].

We report the first total syntheses of tricyclic mutanobactins A and B, lipopeptides incorporating a thiazepanone, isolated from Streptococcus mutans , a member of the human oral microbiome. A rapid, solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) based route delivers these natural products from a cascade of cyclization reactions. This versatile process was also employed in a streamlined synthesis of mutanobactin D. Additionally, we provide an independent synthesis of a truncated mutanobactin A analog, utilizing a novel thiazepanone amino acid building block.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Song SJ, Wang J, Martino C, et al (2021)

Naturalization of the microbiota developmental trajectory of Cesarean-born neonates after vaginal seeding.

Med (New York, N.Y.), 2(8):951-964.e5.

BACKGROUND: Early microbiota perturbations are associated with disorders that involve immunological underpinnings. Cesarean section (CS)-born babies show altered microbiota development in relation to babies born vaginally. Here we present the first statistically powered longitudinal study to determine the effect of restoring exposure to maternal vaginal fluids after CS birth.

METHODS: Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we followed the microbial trajectories of multiple body sites in 177 babies over the first year of life; 98 were born vaginally, and 79 were born by CS, of whom 30 were swabbed with a maternal vaginal gauze right after birth.

FINDINGS: Compositional tensor factorization analysis confirmed that microbiota trajectories of exposed CS-born babies aligned more closely with that of vaginally born babies. Interestingly, the majority of amplicon sequence variants from maternal vaginal microbiomes on the day of birth were shared with other maternal sites, in contrast to non-pregnant women from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) study.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this observational study prompt urgent randomized clinical trials to test whether microbial restoration reduces the increased disease risk associated with CS birth and the underlying mechanisms. It also provides evidence of the pluripotential nature of maternal vaginal fluids to provide pioneer bacterial colonizers for the newborn body sites. This is the first study showing long-term naturalization of the microbiota of CS-born infants by restoring microbial exposure at birth.

FUNDING: C&D, Emch Fund, CIFAR, Chilean CONICYT and SOCHIPE, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Emerald Foundation, NIH, National Institute of Justice, Janssen.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Szóstak N, Szymanek A, Havránek J, et al (2022)

The standardisation of the approach to metagenomic human gut analysis: from sample collection to microbiome profiling.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8470.

In recent years, the number of metagenomic studies increased significantly. Wide range of factors, including the tremendous community complexity and variability, is contributing to the challenge in reliable microbiome community profiling. Many approaches have been proposed to overcome these problems making hardly possible to compare results of different studies. The significant differences between procedures used in metagenomic research are reflected in a variation of the obtained results. This calls for the need for standardisation of the procedure, to reduce the confounding factors originating from DNA isolation, sequencing and bioinformatics analyses in order to ensure that the differences in microbiome composition are of a true biological origin. Although the best practices for metagenomics studies have been the topic of several publications and the main aim of the International Human Microbiome Standard (IHMS) project, standardisation of the procedure for generating and analysing metagenomic data is still far from being achieved. To highlight the difficulties in the standardisation of metagenomics methods, we thoroughly examined each step of the analysis of the human gut microbiome. We tested the DNA isolation procedure, preparation of NGS libraries for next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis, aimed at identifying microbial taxa. We showed that the homogenisation time is the leading factor impacting sample diversity, with the recommendation for a shorter homogenisation time (10 min). Ten minutes of homogenisation allows for better reflection of the bacteria gram-positive/gram-negative ratio, and the obtained results are the least heterogenous in terms of beta-diversity of samples microbial composition. Besides increasing the homogenisation time, we observed further potential impact of the library preparation kit on the gut microbiome profiling. Moreover, our analysis revealed that the choice of the library preparation kit influences the reproducibility of the results, which is an important factor that has to be taken into account in every experiment. In this study, a tagmentation-based kit allowed for obtaining the most reproducible results. We also considered the choice of the computational tool for determining the composition of intestinal microbiota, with Kraken2/Bracken pipeline outperforming MetaPhlAn2 in our in silico experiments. The design of an experiment and a detailed establishment of an experimental protocol may have a serious impact on determining the taxonomic profile of the intestinal microbiome community. Results of our experiment can be helpful for a wide range of studies that aim to better understand the role of the gut microbiome, as well as for clinical purposes.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Sim M, Lee J, Wy S, et al (2022)

Generation and application of pseudo-long reads for metagenome assembly.

GigaScience, 11:.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomic assembly using high-throughput sequencing data is a powerful method to construct microbial genomes in environmental samples without cultivation. However, metagenomic assembly, especially when only short reads are available, is a complex and challenging task because mixed genomes of multiple microorganisms constitute the metagenome. Although long read sequencing technologies have been developed and have begun to be used for metagenomic assembly, many metagenomic studies have been performed based on short reads because the generation of long reads requires higher sequencing cost than short reads.

RESULTS: In this study, we present a new method called PLR-GEN. It creates pseudo-long reads from metagenomic short reads based on given reference genome sequences by considering small sequence variations existing in individual genomes of the same or different species. When applied to a mock community data set in the Human Microbiome Project, PLR-GEN dramatically extended short reads in length of 101 bp to pseudo-long reads with N50 of 33 Kbp and 0.4% error rate. The use of these pseudo-long reads generated by PLR-GEN resulted in an obvious improvement of metagenomic assembly in terms of the number of sequences, assembly contiguity, and prediction of species and genes.

CONCLUSIONS: PLR-GEN can be used to generate artificial long read sequences without spending extra sequencing cost, thus aiding various studies using metagenomes.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Furber MJW, Young GR, Holt GS, et al (2022)

Gut Microbial Stability is Associated with Greater Endurance Performance in Athletes Undertaking Dietary Periodization.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Dietary manipulation with high-protein or high-carbohydrate content are frequently employed during elite athletic training, aiming to enhance athletic performance. Such interventions are likely to impact upon gut microbial content. This study explored the impact of acute high-protein or high-carbohydrate diets on measured endurance performance and associated gut microbial community changes. In a cohort of well-matched, highly trained endurance runners, we measured performance outcomes, as well as gut bacterial, viral (FVP), and bacteriophage (IV) communities in a double-blind, repeated-measures design randomized control trial (RCT) to explore the impact of dietary intervention with either high-protein or high-carbohydrate content. High-dietary carbohydrate improved time-trial performance by +6.5% (P < 0.03) and was associated with expansion of Ruminococcus and Collinsella bacterial spp. Conversely, high dietary protein led to a reduction in performance by -23.3% (P = 0.001). This impact was accompanied by significantly reduced diversity (IV: P = 0.04) and altered composition (IV and FVP: P = 0.02) of the gut phageome as well as enrichment of both free and inducible Sk1virus and Leuconostoc bacterial populations. Greatest performance during dietary modification was observed in participants with less substantial shifts in community composition. Gut microbial stability during acute dietary periodization was associated with greater athletic performance in this highly trained, well-matched cohort. Athletes, and those supporting them, should be mindful of the potential consequences of dietary manipulation on gut flora and implications for performance, and periodize appropriately. IMPORTANCE Dietary periodization is employed to improve endurance exercise performance but may impact on gut microbial communities. Bacteriophage are implicated in bacterial cell homeostasis and have been identified as biomarkers of disequilibrium in the gut ecosystem possibly brought about through dietary periodization. We find high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets to have opposing impacts on endurance performance in highly trained athlete populations. Reduced performance is linked with disturbance of microbial stasis in the gut. We demonstrate bacteriophage communities are the most sensitive component of the gut microbiota to increased gut stress following dietary manipulation. Athletes undertaking dietary periodization should be aware of potential negative impacts of drastic changes to dietary composition on gut microbial stasis and, in turn, endurance performance.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Mangola SM, Lund JR, Schnorr SL, et al (2022)

Ethical microbiome research with Indigenous communities.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Human-microbiome interactions have been associated with evolutionary, cultural and environmental processes. With clinical applications of microbiome research now feasible, it is crucial that the science conducted, particularly among Indigenous communities, adheres to principles of inclusion. This necessitates a transdisciplinary dialogue to decide how biological samples are collected and who benefits from the research and any derived products. As a group of scholars working at the interface of biological and social science, we offer a candid discussion of the lessons learned from our own research and introduce one approach to carry out ethical microbiome research with Indigenous communities.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Kantele A, Paajanen J, Turunen S, et al (2022)

Scent dogs in detection of COVID-19: triple-blinded randomised trial and operational real-life screening in airport setting.

BMJ global health, 7(5):.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate scent dogs' diagnostic accuracy in identification of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We conducted a randomised triple-blinded validation trial, and a real-life study at the Helsinki-Vantaa International Airport, Finland.

METHODS: Four dogs were trained to detect COVID-19 using skin swabs from individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Our controlled triple-blinded validation study comprised four identical sets of 420 parallel samples (from 114 individuals tested positive and 306 negative by RT-PCR), randomly presented to each dog over seven trial sessions. In a real-life setting the dogs screened skin swabs from 303 incoming passengers all concomitantly examined by nasal swab SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. Our main outcomes were variables of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value) for scent dog identification in comparison with RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Our validation experiments had an overall accuracy of 92% (95% CI 90% to 93%), a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI 89% to 94%) and a specificity of 91% (95% CI 89% to 93%) compared with RT-PCR. For our dogs, trained using the wild-type virus, performance was less accurate for the alpha variant (89% for confirmed wild-type vs 36% for alpha variant, OR 14.0, 95% CI 4.5 to 43.4). In the real-life setting, scent detection and RT-PCR matched 98.7% of the negative swabs. Scant airport prevalence (0.47%) did not allow sensitivity testing; our only SARS-CoV-2 positive swab was not identified (alpha variant). However, ad hoc analysis including predefined positive spike samples showed a total accuracy of 98% (95% CI 97% to 99%).

CONCLUSIONS: This large randomised controlled triple-blinded validation study with a precalculated sample size conducted at an international airport showed that trained scent dogs screen airport passenger samples with high accuracy. One of our findings highlights the importance of continuous retraining as new variants emerge. Using scent dogs may present a valuable approach for high-throughput, rapid screening of large numbers of people.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Vindenes HK, Lin H, Shigdel R, et al (2022)

Exposure to Antibacterial Chemicals Is Associated With Altered Composition of Oral Microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:790496.

Antimicrobial chemicals are used as preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi in the products. Unintentional exposure in humans to such chemicals is well documented, but whether they also interfere with human oral microbiome composition is largely unexplored. In this study, we explored whether the oral bacterial composition is affected by exposure to antibacterial and environmental chemicals. Gingival fluid, urine, and interview data were collected from 477 adults (18-47 years) from the RHINESSA study in Bergen, Norway. Urine biomarkers of triclosan, triclocarban, parabens, benzophenone-3, bisphenols, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenols (DCPs) were quantified (by mass spectrometry). Microbiome analysis was based on 16S amplicon sequencing. Diversity and differential abundance analyses were performed to identify how microbial communities may change when comparing groups of different chemical exposure. We identified that high urine levels (>75th percentile) of propyl parabens were associated with a lower abundance of bacteria genera TM7 [G-3], Helicobacter, Megasphaera, Mitsuokella, Tannerella, Propionibacteriaceae [G-2], and Dermabacter, as compared with low propylparaben levels (<25th percentile). High exposure to ethylparaben was associated with a higher abundance of Paracoccus. High urine levels of bisphenol A were associated with a lower abundance of Streptococcus and exposure to another environmental chemical, 2,4-DCP, was associated with a lower abundance of Treponema, Fretibacterium, and Bacteroidales [G-2]. High exposure to antibacterial and environmental chemicals was associated with an altered composition of gingiva bacteria; mostly commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. Our results highlight a need for a better understanding of how antimicrobial chemical exposure influences the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Rosas-Plaza S, Hernández-Terán A, Navarro-Díaz M, et al (2022)

Human Gut Microbiome Across Different Lifestyles: From Hunter-Gatherers to Urban Populations.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:843170.

Human lifestyle and its relationship with the human microbiome has been a line of research widely studied. This is because, throughout human history, civilizations have experienced different environments and lifestyles that could have promoted changes in the human microbiome. The comparison between industrialized and non-industrialized human populations in several studies has allowed to observe variation in the microbiome structure due to the population lifestyle. Nevertheless, the lifestyle of human populations is a gradient where several subcategories can be described. Yet, it is not known how these different lifestyles of human populations affect the microbiome structure on a large scale. Therefore, the main goal of this work was the collection and comparison of 16S data from the gut microbiome of populations that have different lifestyles around the world. With the data obtained from 14 studies, it was possible to compare the gut microbiome of 568 individuals that represent populations of hunter-gatherers, agricultural, agropastoral, pastoral, and urban populations. Results showed that industrialized populations present less diversity than those from non-industrialized populations, as has been described before. However, by separating traditional populations into different categories, we were able to observe patterns that cannot be appreciated by encompassing the different traditional lifestyles in a single category. In this sense, we could confirm that different lifestyles exhibit distinct alpha and beta diversity. In particular, the gut microbiome of pastoral and agropastoral populations seems to be more similar to those of urban populations according to beta diversity analysis. Beyond that, beta diversity analyses revealed that bacterial composition reflects the different lifestyles, representing a transition from hunters-gatherers to industrialized populations. Also, we found that certain groups such as Bacteoidaceae, Lanchospiraceae, and Rickenellaceae have been favored in the transition to modern societies, being differentially abundant in urban populations. Thus, we could hypothesize that due to adaptive/ecological processes; multifunctional bacterial groups (e.g., Bacteroidaceae) could be replacing some functions lost in the transition to modern lifestyle.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Chen L, Zheng T, Yang Y, et al (2022)

Integrative multiomics analysis reveals host-microbe-metabolite interplays associated with the aging process in Singaporeans.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2070392.

The age-associated alterations in microbiomes vary across populations due to the influence of genetics and lifestyles. To the best of our knowledge, the microbial changes associated with aging have not yet been investigated in Singapore adults. We conducted shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal and saliva samples, as well as fecal metabolomics to characterize the gut and oral microbial communities of 62 healthy adult male Singaporeans, including 32 young subjects (age, 23.1 ± 1.4 years) and 30 elderly subjects (age, 69.0 ± 3.5 years). We identified 8 gut and 13 oral species that were differentially abundant in elderly compared to young subjects. By combining the gut and oral microbiomes, 25 age-associated oral-gut species connections were identified. Moreover, oral bacteria Acidaminococcus intestine and Flavonifractor plautii were less prevalent/abundant in elderly gut samples than in young gut samples, whereas Collinsella aerofaciens and Roseburia hominis showed the opposite trends. These results indicate the varied gut-oral communications with aging. Subsequently, we expanded the association studies on microbiome, metabolome and host phenotypic parameters. In particular, Eubacterium eligens increased in elderly compared to young subjects, and was positively correlated with triglycerides, which implies that the potential role of E. eligens in lipid metabolism is altered during the aging process. Our results demonstrated aging-associated changes in the gut and oral microbiomes, as well as the connections between metabolites and host-microbe interactions, thereby deepening the understanding of alterations in the human microbiome during the aging process in a Singapore population.

RevDate: 2022-05-14
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

van Best N, Dominguez-Bello MG, Hornef MW, et al (2022)

Should we modulate the neonatal microbiome and what should be the goal?.

Microbiome, 10(1):74.

RevDate: 2022-05-11

Sexton RE, Uddin MH, Bannoura S, et al (2022)

Correction to: Connecting the human microbiome and pancreatic cancer.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Hu C, Beyda ND, KW Garey (2022)

A Vancomycin HPLC Assay for Use in Gut Microbiome Research.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome project has revolutionized our understanding of the interaction between commensal microbes and human health. By far, the biggest perturbation of the microbiome involves use of broad-spectrum antibiotics excreted in the gut. Thus, pharmacodynamics of microbiome changes in relation to drug exposure pharmacokinetics is an emerging field. However, reproducibility studies are necessary to develop the field. A simple and fast high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC) method was validated for quantitative fecal vancomycin analysis. Reproducibility of results were tested based on sample storage time, homogeneity of antibiotic within stool, and concentration consistency after lyophilization. The HPLC method enabled the complete elution of vancomycin within ~4.2 min on the reversed-phase C18 column under the isocratic elution mode, with excellent recovery (85% to 110%) over a 4-log, quantitative range (0.4-100 μg/mL). Relative standard derivations (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day results ranged from 0.4% to 5.4%. Using sample stool aliquots of various weights consistently demonstrated similar vancomycin concentrations (mean RSD: 6%; range: 2-16%). After correcting for water concentrations, vancomycin concentrations obtained after lyophilization were similar to the concentrations obtained from the original samples (RSD less than 10%). These methodologies establish sample condition standards for a quantitative HPLC to enable vancomycin pharmacokinetic studies with the human microbiome. IMPORTANCE Research on antibiotic effect on the gut microbiome is an emerging field with standardization of research methods needed. In this study, a simple and fast high-performance liquid chromatography method was validated for quantitative fecal vancomycin analysis. Reproducibility of results were tested to standardize storage time, homogeneity of antibiotic within stool, and concentration consistency after lyophilization. These methodologies establish sample condition standards for a quantitative HPLC to enable vancomycin pharmacokinetic studies with the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Oliver A, Xue Z, Villanueva YT, et al (2022)

Association of Diet and Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthy U.S. Adults.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with expectations that AMR-associated consequences will continue to worsen throughout the coming decades. Since resistance to antibiotics is encoded in the microbiome, interventions aimed at altering the taxonomic composition of the gut might allow us to prophylactically engineer microbiomes that harbor fewer antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). Diet is one method of intervention, and yet little is known about the association between diet and antimicrobial resistance. To address this knowledge gap, we examined diet using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ; habitual diet) and 24-h dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-h [ASA24®] tool) coupled with an analysis of the microbiome using shotgun metagenome sequencing in 290 healthy adult participants of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutritional Phenotyping Study. We found that aminoglycosides were the most abundant and prevalent mechanism of AMR in these healthy adults and that aminoglycoside-O-phosphotransferases (aph3-dprime) correlated negatively with total calories and soluble fiber intake. Individuals in the lowest quartile of ARGs (low-ARG) consumed significantly more fiber in their diets than medium- and high-ARG individuals, which was concomitant with increased abundances of obligate anaerobes, especially from the family Clostridiaceae, in their gut microbiota. Finally, we applied machine learning to examine 387 dietary, physiological, and lifestyle features for associations with antimicrobial resistance, finding that increased phylogenetic diversity of diet was associated with low-ARG individuals. These data suggest diet may be a potential method for reducing the burden of AMR. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a considerable burden to health care systems, with the public health community largely in consensus that AMR will be a major cause of death worldwide in the coming decades. Humans carry antibiotic resistance in the microbes that live in and on us, collectively known as the human microbiome. Diet is a powerful method for shaping the human gut microbiome and may be a tractable method for lessening antibiotic resistance, and yet little is known about the relationship between diet and AMR. We examined this relationship in healthy individuals who contained various abundances of antibiotic resistance genes and found that individuals who consumed diverse diets that were high in fiber and low in animal protein had fewer antibiotic resistance genes. Dietary interventions may be useful for lessening the burden of antimicrobial resistance and might ultimately motivate dietary guidelines which will consider how nutrition can reduce the impact of infectious disease.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Joachim A, Schwerd T, Hölz H, et al (2022)

[Fecal Microbiota Transfer (FMT) in Children and Adolescents - Review and statement by the GPGE microbiome working group].

Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome and especially the gastrointestinal microbiota are associated with health and disease. Disturbance in the composition or function of fecal microbiota (dysbiosis) plays a role in the development of pediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is a special intervention, where microbiota are transferred from a healthy donor.In this review we describe the current state of knowledge for FMT in pediatric patients. There is satisfactory evidence concerning FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. For inflammatory bowel disease, few studies show a potential benefit.Adverse events occurred frequently in clinical studies, but were mostly mild and transient. There are hardly any data on long-term side effects of FMT, which are particularly significant for pediatrics. In practice, there is uncertainty as to which application route, dosage or frequency should be used. Legally, donor stool is considered a drug in German-speaking countries, for which no marketing authorization exists.In conclusion, knowledge about physiology, efficacy and side effects of FMT is insufficient and legal concerns complicate its implementation. More studies on this topic are needed urgently.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Yeo LF, Lee SC, Palanisamy UD, et al (2022)

The Oral, Gut Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Health of Indigenous Orang Asli Communities.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:812345.

The Orang Asli (OA) of Malaysia have been relatively understudied where little is known about their oral and gut microbiomes. As human health is closely intertwined with the human microbiome, this study first assessed the cardiometabolic health in four OA communities ranging from urban, rural to semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers. The urban Temuan suffered from poorer cardiometabolic health while rural OA communities were undergoing epidemiological transition. The oral microbiota of the OA were characterised by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The OA oral microbiota were unexpectedly homogenous, with comparably low alpha diversity across all four communities. The rural Jehai and Temiar PP oral microbiota were enriched for uncharacterised bacteria, exhibiting potential for discoveries. This finding also highlights the importance of including under-represented populations in large cohort studies. The Temuan oral microbiota were also elevated in opportunistic pathogens such as Corynebacterium, Prevotella, and Mogibacterium, suggesting possible oral dysbiosis in these urban settlers. The semi-nomadic Jehai gut microbiota had the highest alpha diversity, while urban Temuan exhibited the lowest. Rural OA gut microbiota were distinct from urban-like microbiota and were elevated in bacteria genera such as Prevotella 2, Prevotella 9, Lachnospiraceae ND3007, and Solobacterium. Urban Temuan microbiota were enriched in Odoribacter, Blautia, Parabacetroides, Bacteroides and Ruminococcacecae UCG-013. This study brings to light the current health trend of these indigenous people who have minimal access to healthcare and lays the groundwork for future, in-depth studies in these populations.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Gan R, Zhou F, Si Y, et al (2022)

DBSCAN-SWA: An Integrated Tool for Rapid Prophage Detection and Annotation.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:885048.

As an intracellular form of a bacteriophage in the bacterial host genome, a prophage usually integrates into bacterial DNA with high specificity and contributes to horizontal gene transfer (HGT). With the exponentially increasing number of microbial sequences uncovered in genomic or metagenomics studies, there is a massive demand for a tool that is capable of fast and accurate identification of prophages. Here, we introduce DBSCAN-SWA, a command line software tool developed to predict prophage regions in bacterial genomes. DBSCAN-SWA runs faster than any previous tools. Importantly, it has great detection power based on analysis using 184 manually curated prophages, with a recall of 85% compared with Phage_Finder (63%), VirSorter (74%), and PHASTER (82%) for (Multi-) FASTA sequences. Moreover, DBSCAN-SWA outperforms the existing standalone prophage prediction tools for high-throughput sequencing data based on the analysis of 19,989 contigs of 400 bacterial genomes collected from Human Microbiome Project (HMP) project. DBSCAN-SWA also provides user-friendly result visualizations including a circular prophage viewer and interactive DataTables. DBSCAN-SWA is implemented in Python3 and is available under an open source GPLv2 license from https://github.com/HIT-ImmunologyLab/DBSCAN-SWA/.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Martí-Marí O, Martínez-Gualda B, Fernández-Barahona I, et al (2022)

Organotropic dendrons with high potency as HIV-1, HIV-2 and EV-A71 cell entry inhibitors.

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 237:114414 pii:S0223-5234(22)00316-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We have recently described a novel family of compounds of reduced size and dual anti-HIV and anti-EV71 activity that encompasses tripodal and tetrapodal derivatives. The tripodal prototype, AL-470, has a nitro group at the focal point of the central scaffold and three attached tryptophan residues, each of which bearing an isophthaloyl moiety at the C2 position of the indole ring. A nitro to amino substitution has allowed us now to introduce a chemically addressable functionality to perform further structural modifications consisting of both direct and linker-mediated attachment of several aromatic groups, including the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor 647 and the antibody-recruiting 2,4-dinitrophenyl motif. Some of the derivatives turned out to be more potent and selective than AL-470 against HIV-1, HIV-2 and EV-A71. The fluorescent probe demonstrated a specific tropism for intestines and lungs, two important niches for the human microbiome in health and disease.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Ianiro G, Iorio A, Porcari S, et al (2022)

How the gut parasitome affects human health.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 15:17562848221091524.

The human gut microbiome (GM) is a complex ecosystem that includes numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic inhabitants. The composition of GM can influence an array of host physiological functions including immune development. Accumulating evidence suggest that several members of non-bacterial microbiota, including protozoa and helminths, that were earlier considered as pathogens, could have a commensal or beneficial relationship with the host. Here we examine the most recent data from omics studies on prokaryota-meiofauna-host interaction as well as the impact of gut parasitome on gut bacterial ecology and its role as 'immunological driver' in health and disease to glimpse new therapeutic perspectives.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Zhang Z, Feng Q, Li M, et al (2022)

Age-Related Cancer-Associated Microbiota Potentially Promotes Oral Squamous Cell Cancer Tumorigenesis by Distinct Mechanisms.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:852566.

The oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) incidence in young patients has increased since the end of the last century; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Oral microbiota dysbiosis was proven to be a tumorigenesis factor, and we propose that there is a distinct bacterial composition in young patients that facilitates the progression of OSCC. Twenty elderly (>60 years old) and 20 young (<50 years old) subjects were included in this study. OSCC tissue was collected during surgery, sent for 16S rDNA sequencing and analyzed by the QIIME 2 pipeline. The results showed that Ralstonia, Prevotella, and Ochrobactrum were significantly enriched in younger OSCC tissue microbiota, while Pedobacter was more abundant in elderly OSCC tissues. Fusobacterium had high relative abundance in both cohorts. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria was the dominant taxon in all samples. The functional study showed that there were significant differences in the taxa abundance from metabolic and signaling pathways. The results indicated that the microbiota of younger OSCC tissues differed from that of elderly OSCC tissues by both taxon composition and function, which partially explains the distinct roles of bacteria during tumorigenesis in these two cohorts. These findings provide insights into different mechanisms of the microbiota-cancer relationship with regard to aging.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Jian C, Kanerva S, Qadri S, et al (2022)

In vitro Effects of Bacterial Exposure on Secretion of Zonulin Family Peptides and Their Detection in Human Tissue Samples.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:848128.

Commercially available ELISAs for zonulin (pre-haptoglobin 2), a protein with tight junction regulatory activity in the epithelia, were recently shown to recognize other proteins that are structurally and functionally related to zonulin, termed zonulin family peptides (ZFPs). With little or no information about the identity and property of ZFPs, various commercial zonulin ELISA kits are widely utilized in research as a marker of intestinal permeability. Bacterial exposure is a known trigger for the secretion of zonulin, but it remains unclear whether distinct bacteria differ in their capability to stimulate zonulin secretion. We hypothesized that ZFPs are similar to zonulin regarding response to bacterial exposure and aimed to compare the effects of non-pathogenic, Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli RY13 and E. coli K12 DH5α) and probiotic, Gram-positive bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium bifidum) on ZFP secretion in an in vitro model. Additionally, utilizing samples from human clinical trials, we correlated circulating levels of ZFPs to the gut bacteria and determined the presence of ZFPs in various human tissues. Unexpectedly, we found that the ZFPs quantified by the widely used IDK® Zonulin ELISA kits are specifically triggered by the exposure to live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in HT-29 cells, associated with absolute abundances of intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in adults, and are copious in the small intestine but undetectable in the liver or adipose tissue. These characteristics appear to be different from zonulin and highlight the need for further characterization of ZFPs recognized by commercially available and widely used "zonulin" ELISAs.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Nkera-Gutabara CK, Kerr R, Scholefield J, et al (2022)

Microbiomics: The Next Pillar of Precision Medicine and Its Role in African Healthcare.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:869610.

Limited access to technologies that support early monitoring of disease risk and a poor understanding of the geographically unique biological and environmental factors underlying disease, represent significant barriers to improved health outcomes and precision medicine efforts in low to middle income countries. These challenges are further compounded by the rich genetic diversity harboured within Southern Africa thus necessitating alternative strategies for the prediction of disease risk and clinical outcomes in regions where accessibility to personalized healthcare remains limited. The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses) that co-inhabit the human body. Perturbation of the natural balance of the gut microbiome has been associated with a number of human pathologies, and the microbiome has recently emerged as a critical determinant of drug pharmacokinetics and immunomodulation. The human microbiome should therefore not be omitted from any comprehensive effort towards stratified healthcare and would provide an invaluable and orthogonal approach to existing precision medicine strategies. Recent studies have highlighted the overarching effect of geography on gut microbial diversity as it relates to human health. Health insights from international microbiome datasets are however not yet verified in context of the vast geographical diversity that exists throughout the African continent. In this commentary we discuss microbiome research in Africa and its role in future precision medicine initiatives across the African continent.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Vilne B, Ķibilds J, Siksna I, et al (2022)

Could Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning and Inclusion of Diet-Gut Microbiome Interactions Improve Disease Risk Prediction? Case Study: Coronary Artery Disease.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:627892.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the main leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, posing a huge socio-economic burden to the society and health systems. Therefore, timely and precise identification of people at high risk of CAD is urgently required. Most current CAD risk prediction approaches are based on a small number of traditional risk factors (age, sex, diabetes, LDL and HDL cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure) and are incompletely predictive across all patient groups, as CAD is a multi-factorial disease with complex etiology, considered to be driven by both genetic, as well as numerous environmental/lifestyle factors. Diet is one of the modifiable factors for improving lifestyle and disease prevention. However, the current rise in obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and CVD/CAD indicates that the "one-size-fits-all" approach may not be efficient, due to significant variation in inter-individual responses. Recently, the gut microbiome has emerged as a potential and previously under-explored contributor to these variations. Hence, efficient integration of dietary and gut microbiome information alongside with genetic variations and clinical data holds a great promise to improve CAD risk prediction. Nevertheless, the highly complex nature of meals combined with the huge inter-individual variability of the gut microbiome poses several Big Data analytics challenges in modeling diet-gut microbiota interactions and integrating these within CAD risk prediction approaches for the development of personalized decision support systems (DSS). In this regard, the recent re-emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) / Machine Learning (ML) is opening intriguing perspectives, as these approaches are able to capture large and complex matrices of data, incorporating their interactions and identifying both linear and non-linear relationships. In this Mini-Review, we consider (1) the most used AI/ML approaches and their different use cases for CAD risk prediction (2) modeling of the content, choice and impact of dietary factors on CAD risk; (3) classification of individuals by their gut microbiome composition into CAD cases vs. controls and (4) modeling of the diet-gut microbiome interactions and their impact on CAD risk. Finally, we provide an outlook for putting it all together for improved CAD risk predictions.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Oliver A, El Alaoui K, Haunschild C, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbial Community Composition in Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Patients Is Associated with an Inflammatory State.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The capacity of the human microbiome to modulate inflammation in the context of cancer is becoming increasingly clear. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are chronic hematologic malignancies in which inflammation plays a key role in disease initiation, progression, and symptomatology. To better understand the composition of the gut microbiome in patients with MPN, triplicate fecal samples were collected from 25 MPN patients and 25 non-MPN controls. Although most of the variance between the microbial community compositions could be attributed to the individual (permutational analysis of variance [PERMANOVA], R2 = 0.92, P = 0.001), 1.7% of the variance could be attributed to disease status (MPN versus non-MPN). When a more detailed analysis was performed, significantly fewer reads mapping to a species of Phascolarctobacterium, a microbe previously associated with reduced inflammation, were found in MPNs. Further, our data revealed an association between Parabacteroides and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), an inflammatory cytokine elevated in MPNs. Taken together, our results indicate a significant difference in the microbiome of MPN patients compared to non-MPN controls, and we identify specific species which may have a role in the chronic inflammation central to this disease. IMPORTANCE MPNs are chronic blood cancers in which inflammation plays a key role in disease initiation, progression, and symptomatology. The gut microbiome modulates normal blood development and inflammation and may also impact the development and manifestation of blood cancers. Therefore, the microbiome may be an important modulator of inflammation in MPN and could potentially be leveraged therapeutically in this disease. However, the relationship between the gut microbiome and MPNs has not been defined. Therefore, we performed an evaluation of the MPN microbiome, comparing the microbiomes of MPN patients with healthy donors and between MPN patients with various states of disease.

RevDate: 2022-04-25

Mishra AK, CL Müller (2022)

Negative binomial factor regression with application to microbiome data analysis.

Statistics in medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome provides essential physiological functions and helps maintain host homeostasis via the formation of intricate ecological host-microbiome relationships. While it is well established that the lifestyle of the host, dietary preferences, demographic background, and health status can influence microbial community composition and dynamics, robust generalizable associations between specific host-associated factors and specific microbial taxa have remained largely elusive. Here, we propose factor regression models that allow the estimation of structured parsimonious associations between host-related features and amplicon-derived microbial taxa. To account for the overdispersed nature of the amplicon sequencing count data, we propose negative binomial reduced rank regression (NB-RRR) and negative binomial co-sparse factor regression (NB-FAR). While NB-RRR encodes the underlying dependency among the microbial abundances as outcomes and the host-associated features as predictors through a rank-constrained coefficient matrix, NB-FAR uses a sparse singular value decomposition of the coefficient matrix. The latter approach avoids the notoriously difficult joint parameter estimation by extracting sparse unit-rank components of the coefficient matrix sequentially, effectively delivering interpretable bi-clusters of taxa and host-associated factors. To solve the nonconvex optimization problems associated with these factor regression models, we present a novel iterative block-wise majorization procedure. Extensive simulation studies and an application to the microbial abundance data from the American Gut Project (AGP) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed procedure. In the AGP data, we identify several factors that strongly link dietary habits and host life style to specific microbial families.

RevDate: 2022-04-26
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Dash HR, S Das (2022)

Microbial community signatures for estimation of postmortem time intervals.

Advances in applied microbiology, 118:91-113.

The human body provides a complex ecosystem for symbiotic habitation of a huge number of microorganisms. These commensal microorganisms provide a huge benefit to the living host by acting against many deadly infections. Once the host dies, many changes in the complex ecosystem of the human body take place. The personalized microbes of a human body undergo successional change as many exogenous microbes attack the nutrient-rich cadaver after death. The succession pattern change of microbes in human cadaver allows postulating different models for estimation of Postmortem time interval (PMI). Estimation of PMI has a broad prospect from the criminal investigation point of view. Though many techniques are being used nowadays to estimate PMI, all of them have their pros and cons. With the advent of advanced molecular biological techniques, studies on the thanatomicrobiome of a human cadaver have gained pace and provide a superior alternative for conventional methods of PMI estimation. This chapter summarizes the recent advancements in the changes in signature microflora postmortem with change in human microenvironment to postulate a consensus model for estimation of PMI.

RevDate: 2022-05-11
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Ventin-Holmberg R, Höyhtyä M, Saqib S, et al (2022)

The gut fungal and bacterial microbiota in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease introduced to treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6654.

Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) is a globally increasing chronic inflammatory disease associated with an imbalanced intestinal microbiota and treated with several treatment options, including anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), such as infliximab (IFX). Up to half of the patients do not respond to the drug and there are no methods for response prediction. Our aim was to predict IFX response from the gut microbiota composition since this is largely unexplored in PIBD. The gut microbiota of 30 PIBD patients receiving IFX was studied by MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S and ITS region from fecal samples collected before IFX and two and six weeks after the start of treatment. The response to IFX induction was determined by fecal calprotectin value < 100 µg/g at week six. The bacterial microbiota differed significantly between response groups, with higher relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria in responders compared to non-responders at baseline, validated by high predictive power (area under curve = 0.892) for baseline Ruminococcus and calprotectin. Additionally, non-responders had higher abundance of Candida, while responders had higher abundance of Saccharomyces at the end of the study. The gut microbiota composition in PIBD patients could predict response to IFX treatment in the future.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Warner JO, JA Warner (2022)

The Foetal Origins of Allergy and Potential Nutritional Interventions to Prevent Disease.

Nutrients, 14(8):.

The first nine months from conception to birth involves greater changes than at any other time in life, affecting organogenesis, endocrine, metabolic and immune programming. It has led to the concept that the "first 1000 days" from conception to the second birthday are critical in establishing long term health or susceptibility to disease. Immune ontogeny is predominantly complete within that time and is influenced by the maternal genome, health, diet and environment pre-conception and during pregnancy and lactation. Components of the immunological protection of the pregnancy is the generation of Th-2 and T-regulatory cytokines with the consequence that neonatal adaptive responses are also biased towards Th-2 (allergy promoting) and T-regulatory (tolerance promoting) responses. Normally after birth Th-1 activity increases while Th-2 down-regulates and the evolving normal human microbiome likely plays a key role. This in turn will have been affected by maternal health, diet, exposure to antibiotics, mode of delivery, and breast or cow milk formula feeding. Complex gene/environment interactions affect outcomes. Many individual nutrients affect immune mechanisms and variations in levels have been associated with susceptibility to allergic disease. However, intervention trials employing single nutrient supplementation to prevent allergic disease have not achieved the expected outcomes suggested by observational studies. Investigation of overall dietary practices including fresh fruit and vegetables, fish, olive oil, lower meat intake and home cooked foods as seen in the Mediterranean and other healthy diets have been associated with reduced prevalence of allergic disease. This suggests that the "soup" of overall nutrition is more important than individual nutrients and requires further investigation both during pregnancy and after the infant has been weaned. Amongst all the potential factors affecting allergy outcomes, modification of maternal and infant nutrition and the microbiome are easier to employ than changing other aspects of the environment but require large controlled trials before recommending changes to current practice.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Wang S, Alenius H, El-Nezami H, et al (2022)

A New Look at the Effects of Engineered ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles: Evidence from Transcriptomics Studies.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(8):.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their excellent electrical, optical, whitening, UV-adsorbing and bactericidal properties. The extensive production and utilization of these NPs increases their chances of being released into the environment and conferring unintended biological effects upon exposure. With the increasingly prevalent use of the omics technique, new data are burgeoning which provide a global view on the overall changes induced by exposures to NPs. In this review, we provide an account of the biological effects of ZnO and TiO2 NPs arising from transcriptomics in in vivo and in vitro studies. In addition to studies on humans and mice, we also describe findings on ecotoxicology-related species, such as Danio rerio (zebrafish), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) or Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress). Based on evidence from transcriptomics studies, we discuss particle-induced biological effects, including cytotoxicity, developmental alterations and immune responses, that are dependent on both material-intrinsic and acquired/transformed properties. This review seeks to provide a holistic insight into the global changes induced by ZnO and TiO2 NPs pertinent to human and ecotoxicology.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Vera-Urbina F, Dos Santos-Torres MF, Godoy-Vitorino F, et al (2022)

The Gut Microbiome May Help Address Mental Health Disparities in Hispanics: A Narrative Review.

Microorganisms, 10(4):.

The gut-brain axis is the biological connection between the enteric and the central nervous systems. Given the expansion of the microbial sciences with the new human microbiome field facilitated by the decrease in sequencing costs, we now know more about the role of gut microbiota in human health. In this short review, particular focus is given to the gut-brain axis and its role in psychiatric diseases such as anxiety and depression. Additionally, factors that contribute to changes in the gut-brain axis, including the gut microbiome, nutrition, the host's genome, and ethnic difference, are highlighted. Emphasis is given to the lack of studies on Hispanic populations, despite the fact this ethnic group has a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in the US.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Hu C, P Rzymski (2022)

Non-Photosynthetic Melainabacteria (Cyanobacteria) in Human Gut: Characteristics and Association with Health.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(4):.

Gut microorganisms are comprised of thousands of species and play an important role in the host's metabolism, overall health status, and risk of disease. Recently, the discovery of non-photosynthetic cyanobacteria (class "Melainabacteria") in the human and animal gut triggered a broad interest in studying cyanobacteria's evolution, physiology, and ecological relevance of the Melainabacteria members. In the present paper, we review the general characteristics of Melainabacteria, their phylogeny, distribution, and ecology. The potential link between these microorganisms and human health is also discussed based on available human-microbiome studies. Their abundance tends to increase in patients with selected neurodegenerative, gastrointestinal, hepatic, metabolic, and respiratory diseases. However, the available evidence is correlative and requires further longitudinal studies. Although the research on Melainabacteria in the human gut is still in its infancy, elucidation of their role appears important in better understanding microbiome-human health interactions. Further studies aiming to identify particular gut cyanobacteria species, culture them in vitro, and characterize them on the molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels are encouraged.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Agosta M, Bencardino D, Argentieri M, et al (2022)

Prevalence and Molecular Typing of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales among Newborn Patients in Italy.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(4):.

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE), especially Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), is a serious public health threat in pediatric hospitals. The associated risk in newborns is due to their underdeveloped immune system and limited treatment options. The aim was to estimate the prevalence and circulation of CPE among the neonatal intensive units of a major pediatric hospital in Italy and to investigate their molecular features. A total of 124 CPE were isolated from rectal swabs of 99 newborn patients at Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital between July 2016 and December 2019. All strains were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of resistance genes, and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). One strain for each PBRT profile of K. pneumoniae or E. coli was characterized by multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Interestingly, the majority of strains were multidrug-resistant and carried the blaNDM gene. A large part was characterized by a multireplicon status, and FII, A/C, FIA (15%) was the predominant. Despite the limited size of collection, MLST analysis revealed a high number of Sequence Types (STs): 14 STs among 28 K. pneumoniae and 8 STs among 11 E. coli, with the prevalence of the well-known clones ST307 and ST131, respectively. This issue indicated that some strains shared the same circulating clone. We identified a novel, so far never described, ST named ST10555, found in one E. coli strain. Our investigation showed a high heterogeneity of CPE circulating among neonatal units, confirming the need to monitor their dissemination in the hospital also through molecular methods.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

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Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

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Selected Bibliographies

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