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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:33 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "reynolds number" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-09-28

Juraeva M, DJ Kang (2023)

Design and Mixing Analysis of a Passive Micromixer Based on Curly Baffles.

Micromachines, 14(9): pii:mi14091795.

A novel passive micromixer based on curly baffles is proposed and optimized through the signal-to-noise analysis of various design parameters. The mixing performance of the proposed design was evaluated across a wide Reynolds number range, from 0.1 to 80. Through the analysis, the most influential parameter was identified, and its value was found to be constant regardless of the mixing mechanism. The optimized design, refined using the signal-to-noise analysis, demonstrated a significant enhancement of mixing performance, particularly in the low Reynolds number range (Re< 10). The design set obtained at the diffusion dominance range shows the highest degree of mixing (DOM) in the low Reynolds number range of Re< 10, while the design set optimized for the convection dominance range exhibited the least pressure drop across the entire Reynolds number spectrum (Re< 80). The present design approach proved to be a practical tool for identifying the most influential design parameter and achieving excellent mixing and pressure drop characteristics. The enhancement is mainly due to the curvature of the most influential design parameter.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Jafari E, Malayeri MR, Brückner H, et al (2023)

Innovative spiral electrode configuration for enhancement of electrocoagulation-flotation.

Journal of environmental management, 347:119085 pii:S0301-4797(23)01873-X [Epub ahead of print].

The performance of electrocoagulation-flotation (ECF) process can profoundly be affected by the reactor design and electrode configuration. These may, in turn, influence the removal efficiency, flow hydrodynamic, floc formation, and flotation/settling characteristics. The present work aimed at developing a new spiral electrode configuration to enhance the ECF process. To do so, the impacts of parameters such as energy consumption, removal efficiency of the contaminants from industrial wastewater with a composition of turbidity, emulsified oil, and heavy metals (Si, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Cd), as well as stirring speed and foaming have been investigated. Comparison was also made between the experimental results of the new electrode configuration with the conventional rectangular cell with plate electrode configuration with the same volume and electrode surface area. The findings revealed that energy consumption of the spiral electrode configuration within the operating times of 10, 20, 30, 32, 48, and 70 min, was approximately 20% lower compared to that of the conventional ECF. Moreover, the maximum and minimum removal efficiency of 97% and 60% were obtained for turbidity and TOC for the stirring speed of 500 rpm and Reynolds number of 10,035, respectively. Finally, the formed gas bubbles tilted toward the center due to the enhanced flow hydrodynamic which resulted in substantial reduction of foam formation.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Rajendran S, Jog MA, RM Manglik (2023)

Predicting the Splash of a Drop Impacting a Thin Liquid Film.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

An experimental study is carried out to investigate droplet-film interactions when a drop impinges on a thin stagnant film of the same liquid. The impacting drop causes either liquid deposition or splash, consisting of prompt generation of secondary drops or a delayed process. By varying the drop diameter and impact velocity, measurements are made to characterize the phenomena using five different liquids that are chosen to cover a wide range of liquid properties (viscosity and surface tension). The drop impact dynamics are captured with a high-speed digital camera with real-time, high-resolution image processing. The drop-splash threshold is found to scale with inertial and viscous forces, or Reynolds number (Re), as well as capillary forces, as described by the balance of gravitational and interfacial tension forces, or Bond number (Bo); fluid properties are described by their Morton number (Mo). A correlation, functionally expressed as Re = ϕ(Bo,Mo), is devised to determine the splash/no-splash (or deposition) boundary, and the predictions for the splash/no-splash outcomes agree well with the experimental outcomes as well as those readily available in the literature.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Hickey DJ, Golestanian R, A Vilfan (2023)

Nonreciprocal interactions give rise to fast cilium synchronization in finite systems.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(40):e2307279120.

Motile cilia beat in an asymmetric fashion in order to propel the surrounding fluid. When many cilia are located on a surface, their beating can synchronize such that their phases form metachronal waves. Here, we computationally study a model where each cilium is represented as a spherical particle, moving along a tilted trajectory with a position-dependent active driving force and a position-dependent internal drag coefficient. The model thus takes into account all the essential broken symmetries of the ciliary beat. We show that taking into account the near-field hydrodynamic interactions, the effective coupling between cilia even over an entire beating cycle can become nonreciprocal: The phase of a cilium is more strongly affected by an adjacent cilium on one side than by a cilium at the same distance in the opposite direction. As a result, synchronization starts from a seed at the edge of a group of cilia and propagates rapidly across the system, leading to a synchronization time that scales proportionally to the linear dimension of the system. We show that a ciliary carpet is characterized by three different velocities: the velocity of fluid transport, the phase velocity of metachronal waves, and the group velocity of order propagation. Unlike in systems with reciprocal coupling, boundary effects are not detrimental for synchronization, but rather enable the formation of the initial seed.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Younis O, Abderrahmane A, Hatami M, et al (2023)

Nanoencapsulated phase change material in a trapezoidal prism wall under the magnetic field effect for energy storage purposes.

Scientific reports, 13(1):16060.

Recently, Nano-encapsulated phase change materials (NEPCM) have attracted the attention of researchers due to their promising application in thermal management. This research investigates magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection of NEPCM contained within a lid-driven trapezoidal prism enclosure containing a hot-centered elliptical obstacle. The upper cavity wall is moving at a constant velocity; both inclined walls are cold, while the rest of the walls are insulated. The Galerkin Finite Element Method was used to solve the system's governing equations. The influence of Reynolds number (Re 1-500), Hartmann number (Ha = 0-100), NEPCM volumetric fraction φ (0-8%), and elliptical obstacle orientation α (0-3π/4) on thermal fields and flow patterns are introduced and analyzed. The results indicated that the maximum heat transfer rate is observed when the hot elliptic obstacle is oriented at 90°; an increment of 6% in the Nu number is obtained in this orientation compared to other orientations. Reducing Ha from 100 to 0 increased Nu by 14%. The Maximum value of the Bejan number was observed for the case of Ha = 0, α = 90° and φ = 0.08.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Abd-Alla AM, Abo-Dahab SM, Abdelhafez MA, et al (2023)

Effect of heat and mass transfer on the nanofluid of peristaltic flow in a ciliated tube.

Scientific reports, 13(1):16008.

The current work focuses attention on discussing the peristaltic flow of Rabinowitsch nanofluid through ciliated tube. This technical study analyzes heat and mass transfer effects on the flow of a peristaltic flow, incompressible, nanofluid via a ciliated tube. The governing non-linear partial differential equations representing the flow model are transmuted into linear ones by employing the appropriate non-dimensional parameters under the assumption of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The flow is examined in wave frame of reference moving with the velocity [Formula: see text]. The governing equations have been solved to determine velocity, temperature, concentration, the pressure gradient, pressure rise and the friction force. Using MATLAB R2023a software, a parametric analysis is performed, and the resulting data is represented graphically. The results indicate that the various emerging parameters of interest significantly affect the nanofluid properties within the tube. The present study enhances the comprehension of nanofluid dynamics in tube and offers valuable insights into the influence of heat and mass transfer in such setups. Convective heat transfer is found to be greater at the boundaries resulting in decreased temperature there.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Abbas N, Shatanawi W, Hasan F, et al (2023)

Thermodynamic flow of radiative induced magneto modified Maxwell Sutterby fluid model at stretching sheet/cylinder.

Scientific reports, 13(1):16002.

A steady flow of Maxwell Sutterby fluid is considered over a stretchable cylinder. The magnetic Reynolds number is considered very high and induced magnetic and electric fields are applied on the fluid flow. Joule heating and radiation impacts are studied under the temperature-dependent properties of the liquid. Having the above assumptions, the mathematical model has been evolving via differential equations. The differential equations are renovated in the dimensionless form of ordinary differential equations using the appropriate transformations. The numerical results have been developed employing numerical techniques on the ordinary differential equations. The impact of involving physical factors on velocity, induced magneto hydrodynamic, and temperature function is debated in graphical and tabular form. The velocity profile is boosted by thicker momentum boundary layers, which are caused by higher values of the magnetic field factor. So, the fluid flow becomes higher velocity due to enlarging values of the magnetic field factor. Heat transfer factor and friction at surface factor boosted up for increment of [Formula: see text] (Magnetic field factor). The [Formula: see text](Magnetic field factor) is larger which better-quality of heat transfer at surface and also offered the results of friction factor boosting up in both cases of stretching sheet/cylinder. The [Formula: see text](Magnetic Prandtl number) increased which provided better-quality of heat transfer at surface.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Wang Z, M Sedighi (2023)

Dispersion properties of nanoplastic spheres in granular media at low Reynolds numbers.

Journal of contaminant hydrology, 259:104244 pii:S0169-7722(23)00114-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Nanoplastic particles (<1 μm) are among the contaminants of emerging concern, and compared to microplastic (<5 mm), our understanding of the transport and fate of nanoplastic in water, sediments and soil is very limited. This paper focuses on developing fundamental insight into the dispersion behaviour (sum of hydrodynamic dispersion and diffusion) of nanoplastic spheres, which are likely the most mobile shape of nanoplastic. We measured the dispersion coefficient and dispersivity of nanoplastic spheres (100 nm, 300 nm and 1000 nm diameter) in granular media with a range of pore sizes. We investigated the mechanisms that control the behaviour at low Reynolds number (smaller than 2), relevant to the dispersion of nanoplastic across the riparian area at water velocities of the common river and shallow groundwater. The measured dispersion coefficients were compared with the predictions by two commonly used models. The results show that there are significant differences between measurements and predictions for the case of colloidal size nanoplastics (MAPE>100%). The retarded dispersion caused by the size-exclusion effect was observed to be important in the case of 1.7 mm and 0.4 mm granular media for 300 nm and 1000 nm nanoplastics, reducing the dispersivity and sensitivity to Reynolds number. The methodology in this paper can be adopted in studies on other sizes and shapes of nanoplastic, assisting with predicting the transport and fate of nanoplastic granular media.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Mamori H, Nabae Y, Fukuda S, et al (2023)

Dynamic state of low-Reynolds-number turbulent channel flow.

Physical review. E, 108(2-2):025105.

We numerically study the dynamic state of a low-Reynolds-number turbulent channel flow from the viewpoints of symbolic dynamics and nonlinear forecasting. A low-dimensionally (high-dimensionally) chaotic state of the streamwise velocity fluctuations emerges at a viscous sublayer (logarithmic layer). The possible presence of the chaotic states is clearly identified by orbital instability-based nonlinear forecasting and ordinal partition transition network entropy in combination with the surrogate data method.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Dong B, Guo Y, Yang J, et al (2023)

Turbulence induced shear controllable synthesis of nano FePO4 irregularly-shaped particles in a counter impinging jet flow T-junction reactor assisted by ultrasound irradiation.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 99:106590 pii:S1350-4177(23)00302-4 [Epub ahead of print].

FePO4 (FP) particles with a mesoporous structure amalgamated by nanoscale primary crystals were controllably prepared using an ultrasound-intensified turbulence T-junction microreactor (UTISR). The use of this type of reaction system can effectively enhance the micro-mixing and remarkably improve the mass transfer and chemical reaction rates. Consequently, the synergistic effects of the impinging streams and ultrasonic irradiation on the formation of mesoporous structure of FP nanoparticles have been systematically investigated through experimental validation and CFD simulation. The results revealed that the FP particles with a mesoporous structure can be well synthesised by precisely controlling the operation parameters by applying ultrasound irradiation with the input power in the range of 0-900 W and the impinging stream volumetric flow rate in the range of 17.15-257.22 mL·min[-1]. The findings obtained from the experimental observation and CFD modelling has clearly indicated that there exists a strong correlation between the particle size, morphology, and the local turbulence shear. The application of ultrasonic irradiation can effectively intensify the local turbulence shear in the reactor even at low Reynolds number based on the impinging stream diameter (Re < 2000), leading to an effective reduction in the particle size (from 273.48 to 56.1 nm) and an increase in the specific surface area (from 21.97 to 114.97 m[2]·g[-1]) of FP samples. The FPirregularly-shaped particles prepared by UTISR exhibited a mesoporous structure with a particle size of 56.10 nm, a specific surface area of 114.97 m[2]·g[-1]and a total pore adsorption volume of 0.570 cm[3]·g[-1] when the volumetric flow rate and ultrasound power are 85.74 mL·min[-1]and 600 W, respectively.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Fuciños C, Rodríguez-Sanz A, García-Caamaño E, et al (2023)

Microfluidics potential for developing food-grade microstructures through emulsification processes and their application.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 172:113086.

The food sector continues to face challenges in developing techniques to increase the bioavailability of bioactive chemicals. Utilising microstructures capable of encapsulating diverse compounds has been proposed as a technological solution for their transport both in food and into the gastrointestinal tract. The present review discusses the primary elements that influence the emulsification process in microfluidic systems to form different microstructures for food applications. In microfluidic systems, reactions occur within small reaction channels (1-1000 μm), using small amounts of samples and reactants, ca. 102-103 times less than conventional assays. This geometry provides several advantages for emulsion and encapsulating structure production, like less waste generation, lower cost and gentle assays. Also, from a food application perspective, it allows the decrease in particle dispersion, resulting in a highly repeatable and efficient synthesis method that also improves the palatability of the food products into which the encapsulates are incorporated. However, it also entails some particular requirements. It is important to obtain a low Reynolds number (Re < approx. 250) for greater precision in droplet formation. Also, microfluidics requires fluid viscosity typically between 0.3 and 1400 mPa s at 20 °C. So, it is a challenge to find food-grade fluids that can operate at the micro-scale of these systems. Microfluidic systems can be used to synthesise different food-grade microstructures: microemulsions, solid lipid microparticles, microgels, or self-assembled structures like liposomes, niosomes, or polymersomes. Besides, microfluidics is particularly useful for accurately encapsulating bacterial cells to control their delivery and release on the action site. However, despite the significant advancement in these systems' development over the past several years, developing and implementing these systems on an industrial scale remains challenging for the food industry.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Giurgiu V, Caridi GCA, Alipour M, et al (2023)

The TU Wien Turbulent Water Channel: Flow control loop and three-dimensional reconstruction of anisotropic particle dynamics.

The Review of scientific instruments, 94(9):.

A horizontal water channel facility was built to study particle dynamics in a turbulent flow. The channel is sufficiently long to produce fully developed turbulence at the test section, and the width-to-height ratio is sufficiently large to avoid the sidewall effect for a large proportion of the cross-section. The system was designed to study the dynamics of complex-shaped particles in wall-bounded turbulence, the characteristics of which can be finely controlled. A maximum bulk velocity of up to 0.8 m s-1 can be achieved, corresponding to a bulk Reynolds number of up to 7 × 104 (shear Reynolds number ≈1580), and flow parameters can be controlled within ±0.1%. The transparent channel design and aluminum structures allow easy optical access, which enables multiple laser and camera arrangements. With the current optical setup, a measurement volume of up to 54 × 14 × 54 mm3 can be imaged and reconstructed with six cameras from the top, bottom, and sides of the channel. Finally, the in-house developed reconstruction and tracking procedure allows us to measure the full motion of complex objects (i.e., shape reconstruction, translational, and rotational motions), and in this instance, it is applied to the case of microscopic, non-isotropic polyamide fibers.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Zheng Y, Min F, H Zhu (2023)

Study on the Classification Performance of a Novel Wide-Neck Classifier.

ACS omega, 8(34):31237-31245.

A novelty-designed wide-neck classifier (WNC) was proposed to enhance the passing ability and classification efficiency of fine particles. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we studied the flow field and velocity distribution in the newly designed WNC. The velocity of the fluid gradually decreased from the wall to the center and from the cylinder to the cone, which facilitates particle classification and thickening. The Reynolds number (Re) and turbulent intensity (I) inside the WNC were discussed. The turbulent intensity increased with increasing feed velocity and overflow outlet diameter and decreased with increasing feed concentration and spigot diameter. The classification of coal slurry was performed to analyze the performance of WNC. The classification efficiency increased with increasing feed velocity but decreased as the feed concentration, spigot diameter, and overflow outlet diameter increased. The predictive models for classification efficiency influenced by the operational and structural parameters were constructed at high correlation coefficients, and the average error of these models was analyzed at 0.28%. Our results can provide valuable insights into the development of mineral classification.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Beaver LE, Wu B, Das S, et al (2022)

A First-Order Approach to Model Simultaneous Control of Multiple Microrobots.

... International Conference on Manipulation Automation and Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS). International Conference on Manipulation Automation and Robotics at Small Scales, 2022:.

The control of swarm systems is relatively well understood for simple robotic platforms at the macro scale. However, there are still several unanswered questions about how similar results can be achieved for microrobots. In this paper, we propose a modeling framework based on a dynamic model of magnetized self-propelling Janus microrobots under a global magnetic field. We verify our model experimentally and provide methods that can aim at accurately describing the behavior of microrobots while modeling their simultaneous control. The model can be generalized to other microrobotic platforms in low Reynolds number environments.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Mishra NK, Sharma BK, Sharma P, et al (2023)

Entropy generation optimization of cilia regulated MHD ternary hybrid Jeffery nanofluid with Arrhenius activation energy and induced magnetic field.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14483.

This study deals with the entropy generation analysis of synthetic cilia using a ternary hybrid nanofluid (Al-Cu-Fe2O3/Blood) flow through an inclined channel. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effects of entropy generation optimization, heat, and mass transfer on ternary hybrid nanofluid passing through an inclined channel in the proximity of the induced magnetic field. The novelty of the current study is present in studying the combined effect of viscous dissipation, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, exponential heat sink/source, porous medium, endothermic-exothermic chemical reactions, and activation energy in the proximity of induced magnetic field is examined. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using appropriate transformations. Applying the low Reynolds number and the long-wavelength approximation, resultant ODEs are numerically solved using shooting technique via BVP5C in MATLAB. The velocity, temperature, concentration, and induced magnetism profiles are visually discussed and graphically analyzed for various fluid flow parameters. Graphical analysis of physical interest quantities like mass transfer rate, heat transfer rate, entropy generation optimization, and skin friction coefficient are also graphically discussed. The entropy generation improves for enhancing values of Reynolds number, solutal Grashof number, heat sink/source parameter, Brinkman number, magnetic Prandtl number, and endothermic-exothermic reaction parameter while the reverse effect is noticed for chemical reaction and induced magnetic field parameter. The findings of this study can be applied to enhance heat transfer efficiency in biomedical devices, optimizing cooling systems, designing efficient energy conversion processes, and spanning from renewable energy technologies to aerospace propulsion systems.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Adeyemi I, Meribout M, Khezzar L, et al (2023)

Experimental and numerical analysis of the emulsification of oil droplets in water with high frequency focused ultrasound.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 99:106566 pii:S1350-4177(23)00278-X [Epub ahead of print].

Focused high frequency ultrasound emulsification provides significant benefits such as enhanced stability, finer droplets, elevated focal pressure, lowered power usage, minimal surfactant usage and improved dispersion. Hence, in this study, the high frequency focused ultrasound emulsification of oil droplets in water was investigated through experiments and numerical modeling. The effect of transducer power (74-400 W), frequency (1.1 and 3.3 MHz), oil viscosity (10.6-512 mPas), interfacial tension (25-250 mN/m) and initial droplet radius (10-750 µm) on the emulsification process was assessed. In addition, the mechanism of droplet break-up was examined. The experiments showed that the acoustic pressure increased from 9.01 MPa to 26.24 MPa as the power was raised from 74 W to 400 W. At 74 W, the Weber number (We) at the surface and focal zone are 0.5 and 939.8, respectively. However, at 400 W, the We at the transducer surface and focal region reached 2.7 and 6451.8, respectively. Thus, bulb-like and weak catastrophic break up dominates the emulsification at 74 W. The catastrophic break up at 400 W is more vigorous because the ultrasound disruptive stress and We are higher. The time for the catastrophic dispersion of a single droplet at We = 939.8 and We = 6451.8 are 1.01 ms and 0.45 ms, respectively. The numerical model gives reasonable prediction of the trend and magnitude of the experimental acoustic pressure data. The surface and focal pressure amplitudes were estimated with errors of ∼ 6.5% and ∼ 10%, respectively. The predicted Reynolds number (Re) between 74 and 400 W were 8442 and 21364, respectively. The acoustic pressure at the focal region were ∼ 26 MPa and ∼ 69 MPa at frequencies of 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz, respectively. Moreover, the acoustic velocities were ∼ 16 m/s and ∼ 42 m/s at 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz, respectively. Hence, smaller droplets could be attained at higher frequency excitation under intense catastrophic modes. The Ohnesorge number (Oh) increased from 0.062 to 3.12 with the viscosity between 10.6 mPas and 530 mPas. However, the We remained constant at 856.14 for the studied range. Generally, higher critical We is required for the different breakup stages as the viscosity ratio is elevated. Moreover, the We increased from 25.68 to 1284.22 as the droplet radius was elevated from 15 to 750 µm. Larger droplets allow for higher possibility and intensity of breakup due to diminished viscous and interfacial resistance.

RevDate: 2023-09-01

Gladman NW, GN Askew (2023)

The hydrodynamics of jet propulsion swimming in hatchling and juvenile European common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, Linnaeus (1758).

The Journal of experimental biology pii:326620 [Epub ahead of print].

Cuttlefish swim using jet propulsion, taking a small volume of fluid into the mantle cavity before it is expelled through the siphon to generate thrust. Jet propulsion swimming has been shown to be more metabolically expensive than undulatory swimming, which has been suggested to be due to the lower efficiency of jet propulsion. The whole cycle propulsive efficiency of cephalopod molluscs ranges from 38-76%, indicating that in some instances jet propulsion can be relatively efficient. Here, we determined the hydrodynamics of hatchling and juvenile cuttlefish during jet propulsion swimming to understand the characteristics of their jets, and whether their whole cycle propulsive efficiency changes during development. Cuttlefish were found to utilise two jet types: isolated jet vortices (termed jet mode I) and elongated jets (leading edge vortex ring followed by a trailing jet; termed jet mode II). The use of these jet modes differed between the age classes, with newly hatched animals nearly exclusively utilising mode I jets, while juveniles showed no strong preferences. Whole cycle propulsive efficiency was found to be high, ranging from 72-80%, and did not differ between age-classes. During development, Strouhal number decreased as Reynolds number increased, which is consistent with animals adjusting their jetting behaviour in order to maximise whole cycle propulsive efficiency and locomotor performance. While jet propulsion swimming can have a relatively high energetic cost, in cuttlefish and nautilus, both neutrally buoyant species, the whole cycle propulsive efficiency is actually relatively high.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Sun B, Zheng W, Tong A, et al (2023)

Prediction of the roughness coefficient for drainage pipelines with sediments using GA-BPNN.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 88(4):1111-1130.

Accurate prediction of the roughness coefficient of sediment-containing drainage pipes can help engineers optimize urban drainage systems. In this paper, the variation of the roughness coefficient of circular drainage pipes containing different thicknesses of sediments under different flows and slopes was studied by experimental measurements. Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Genetic Algorithm-Back Propagation Neural Network (GA-BPNN) were used to predict the roughness coefficient. To explore the potential of artificial neural networks to predict the roughness coefficient, a formula based on drag segmentation was established to calculate the roughness coefficient. The results show that the variation trend of the roughness coefficient with flow, hydraulic radius, and Reynolds number is consistent. With the increase of the three parameters, the roughness coefficient decreases overall. Compared to the traditional empirical formula, the BPNN model and the GA-BPNN model increased the determination factors in the testing stage by 3.47 and 3.99%, respectively, and reduced the mean absolute errors by 41.18 and 47.06%, respectively. The study provides an intelligent method for accurate prediction of sediment-containing drainage pipes roughness coefficient.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Pandian SK, Broom M, Balzan M, et al (2023)

Influence of rheology and micropatterns on spreading, retraction and fingering of an impacting drop.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

Rheology and surface microstructure affect many drop impact processes, including in emerging printing and patterning applications. This study reports on experiments systematically addressing the influence of these parameters on drop impacts. The experiments involved drop impacts of water, glycerol, and shear-thinning carbopol solutions on ten different microstructured surfaces, captured using high-speed photography. The impact Weber number (We) was varied from 70 to 350, and the microstructures consisted of 20 μm wide pillars with circular and square cross sections arranged in square arrays. The data focus on maximum spreading, retraction rates, threshold conditions for asymmetric (non-circular) spreading, and fingers protruding from the spreading rim. The extent of spreading was reduced by the presence of micropillars, and was well-explained using a hybrid scaling model. The drop retraction rate ((?)) showed moderate agreement with the inertial regime scaling (?) ∝ We[-0.50], but did decrease with effective viscosity. Retraction was slower when the contact line was pinned on surfaces that were flat or had relatively tall or closely-spaced pillars, and was disrupted by drop break-up at We ≳ 250 for low-viscosity fluids. Impact velocities at the onset of asymmetric spreading had weak dependence on viscosity. Fingers were more numerous for greater We, lower effective viscosity, lower pillar height, and for pillars with square cross-sections. Fingers were favoured in directions parallel to the rows of the pillar array, especially near the onset of finger formation. Consistent comparisons between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were enabled by calculating an effective Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Gao S, Rui X, Zeng X, et al (2023)

EWOD Chip with Micro-Barrier Electrode for Simultaneous Enhanced Mixing during Transportation.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 23(16): pii:s23167102.

Digital microfluidic platforms have been extensively studied in biology. However, achieving efficient mixing of macromolecules in microscale, low Reynolds number fluids remains a major challenge. To address this challenge, this study presents a novel design solution based on dielectric electro-wetting (EWOD) by optimizing the geometry of the transport electrode. The new design integrates micro-barriers on the electrodes to generate vortex currents that promote mixing during droplet transport. This design solution requires only two activation signals, minimizing the number of pins required. The mixing performance of the new design was evaluated by analyzing the degree of mixing inside the droplet and quantifying the motion of the internal particles. In addition, the rapid mixing capability of the new platform was demonstrated by successfully mixing the sorbitol solution with the detection solution and detecting the resulting reaction products. The experimental results show that the transfer electrode with a micro-barrier enables rapid mixing of liquids with a six-fold increase in mixing efficiency, making it ideal for the development of EWOD devices.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Fu Q, Liu Z, Cao S, et al (2023)

Topology-Optimized Micromixer Design with Enhanced Reverse Flow to Increase Mixing Efficiency.

Micromachines, 14(8): pii:mi14081599.

In this work, a serpentine mixing unit model based on topology optimization is proposed to enhance the reverse flow in both horizontal and vertical directions. The increase in reverse flow in both directions can enhance the chaotic advection phenomenon, leading to a rapid increase in the mixing index. The proposed mixing unit model is applied in a T-shaped micromixer to create a new micromixer design, named TOD. Numerical simulations of TOD are performed using Comsol Multiphysics software to analyze the characteristics of the liquid flow, mixing surface, and pressure drop. The simulation results confirm that TOD has an outstanding mixing performance. By widening the surface area of contact and enhancing the chaotic advection phenomenon, TOD shows an excellent mixing performance at both a high and low Reynolds number, making it a promising micromixer design. For Re > 5, the mixing indexes of TOD are all beyond 90%.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Knüppel F, Sun A, Wurm FH, et al (2023)

Effect of Particle Migration on the Stress Field in Microfluidic Flows of Blood Analog Fluids at High Reynolds Numbers.

Micromachines, 14(8): pii:mi14081494.

In the present paper, we investigate how the reductions in shear stresses and pressure losses in microfluidic gaps are directly linked to the local characteristics of cell-free layers (CFLs) at channel Reynolds numbers relevant to ventricular assist device (VAD) applications. For this, detailed studies of local particle distributions of a particulate blood analog fluid are combined with wall shear stress and pressure loss measurements in two complementary set-ups with identical flow geometry, bulk Reynolds numbers and particle Reynolds numbers. For all investigated particle volume fractions of up to 5%, reductions in the stress and pressure loss were measured in comparison to a flow of an equivalent homogeneous fluid (without particles). We could explain this due to the formation of a CFL ranging from 10 to 20 μm. Variations in the channel Reynolds number between Re = 50 and 150 did not lead to measurable changes in CFL heights or stress reductions for all investigated particle volume fractions. These measurements were used to describe the complete chain of how CFL formation leads to a stress reduction, which reduces the apparent viscosity of the suspension and results in the Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect. This chain of causes was investigated for the first time for flows with high Reynolds numbers (Re∼100), representing a flow regime which can be found in the narrow gaps of a VAD.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Gojon R, Parisot-Dupuis H, Mellot B, et al (2023)

Aeroacoustic radiation of low Reynolds number rotors in interaction with beams.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 154(2):1248-1260.

The radiation characteristics of rotor-beam interaction noise are studied experimentally for low Reynolds number small-scale rotors in interaction with beams of different shapes, sizes, and downstream positions. The number of blades ranges from two to four. For the two-bladed rotor, the presence of the beam has no effect on the mean aerodynamic performance. Moreover, the blade passing frequency (BPF) and the high frequency broadband noise (BBN) appear not to be affected by the presence of the beam. On the contrary, the magnitude of the 2×BPF-25×BPF harmonics increases up to 30 dB compared to the case without beam, with an envelope consisting of two humps: one centered around 5×BPF and another around 20×BPF-25×BPF. For the first hump, a dipole-like pattern with minimal amplitude aligned with the beam can be observed, whereas another dipole-like pattern is observed for the higher frequency hump, but with a minimal amplitude over all the rotor disk plane. Compared to the two-bladed rotor, the presence of the beam has an effect on the mean aerodynamic performance of the three- and four-bladed rotors, increasing both the torque and the thrust at iso-rotational speed. This change leads to a change in the directivity of the BPF tone that decreases at a latitude angle of θ=0° and increases at a latitude angle of θ=40°. Moreover, the same two competing humps are observed on the BPF harmonics envelope. Interestingly, the frequency range over which an amplification of the harmonic magnitude is observed seems not to be influenced by the number of blades. Finally, the magnitude of the low frequency hump increases with the beam diameter, the rotational speed, and the number of blades but decreases with the rotor-beam distance. That of the high frequency hump increases also with the rotational speed and the number of blades, but not anymore with the beam diameter, and reaches a maximum value when the rotor-beam distance is at an intermediate distance of L = 25 mm. This hump is also influenced, to a lesser extent, by the shape of the beam. The two different evolutions permit us to conclude that the noise generation mechanisms leading to the two humps must be different. Scaling laws of the acoustical energy are derived for all those parameters. As already done for previous experiments without beam, all of the results are made available as an open database, at https://dataverse.isae-supaero.fr/.

RevDate: 2023-08-23

Cui Z, Wang Y, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Miniaturized metachronal magnetic artificial cilia.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(35):e2304519120.

Biological cilia, hairlike organelles on cell surfaces, often exhibit collective wavelike motion known as metachrony, which helps generating fluid flow. Inspired by nature, researchers have developed artificial cilia as microfluidic actuators, exploring several methods to mimic the metachrony. However, reported methods are difficult to miniaturize because they require either control of individual cilia properties or the generation of a complex external magnetic field. We introduce a concept that generates metachronal motion of magnetic artificial cilia (MAC), even though the MAC are all identical, and the applied external magnetic field is uniform. This is achieved by integrating a paramagnetic substructure in the substrate underneath the MAC. Uniquely, we can create both symplectic and antiplectic metachrony by changing the relative positions of MAC and substructure. We demonstrate the flow generation of the two metachronal motions in both high and low Reynolds number conditions. Our research marks a significant milestone by breaking the size limitation barrier in metachronal artificial cilia. This achievement not only showcases the potential of nature-inspired engineering but also opens up a host of exciting opportunities for designing and optimizing microsystems with enhanced fluid manipulation capabilities.

RevDate: 2023-08-22

Barbhuiya NH, Yodh AG, CK Mishra (2023)

Direction-dependent dynamics of colloidal particle pairs and the Stokes-Einstein relation in quasi-two-dimensional fluids.

Nature communications, 14(1):5109.

Hydrodynamic interactions are important for diverse fluids, especially those with low Reynolds number such as microbial and particle-laden suspensions, and proteins diffusing in membranes. Unfortunately, while far-field (asymptotic) hydrodynamic interactions are fully understood in two- and three-dimensions, near-field interactions are not, and thus our understanding of motions in dense fluid suspensions is still lacking. In this contribution, we experimentally explore the hydrodynamic correlations between particles in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal fluids in the near-field. Surprisingly, the measured displacement and relaxation of particle pairs in the body frame exhibit direction-dependent dynamics that can be connected quantitatively to the measured near-field hydrodynamic interactions. These findings, in turn, suggest a mechanism for how and when hydrodynamics can lead to a breakdown of the ubiquitous Stokes-Einstein relation (SER). We observe this breakdown, and we show that the direction-dependent breakdown of the SER is ameliorated along directions where hydrodynamic correlations are smallest. In total, the work uncovers significant ramifications of near-field hydrodynamics on transport and dynamic restructuring of fluids in two-dimensions.

RevDate: 2023-08-18

Bätge T, Fouxon I, M Wilczek (2023)

Quantitative Prediction of Sling Events in Turbulence at High Reynolds Numbers.

Physical review letters, 131(5):054001.

Collisional growth of droplets, such as occurring in warm clouds, is known to be significantly enhanced by turbulence. Whether particles collide depends on their flow history, in particular on their encounters with highly intermittent small-scale turbulent structures, which despite their rarity can dominate the overall collision rate. Here, we develop a quantitative criterion for sling events based on the velocity gradient history along particle paths. We show by a combination of theory and simulations that the problem reduces to a one-dimensional localization problem as encountered in condensed matter physics. The reduction demonstrates that the creation of slings is controlled by the minimal real eigenvalue of the velocity gradient tensor. We use fully resolved turbulence simulations to confirm our predictions and study their Stokes and Reynolds number dependence. We also discuss extrapolations to the parameter range relevant for typical cloud droplets, showing that sling events at high Reynolds numbers are enhanced by an order of magnitude for small Stokes numbers. Thus, intermittency could be a significant ingredient in the collisional growth of rain droplets.

RevDate: 2023-08-16

Tian Y, Woodward M, Stepanov M, et al (2023)

Lagrangian large eddy simulations via physics-informed machine learning.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(34):e2213638120.

High-Reynolds number homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) is fully described within the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, which are notoriously difficult to solve numerically. Engineers, interested primarily in describing turbulence at a reduced range of resolved scales, have designed heuristics, known as large eddy simulation (LES). LES is described in terms of the temporally evolving Eulerian velocity field defined over a spatial grid with the mean-spacing correspondent to the resolved scale. This classic Eulerian LES depends on assumptions about effects of subgrid scales on the resolved scales. Here, we take an alternative approach and design LES heuristics stated in terms of Lagrangian particles moving with the flow. Our Lagrangian LES, thus L-LES, is described by equations generalizing the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics formulation with extended parametric and functional freedom, which is then resolved via Machine Learning training on Lagrangian data from direct numerical simulations of the NS equations. The L-LES model includes physics-informed parameterization and functional form, by combining physics-based parameters and physics-inspired Neural Networks to describe the evolution of turbulence within the resolved range of scales. The subgrid-scale contributions are modeled separately with physical constraints to account for the effects from unresolved scales. We build the resulting model under the differentiable programming framework to facilitate efficient training. We experiment with loss functions of different types, including physics-informed ones accounting for statistics of Lagrangian particles. We show that our L-LES model is capable of reproducing Eulerian and unique Lagrangian turbulence structures and statistics over a range of turbulent Mach numbers.

RevDate: 2023-08-16

Keirsbulck L, Cadot O, Basley J, et al (2023)

Base suction, entrainment flux, and wake modes in the vortex formation region at the rear of a three-dimensional blunt bluff body.

Physical review. E, 108(1-2):015101.

A slitted base cavity of constant depth with a varying filling ratio 0≤R_{f}≤100% is experimentally investigated to reduce the form drag of a three-dimensional blunt body (the so-called squareback Ahmed body) at a Reynolds number Re=2.89×10^{5}. The drag reduction is achieved by a decrease of base suction (or, equivalently, the increase of pressure at the base). The plain cavity (R_{f}=100%) reduces the base suction by 22% compared to the case with no cavity (R_{f}=0). All intermediate filling ratio are obtained by the enlargement of the slits, initially having a zero width for the plain cavity case. It is shown that the gradual base suction change can be related to the level of the entrainment flux of the free shear layers developing from the rear separation and to the suppression of the transverse steady asymmetric instability of the wake. The model of the vortex formation region length of Gerrard [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 401 (1966)0022-112010.1017/S0022112066001721] is shown to provide an insightful interpretation of the drag reduction mechanism using ventilated base cavities.

RevDate: 2023-08-16

Maji M, Eswaran KS, Ghosh S, et al (2023)

Equivalence of nonequilibrium ensembles: Two-dimensional turbulence with a dual cascade.

Physical review. E, 108(1-2):015102.

We examine the conjecture of equivalence of nonequilibrium ensembles for turbulent flows in two dimensions in a dual-cascade setup. We construct a formally time-reversible Navier-Stokes equation in two dimensions by imposing global constraints of energy and enstrophy conservation. A comparative study of the statistical properties of its solutions with those obtained from the standard Navier-Stokes equations clearly shows that a formally time-reversible system is able to reproduce the features of a two-dimensional turbulent flow. Statistical quantities based on one- and two-point measurements show an excellent agreement between the two systems for the inverse- and direct-cascade regions. Moreover, we find that the conjecture holds very well for two-dimensional turbulent flows with both conserved energy and enstrophy at finite Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2023-08-14

Uwadoka O, Adelaja AO, Olakoyejo OT, et al (2023)

Numerical study of heat transfer, pressure drop and entropy production characteristics in inclined heat exchangers with uniform heat flux using mango bark/CO2 nanofluid.

Heliyon, 9(8):e18694.

For sustainable low-carbon cities, using sustainable urban energy system solutions is imperative. CO2-based bionanofluid is one proposed energy system solution that is sustainable and environmentally friendly. This paper examines the thermal-hydraulic and entropy production properties of mango bark/CO2 nanofluid for industrial-inclined gas cooling applications. The influence of gravitational force (in terms of tube inclination angle), volume fraction, and Reynolds number on the heat transfer, pressure drop, and entropy production of CO2-based mango bark nanofluids in laminar flow through a circular aluminum tube are numerically studied. The bionanofluid flows through a tube with an inner radius of 2.25 mm, a length of 970.0 mm, and an initial temperature of 320.0 K. A constant heat flux of -10.0 W/m[2] is applied to the flow at its walls. The laminar flow regime with Reynolds numbers of 100, 400, 700, and 1000 are subjected to flow inclinations of ±90°, ±60°, ±45°, ±30°, and 0° and bionanofluid volume fractions of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%. Results show that ±45° tube inclination angle offers the optimal heat transfer coefficient, maximum pressure drop, and minimum total entropy production rates for Re > 100; however, for Re = 100, these occur at the inclination angle of -30° and +60°. The pressure drop shows less sensitivity to the inclination angle; however, it offers peak values at the same inclination angles as the heat transfer coefficient for the respective Reynolds number values. The maximum thermal enhancements due to gravitational effect are 42%, 93.98%, 121.28%, and 150% for Reynolds numbers of 100, 400, 700, and 1000, respectively, while that due to nanofluid volume fraction are less than 16%.

RevDate: 2023-08-11

Mohamed RA, Abo-Dahab SM, Abd-Alla AM, et al (2023)

Magnetohydrodynamic double-diffusive peristaltic flow of radiating fourth-grade nanofluid through a porous medium with viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption.

Scientific reports, 13(1):13096.

This article focuses on determining how to double diffusion affects the non-Newtonian fourth-grade nanofluids peristaltic motion within a symmetrical vertical elastic channel supported by a suitable porous medium as well as, concentrating on the impact of a few significant actual peculiarities on the development of the peristaltic liquid, such as rotation, initial pressure, non-linear thermal radiation, heat generation/absorption in the presence of viscous dissipation and joule heating with noting that the fluid inside the channel is subject to an externally induced magnetic field, giving it electromagnetic properties. Moreover, the constraints of the long-wavelength approximation and neglecting the wave number along with the low Reynolds number have been used to transform the nonlinear partial differential equations in two dimensions into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in one dimension, which serve as the basic governing equations for fluid motion. The suitable numerical method for solving the new system of ordinary differential equations is the Runge-Kutta fourth-order numerical method with the shooting technique using the code MATLAB program. Using this code, a 2D and 3D graphical analysis was done to show how each physical parameter affected the distributions of axial velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction, solutal concentration, pressure gradients, induced magnetic field, magnetic forces, and finally the trapping phenomenon. Under the influence of rotation [Formula: see text], heat Grashof number [Formula: see text], solutal Grashof number [Formula: see text], and initial stress [Formula: see text], the axial velocity distribution [Formula: see text] changes from increasing to decreasing, according to some of the study's findings. On the other hand, increasing values of nonlinear thermal radiation [Formula: see text] and temperature ratio [Formula: see text] have a negative impact on the temperature distribution [Formula: see text] but a positive impact on the distributions of nanoparticle volume fraction [Formula: see text] and solutal concentration [Formula: see text]. Darcy number [Formula: see text] and mean fluid rate [Formula: see text] also had a positive effect on the distribution of pressure gradients, making it an increasing function.

RevDate: 2023-08-03

Mounkaila Noma D, Dagois-Bohy S, Millet S, et al (2023)

Nonlinear evolution of viscoplastic film flows down an inclined plane.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 46(8):68.

In this article, we experimentally investigate the nonlinear behaviour of a viscoplastic film flow down an inclined plane. We focus on the nonlinear instabilities that appear as roll waves. Roll waves are generated by perturbing a permanent flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid (Carbopol 980) at low frequencies. To determine the local thickness of the film, we used a laser sensor and a camera to globally capture the transverse shape of the waves. For a regular forcing, the results show the existence of different regimes. First, we observe primary instabilities below the cut-off frequency at the entrance of the channel. After the exponential growth of the wave in the linear regime, we recognise the nonlinear dynamics with the existence of finite amplitude waves. This finite amplitude depends on the frequency, the Reynolds number and the inclination angle. The results show that this instability is supercritical. At moderate Reynolds numbers, the finite 2-D waves become sensitive to transverse perturbations, due to a secondary instability, and become 3-D waves. The experimental results illustrate a phenomenology of viscoplastic film flows similar to Newtonian fluids, except for the capillary waves.

RevDate: 2023-08-01

Kechagidis K, Owen B, Guillou L, et al (2023)

Numerical investigation of the dynamics of a rigid spherical particle in a vortical cross-slot flow at moderate inertia.

Microsystems & nanoengineering, 9:100.

The study of flow and particle dynamics in microfluidic cross-slot channels is of high relevance for lab-on-a-chip applications. In this work, we investigate the dynamics of a rigid spherical particle in a cross-slot junction for a channel height-to-width ratio of 0.6 and at a Reynolds number of 120 for which a steady vortex exists in the junction area. Using an in-house immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann code, we analyse the effect of the entry position of the particle in the junction and the particle size on the dynamics and trajectory shape of the particle. We find that the dynamics of the particle depend strongly on its lateral entry position in the junction and weakly on its vertical entry position; particles that enter close to the centre show trajectory oscillations. Larger particles have longer residence times in the junction and tend to oscillate less due to their confinement. Our work contributes to the understanding of particle dynamics in intersecting flows and enables the design of optimised geometries for cytometry and particle manipulation.

RevDate: 2023-08-02

Yokoo H, Yamamoto M, Matsumoto T, et al (2023)

Study of the reverse transition in pipe flow.

Scientific reports, 13(1):12333.

In the reverse transition in pipe flow, turbulent flow changes to less disturbed laminar flow. The entropy of the flow appears to decrease. This study examined the reverse transition experimentally and theoretically using entropy change and momentum balance models, not in terms of disturbance in the flow. The reverse transition was accomplished by decreasing the Reynolds number. The transitions approximately correlated with local Reynolds numbers. The initial Reynolds number of the transition became larger, and the pressure at low Reynolds numbers was greater than in ordinary pipe flow. These behaviours were caused by turbulent flow in the pipe undergoing a reverse transition. We showed that the entropy did not decrease in the reverse transition by including the entropy due to friction in the development region.

RevDate: 2023-07-31

Mihai I, Suciu C, CM Picus (2023)

Assessment of Vapor Formation Rate and Phase Shift between Pressure Gradient and Liquid Velocity in Flat Mini Heat Pipes as a Function of Internal Structure.

Micromachines, 14(7):.

Flat mini heat pipes (FMHPs) are often used in cooling systems for various power electronic components, as they rapidly dissipate high heat flux densities. The main objective of the present work is to experimentally investigate whether differences in the rate of vapor formation occur on an internal structure containing trapezoidal microchannels and porous sintered copper powder material. Several parameters, such as hydraulic diameter and fluid velocity through the material, as a function of the internal structure porosity, were determined by calculation for a steady state regime. Reynolds number was determined as a function of porosity, according to Darcy's law, and the Nusselt number was calculated. Since the flow is Darcy-type through the porous medium inside the FMHP, the Darcy friction factor was calculated using five methods: Colebrook, Darcy-Weisbach, Swamee-Jain, Blasius, and Haaland. After experimental tests, it was found that when the porous and trapezoidal microchannel layers are wetted at the same time, the vaporization progresses at a faster rate in the porous material, and the duration of the process is shorter. This recommends the use of such an internal structure in FMHPs since the manufacturing technology is simpler, the materials are cheaper, and the heat flux transport capacity is higher.

RevDate: 2023-07-31

Ray DR, DK Das (2023)

Simulations of Flows via CFD in Microchannels for Characterizing Entrance Region and Developing New Correlations for Hydrodynamic Entrance Length.

Micromachines, 14(7):.

Devices with microchannels are relatively new, and many correlations are not yet developed to design them efficiently. In microchannels, the flow regime is primarily laminar, where entrance length may occupy a significant section of the flow channel. Therefore, several computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed in this research to characterize the developing flow regime. The new correlations of entrance length were developed from a vast number of numerical results obtained from these simulations. A three-dimensional laminar flow for 37 Reynolds numbers (0.1, 0.2, …, 1, 2, …, 10, 20, …, 100, 200, …, 1000), primarily in low regime with water flow through six rectangular microchannels (aspect ratio: 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, 0.2, 0.125), has been modeled, conducting 222 simulations to characterize flow developments and ascertain progressive velocity profile shapes. Examination of the fully developed flow condition was considered using traditional criteria such as velocity and incremental pressure drop number. Additionally, a new criterion was presented based on fRe. Numerical results from the present simulations were validated by comparing the fully developed velocity profile, friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length for Re > 100 in rectangular channels, for which accurate data are available in the literature. There is a need for hydrodynamic entrance length correlations in a low Reynolds number regime (Re < 100). So, the model was run numerous times to generate a vast amount of numerical data that yielded two new correlations based on the velocity and fRe criteria.

RevDate: 2023-07-28

Singh S, Suman S, Mitra S, et al (2023)

Optimization of a novel trapezoidal staggered ribs configuration for enhancement of a solar air heater performance using CFD.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

A novel transverse trapezoidal staggered ribs configuration as artificial roughness is investigated using CFD to understand the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviors for improving the performance of a solar air heater. In addition, experimental validation of Nusselt numbers for smooth duct against CFD results is established. The staggered ribs arrangement outperforms the continuous ribs and insights obtained from the thermal-fluid flow behaviors are further applied to optimize the staggered arrangements of the rib. Reynolds number Re is varied from 5000 to 24,000, and rib parameters are optimized with a special focus on understanding the effects of discontinuous rib width (w) and gap width (g). Two widely studied shapes of rib, namely, cylindrical and rectangular, are also investigated for the transverse staggered arrangement with the same optimized parameters for the comparison of thermo-hydraulic performances. Trapezoidal ribs having discontinuous rib width of 50 mm and gap width of 10 mm give the maximum thermo-hydraulic performance of 1.57 at Reynolds number of 5000. The optimized staggered trapezoidal ribs outperform the staggered cylindrical and rectangular ribs. However, staggered rectangular ribs give the highest increase in the Nusselt number and these may be preferred for application when pressure drop is not of concern.

RevDate: 2023-07-31
CmpDate: 2023-07-31

Shinder II, Johnson AN, Filla BJ, et al (2023)

Non-nulling protocols for fast, accurate, 3-D velocity measurements in stacks.

Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995), 73(8):600-617.

The authors present protocols for making fast, accurate, 3D velocity measurements in the stacks of coal-fired power plants. The measurements are traceable to internationally-recognized standards; therefore, they provide a rigorous basis for measuring and/or regulating the emissions from stacks. The authors used novel, five-hole, hemispherical, differential-pressure probes optimized for non-nulling (no-probe rotation) measurements. The probes resist plugging from ash and water droplets. Integrating the differential pressures for only 5 seconds determined the axial velocity Va with an expanded relative uncertainty Ur(Va) ≤ 2% of the axial velocity at the probe's location, the flow's pitch (α) and yaw (β) angles with expanded uncertainties U(α) = U(β) = 1 °, and the static pressure ps with Ur(ps) = 0.1% of the static pressure. This accuracy was achieved 1) by calibrating each probe in a wind tunnel at 130, strategically-chosen values of (Va, α, β) spanning the conditions found in the majority of stacks (|α| ≤ 20 °; |β| ≤ 40 °; 4.5 m/s ≤ Va ≤27 m/s), and 2) by using a long-forgotten definition of the pseudo-dynamic pressure that scales with the dynamic pressure. The resulting calibration functions span the probe-diameter Reynolds number range from 7,600 to 45,000.Implications: The continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) that measure the flue gas flow rate in coal-fired power plant smokestacks are calibrated (at least) annually by a velocity profiling method. The stack axial velocity profile is measured by traversing S-type pitot probes (or one of the other EPA-sanctioned pitot probes) across two orthogonal, diametric chords in the stack cross-section. The average area-weighted axial velocity calculated from the pitot traverse quantifies the accuracy of the CEMS flow monitor. Therefore, the flow measurement accuracy of coal-fired power plants greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depends on the accuracy of pitot probe velocity measurements. Coal-fired power plants overwhelmingly calibrate CEMS flow monitors using S-type pitot probes. Almost always, stack testers measure the velocity without rotating or nulling the probe (i.e., the non-nulling method). These 1D non-nulling velocity measurements take significantly less time than the corresponding 2D nulling measurements (or 3D nulling measurements for other probe types). However, the accuracy of the 1D non-nulling velocity measurements made using S-type probes depends on the pitch and yaw angles of the flow. Measured axial velocities are accurate at pitch and yaw angles near zero, but the accuracy degrades at larger pitch and yaw angles.The authors developed a 5-hole hemispherical pitot probe that accurately measures the velocity vector in coal-fired smokestacks without needing to rotate or null the probe. This non-nulling, 3D probe is designed with large diameter pressure ports to prevent water droplets (or particulates) from obstructing its pressure ports when applied in stack flow measurement applications. This manuscript presents a wind tunnel calibration procedure to determine the non-nulling calibration curves for 1) dynamic pressure; 2) pitch angle; 3) yaw angle; and 4) static pressure. These calibration curves are used to determine axial velocities from 6 m/s to 27 m/s, yaw angles between ±40°, and pitch angles between ±20°. The uncertainties at the 95% confidence limit for axial velocity, yaw angle, and pitch angle are 2% (or less), 1°, and 1°, respectively. Therefore, in contrast to existing EPA-sanctioned probes, the non-nulling hemispherical probe provides fast, low uncertainty velocity measurements independent of the pitch and yaw angles of the stack flow.

RevDate: 2023-07-28

Küchler C, Bewley GP, E Bodenschatz (2023)

Universal Velocity Statistics in Decaying Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 131(2):024001.

In turbulent flows, kinetic energy is transferred from large spatial scales to small ones, where it is converted to heat by viscosity. For strong turbulence, i.e., high Reynolds numbers, Kolmogorov conjectured in 1941 that this energy transfer is dominated by inertial forces at intermediate spatial scales. Since Kolmogorov's conjecture, the velocity difference statistics in this so-called inertial range have been expected to follow universal power laws for which theoretical predictions have been refined over the years. Here we present experimental results over an unprecedented range of Reynolds numbers in a well-controlled wind tunnel flow produced in the Max Planck Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel. We find that the measured second-order velocity difference statistics become independent of the Reynolds number, suggesting a universal behavior of decaying turbulence. However, we do not observe power laws even at the highest Reynolds number, i.e., at turbulence levels otherwise only attainable in atmospheric flows. Our results point to a Reynolds number-independent logarithmic correction to the classical power law for decaying turbulence that calls for theoretical understanding.

RevDate: 2023-07-29

Aich W, Javid K, Tag-ElDin ESM, et al (2023)

Thermal and physical impact of viscoplastic nanoparticles in a complex divergent channel due to peristalsis phenomenon: Heat generation and multiple slip effects.

Heliyon, 9(7):e17644.

In the advance studies, researchers have performed productive research contributions in the field of nanofluid mechanics under various biological assumptions. These contributions are fruitful to understand the applications of nanofluids in the various fields such as hybrid-powered engine, heart-diagnose, to prevent numerous diseases, heat exchanger, pharmaceutical processes, etc. The current analysis explores the combined effects of heat generation and chemical reaction on the peristaltic flow of viscoplastic nanofluid through a non-uniform (divergent) channel. The physical effects of second-order velocity slip, thermal slip and mass slip parameters on the rheological characteristics are also considered. To describe non-Newtonian effects, the Casson fluid is deployed. The greater wavelength assumption and low Reynolds number theory are used to attain the rheological equations. Numerical solutions of these governing equations associated with suitable boundary conditions are obtained via Mathematica symbolic software. The velocity magnitude of Casson fluid is higher than associated with Newtonian fluid. Radiation parameter has a vigorous impact in the reduction (enhancement) of temperature (mass concentration) profile. The porous parameter has a remarkable impact in reduction of temperature and velocity profile. Thermal enhancement is perceived by intensifying the chemical reaction parameter, and opposite inclination is noticed in mass concentration. Temperature has been demonstrated to be increased by increasing the Darcy number. The magnitudes of both axial velocity and temperature distribution are smaller in the presence of second-order velocity slip parameters effect as compared with no-slip condition. The magnitudes of axial velocity and mass (or, nanoparticle) concentration are augmented by accumulating the Prandtl number. A rise in Brownian parameter is noticed to depress the mass concentration. The present study has been used in bio-mechanical processes, nanomaterial devices, heat transfer enhancement, radiators, and electronics cooling systems.

RevDate: 2023-07-29

Buaria D, KR Sreenivasan (2023)

Forecasting small-scale dynamics of fluid turbulence using deep neural networks.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(30):e2305765120.

Turbulence in fluid flows is characterized by a wide range of interacting scales. Since the scale range increases as some power of the flow Reynolds number, a faithful simulation of the entire scale range is prohibitively expensive at high Reynolds numbers. The most expensive aspect concerns the small-scale motions; thus, major emphasis is placed on understanding and modeling them, taking advantage of their putative universality. In this work, using physics-informed deep learning methods, we present a modeling framework to capture and predict the small-scale dynamics of turbulence, via the velocity gradient tensor. The model is based on obtaining functional closures for the pressure Hessian and viscous Laplacian contributions as functions of velocity gradient tensor. This task is accomplished using deep neural networks that are consistent with physical constraints and explicitly incorporate Reynolds number dependence to account for small-scale intermittency. We then utilize a massive direct numerical simulation database, spanning two orders of magnitude in the large-scale Reynolds number, for training and validation. The model learns from low to moderate Reynolds numbers and successfully predicts velocity gradient statistics at both seen and higher (unseen) Reynolds numbers. The success of our present approach demonstrates the viability of deep learning over traditional modeling approaches in capturing and predicting small-scale features of turbulence.

RevDate: 2023-07-19

Zheng JL, YL Liu (2023)

Experimental study on the flow structures and dynamics of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an annular cell.

Physical review. E, 107(6-2):065112.

We conduct an experimental study on the flow structures and dynamics of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an annular cell with radius ratio η≃0.5 and aspect ratio Γ≃4. The working fluid is water with a Prandtl number of Pr≃5.4, and the Rayleigh number (Ra) ranges from 5.05×10^{7} to 5.05×10^{8}. The multithermal-probe method and the particle image velocimetry technique are employed to measure the temperature profiles and the velocity fields, respectively. Two distinct states with multiroll standing waves are observed, which are the quadrupole state (QS) characterized by a four-roll structure and the sextupole state (SS) by a six-roll structure. The scaling exponents of Reynolds number Re with Ra are different for the two states, which are 0.56 for QS and 0.41 for SS. In addition, the standing waves become unstable upon tilting the cell by 1^{∘} in relation to the horizontal plane, and they evolve into traveling waves. At relatively high Ra, for instance, Ra⩾2.55×10^{8}, it is observed that the traveling wave state SS undergoes a transition to the traveling wave state QS. However, the opposite transition from QS to SS is not observed in our experiments. Our findings provide insights into the flow structures and dynamics in the convection flow with rotation symmetry.

RevDate: 2023-07-25

Zhang T, Inglis DW, Ngo L, et al (2023)

Inertial Separation of Particles Assisted by Symmetrical Sheath Flows in a Straight Microchannel.

Analytical chemistry, 95(29):11132-11140.

Over the past two decades, inertial microfluidics, which works at an intermediate range of Reynolds number (∼1 < Re < ∼100), has been widely used for particle separation due to its high-throughput and label-free features. This work proposes a novel method for continuous separation of particles by size using inertial microfluidics, with the assistance of symmetrical sheath flows in a straight microchannel. Here, larger particles (>3 μm) are arranged close to the channel sidewalls, while smaller particles (<2 μm) remain flowing along the channel centerline. This conclusion is supported by experimental data with particles of different sizes ranging from 0.79 to 10.5 μm. Symmetrical Newtonian sheath flows are injected on both sides of particle mixtures into a straight rectangular microchannel with an aspect ratio (AR = height/width) of 2.5. Results show that the separation performance of the developed microfluidic device is affected by three main factors: channel length, total flow rate, and flow rate ratio of sheath to sample. Besides, separation of platelets from whole blood is demonstrated. The developed microfluidic platform owns the advantages of low fabrication cost, simple experiment setup, versatile selections of particle candidates, and stable operations. This systematic study provides a new perspective for particle separation, which is expected to find applications across various fields spanning physics, biology, biomedicine, and industry.

RevDate: 2023-07-18

Ahmad S, Ali K, Katbar NM, et al (2023)

Vortex generation due to multiple localized magnetic fields in the hybrid nanofluid flow - A numerical investigation.

Heliyon, 9(7):e17756.

Vortices capture the attention of every scientist (as soon as they come into existence) while studying any flow problem because of their significance in comprehending fluid mixing and mass transport processes. A vortex is indeed a physical phenomenon that happens when a liquid or a gas flow in a circular motion. They are generated due to the velocity difference and may be seen in hurricanes, air moving across the plane wing, tornadoes, etc. The study of vortices is important for understanding various natural phenomena in different settings. This work explores the complex dynamics of the Lorentz force that drives the rotation of nanostructures and the emergence of intricate vortex patterns in a hybrid fluid with Fe3O4-Cu nanoparticles. The hybrid nanofluid is modeled as a single-phase fluid, and the partial differential equations (PDEs) that govern its behavior are solved numerically. This work also introduces a novel analysis that enables us to visualize the flow lines and isotherms around the magnetic strips in the flow domain. The Lorentz force confined to the strips causes the spinning of hybrid nanoparticles, resulting in complex vortex structures in the flow domain. The results indicate that the magnetic field lowers the Nusselt number by 34% while raising the skin friction by 9%. The Reynolds number amplifies the influence of the localized magnetic field on the flow dynamics. Lastly, the nano-scaled structures in the flow enhance the Nusselt number significantly while having a minor effect on the skin friction factor.

RevDate: 2023-07-18

Li S, Khan MI, Alruqi AB, et al (2023)

Entropy optimized flow of Sutterby nanomaterial subject to porous medium: Buongiorno nanofluid model.

Heliyon, 9(7):e17784.

Owing to enhanced thermal impact of nanomaterials, different applications are suggested in engineering and industrial systems like heat transfer devices, energy generation, extrusion processes, engine cooling, thermal systems, heat exchanger, chemical processes, manufacturing systems, hybrid-powered plants etc. The current communication concerns the optimized flow of Sutterby nanofluid due to stretched surface in view of different thermal sources. The investigation is supported with the applications of external heat source, magnetic force and radiative phenomenon. The irreversibility investigation is deliberated with implementation of thermodynamics second law. The thermophoresis and random movement characteristics are also studied. Additionally, first order binary reaction is also examined. The nonlinear system of the governing problem is obtained which are numerically computed by s method. The physical aspects of prominent flow parameters are attributed graphically. Further, the analysis for entropy generation and Bejan number is focused. It is observed that the velocity profile increases due to Reynolds number and Deborah number. Larger Schmidt number reduces the concentration distribution. Further, the entropy generation is improved against Reynolds number and Brinkman parameter.

RevDate: 2023-07-25

Saxena A, Kroll-Rabotin JS, RS Sanders (2023)

Role of Flow Inertia in Aggregate Restructuring and Breakage at Finite Reynolds Numbers.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 39(29):10066-10078.

Forces acting on aggregates depend on their properties, such as size and structure. Breakage rate, stable size, and structure of fractal aggregates in multiphase flows are strongly related to the imposed hydrodynamic forces. While these forces are prevalently viscous for finite Reynolds number conditions, flow inertia cannot be ignored, thereby requiring one to fully resolve the Navier-Stokes equations. To highlight the effect of flow inertia on aggregate evolution, numerical investigation of aggregate evolution in simple shear flow at the finite Reynolds number is conducted. The evolution of aggregates exposed to shear flow is tracked over time. Particle coupling with the flow is resolved with an immersed boundary method, and flow dynamics are solved using a lattice Boltzmann method. Particle dynamics are tracked by a discrete element method, accounting for interactions between primary particles composing the aggregates. Over the range of aggregate-scale Reynolds numbers tested, the breakage rate appears to be governed by the combined effect of momentum diffusion and the ratio of particle interaction forces to the hydrodynamic forces. For higher shear stresses, even when no stable size exists, breakage is not instantaneous because of momentum diffusion kinetics. Simulations with particle interaction forces scaled with the viscous drag, to isolate the effect of finite Reynolds hydrodynamics on aggregate evolution, show that flow inertia at such moderate aggregate Reynolds numbers has no impact on the morphology of nonbreaking aggregates but significantly favors breakage probability. This is a first-of-its-kind study that establishes the role of flow inertia in aggregate evolution. The findings present a novel perspective into breakage kinetics for systems in low but finite Reynolds number conditions.

RevDate: 2023-07-18

Birtek MT, Alseed MM, Sarabi MR, et al (2023)

Machine learning-augmented fluid dynamics simulations for micromixer educational module.

Biomicrofluidics, 17(4):044101.

Micromixers play an imperative role in chemical and biomedical systems. Designing compact micromixers for laminar flows owning a low Reynolds number is more challenging than flows with higher turbulence. Machine learning models can enable the optimization of the designs and capabilities of microfluidic systems by receiving input from a training library and producing algorithms that can predict the outcomes prior to the fabrication process to minimize development cost and time. Here, an educational interactive microfluidic module is developed to enable the design of compact and efficient micromixers at low Reynolds regimes for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The optimization of Newtonian fluids designs was based on a machine learning model, which was trained by simulating and calculating the mixing index of 1890 different micromixer designs. This approach utilized a combination of six design parameters and the results as an input data set to a two-layer deep neural network with 100 nodes in each hidden layer. A trained model was achieved with R[2] = 0.9543 that can be used to predict the mixing index and find the optimal parameters needed to design micromixers. Non-Newtonian fluid cases were also optimized using 56700 simulated designs with eight varying input parameters, reduced to 1890 designs, and then trained using the same deep neural network used for Newtonian fluids to obtain R[2] = 0.9063. The framework was subsequently used as an interactive educational module, demonstrating a well-structured integration of technology-based modules such as using artificial intelligence in the engineering curriculum, which can highly contribute to engineering education.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-10

Scheuer KG, RG DeCorby (2023)

All-Optical, Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Detection of Low-Pressure Gas Leaks and Observation of Jet Tones in the MHz Range.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 23(12):.

We used an ultrasensitive, broadband optomechanical ultrasound sensor to study the acoustic signals produced by pressurized nitrogen escaping from a variety of small syringes. Harmonically related jet tones extending into the MHz region were observed for a certain range of flow (i.e., Reynolds number), which is in qualitative agreement with historical studies on gas jets emitted from pipes and orifices of much larger dimensions. For higher turbulent flow rates, we observed broadband ultrasonic emission in the ~0-5 MHz range, which was likely limited on the upper end due to attenuation in air. These observations are made possible by the broadband, ultrasensitive response (for air-coupled ultrasound) of our optomechanical devices. Aside from being of theoretical interest, our results could have practical implications for the non-contact monitoring and detection of early-stage leaks in pressured fluid systems.

RevDate: 2023-07-18

Li X, H Su (2022)

A Modular Grad-Div Stabilization Method for Time-Dependent Thermally Coupled MHD Equations.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 24(10):.

In this paper, we consider a fully discrete modular grad-div stabilization algorithm for time-dependent thermally coupled magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to add an extra minimally intrusive module to penalize the divergence errors of velocity and improve the computational efficiency for increasing values of the Reynolds number and grad-div stabilization parameters. In addition, we provide the unconditional stability and optimal convergence analysis of this algorithm. Finally, several numerical experiments are performed and further indicated these advantages over the algorithm without grad-div stabilization.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-10

Gotoh T, Watanabe T, I Saito (2023)

Kinematic Effects on Probability Density Functions of Energy Dissipation Rate and Enstrophy in Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 130(25):254001.

Direct numerical simulation and theoretical analyses showed that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the energy dissipation rate and enstrophy in turbulence are asymptotically stretched gamma distributions with the same stretching exponent, and both the left and right tails of the enstrophy PDF are longer than those of the energy dissipation rate regardless of the Reynolds number. The differences in PDF tails arise due to the kinematics, with differences in the number of terms contributing to the dissipation rate and enstrophy. Meanwhile, the stretching exponent is determined by the dynamics and likeliness of singularities.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-10

Kim M, Schanz D, Novara M, et al (2023)

Experimental study on flow and turbulence characteristics of jet impinging on cylinder using three-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking velocimetry.

Scientific reports, 13(1):10929.

When a round jet impinges on a convex cylindrical surface, complex three-dimensional (3D) flow structures occur, accompanied by the Coanda effect. To characterize the flow and turbulence properties of the general system, ensemble averages of 3D Lagrangian particle tracking velocimetry measurements were taken. The radial bin-averaging method was used in post-processing the tracked particles and corresponding instantaneous velocity vectors to generate appropriate ensemble-averaged statistics. Two impinging angles were selected, and at a fixed Reynolds number, the ensemble-averaged volumetric velocity field and turbulent stress tensor components were measured. The flow and turbulence characteristics of the impinging jet on the cylinder were notably different based on the impinging angle, especially in the downstream region. Surprisingly, the attached wall jet with a half-elliptic shape was abruptly thickened in the wall-normal direction, similar to the axis switching phenomenon observed in elliptic jets in the case of oblique impingement. In the jet-impinging region, the flow spread in all directions with high mean vorticity values. With the development of a 3D curved wall jet, both the Coanda effect and centrifugal force played a significant role in the flow behavior. A notable feature of the self-preserving region was the similarity of mean velocity profiles with scaling by the maximum velocity and the jet half-width for both impinging angle cases. Local isotropy of turbulent normal stresses was observed in this region, supporting the existence of self-preservation in the 3D curved wall jet. The volumetric ensemble-averaged Reynolds stress tensor revealed strong inhomogeneous turbulence in the boundary layer region and the curvature effect on the Reynolds shear stress in the free shear layer.

RevDate: 2023-07-05

Dutt N, Hedau AJ, Kumar A, et al (2023)

Thermo-hydraulic performance of solar air heater having discrete D-shaped ribs as artificial roughness.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

In this paper, the thermo-hydraulic performance of a solar air heater (SAH) duct roughened with discrete D-shaped ribs is numerically investigated using ANSYS Fluent 2020 R2. The numerical investigation is carried out at rib radius to transverse pitch ratio (r/Pt) from 0.1 to 0.35 and longitudinal pitch to rib radius ratio (Pl /r) from 4 to 10 under various operating conditions with Reynolds number (Re) varied from 10,200 to 20,200. The numerical results are validated with previous experimental results for the Nusselt number (Nu) values, and good agreement is found with mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 3.6%. Based on the results of the numerical investigation, it was found that the value of Nu and the friction factor (f) decreases with the increase of the value of Pl/r, while the ratio r/Pt is kept constant. From the overall analysis, it is concluded that the optimum results are obtained for r/Pt of 0.25 and Pl/r = 4, and the maximum thermo-hydraulic performance parameter is 1.12. Further correlations are developed for the value of Nu and f for the whole range of r/Pt as 0.10-0.35 and Pl/r as 4-10. According to the developed correlations, the values of Nu are within ± 2% of the results of CFD, while the values of f are within ± 2.7% of the results of CFD.

RevDate: 2023-07-05

Firatoglu ZA (2023)

The effect of natural ventilation on airborne transmission of the COVID-19 virus spread by sneezing in the classroom.

The Science of the total environment, 896:165113 pii:S0048-9697(23)03736-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Since school classrooms are of vital importance due to their impact on public health in COVID-19 and similar epidemics, it is imperative to develop new ventilation strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of the virus in the classroom. To be able to develop new ventilation strategies, the effect of local flow behaviors in the classroom on the airborne transmission of the virus under the most dramatic conditions must first be determined. In this study, the effect of natural ventilation on the airborne transmission of COVID-19-like viruses in the classroom in the case of sneezing by two infected students in a reference secondary school classroom was investigated in five scenarios. Firstly, experimental measurements were carried out in the reference class to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results and determine the boundary conditions. Next, the effects of local flow behaviors on the airborne transmission of the virus were evaluated for five scenarios using the Eulerian-Lagrange method, a discrete phase model, and a temporary three-dimensional CFD model. In all scenarios, immediately after sneezing, between 57 and 60.2 % of the droplets containing the virus, mostly large and medium-sized (150 μm < d < 1000 μm) settled on the infected student's desk, while small droplets continued to move in the flow field. In addition, it was determined that the effect of natural ventilation in the classroom on the travel of virus droplets in the case of Redh < 8.04 × 10[4] (Reynolds number, Redh=Udh/νu, dh and are fluid velocity, hydraulic diameters of the door and window sections of the class and kinematic viscosity, respectively) was negligible.

RevDate: 2023-07-03

Théry A, Maaß CC, E Lauga (2023)

Hydrodynamic interactions between squirmers near walls: far-field dynamics and near-field cluster stability.

Royal Society open science, 10(6):230223.

Confinement increases contacts between microswimmers in dilute suspensions and affects their interactions. In particular, boundaries have been shown experimentally to lead to the formation of clusters that would not occur in bulk fluids. To what extent does hydrodynamics govern these boundary-driven encounters between microswimmers? We consider theoretically the symmetric boundary-mediated encounters of model microswimmers under gravity through far-field interaction of a pair of weak squirmers, as well as the lubrication interactions occurring after contact between two or more squirmers. In the far field, the orientation of microswimmers is controlled by the wall and the squirming parameter. The presence of a second swimmer influences the orientation of the original squirmer, but for weak squirmers, most of the interaction occurs after contact. We thus analyse next the near-field reorientation of circular groups of squirmers. We show that a large number of swimmers and the presence of gravity can stabilize clusters of pullers, while the opposite is true for pushers; to be stable, clusters of pushers thus need to be governed by other interactions (e.g. phoretic). This simplified approach to the phenomenon of active clustering enables us to highlight the hydrodynamic contribution, which can be hard to isolate in experimental realizations.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Saeed A, Farooq H, Akhtar I, et al (2023)

Deep-Learning-Based Reduced-Order Model for Power Generation Capacity of Flapping Foils.

Biomimetics (Basel, Switzerland), 8(2):.

Inspired by nature, oscillating foils offer viable options as alternate energy resources to harness energy from wind and water. Here, we propose a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-based reduced-order model (ROM) of power generation by flapping airfoils in conjunction with deep neural networks. Numerical simulations are performed for incompressible flow past a flapping NACA-0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 1100 using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach. The snapshots of the pressure field around the flapping foil are then utilized to construct the pressure POD modes of each case, which serve as the reduced basis to span the solution space. The novelty of the current research relates to the identification, development, and employment of long-short-term neural network (LSTM) models to predict temporal coefficients of the pressure modes. These coefficients, in turn, are used to reconstruct hydrodynamic forces and moment, leading to computations of power. The proposed model takes the known temporal coefficients as inputs and predicts the future temporal coefficients followed by previously estimated temporal coefficients, very similar to traditional ROM. Through the new trained model, we can predict the temporal coefficients for a long time duration that can be far beyond the training time intervals more accurately. It may not be attained by traditional ROMs that lead to erroneous results. Consequently, the flow physics including the forces and moment exerted by fluids can be reconstructed accurately using POD modes as the basis set.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Ben Mariem I, Kaziz S, Belkhiria M, et al (2023)

Numerical optimization of microfluidic biosensor detection time for the SARS-CoV-2 using the Taguchi method.

Indian journal of physics and proceedings of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (2004) [Epub ahead of print].

The performance of microfluidic biosensor of the SARS-Cov-2 was numerically analyzed through finite element method. The calculation results have been validated with comparison with experimental data reported in the literature. The novelty of this study is the use of the Taguchi method in the optimization analysis, and an L8(2[5]) orthogonal table of five critical parameters-Reynolds number (Re), Damköhler number (Da), relative adsorption capacity (σ), equilibrium dissociation constant (KD), and Schmidt number (Sc), with two levels was designed. ANOVA methods are used to obtain the significance of key parameters. The optimal combination of the key parameters is Re = 10[-2], Da = 1000, σ = 0.2, KD = 5, and Sc 10[4] to achieve the minimum response time (0.15). Among the selected key parameters, the relative adsorption capacity (σ) has the highest contribution (42.17%) to the reduction of the response time, while the Schmidt number (Sc) has the lowest contribution (5.19%). The presented simulation results are useful in designing microfluidic biosensors in order to reduce their response time.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Ahmed A, Ul Islam S, Khan AQ, et al (2023)

Reduction of fluid forces for flow past side-by-side cylinders using downstream attached splitter plates.

Computational particle mechanics [Epub ahead of print].

A two-dimensional numerical simulation is performed to investigate the drag reduction and vortex shedding suppression behind three square cylinders with attached splitter plates in the downstream region at a low Reynolds number (Re = 150). Numerical calculations are carried out using the lattice Boltzmann method. The study is carried out for various values of gap spacing between the cylinders and different splitter plate lengths. The vortices are completely chaotic at very small spacing, as observed. The splitter plates are critical in suppressing shedding and reducing drag on the objects. The splitter plates with lengths greater than two fully control the jet interaction at low spacing values. There is maximum percentage reduction in CDmean for small spacing and the selected largest splitter plate length. Furthermore, systematic investigation reveals that splitter plates significantly suppress the fluctuating lift in addition to drastically reducing the drag.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Baldygin A, Ahmed A, Baily R, et al (2023)

Effect of gravity on the spreading of a droplet deposited by liquid needle deposition technique.

NPJ microgravity, 9(1):49.

This study represents an experimental investigation, complemented with a mathematical model, to decipher the effect of gravity on the spreading dynamics of a water droplet. For the theoretical discussion, an overall energy balance approach is adopted to explain the droplet spreading under both microgravity (μg) and terrestrial gravity condition. Besides explaining the mechanism of the droplet spreading under microgravity condition achieved during the parabolic flight, a technique with a detailed experimental set-up has also been developed for the successful deposition of droplet. A rational understanding is formulated through experimental investigation and theoretical analysis, which allows us to distinguish the transient variation of the spreading of a droplet, between microgravity and terrestrial gravity condition. The spreading of the droplet is predicted by the non-linear overall energy balance equation, which accounts for the operating parameters in the form of non-dimensional groups like Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]), Weber number (We) and Bond number (Bo). To distinctly identify the difference in the drop spreading at terrestrial and microgravity conditions, the Bo with transient gravitational field obtained through the on-board accelerometer is considered. The obtained theoretical results are further corroborated by experimental results which are obtained from the parabolic flight.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-07

Qiao S, Ouyang H, Zheng X, et al (2023)

Magnetically actuated hydrogel-based capsule microrobots for intravascular targeted drug delivery.

Journal of materials chemistry. B, 11(26):6095-6105.

Microrobots for targeted drug delivery in blood vessels have attracted increasing interest from researchers. In this work, hydrogel-based capsule microrobots are used to wrap drugs and deliver drugs in blood vessels. In order to prepare capsule microrobots of different sizes, a triaxial microfluidic chip is designed and built, and the formation mechanism of three flow phases including the plug flow phase, bullet flow phase and droplet phase during the preparation of capsule microrobots is studied. The analysis and simulation results show that the size of the capsule microrobots can be controlled by the flow rate ratio of two phases in the microfluidic chip, and when the flow rate of the outer phase is 20 times that of the inner phase in the microfluidic chip, irregular multicore capsule microrobots can be prepared. On this basis, a three degree of freedom magnetic drive system is developed to drive the capsule microrobots to reach the destination along the predetermined trajectory in the low Reynolds number environment, and the magnetic field performance of the magnetic drive system is simulated and analyzed. Finally, in order to verify the feasibility of targeted drug delivery of the capsule microrobots in the blood vessel, the motion process of the capsule microrobots in the vascular microchannel is simulated, and the relationship between the motion performance of the capsule microrobots and the magnetic field is studied. The experimental results show that the capsule microrobots can reach a speed of 800 μm s[-1] at a low frequency of 0.4 Hz. At the same time, the capsule microrobots can reach a peak speed of 3077 μm s[-1] and can continuously climb over a 1000 μm high obstacle under a rotating magnetic field of 2.4 Hz and 14.4 mT. Experiments show that the capsule microrobots have excellent drug delivery potential in similar vascular curved channels driven by this system.

RevDate: 2023-06-20
CmpDate: 2023-06-19

Algehyne EA, Ahammad NA, Elnair ME, et al (2023)

Entropy optimization and response surface methodology of blood hybrid nanofluid flow through composite stenosis artery with magnetized nanoparticles (Au-Ta) for drug delivery application.

Scientific reports, 13(1):9856.

Entropy creation by a blood-hybrid nanofluid flow with gold-tantalum nanoparticles in a tilted cylindrical artery with composite stenosis under the influence of Joule heating, body acceleration, and thermal radiation is the focus of this research. Using the Sisko fluid model, the non-Newtonian behaviour of blood is investigated. The finite difference (FD) approach is used to solve the equations of motion and entropy for a system subject to certain constraints. The optimal heat transfer rate with respect to radiation, Hartmann number, and nanoparticle volume fraction is calculated using a response surface technique and sensitivity analysis. The impacts of significant parameters such as Hartmann number, angle parameter, nanoparticle volume fraction, body acceleration amplitude, radiation, and Reynolds number on the velocity, temperature, entropy generation, flow rate, shear stress of wall, and heat transfer rate are exhibited via the graphs and tables. Present results disclose that the flow rate profile increase by improving the Womersley number and the opposite nature is noticed in nanoparticle volume fraction. The total entropy generation reduces by improving radiation. The Hartmann number expose a positive sensitivity for all level of nanoparticle volume fraction. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the radiation and nanoparticle volume fraction showed a negative sensitivity for all magnetic field levels. It is seen that the presence of hybrid nanoparticles in the bloodstream leads to a more substantial reduction in the axial velocity of blood compared to Sisko blood. An increase in the volume fraction results in a noticeable decrease in the volumetric flow rate in the axial direction, while higher values of infinite shear rate viscosity lead to a significant reduction in the magnitude of the blood flow pattern. The blood temperature exhibits a linear increase with respect to the volume fraction of hybrid nanoparticles. Specifically, utilizing a hybrid nanofluid with a volume fraction of 3% leads to a 2.01316% higher temperature compared to the base fluid (blood). Similarly, a 5% volume fraction corresponds to a temperature increase of 3.45093%.

RevDate: 2023-06-19
CmpDate: 2023-06-19

Kim M, A Borhan (2023)

Critical conditions for development of a second pair of Dean vortices in curved microfluidic channels.

Physical review. E, 107(5-2):055103.

The centrifugal force in flow through a curved channel initiates a hydrodynamic instability that results in the development of Dean vortices, a pair of counter-rotating roll cells across the channel that deflect the high velocity fluid in the center toward the outer (concave) wall. When this secondary flow toward the concave (outer) wall is too strong to be dissipated by viscous effects, an additional pair of vortices emerges near the outer wall. Combining numerical simulation and dimensional analysis, we find that the critical condition for the onset of the second vortex pair depends on γ^{1/2}Dn (γ: channel aspect ratio; Dn: Dean number). We also investigate the development length for the additional vortex pair in channels with different aspect ratios and curvatures. The larger centrifugal force at higher Dean numbers produces the additional vortices further upstream, with the required development length being inversely proportional to the Reynolds number and increasing linearly with the radius of curvature of the channel.

RevDate: 2023-06-19
CmpDate: 2023-06-19

Mizerski KA (2023)

Helical correction to turbulent magnetic diffusivity.

Physical review. E, 107(5-2):055205.

The effect of helicity in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence on the effective turbulent magnetic diffusion is considered here. The helical correction to turbulent diffusivity is analytically calculated with the use of the renormalization group approach. In agreement with previous numerical findings, this correction is shown to be negative and proportional to the second power of the magnetic Reynolds number, when the latter is small. In addition, the helical correction to turbulent diffusivity is found to obey a power-law-type dependence on the wave number of the most energetic turbulent eddies, k_{ℓ}, of the form k_{ℓ}^{-10/3}.

RevDate: 2023-06-23
CmpDate: 2023-06-23

Parfenyev V, Mogilevskiy E, G Falkovich (2023)

Sum-of-squares bounds on correlation functions in a minimal model of turbulence.

Physical review. E, 107(5-1):054114.

We suggest a new computer-assisted approach to the development of turbulence theory. It allows one to impose lower and upper bounds on correlation functions using sum-of-squares polynomials. We demonstrate it on the minimal cascade model of two resonantly interacting modes when one is pumped and the other dissipates. We show how to present correlation functions of interest as part of a sum-of-squares polynomial using the stationarity of the statistics. That allows us to find how the moments of the mode amplitudes depend on the degree of nonequilibrium (analog of the Reynolds number), which reveals some properties of marginal statistical distributions. By combining scaling dependence with the results of direct numerical simulations, we obtain the probability densities of both modes in a highly intermittent inverse cascade. As the Reynolds number tends to infinity, we show that the relative phase between modes tends to π/2 and -π/2 in the direct and inverse cascades, respectively, and derive bounds on the phase variance. Our approach combines computer-aided analytical proofs with a numerical algorithm applied to high-degree polynomials.

RevDate: 2023-06-19

Jiang J, Wang F, Huang W, et al (2023)

Mobile mechanical signal generator for macrophage polarization.

Exploration (Beijing, China), 3(2):20220147.

The importance of mechanical signals in regulating the fate of macrophages is gaining increased attention recently. However, the recently used mechanical signals normally rely on the physical characteristics of matrix with non-specificity and instability or mechanical loading devices with uncontrollability and complexity. Herein, we demonstrate the successful fabrication of self-assembled microrobots (SMRs) based on magnetic nanoparticles as local mechanical signal generators for precise macrophage polarization. Under a rotating magnetic field (RMF), the propulsion of SMRs occurs due to the elastic deformation via magnetic force and hydrodynamics. SMRs perform wireless navigation toward the targeted macrophage in a controllable manner and subsequently rotate around the cell for mechanical signal generation. Macrophages are eventually polarized from M0 to anti-inflammatory related M2 phenotypes by blocking the Piezo1-activating protein-1 (AP-1)-CCL2 signaling pathway. The as-developed microrobot system provides a new platform of mechanical signal loading for macrophage polarization, which holds great potential for precise regulation of cell fate.

RevDate: 2023-06-19

Madonia M, Guzmán AJA, Clercx HJH, et al (2023)

Reynolds number scaling and energy spectra in geostrophic convection.

Journal of fluid mechanics, 962:A36.

We report flow measurements in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the rotationally-constrained geostrophic regime. We apply stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to measure the three components of velocity in a horizontal cross-section of a water-filled cylindrical convection vessel. At a constant, small Ekman number Ek = 5 × 10[-8] we vary the Rayleigh number Ra between 10[11] and 4 × 10[12] to cover various subregimes observed in geostrophic convection. We also include one nonrotating experiment. The scaling of the velocity fluctuations (expressed as the Reynolds number Re) is compared to theoretical relations expressing balances of viscous-Archimedean-Coriolis (VAC) and Coriolis-inertial-Archimedean (CIA) forces. Based on our results we cannot decide which balance is most applicable here; both scaling relations match equally well. A comparison of the current data with several other literature datasets indicates a convergence towards diffusion-free scaling of velocity as Ek decreases. However, the use of confined domains leads at lower Ra to prominent convection in the wall mode near the sidewall. Kinetic energy spectra point at an overall flow organisation into a quadrupolar vortex filling the cross-section. This quadrupolar vortex is a quasi-two-dimensional feature; it only manifests in energy spectra based on the horizontal velocity components. At larger Ra the spectra reveal the development of a scaling range with exponent close to -5/3, the classical exponent for inertial-range scaling in three-dimensional turbulence. The steeper Re(Ra) scaling at low Ek and development of a scaling range in the energy spectra are distinct indicators that a fully developed, diffusion-free turbulent bulk flow state is approached, sketching clear perspectives for further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-06-12

Sharma M, R Jilte (2023)

Heat transfer and hydraulics for a novel receiver pipe of solar parabolic trough: a computational approach.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The effect of symmetrical convex-concave corrugations on receiver pipe of a parabolic trough solar collector is numerically investigated. Twelve distinct geometrically configured receiver pipes with corrugations have been examined for this purpose. The computational study is conducted for varying corrugation pitch (4 mm to 10 mm) and height (1.5 mm to 2.5 mm). Heat transfer enhancement, flow behavior, and overall thermal performance of fluid moving through a pipe under non-uniform heat flux condition are all determined in this work. The Reynolds number ranges from 5000 to 50,000. The findings reveal that presence of corrugations leads to axial whirling and vortices in the receiver pipe, thus enhancing the heat transfer. The receiver pipe having corrugations of 8 mm pitch and 2 mm height gave the best results. The maximum enhancement in average Nusselt number over smooth pipe has been observed as 28.51%. In addition, relationships of Nusselt number and friction factor against selected design parameters and operating conditions are also displayed as correlations.

RevDate: 2023-06-12

Alizadeh A, Shahabi Takami SF, Iranmanesh R, et al (2023)

Evaluation of AGM and FEM method for thermal radiation on nanofluid flow between two tubes in nearness of magnetism field.

Heliyon, 9(6):e16788 pii:S2405-8440(23)03995-6.

The nanofluid flow through two orbicular cylinders is explored utilizing the overall Koo-Kleinstreuer-Li (KKL) model within the nearness of a magnetic field. The impact of thermal radiation is considered in the energy equation. The novelty of this study is examining convective heat transfer for nanofluid flow between two flat tubes with the Akbari-Ganji method and Finite Element Techniques to examine the heat flux field by implies of 2D forms of temperature and velocity at unprecedented Reynolds numbers. The approaches for solving ODEs are AGM and FEM. Semi-analytical methods are assessed for specific parameters of aspect ratio, Hartmann number, Eckert number, and Reynolds quantity with various values. Adding Ha, Ec, and G causes the temperature gradient to grow, while adding the Reynolds number causes it to decrease. As the Lorentz forces increase, the velocity decreases; nevertheless, as the Reynolds number rises, the velocity decreases. With the reduction of the fluid's dynamic viscosity, the temperature will decrease, which will decrease the thermal trend along the vertical length of the pipes.

RevDate: 2023-06-12

Tang TL, Salleh H, Sadiq MI, et al (2023)

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Structure and Heat Transfer Behavior of Multiple Jet Impingement Using MgO-Water Nanofluids.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 16(11):.

Nanofluids have attracted significant attention from researchers due to their ability to significantly enhance heat transfer, especially in jet impingement flows, which can improve their cooling performance. However, there is a lack of research on the use of nanofluids in multiple jet impingements, both in terms of experimental and numerical studies. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to fully understand the potential benefits and limitations of using nanofluids in this type of cooling system. Thus, an experimental and numerical investigation was performed to study the flow structure and heat transfer behavior of multiple jet impingement using MgO-water nanofluids with a 3 × 3 inline jet array at a nozzle-to-plate distance of 3 mm. The jet spacing was set to 3, 4.5, and 6 mm; the Reynolds number varies from 1000 to 10,000; and the particle volume fraction ranges from 0% to 0.15%. A 3D numerical analysis using ANSYS Fluent with SST k-ω turbulent model was presented. The single-phase model is adopted to predict the thermal physical nanofluid. The flow field and temperature distribution were investigated. Experimental results show that a nanofluid can provide a heat transfer enhancement at a small jet-to-jet spacing using a high particle volume fraction under a low Reynolds number; otherwise, an adverse effect on heat transfer may occur. The numerical results show that the single-phase model can predict the heat transfer trend of multiple jet impingement using nanofluids correctly but with significant deviation from experimental results because it cannot capture the effect of nanoparticles.

RevDate: 2023-06-12
CmpDate: 2023-06-12

Liu Y, Zou Z, Pak OS, et al (2023)

Learning to cooperate for low-Reynolds-number swimming: a model problem for gait coordination.

Scientific reports, 13(1):9397.

Biological microswimmers can coordinate their motions to exploit their fluid environment-and each other-to achieve global advantages in their locomotory performance. These cooperative locomotion require delicate adjustments of both individual swimming gaits and spatial arrangements of the swimmers. Here we probe the emergence of such cooperative behaviors among artificial microswimmers endowed with artificial intelligence. We present the first use of a deep reinforcement learning approach to empower the cooperative locomotion of a pair of reconfigurable microswimmers. The AI-advised cooperative policy comprises two stages: an approach stage where the swimmers get in close proximity to fully exploit hydrodynamic interactions, followed a synchronization stage where the swimmers synchronize their locomotory gaits to maximize their overall net propulsion. The synchronized motions allow the swimmer pair to move together coherently with an enhanced locomotion performance unattainable by a single swimmer alone. Our work constitutes a first step toward uncovering intriguing cooperative behaviors of smart artificial microswimmers, demonstrating the vast potential of reinforcement learning towards intelligent autonomous manipulations of multiple microswimmers for their future biomedical and environmental applications.

RevDate: 2023-06-09

Kumar D, Layek A, A Kumar (2023)

Enhancement of thermal efficiency and development of Nusselt number correlation for the solar air heater collector roughened with artificial ribs for thermal applications.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The thermal efficiency of conventional solar air heater is very low. This research article concentrates on incorporating V-shaped staggered twisted ribs over absorber surface of solar air heater. Various roughness parameters were tested to determine their effect on the Nusselt number, friction factor, thermo-hydraulic performance index, and thermal efficiency. During experiment, the Reynolds number is varied from 3000 to 21,000; while relative roughness length varied for 4.39 to 10.26 and relative staggered distance for 2 to 6. However, relative roughness pitch, twist length, and angle of attack were kept constant. The Nusselt number and friction factor of the roughened collector enhances to 3.41 and 2.56 times that of the smooth collector, respectively. The thermal efficiency of the roughened solar air heater increases to 73.64% of the roughened plate as it was noticed 42.63% for smooth surface due to breakage of the laminar sublayer. The correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor as function of Reynolds number and roughness parameters are also developed. The maximum thermohydraulic performance gained at the optimum parameters of d/e of 4 and S/e of 6.15 is 2.69. The percentage deviation between the developed correlations and the experimental findings shows very satisfactory outcomes. Therefore, it can be concluded that inclusion of twisted V staggered ribs enhances the thermal performance of solar air heater with the lowest frictional penalty.

RevDate: 2023-07-02
CmpDate: 2023-06-30

Liu F, Li S, Dong X, et al (2023)

Design, modelling, and experimental validation of a self-rotating flapping wing rotorcraft with motor-spring resonance actuation system.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics, 18(4):.

Compared with traditional flapping motion, the flapping wing rotor (FWR) allows rotating freedom by installing the two wings asymmetrically, which introduces rotary motion characteristics and enables the FWR to have higher lift and aerodynamic efficiency at low Reynolds number. However, most of the proposed FWRs contain linkage mechanical transmission structures, the fixed degrees of freedom of which prohibit the wings from achieving variable flapping trajectories, limiting further optimization and controller design of FWRs. In order to fundamentally address the above challenges of FWRs, this paper presents a new type of FWR with two mechanically decoupled wings, which are directly driven by two independent motor-spring resonance actuation systems. The proposed FWR has 12.4 g of system weight and 165-205 mm wingspan. In addition, a theoretical electromechanical model based on the DC motor model and quasi-steady aerodynamic forces is established, and a series of experiments are conducted in order to determine the ideal working point of the proposed FWR. It is notable that both our theoretical model and experiments exhibit uneven rotation of the FWR during flight, i.e. rotation speed dropping in the downstroke and increasing in the upstroke, which further tests the proposed theoretical model and uncovers the relationship between flapping and passive rotation in the FWR. To further validate the performance of the design, free flight tests are conducted, and the proposed FWR demonstrates stable liftoff at the designed working point.

RevDate: 2023-06-12
CmpDate: 2023-06-12

Zhu HY, Xie JH, KQ Xia (2023)

Circulation in Quasi-2D Turbulence: Experimental Observation of the Area Rule and Bifractality.

Physical review letters, 130(21):214001.

We present an experimental study of the velocity circulation in a quasi-two-dimensional turbulent flow. We show that the area rule of circulation around simple loops holds in both the forward cascade enstrophy inertial range (ΩIR) and the inverse cascade energy inertial range (EIR): When the side lengths of a loop are all within the same inertial range, the circulation statistics depend on the loop area alone. It is also found that, for circulation around figure-eight loops, the area rule still holds in EIR but is not applicable in ΩIR. In ΩIR, the circulation is nonintermittent; whereas in EIR, the circulation is bifractal: space filling for moments of the order of 3 and below and a monofractal with a dimension of 1.42 for higher orders. Our results demonstrate, as in a numerical study of 3D turbulence [K. P. Iyer et al., Circulation in High Reynolds Number Isotropic Turbulence is a Bifractal, Phys. Rev. X 9, 041006 (2019).PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.9.041006], that, in terms of circulation, turbulent flows exhibit a simpler behavior than velocity increments, as the latter are multifractals.

RevDate: 2023-06-11

Das A, Mahmood FT, Smriti RB, et al (2023)

CFD analysis of heat transfer enhancement by wall mounted flexible flow modulators in a channel with pulsatile flow.

Heliyon, 9(6):e16741.

The aim of the present study is to explore heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a pulsating channel flow due to wall-mounted flexible flow modulators (FFM). Cold air in pulsating fashion is forced to enter through the channel having isothermally heated top and bottom walls with one/multiple FFMs mounted on them. The dynamic conditions of pulsating inflow are characterized by Reynolds number, non-dimensional pulsation frequency and amplitude. Applying the Galerkin finite element method in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework, the present unsteady problem has been solved. Flexibility (10[-4] ≤ Ca ≤ 10[-7]), orientation angle (60° ≤ θ ≤ 120°), and location of FFM(s) have been considered in this study to find out the best-case scenario for heat transfer enhancement. The system characteristics have been analyzed by vorticity contours and isotherms. Heat transfer performance has been evaluated in terms of Nusselt number variations and pressure drop across the channel. Besides, power spectrum analysis of thermal field oscillation along with that of the FFM's motion induced by pulsating inflow has been performed. The present study reveals that single FFM having flexibility of Ca = 10[-5] and an orientation angle of θ = 90° offers the best-case scenario for heat transfer enhancement.

RevDate: 2023-06-26
CmpDate: 2023-06-26

Derikvand M, Salehi AA, Solari MS, et al (2023)

Investigation into the effects of hydrophobicity on thermohydraulic characteristics and entropy generation of hybrid nanofluid with the magnetic property in a micro-heat sink under a magnetic field.

Nanotechnology, 34(36):.

The cooling of devices is a big challenge in the electronics industry, and most process units (graphical are central process units) experience defects under harsh temperature conditions, so dissipating generated heat under various working conditions should be studied seriously. This study investigates the magnetohydrodynamics of hybrid ferro-nanofluids in the presence of hydrophobic surfaces in a micro-heat sink. To scrutinize this study, a finite volume method (FVM) is applied. The ferro-nanofluid includes water as a base fluid and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4as nanoadditives, which are used in three concentrations (0, 1, and 3%). Other parameters such as the Reynolds number (5-120), Hartmann number (magnitude of the magnetic field from 0 to 6), and hydrophobicity of surfaces are scrutinized for their impacts on heat transfer and hydraulic variables as well as entropy generation variables. The outcomes indicate that increasing the level of hydrophobicity in surfaces leads simultaneously to improved heat exchange and reduced pressure drop. Likewise, it decreases the frictional and thermal types of entropy generation. Intensifying the magnitude of the magnetic field enhances the heat exchange as much as the pressure drop. It can also decrease the thermal term in entropy generation equations for the fluid, but increase the frictional entropy generation and adds a new term, magnetic entropy generation. Incrementing the Reynolds number improves the convection heat transfer parameters, although it intensifies the pressure drop in the length of the channel. Also, the thermal entropy generation and frictional entropy generation decrease and increase with an increasing flow rate (Reynolds number).

RevDate: 2023-06-10
CmpDate: 2023-06-07

Ibrahim MG, MY Abou-Zeid (2023)

Computational simulation for MHD peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid with density-dependent parameters.

Scientific reports, 13(1):9191.

This study aimed to give a new theoretical recommendation for non-dimensional parameters depending on the fluid temperature and concentration. This suggestion came from the fact of fluid density may change with the fluid temperature ([Formula: see text]) and concentration ([Formula: see text]). So, a newly released mathematical form of Jeffrey fluid with peristalsis through the inclined channel is constructed. The problem model defines a mathematical fluid model which converts using non-dimensional values. A sequentially used technique called the Adaptive shooting method for finding the problem solutions. Axial velocity behavior has become a novel concern to Reynolds number. In contradiction to different values of parameters, the temperature and concentration profiles are designated/sketched. The results show that the high value of the Reynolds number acts as a fluid temperature damper, while it boosts the concentration of the fluid particle. The non-constant fluid density recommendation makes the Darcy number controls with a fluid velocity which is virtually significant in drug carries applications or blood circulation systems. To verify the obtained results, a numerical comparison for obtained results has been made with a trustful algorithm with aid of AST using wolfram Mathematica version 13.1.1.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-06

Shashank HJ, Melikhov Y, ML Ekiel-Jeżewska (2023)

Dynamics of ball chains and highly elastic fibres settling under gravity in a viscous fluid.

Soft matter, 19(26):4829-4846.

We study experimentally the dynamics of one and two ball chains settling under gravity in a highly viscous silicon oil at a Reynolds number much smaller than unity. We record the motion and shape deformation using two cameras. We demonstrate that single ball chains in most cases do not tend to be planar and often rotate, not keeping the ends at the same horizontal level. Shorter ball chains usually form shapes resembling distorted U. Longer ones in the early stage of the evolution form a shape resembling distorted W, and later deform non-symmetrically and significantly out of a plane. The typical evolution of shapes observed in our experiments with single ball chains is reproduced in our numerical simulations of a single elastic filament. In the computations, the filament is modelled as a chain of beads. Consecutive beads are connected by springs. Additional springs link consecutive pairs of beads. Elastic forces are assumed to be much smaller than gravity. As a result, the fibre is very flexible. We assume that the fluid sticks to the surfaces of the beads. We perform multipole expansion of the Stokes equations, with a lubrication correction. This method is implemented in the precise HYDROMULTIPOLE numerical codes. In our experiments, two ball chains, initially one above the other, later move away or approach each other, for a larger or smaller initial distance, respectively.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-06-06

Lustro JRT, Shimizu Y, G Kawahara (2023)

Homoclinic bifurcation and switching of edge state in plane Couette flow.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 33(6):.

We identify the presence of three homoclinic bifurcations that are associated with edge states in a system that is governed by the full Navier-Stokes equation. In plane Couette flow with a streamwise period slightly longer than the minimal unit, we describe a rich bifurcation scenario that is related to new time-periodic solutions and the Nagata steady solution [M. Nagata, J. Fluid Mech. 217, 519-527 (1990)]. In this computational domain, the vigorous time-periodic solution (PO3) with comparable fluctuation amplitude to turbulence and the lower branch of the Nagata steady solution are considered as edge states at different ranges of Reynolds number. These edge states can help in understanding the mechanism of subcritical transition to turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows. At the Reynolds numbers at which the homoclinic bifurcations occur, we find the creation (or destruction) of the time-periodic solutions. At a higher Reynolds number, we observe the edge state switching from the lower-branch Nagata steady solution to PO3 at the creation of this vigorous cycle due to the homoclinic bifurcation. Consequently, the formation of the boundary separating the basins of attraction of the laminar attractor and the time-periodic/chaotic attractor also switches to the respective stable manifolds of the edge states, providing a change in the behavior of a typical amplitude of perturbation toward triggering the transition to turbulence.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Ijaz S, Abdullah M, Sadaf H, et al (2023)

Generalized complex cilia tip modeled flow through an electroosmotic region.

Journal of Central South University, 30(4):1217-1230.

In this analysis, we explore a nanofluid model that represents the role of ciliary carpets in the transport of magnetohydrodynamic fluid in an electroosmotic channel. Hybrid nanofluid features are also taken into interpretation. The equations leading the flow analysis are converted into non-dimensional form by supposing long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Analytical solutions for velocity distribution, pressure gradient and stream function are acquired and solved by a mathematic solver. The effects of the relevant physical parameters are graphically noted. The consequence of the present model has remarkable applications, which can be used in various areas of biological transport processes, artificial cilia design and in the operation of other mechanical devices.

RevDate: 2023-08-07

Ronco C, R Bellomo (2023)

The Process of Adsorption and Cartridge Design.

Contributions to nephrology, 200:74-81.

The mechanism of adsorption is regulated by various factors including the nature of the sorbent and the molecules involved in the adsorption process. The design of a device for adsorption therapies must fulfil specific requirements. The device should allow the use of the minimum amount of sorbent material sufficient to achieve safe and effective blood purification therapy. Each component of the device must respond to criteria of safety and function in order to maximize the efficiency of the cartridge. The design should be optimized to enable utilization of all the sorbent surface available for adsorption. The structure and packing of the sorbent particles should allow the even distribution of flow inside the cartridge and the avoidance of channeling phenomena and excessive resistance to flow. All these factors depend on specific governing laws such as the Kozeny-Carman equation and Darcy's law. The system must also consider blood viscosity and possible turbulent flows (Reynolds number). The final manufacturing process of a sorbent unit must also consider the dimensions and the cost, and the final performance after sterilization and storage.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Bocanegra Evans H, Segnini JM, Doosttalab A, et al (2023)

Effect of cartilaginous rings in tracheal flow with stenosis.

BMC biomedical engineering, 5(1):5.

BACKGROUND: In respiratory fluid dynamics research, it is typically assumed that the wall of the trachea is smooth. However, the trachea is structurally supported by a series of cartilaginous rings that create undulations on the wall surface, which introduce perturbations into the flow. Even though many studies use realistic Computer Tomography (CT) scan data to capture the complex geometry of the respiratory system, its limited spatial resolution does not resolve small features, including those introduced by the cartilaginous rings.

RESULTS: Here we present an experimental comparison of two simplified trachea models with Grade II stenosis (70% blockage), one with smooth walls and second with cartilaginous rings. The use a unique refractive index-matching method provides unprecedented optical access and allowed us to perform non-intrusive velocity field measurements close to the wall (e.g., Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)). Measurements were performed in a flow regime comparable to a resting breathing state (Reynolds number ReD = 3350). The cartilaginous rings induce velocity fluctuations in the downstream flow, enhancing the near-wall transport of momentum flux and thus reducing flow separation in the downstream flow. The maximum upstream velocity in the recirculation region is reduced by 38%, resulting in a much weaker recirculation zone- a direct consequence of the cartilaginous rings.

CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of the cartilaginous rings in respiratory flow studies and the mechanism to reduce flow separation in trachea stenosis.

RevDate: 2023-06-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-01

Silva MLFD, Gonçalves SF, Haniel J, et al (2023)

Comparative study between 1-way and 2-way coupled fluid-structure interaction in numerical simulation of aortic arch aneurysms.

Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 95(suppl 1):e20210859 pii:S0001-37652023000201701.

Hemodynamic forces are related to pathological variations of the cardiovascular system, and numerical simulations for fluid-structure interaction have been systematically used to analyze the behavior of blood flow and the arterial wall in aortic aneurysms. This paper proposes a comparative analysis of 1-way and 2-way coupled fluid-structure interaction for aortic arch aneurysm. The coupling models of fluid-structure interaction were conducted using 3D geometry of the thoracic aorta from computed tomography. Hyperelastic anisotropic properties were estimated for the Holzapfel arterial wall model. The rheological behavior of the blood was modeled by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The results showed that the 1-way approach tends to underestimate von Mises stress, displacement, and strain over the entire cardiac cycle, compared to the 2-way approach. In contrast, the behavior of the variables of flow field, velocity, wall shear stress, and Reynolds number when coupled by the 1-way model was overestimated at the systolic moment and tends to be equal at the diastolic moment. The quantitative differences found, especially during the systole, suggest the use of 2-way coupling in numerical simulations of aortic arch aneurysms due to the hyperelastic nature of the arterial wall, which leads to a strong iteration between the fluid and the arterial wall.

RevDate: 2023-07-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-31

Deng X, P Sheng (2023)

Evolution of channel flow and Darcy's law beyond the critical Reynolds number.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 46(6):37.

For incompressible channel flow, there is a critical state, characterized by a critical Reynolds number Rec and a critical wavevector mc along the channel direction, beyond which the channel flow becomes unstable in the linear regime. In this work, we investigate the channel flow beyond the critical state and find the existence of a new fluctuating, quasi-stationary flow that comprises the laminar Poiseuille flow superposed with a counter-flow component, accompanied by vortices and anti-vortices. The net flow rate is reduced by ~ 15% from the linear, laminar regime. Our study is facilitated by the analytical solution of the linearized, incompressible, three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equation in the channel geometry, with the Navier boundary condition, alternatively denoted as the hydrodynamic modes (HMs). By using the HMs as the complete mathematical basis for expanding the velocity in the NS equation, the Rec is evaluated to 5-digit accuracy when compared to the well-known Orszag result, without invoking the standard Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Beyond Rec, the analytical solution is indispensable in offering physical insight to those features of the counter-flow component that differs from any of the pressure-driven channel flows. In particular, the counter flow is found to comprise multiple HMs, some with opposite flow direction, that can lead to a net boundary reaction force along the counter-flow direction. The latter is analyzed to be necessary for satisfying Newton's law. Experimental verification of the predictions is discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-29

Che H, Xu Q, Xu G, et al (2023)

Numerical Study on Characteristics of Convection and Temperature Evolution in Microchannel of Thermal Flowmeter.

Micromachines, 14(5):.

During practical usage, thermal flowmeters have a limited range of applications. The present work investigates the factors influencing thermal flowmeter measurements and observes the effects of buoyancy convection and forced convection on the flow rate measurement sensitivity. The results show that the gravity level, inclination angle, channel height, mass flow rate, and heating power affect the flow rate measurements by influencing the flow pattern and the temperature distribution. Gravity determines the generation of convective cells, while the inclination angle affects the location of the convective cells. Channel height affects the flow pattern and temperature distribution. Higher sensitivity can be achieved with smaller mass flow rates or higher heating power. According to the combined influence of the aforementioned parameters, the present work investigates the flow transition based on the Reynolds number and the Grashof number. When the Reynolds number is below the critical value corresponding to the Grashof number, convective cells emerge and affect the accuracy of flowmeter measurements. The research on influencing factors and flow transition presented in this paper has potential implications for the design and manufacture of thermal flowmeters under different working conditions.

RevDate: 2023-05-29
CmpDate: 2023-05-28

Li S, Mao L, Alizadeh A, et al (2023)

The application of non-uniform magnetic field for thermal enhancement of the nanofluid flow inside the U-turn pipe at solar collectors.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8471.

The improvement of heat transfer inside the solar heat exchangers is important for the development of solar energy in an urban area. In this study, the usage of a non-uniform magnetic field on the thermal efficiency of the nanofluid (Fe3O4) streaming inside the U-turn pipe of solar heat exchangers is examined. Computational fluid dynamic is applied to visualize the nanofluid flow inside the solar heat exchanger. The role of magnetic intensity and Reynolds number on thermal efficiency are fully investigated. The effect of single and triple sources of the magnetic field is also studied in our research. Obtained results indicate that the usage of the magnetic field results in the production of vortex in the base fluid and heat transfer improves inside the domain. Our finding indicates that the usage of the magnetic field with Mn = 25 K would improve the average heat transfer by about 21% along the U-turn pipe of solar heat exchangers.

RevDate: 2023-06-07
CmpDate: 2023-06-05

Yeom J, Park J, JY Park (2023)

Fluid dynamic simulation for cellular damage due to lymphatic flow within the anatomical arrangement of the outer hair cells in the cochlea.

Computers in biology and medicine, 161:106986.

Damage to the sensory hair cells in the cochlea is a major cause of hearing loss since human sensory hair cells do not regenerate naturally after damage. As these sensory hair cells are exposed to a vibrating lymphatic environment, they may be affected by physical flow. It is known that the outer hair cells (OHCs) are physically more damaged by sound than the inner hair cells (IHCs). In this study, the lymphatic flow is compared using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on the arrangement of the OHCs, and the effects of such flow on the OHCs is analyzed. In addition, flow visualization is used to validate the Stokes flow. The Stokes flow behavior is attributed to the low Reynolds number, and the same behavior is observed even when the flow direction is reversed. When the distance between the rows of the OHCs is large, each row is independent, but when this distance is short, the flow change in each row influences the other rows. The stimulation caused by flow changes on the OHCs is confirmed through surface pressure and shear stress. The OHCs located at the base with a short distance between the rows receive excess hydrodynamic stimulation, and the tip of the V-shaped pattern receives an excess mechanical force. This study attempts to understand the contributions of lymphatic flow to OHC damage by quantitatively suggesting stimulation of the OHCs and is expected to contribute to the development of OHC regeneration technologies in the future.

RevDate: 2023-06-15
CmpDate: 2023-06-15

Tisdell CC (2023)

Improved perturbation solution for two-dimensional viscous flow between expanding or contracting permeable walls.

Journal of biomechanics, 155:111642.

Despite the continuing interest in the transport of biological fluid within contracting or expanding vessels, our knowledge is yet to be fully developed, even in the two-dimensional case. For example, explicit solutions and close approximations to these models remain unknown, and the physical problem has been restricted to the "slow" expansion or contraction of the walls. Thus, the purpose of this short communication is to partially address such challenges and gaps by generating explicit solutions and improving approximations to the flow problem without the "slowness" restriction being imposed. We show that when the Reynolds number is zero (i.e., the inviscid case), the corresponding homogeneous differential equation under consideration may be completely solved. We then illustrate how this exact solution may be leveraged to form more precise approximations to the flow via perturbation techniques when the Reynolds number is small. Our perturbation approach is only in one parameter (the Reynolds number) instead of the usual two parameters (the Reynolds number and wall dilation rate), and thus we make no restriction regarding the "slowness" of wall expansion or contraction for our general perturbation scheme. Our act of "shining new light through old windows" improves and extends the results of Majdalani, Zhou and Dawson and, moreover, our method has significant potential to be applied by researchers to form more precise one-parameter perturbation approximations to flow problems in contrast to the limitations of the traditional two-parameter perturbation approaches that have dominated the literature.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Zhao L, Wang Y, Z Qi (2023)

Investigation of periodic characteristics of perturbed flow over a slender body.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16194.

The asymmetric flow over a slender body was particularly sensitive to the nose at a high angle of attack (AoA). Two patterns of separation occurred on the noses of the pointed-nosed slender body and blunt-nosed slender body as open- and close-type separation, respectively. The effects of the bluntness were investigated at high AoA (α = 50°) to clarify the evolution of the separated pattern from open-to close-type separation by the nose and by the periodic characteristics of perturbed flow. Wind tunnel experimental tests were conducted to investigate the periodic characteristics of asymmetric flow at a Reynolds number ReD = 1.54 × 10[5], based on incoming free-stream velocity (U∞) and the diameter (D) of the model. A particle was attached to the tip of the nose to induce the perturbed flow and attain a definite and predictable asymmetric flow in experimental tests. The pressure scanning and surface oil-flow visualization techniques were used to capture the pressure distributions and flow separations. The major findings were that axial flow increases with the increase of bluntness, resulting in open-type separation turning into close-type separation, and the perturbation moved from downstream to upstream of starting points of the separation line. The critical bluntness of separation pattern switching from open-type to close-type located between 1.5 and 3. Thus, the management of perturbation on asymmetric flow pattern switched from directly participating in separation to influencing separation through micro-flow. Therefore, the locations of perturbation and starting points of the separation line were closely related to asymmetric flow management by perturbation, then affecting the periodic characteristics of perturbed flow.

RevDate: 2023-05-18
CmpDate: 2023-05-18

Yoo H, Wissocq G, Jacob J, et al (2023)

Compressible lattice Boltzmann method with rotating overset grids.

Physical review. E, 107(4-2):045306.

The numerical instability of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) at high Mach or high Reynolds number flow is well identified, and it remains a major barrier to its application in more complex configurations such as moving geometries. This work combines the compressible lattice Boltzmann model with rotating overset grids (the so-called Chimera method, sliding mesh, or moving reference frame) for high Mach flows. This paper proposes to use the compressible hybrid recursive regularized collision model with fictitious forces (or inertial forces) in a noninertial rotating reference frame. Also, polynomial interpolations are investigated, which allow fixed inertial and rotating noninertial grids to communicate with each other. We suggest a way to effectively couple the LBM with the MUSCL-Hancock scheme in the rotating grid, which is needed to account for thermal effect of compressible flow. As a result, this approach is demonstrated to have an extended Mach stability limit for the rotating grid. It also demonstrates that this complex LBM scheme can maintain the second-order accuracy of the classic LBM by appropriately using numerical methods like polynomial interpolations and the MUSCL-Hancock scheme. Furthermore, the method shows a very good agreement on aerodynamic coefficients compared to experiments and the conventional finite-volume scheme. This work presents a thorough academic validation and error analysis of the LBM for simulating moving geometries in high Mach compressible flows.

RevDate: 2023-05-17

Niven RK (2023)

Dimensionless Groups by Entropic Similarity: I - Diffusion, Chemical Reaction and Dispersion Processes.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 25(4):.

Since the time of Buckingham in 1914, dimensional analysis and similarity arguments based on dimensionless groups have served as powerful tools for the analysis of systems in all branches of science and engineering. Dimensionless groups are generally classified into those arising from geometric similarity, based on ratios of length scales; kinematic similarity, based on ratios of velocities or accelerations; and dynamic similarity, based on ratios of forces. We propose an additional category of dimensionless groups based on entropic similarity, defined by ratios of (i) entropy production terms; (ii) entropy flow rates or fluxes; or (iii) information flow rates or fluxes. Since all processes involving work against friction, dissipation, diffusion, dispersion, mixing, separation, chemical reaction, gain of information or other irreversible changes are driven by (or must overcome) the second law of thermodynamics, it is appropriate to analyze them directly in terms of competing entropy-producing and transporting phenomena and the dominant entropic regime, rather than indirectly in terms of forces. In this study, entropic groups are derived for a wide variety of diffusion, chemical reaction and dispersion processes relevant to fluid mechanics, chemical engineering and environmental engineering. It is shown that many dimensionless groups traditionally derived by kinematic or dynamic similarity (including the Reynolds number) can also be recovered by entropic similarity-with a different entropic interpretation-while many new dimensionless groups can also be identified. The analyses significantly expand the scope of dimensional analysis and similarity arguments for the resolution of new and existing problems in science and engineering.

RevDate: 2023-05-30
CmpDate: 2023-05-30

Guo Q, Zhang J, Li D, et al (2023)

Effect of Wettability on the Collision Behavior of Acoustically Excited Droplets.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 39(21):7408-7417.

Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is a noncontact technique for micro-liquid handling (usually nanoliters or picoliters) that is not restricted by nozzles and enables high-throughput liquid dispensing without sacrificing precision. It is widely regarded as the most advanced solution for liquid handling in large-scale drug screening. Stable coalescence of the acoustically excited droplets on the target substrate is a fundamental requirement during the application of the ADE system. However, it is challenging to investigate the collision behavior of nanoliter droplets flying upward during the ADE. In particular, the dependence of the droplet's collision behavior on substrate wettability and droplet velocity has yet to be thoroughly analyzed. In this paper, the kinetic processes of binary droplet collisions were investigated experimentally for different wettability substrate surfaces. Four states occur as the droplet collision velocity increases: coalescence after minor deformation, complete rebound, coalescence during rebound, and direct coalescence. For the hydrophilic substrate, there are wider ranges of Weber number (We) and Reynolds number (Re) in the complete rebound state. And with the decrease of the substrate wettability, the critical Weber and Reynolds numbers for the coalescence during rebound and the direct coalescence decrease. It is further revealed that the hydrophilic substrate is susceptible to droplet rebound because the sessile droplet has a larger radius of curvature and the viscous energy dissipation is greater. Besides, the prediction model of the maximum spreading diameter was established by modifying the droplet morphology in the complete rebound state. It is found that, under the same Weber and Reynolds numbers, droplet collisions on the hydrophilic substrate achieve a smaller maximum spreading coefficient and greater viscous energy dissipation, so the hydrophilic substrate is prone to droplet bounce.

RevDate: 2023-05-02

Ishimoto K, Gaffney EA, DJ Smith (2023)

Squirmer hydrodynamics near a periodic surface topography.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 11:1123446.

The behaviour of microscopic swimmers has previously been explored near large-scale confining geometries and in the presence of very small-scale surface roughness. Here, we consider an intermediate case of how a simple microswimmer, the tangential spherical squirmer, behaves adjacent to singly and doubly periodic sinusoidal surface topographies that spatially oscillate with an amplitude that is an order of magnitude less than the swimmer size and wavelengths that are also within an order of magnitude of this scale. The nearest neighbour regularised Stokeslet method is used for numerical explorations after validating its accuracy for a spherical tangential squirmer that swims stably near a flat surface. The same squirmer is then introduced to different surface topographies. The key governing factor in the resulting swimming behaviour is the size of the squirmer relative to the surface topography wavelength. For instance, directional guidance is not observed when the squirmer is much larger, or much smaller, than the surface topography wavelength. In contrast, once the squirmer size is on the scale of the topography wavelength, limited guidance is possible, often with local capture in the topography troughs. However, complex dynamics can also emerge, especially when the initial configuration is not close to alignment along topography troughs or above topography crests. In contrast to sensitivity in alignment and topography wavelength, reductions in the amplitude of the surface topography or variations in the shape of the periodic surface topography do not have extensive impacts on the squirmer behaviour. Our findings more generally highlight that the numerical framework provides an essential basis to elucidate how swimmers may be guided by surface topography.

RevDate: 2023-04-30
CmpDate: 2023-04-30

Ambruş VE, Schlichting S, C Werthmann (2023)

Establishing the Range of Applicability of Hydrodynamics in High-Energy Collisions.

Physical review letters, 130(15):152301.

We simulate the space-time dynamics of high-energy collisions based on a microscopic kinetic description in the conformal relaxation time approximation, in order to determine the range of applicability of an effective description in relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. We find that hydrodynamics provides a quantitatively accurate description of collective flow when the average inverse Reynolds number Re^{-1} is sufficiently small and the early preequilibrium stage is properly accounted for. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the (in)applicability of hydrodynamics in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and light nucleus collisions.

RevDate: 2023-04-30

Lin W, Li Z, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Numerical Study on the Distribution of Rodlike Particles in Laminar Flows of Power Law Fluids Past a Cylinder.

Polymers, 15(8):.

The contraction/expansion laminar flow containing rodlike particles in power-law fluid is studied numerically when the particles are in a dilute phase. The fluid velocity vector and streamline of flow are given at the finite Reynolds number (Re) region. The effects of Re, power index n and particle aspect ratio β on the spatial and orientation distributions of particles are analyzed. The results showed that for the shear-thickening fluid, particles are dispersed in the whole area in the contraction flow, while more particles are gathered near the two walls in the expansion flow. The spatial distribution of particles with small β is more regular. Β has a significant, n has a moderate, but Re has a small impact on the spatial distribution of particles in the contraction and expansion flow. In the case of large Re, most particles are oriented in the flow direction. The particles near the wall show obvious orientation along the flow direction. In shear-thickening fluid, when the flow changes from contraction to expansion, the orientation distribution of particles becomes more dispersed; while in shear-thinning fluid, the opposite is true. More particles orient to the flow direction in expansion flow than that in contraction flow. The particles with a large β tend to align with the flow direction more obviously. Re, n and β have great influence on the orientation distribution of particles in the contraction and expansion flow. Whether the particles initially located at the inlet can bypass the cylinder depends on the transverse position and initial orientation of the particles at the inlet. The number of particles with θ0 = 90° bypassing the cylinder is the largest, followed by θ0 = 45° and θ0 = 0°. The conclusions obtained in this paper have reference value for practical engineering applications.

RevDate: 2023-04-29
CmpDate: 2023-04-27

Pilloton C, Lugni C, Graziani G, et al (2023)

Wave dispersion in moderate channel turbulence.

Scientific reports, 13(1):6801.

We study channel turbulence by interpreting its vorticity as a random sea of ocean wave packet analogues. In particular, we investigate the ocean-like properties of vortical packets applying stochastic methods developed for oceanic fields. Taylor's hypothesis of frozen eddies does not hold when turbulence is not weak, and vortical packets change shape as they are advected by the mean flow, altering their own speed. This is the physical manifestation of a hidden wave dispersion of turbulence. Our analysis at the bulk Reynolds number Reb = 5600 suggests that turbulent fluctuations behave dispersively as gravity-capillary waves, with capillarity being dominant near the wall region.

RevDate: 2023-04-26
CmpDate: 2023-04-26

Prasad V, Sharma A, SS Kulkarni (2023)

Chaotic advection in a recirculating flow: Effect of a fluid multiple-flexible-solid interaction.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 33(4):.

This paper deals with chaotic advection due to a two-way interaction between flexible elliptical-solids and a laminar lid-driven cavity flow in two dimensions. The present Fluid multiple-flexible-Solid Interaction study involves various number N(= 1-120) of equal-sized neutrally buoyant elliptical-solids (aspect ratio β = 0.5) such that they result in the total volume fraction Φ = 10 % as in our recent study on single solid, done for non-dimensional shear modulus G ∗ = 0.2 and Reynolds number R e = 100. Results are presented first for flow-induced motion and deformation of the solids and later for chaotic advection of the fluid. After the initial transients, the fluid as well as solid motion (and deformation) attain periodicity for smaller N ≤ 10 while they attain aperiodic states for larger N > 10. Adaptive material tracking (AMT) and Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE)-based Lagrangian dynamical analysis revealed that the chaotic advection increases up to N = 6 and decreases at larger N(= 6-10) for the periodic state. Similar analysis for the transient state revealed an asymptotic increase in the chaotic advection with increasing N ≤ 120. These findings are demonstrated with the help of two types of chaos signatures: exponential growth of material blob's interface and Lagrangian coherent structures, revealed by the AMT and FTLE, respectively. Our work, which is relevant to several applications, presents a novel technique based on the motion of multiple deformable-solids for enhancement of chaotic advection.

RevDate: 2023-04-25
CmpDate: 2023-04-25

Yang C, Arcondoulis EJG, Yang Y, et al (2023)

Active control of airfoil turbulent boundary layer noise with trailing-edge blowing.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 153(4):2115.

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy are performed to study the effect of trailing-edge blowing on airfoil self-noise. Simulations were conducted using a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack and a chord-based Reynolds number of 4 × 10 5. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic characteristics of the baseline airfoil were thoroughly verified by comparison with previous numerical and experimental data. The noise reduction effects of continuous and local blowing with different blowing ratios and blowing momentum coefficients were compared. A maximum noise reduction of 20 dB was achieved via trailing-edge blowing and the noise reduction mechanisms of the two blowing methods were discussed. The LES results show a pair of recirculation bubbles in the airfoil wake which are suppressed by trailing-edge blowing. As the blowing vortices convect into the wake, they stretch and stabilize the shear flows from airfoil surfaces. Instantaneous vorticity and root mean square velocity fluctuations are also weakened. There is a decrease in the spanwise coherence and an increase in the phase difference, which contribute to noise reduction. It is concluded that the suppression of turbulence fluctuations in the near wake is the main mechanism of noise reduction for airfoil trailing-edge blowing.

RevDate: 2023-04-19
CmpDate: 2023-04-19

Roggeveen JV, Stone HA, C Kurzthaler (2023)

Transport of a passive scalar in wide channels with surface topography: An asymptotic theory.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal, 35(27):.

We generalize classical dispersion theory for a passive scalar to derive an asymptotic long-time convection-diffusion equation for a solute suspended in a wide, structured channel and subject to a steady low-Reynolds-number shear flow. Our asymptotic theory relies on a domain perturbation approach for small roughness amplitudes of the channel and holds for general surface shapes expandable as a Fourier series. We determine an anisotropic dispersion tensor, which depends on the characteristic wavelengths and amplitude of the surface structure. For surfaces whose corrugations are tilted with respect to the applied flow direction, we find that dispersion along the principal direction (i.e. the principal eigenvector of the dispersion tensor) is at an angle to the main flow direction and becomes enhanced relative to classical Taylor dispersion. In contrast, dispersion perpendicular to it can decrease compared to the short-time diffusivity of the particles. Furthermore, for an arbitrary surface shape represented in terms of a Fourier decomposition, we find that each Fourier mode contributes at leading order a linearly-independent correction to the classical Taylor dispersion diffusion tensor.

RevDate: 2023-04-21
CmpDate: 2023-04-18

Nyatchouba Nsangue BT, Tang H, Liu W, et al (2023)

Turbulent flow interacting with flexible trawl net structure including simulation catch in flume tank.

Scientific reports, 13(1):6249.

The interaction between fluid and the midwater trawl with stocked catches is extremely complex, but essential to improve the understanding of the drag force acting on the trawl, the behavior of the fishing structure during a trawling process, and to predict its selectivity process. The present study assesses the turbulent characteristics inside and around the midwater trawls with catch and without catch linked to its fluttering motion. The analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic current velocity meter measurements performed in the multiple points inside and outside different parts of a 1/35 scaled midwater trawl model with the aim of access the main turbulent flow structure inside and around the gear. Time-averaged normalized flow velocity fields and turbulent flow parameters were analyzed from the measured flow data. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was conducted by watching the time-frequency Power spectrum content of instantaneous flow velocities fields, the fluttering trawl motions, turbulent kinetic energy, and momentum flux. Based on successive analyzes of mean flow characteristics and turbulent flow parameters, it has been demonstrated that the presence of catch inside the trawl net impacts the evolution of unsteady turbulent flow by creating large trawl fluttering motions that strongly affect the flow passage. The results showed that the time-averaged normalized streamwise and transverse flow velocities inside and around the trawl net with catch were 12.41% lower compared with that obtained inside and around the trawl without catch. The turbulent length scale and turbulent Reynolds number obtained in the different part of the trawl net with catch were about 33.05% greater than those obtained on the trawl net without catch, confirming that the unsteady turbulent flow developing inside and around the midwater trawl is influence by the catch and liner. It is observed that the motions of both the trawl without catch and the trawl with catch are mainly of a low-frequency activity and another component related to unsteady turbulent flow street. A complex fluid-structure interaction is then demonstrated where the fluttering motions of the trawl net affect the fluid flow inside and around trawl net, the fluid force, turbulent pattern, and simultaneously, the periodic unsteady turbulent flow influence the trawl motions.

RevDate: 2023-04-18

Ding Y, Liu Z, Wang X, et al (2023)

Validation of hemodynamic stress calculation in coronary computed tomography angiography versus intravascular ultrasound.

Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery, 13(4):2339-2351.

BACKGROUND: Development in computational fluid dynamics and 3D construction could facilitate the calculation of hemodynamic stresses in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). However, the agreement between CCTA derived stresses and intravascular ultrasound/intravascular coronary angiography (IVUS/ICA)-derived stresses remains undetermined. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate if CCTA can serve as alternative to IVUS/ICA for hemodynamic evaluation.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, 13 patients (14 arteries) with unstable angina who underwent both CCTA and IVUS/ICA at an interval of less than 7 days were consecutively included at the Chinese PLA General Hospital within the year of 2021. Slice-level minimal lumen area (MLA), percent area stenosis, velocity, pressure, Reynolds number, wall shear stress (WSS) and axial plaque stress (APS) were determined by both modalities. The agreement between CCTA and IVUS/ICA was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis.

RESULTS: CCTA overestimated the degree of area stenosis (50.22%±16.15% vs. 36.41%±19.37%, P=0.004) with the MLA showing no significant difference (5.81±2.24 vs. 6.72±2.04 mm[2], P=0.126). No statistical difference was observed in WSS (6.57±6.26 vs. 5.98±5.55 Pa, P=0.420) and APS (16.03±1,159.45 vs. -1.27±890.39 Pa, P=0.691) between CCTA and IVUS. Good correlation was found in velocity (ICC: 0.796, 95% CI: 0.752-0.833), Reynolds number (ICC: 0.810, 95% CI: 0.768-0.844) and WSS (ICC: 0.769, 95% CI: 0.718-0.810), while the ICC of APS was (ICC: 0.341, 95% CI: 0.197-0.458), indicating a relatively poor correlation.

CONCLUSIONS: CCTA can serve as a satisfactory alternative to the reference standard, IVUS/ICA in morphology simulation and hemodynamic stress calculation, especially in the calculation of WSS.

RevDate: 2023-06-29
CmpDate: 2023-04-12

Guastoni L, Rabault J, Schlatter P, et al (2023)

Deep reinforcement learning for turbulent drag reduction in channel flows.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 46(4):27.

We introduce a reinforcement learning (RL) environment to design and benchmark control strategies aimed at reducing drag in turbulent fluid flows enclosed in a channel. The environment provides a framework for computationally efficient, parallelized, high-fidelity fluid simulations, ready to interface with established RL agent programming interfaces. This allows for both testing existing deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms against a challenging task, and advancing our knowledge of a complex, turbulent physical system that has been a major topic of research for over two centuries, and remains, even today, the subject of many unanswered questions. The control is applied in the form of blowing and suction at the wall, while the observable state is configurable, allowing to choose different variables such as velocity and pressure, in different locations of the domain. Given the complex nonlinear nature of turbulent flows, the control strategies proposed so far in the literature are physically grounded, but too simple. DRL, by contrast, enables leveraging the high-dimensional data that can be sampled from flow simulations to design advanced control strategies. In an effort to establish a benchmark for testing data-driven control strategies, we compare opposition control, a state-of-the-art turbulence-control strategy from the literature, and a commonly used DRL algorithm, deep deterministic policy gradient. Our results show that DRL leads to 43% and 30% drag reduction in a minimal and a larger channel (at a friction Reynolds number of 180), respectively, outperforming the classical opposition control by around 20 and 10 percentage points, respectively.

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