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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 24 May 2019 at 01:32 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-05-23

Zhang J, Liu H, Y Ba (2019)

Numerical study of droplet dynamics on a solid surface with insoluble surfactants.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Surfactants are widely encountered in many industrial processes, where the presence of surfactants not only reduces the interfacial tension between fluids but also alters the wetting properties of solid surfaces. To understand how the surfactants influence the droplet motion on a solid surface, a hybrid method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants and contact-line dynamics is developed. This method solves immiscible two-phase flows through a lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model and simultaneously solves the convection-diffusion equation for surfactant concentration through a finite difference method. In addition, a dynamic contact angle formulation that describes the dependence of local contact angle on the surfactant concentration is derived, and the resulting contact angle is enforced by a geometrical wetting condition. Our method is first used to simulate static contact angles for a droplet resting on a solid surface, and the results show that the presence of surfactants can significantly modify surface wettability, especially when the surface is more hydrophilic or more hydrophobic. It is then applied to simulate a surfactant-laden droplet moving on a substrate subject to a linear shear flow for varying effective capillary number (Cae), Reynolds number (Re) and surface wettability, where the results are often compared with those of a clean droplet. For varying Cae, the simulations are conducted by considering a neutral surface. At low values of Cae, the droplet eventually reaches a steady deformation and moves at a constant velocity. In either clean or surfactant-laden case, the moving velocity of droplet linearly increases with the moving wall velocity, but the slope is always higher (i.e. the droplet moves faster) in surfactant-laden case where the droplet exhibits a bigger deformation. When Cae is increased beyond a critical value (Cae,c), the droplet breakup would happen. The presence of surfactants is found to decrease the value of Cae,c, but it shows a non-monotonic effect on the droplet breakup. Increasing Re is able to increase not only droplet deformation but also surfactant dilution. The role of surfactants on droplet behavior is found to greatly depend upon the surface wettability. For a hydrophilic surface, the presence of surfactants can decrease wetting length and enables the droplet to reach a steady state faster; while for a hydrophobic surface it increases wetting length and delays the departure of droplet from solid surface.

RevDate: 2019-05-15

Tian C, Wang X, Liu Y, et al (2019)

In-situ Grafting Hydrophilic Polymeric Layer for Stable Drag Reduction.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Developing drag reduction techniques have attracted great attention due to their desperately needs for practical applications. However, many of the proposed strategies were subject to some evitable limitations, especially for long period of adhibition. In this work, the dynamic but stable drag reduction effect of super-hydrophilic hydrogel coated iron sphere falling freely in a cylindrical water tank was investigated. The absolute instantaneous velocities and displacements of either the hydrogel encapsulated or unmodified iron sphere falling freely in water were monitored via high-speed video. It was revealed that,in the range of Reynolds number from 104 to 106,the optimized hydrogel coated iron sphere with uniform stability could reduce the resistance by up to 40%, which was mainly due to the boundary slip of water and the lagged boundary separation resulted from coated hydrogel. Besides, the deliberate experiments and analysis further indicated that super-hydrophilic hydrogel layer accompanied by the emergence of the drag crisis has largely effected the distribution of flow field at the boundary around the sphere. More importantly, the drag reduction behavior based on the proposed method was thermodynamically stable and resistant to external stimulus, including fluidic oscillator and hydrodynamic pressure. The effective long-term drag reduction performance of hydrophilic substrate can be expected, correspondingly, and also provides a novel preliminary protocol and avenues for the development of durable drag reduction technologies.

RevDate: 2019-05-14

Li H, Huang B, M Wu (2019)

Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Flow Characteristics within Hydrodynamic Entrance Regions in Microchannels.

Micromachines, 10(5): pii:mi10050317.

Flow characteristics within entrance regions in microchannels are important due to their effect on heat and mass transfer. However, relevant research is limited and some conclusions are controversial. In order to reveal flow characteristics within entrance regions and to provide empiric correlation estimating hydrodynamic entrance length, experimental and numerical investigations were conducted in microchannels with square cross-sections. The inlet configuration was elaborately designed in a more common pattern for microdevices to diminish errors caused by separation flow near the inlet and fabrication faults so that conclusions which were more applicable to microchannels could be drawn. Three different microchannels with hydraulic diameters of 100 μm, 150 μm, and 200 μm were investigated with Reynolds (Re) number ranging from 0.5 to 50. For the experiment, deionized water was chosen as the working fluid and microscopic particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) was adopted to record and analyze velocity profiles. For numerical simulation, the test-sections were modeled and incompressible laminar Navier-Stokes equations were solved with commercial software. Strong agreement was achieved between the experimental data and the simulated data. According to the results of both the experiments and the simulations, new correlations were proposed to estimate entrance length. Re numbers ranging from 12.5 to 15 was considered as the transition region where the relationship between entrance length and Re number converted. For the microchannels and the Reynolds number range investigated compared with correlations for conventional channels, noticeable deviation was observed for lower Re numbers (Re < 12.5) and strong agreement was found for higher Re numbers (Re > 15).

RevDate: 2019-05-10

Goff HD, VJ Davidson (1992)

Flow Characteristics and Holding Time Calculations of Ice Cream Mixes in HTST Holding Tubes.

Journal of food protection, 55(1):34-37.

In order to determine the potential for development of laminar flow and consequential underholding in the holding tubes of HTST pasteurizers, a study on the relationship between ice cream mix viscosity and shear rate at 80°C has been conducted. Typical shear rates at the wall were calculated for HTST holding tubes of standard industry sizes and flow rates. Shear rates in the holding tube were found to vary from 50 to 180 s-1, depending on the conditions. Viscosity of ice cream mixes as a function of shear rate, stabilizer type, and stabilizer concentration were measured. Ice cream mix was found to be non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic. Viscosities ranged from 8.7 cP in an unstabilized mix at high shear rate (relative to the inside of the holding tube) to 103 cP for 0.25% carboxymethyl cellulose at low shear rate. Generalized Reynolds numbers inside the holding tubes varied from 100 to 1700, indicating a strong potential for the development of laminar flow. The apparent viscosities required to result in a minimum generalized Reynolds number of 2100 are very near to or less than the actual viscosities of stabilized ice cream mixes, and thus the potential for a laminar flow pattern within the holding tube needs to be addressed in determining holding tube lengths for a required holding time.

RevDate: 2019-05-10

Xin C, Yang L, Li J, et al (2019)

Conical Hollow Microhelices with Superior Swimming Capabilities for Targeted Cargo Delivery.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Inspired by flagellate microorganisms in nature, the microhelix is considered as an ideal model for transportation in fluid environment with low Reynolds number. However, how to promote the swimming and loading capabilities of microhelices with controllable geometries remains challenging. In this study, a novel kind of conical hollow microhelices is proposed and a method is developed to rapidly fabricate these microhelices with controllable parameters by femtosecond vortex beams generated from spatial light modulation along helical scanning. Conical hollow microhelices with designable heights (H = 45-75 µm), diameters (D = 6-18 µm), pitch numbers (Pi = 2-4), taper angles (T = 0.1-0.6 rad), and pitch periods (ΔP = 10-30 µm) are efficiently fabricated. In addition, compared with straight microhelices, the forward swimming capability of conical microhelices increases by 50% and the lateral drift of the conical hollow microhelices is reduced by 70%. Finally, the capabilities of these conical hollow microhelices for nanocargo loading and release by the inner hollow core, as well as transportation of neural stem cells by the outer surface are demonstrated. This work provides new insights into faster and simultaneous transportation of multicargoes for hybrid drug delivery, targeted therapy, and noninvasive surgery in vivo.

RevDate: 2019-05-09

Feng Y, Gao Y, Tang K, et al (2019)

Numerical investigation on turbulent oscillatory flow through a jet pump.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 145(3):1417.

A jet pump with an asymmetrical channel can induce a time-averaged pressure drop in oscillatory flow, which can effectively suppress Gedeon streaming in looped thermoacoustic engines. In this work, the flow characteristics and time-averaged pressure drop caused by a jet pump in turbulent oscillatory flow are investigated through numerical simulation. Through the analysis of the dimensionless governing equations, the emphasis is put on the effects of Womersley number and maximum acoustic Reynolds number on the performance of the jet pump. Meanwhile, the steady flow resistance coefficients are also measured numerically. The results indicate that the oscillatory flow resistance coefficients are relatively insensitive to Womersley number when it is less than 46. Moreover, the oscillatory flow resistance coefficients agree well with the steady state flow results, which validate the quasi-static assumption in turbulent oscillatory flow. However, further increasing Womersley number will lead to a reduction in the time-averaged pressure drop. The simulation method and results, as well as the hydrodynamic mechanism beneath the results, are presented and discussed in detail.

RevDate: 2019-05-09

Ramadan AB, Abd El-Rahman AI, AS Sabry (2019)

Assessment of the transition k-k-ω model application to transitional oscillatory pipe flows.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 145(3):1195.

The flow transition from laminar to turbulent inside of typical thermoacoustic devices influences the heat-exchange capacities of these devices and dramatically impacts overall performances as well. A few measurements [Eckmann and Grotberg (1991), J. Fluid Mech. 222, 329-350; Hino, Sawamoto, and Takasu (1976). J. Fluid Mech. 75, 193-207] and direct simulations [Feldmann and Wagner (2012). J. Turbul. 13(32), 1-28; Feldmann and Wagner (2016a). New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics X, pp. 113-122] were reported that describe the transitional oscillatory flows; however, almost no turbulence model has been developed that enables accurate detection and characterization of the reported intermittent turbulent fluctuations. The present work aims to assess the applicability of the k-kL-ω transition model to transitional oscillatory pipe flows. A sinusoidal pressure gradient is introduced into ANSYS finite-volume solver for flow field simulation at different acoustic frequencies, while a friction Reynolds number of 1440 is retained. The stationary turbulent and the laminar oscillatory pipe flows are first considered for validation and model calibration against published LDA measurements [Durst, Kikura, Lekakis, Jovanovic, and Ye (1996). Exp. Fluids 20, 417-428] and DNS results [Feldmann and Wagner (2012). J. Turbul. 13(32), 1-28] in addition to the Sexl's laminar-flow theory [Sexl (1930). Zeitschrift Phys. 61(5), 349-362]. Investigation of the total fluctuation kinetic energy of transitional oscillations reveals the appearance of intermittent fluctuations within the near-wall region at Wo = 13 during deceleration, while fully turbulent oscillations are predicted in the entire pipe domain at Wo = 5. Although the present results are qualitatively in good agreement with reported experimental [Eckmann and Grotberg (1991). J. Fluid Mech. 222, 329-350] and DNS findings [Feldmann and Wagner (2012). J. Turbul. 13(32), 1-28], the velocity profiles show poor agreement with corresponding DNS data during flow acceleration at Wo = 5.

RevDate: 2019-05-03

Zhou T, Sun Y, Fattah R, et al (2019)

An experimental study of trailing edge noise from a pitching airfoil.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 145(4):2009.

In this study, the far-field noise from a pitching NACA 0012 airfoil was measured at a Reynolds number of 6.6 × 104. The pitching motion was in sinusoidal functions with a mean incident angle of 0°. Cases with the pitching amplitude varying from 7.5° to 15° and frequency from 3 to 8 Hz were tested, corresponding to the reduced frequency from 0.094 to 0.25. A microphone was placed in the far-field and the particle image velocimetry technique was utilized to study the flow structures near the trailing edge. The short-time Fourier transformation results of the noise signals revealed that a high-level narrow-band noise hump occurred at a specific angle of attack in a pitching cycle. At the corresponding moment, a coherent vortex street convecting on the airfoil surface was observed, and the vortex shedding frequency was in good agreement with the central frequency of the noise hump. The occurrence of the noise humps was attributed to the laminar boundary layer separation. In one pitching period, the moment when the narrow-band noise hump occurs is independent from the pitching amplitude and it is delayed as the pitching frequency increases. Larger pitching frequency or amplitude results in lower peak level of the noise humps.

RevDate: 2019-05-03

Gao Y, Yang X, Fu C, et al (2019)

10 kHz simultaneous PIV/PLIF study of the diffusion flame response to periodic acoustic forcing.

Applied optics, 58(10):C112-C120.

Response of a laminar diffusion dimethyl-ether flame forced by an acoustic field is provided. A forcing frequency of 100 Hz, which is chosen based on the typical thermo-acoustic instability frequency in a practical combustor, is applied to the flame at a Reynolds number of 250. The development of the forced vortical structures present in this flame has been investigated utilizing a burst mode laser with a repetition rate of 10 kHz. Flame/vortex interaction is visualized by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde, which is used to identify the early-stage fuel decomposition in the flame. The flame structure is also correlated with the velocity field, which is obtained utilizing particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). The resulting phase-resolved and time-averaged velocity and vortex images indicate that the amplitude of excitation has pronounced effects on the flame via modifying the local heat release.

RevDate: 2019-05-03

Wang S, Liu X, Wang G, et al (2019)

High-repetition-rate burst-mode-laser diagnostics of an unconfined lean premixed swirling flame under external acoustic excitation.

Applied optics, 58(10):C68-C78.

Lean premixed swirling flames are important in practical combustors, but a commonly encountered problem of practical swirl combustors is thermo-acoustic instability, which may cause internal structure damage to combustors. In this research, a high-repetition-rate burst-mode laser is used for simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence measurement in an unconfined acoustically excited swirl burner. The time-resolved flow field and transient flame response to the acoustic perturbation are visualized at 20 kHz, offering insight into the heat release rate oscillation. The premixed mixture flow rate and acoustic modulation are varied to study the effects of Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and acoustic modulation amplitude on the swirling flame. The results suggest that the Strouhal number has a notable effect on the periodic movements of the inner recirculation zone and swirling flame configuration.

RevDate: 2019-05-01

Lu X, Shen H, Wang Z, et al (2019)

Micro/nano machines driven by ultrasound power sources.

Chemistry, an Asian journal [Epub ahead of print].

Autonomous micro/nano machines that can convert diverse energies into effective locomotion under low Reynolds number constraint hold considerable promises for a variety of potential applications, such as cargo delivery, localized biosensing, nano surgery and detoxification. In this review, we briefly overviewed recent advances of micro/nano machines specifically powered by ultrasound in terms of new concept design, working principle, fabrication and manipulation strategies. Last, the exclusive biocompatibility and sustainability of ultrasound powered micro/nano machines as well as critical challenges for in vivo studies have been discussed to provide insightful knowledge for developing innovative micro/nano machines with versatile functionalities and enhanced capabilities in the next phase.

RevDate: 2019-04-30

Mozhi Devan Padmanathan A, Sneha Ravi A, Choudhary H, et al (2019)

Predictive Framework for the Spreading of Liquid Drops and the Formation of Liquid Marbles on Hydrophobic Particle Bed.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

In this work, we have developed a model to describe the behavior of liquid drops upon impaction on hydrophobic particle bed and verified it experimentally. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) particles were used to coat drops of water, aqueous solutions of glycerol (20, 40 and 60 v/v %) and ethanol (5 and 12 v/v %). The experiments were conducted for Weber number (We) ranging from 8 to 130 and Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 370 to 4460. The bed porosity was varied from 0.8-0.6. The experimental values of max (ratio of the diameter at the maximum spreading condition to the initial drop diameter) were estimated from the time lapsed images captured using a high-speed camera. The theoretical max was estimated by making energy balances on the liquid drop. The proposed model accounts for the energy losses due to viscous dissipation and crater formation along with a change in kinetic energy and surface energy. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental max and the theoretical max estimated. The proposed model yielded least % Absolute Average Relative Deviation (%AARD) of 5.5  4.3 when compared with other models available in the literature. Further, it was found that the liquid drops impacting on particle bed are completely coated with PTFE particles with max values greater than 2.

RevDate: 2019-04-30

Hatoum H, Mo XM, Crestanello JA, et al (2019)

Modeling of the Instantaneous Transvalvular Pressure Gradient in Aortic Stenosis.

Annals of biomedical engineering pii:10.1007/s10439-019-02275-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The simplified and modified Bernoulli equations break down in estimating the true pressure gradient across the stenotic aortic valve due to their over simplifying assumptions of steady and inviscid conditions as well as the fundamental nature in which aortic valves are different than idealized orifices. Nevertheless, despite having newer models based on time-dependent momentum balance across an orifice, the simplified and modified Bernoulli continue to be the clinical standard because to date, they remain the only models clinically implementable. The objective of this study is to (1) illustrate the fundamental considerations necessary to accurately model the time-dependent instantaneous pressure gradient across a fixed orifice and (2) propose empirical corrections when applying orifice based models to severely stenotic aortic valves. We introduce a general model to predict the time-dependent instantaneous pressure gradient across an orifice that explicitly model the Reynolds number dependence of both the steady and unsteady terms. The accuracy of this general model is assessed with respect to previous models through pulse duplicator experiments on a round orifice model as well as an explanted stenotic surgical aortic valve both with geometric areas of 0.6 cm2 (less than 1 cm2 which is the threshold for stenosis determination) over cardiac outputs of 3 and 5 L/min and heart rates of 60, 90 and 120 bpm. The model and the raw experimental data corresponding to the orifice showed good agreement over a wide range of cardiac outputs and heart rates (R2 exceeding 0.91). The derived average and peak transvalvular pressure gradients also demonstrated good agreement with no significant differences between the respective peaks (p > 0.09). The new model proposed holds promise with its physical and closed form representation of pressure drop, however accurate modeling of the time-variability of the valve area is necessary for the model to be applied on stenotic valves.

RevDate: 2019-04-27

Heidarinejad G, Roozbahani MH, M Heidarinejad (2019)

Studying airflow structures in periodic cylindrical hills of human tracheal cartilaginous rings.

Respiratory physiology & neurobiology pii:S1569-9048(18)30445-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The objective of this study is to assess tracheobronchial flow features with the cartilaginous rings during a light exercising. Tracheobronchial is part of human's body airway system that carries oxygen-rich air to human's lungs as well as takes carbon dioxide out of the human's lungs. Consequently, evaluation of the flow structures in tracheobronchial is important to support diagnosis of tracheal disorders. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows evaluating effectiveness of tracheal cartilage rings in human body under different configurations. This study utilizes Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to model an anatomically-based human large conducting airway model with and without cartilaginous rings at the breathing conditions at Reynolds number of 5,176 in trachea region. It is observed that small recirculating areas shaped between rings cavities. While these recirculating areas are decaying, similar to periodic 2D-hills, the cartilaginous rings contribute to the construction of a vortical flow structure in the main flow. The separated vortically-shaped zone creates a wake in the flow and passes inside of the next ring cavity and disturb its boundary layer. At last, the small recirculation flow impinges onto tracheal wall. The outcome of this impinge flow is a latitudinal rotating flow perpendicular to the main flow in a cavity between the two cartilaginous rings crest which appear and disappear within a hundredth of a second. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is observed in trachea caused by shear flow created behind of interaction between these flow structures near to tracheal wavy wall and main flow. A comparison of the results between a smooth wall model named simplified model and a rough wall model named modified model shows that these structures do not exist in simplified model, which is common in modeling tracheobronchial flow. This study proposes to consider macro surface roughness to account for the separating and rotating instantaneous flow structures. Finally, solving trachea airflow with its cartilages can become one of major issues in measuring the validity and capability of solving flow in developing types of sub-grid scale models as a turbulence studies benchmark.

RevDate: 2019-04-22

Vasilopoulos K, Sarris IE, P Tsoutsanis (2019)

Assessment of air flow distribution and hazardous release dispersion around a single obstacle using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

Heliyon, 5(4):e01482 pii:e01482.

The flow around a cubical building, with a pollution source at the central point of the top of the cube, is studied. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and species concentration equations are solved for Reynolds number, Re = 40,000, is based on the height of the cube. The predictions obtained with the standard, the Kato-Launder, and the low-Reynolds number k-epsilon models are examined with various wall functions for the near wall treatment of the flow. Results are compared against Martinuzzi and Tropea measurements (J. of Fluids Eng., 115, 85-92, 1993) for the flow field and against Li and Meroney (J. of Wind Eng. and Industrial Aerodynamics, 81, 333-345, 1983) experiments and Gaussian models for the concentration distribution. It is found that the present unstructured mesh model performs similarly to the structured mesh models. Results from the Kato-Launder model are closer to the experimental data for the flow patterns and contaminant distribution on the cube's roof. However, the Kato-Launder model has an over-prediction for the recirculation zone and the contaminant distribution windward of the cube. The standard k-epsilon and the low-Reynolds number k-epsilon models predict similar flow patterns and are closer to the experimental data of the cube's windward and side face.

RevDate: 2019-04-22

Martins Afonso M, Mitra D, D Vincenzi (2019)

Kazantsev dynamo in turbulent compressible flows.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 475(2223):20180591.

We consider the kinematic fluctuation dynamo problem in a flow that is random, white-in-time, with both solenoidal and potential components. This model is a generalization of the well-studied Kazantsev model. If both the solenoidal and potential parts have the same scaling exponent, then, as the compressibility of the flow increases, the growth rate decreases but remains positive. If the scaling exponents for the solenoidal and potential parts differ, in particular if they correspond to typical Kolmogorov and Burgers values, we again find that an increase in compressibility slows down the growth rate but does not turn it off. The slow down is, however, weaker and the critical magnetic Reynolds number is lower than when both the solenoidal and potential components display the Kolmogorov scaling. Intriguingly, we find that there exist cases, when the potential part is smoother than the solenoidal part, for which an increase in compressibility increases the growth rate. We also find that the critical value of the scaling exponent above which a dynamo is seen is unity irrespective of the compressibility. Finally, we realize that the dimension d = 3 is special, as for all other values of d the critical exponent is higher and depends on the compressibility.

RevDate: 2019-04-20

Zhang M, Zhang W, Wu Z, et al (2019)

Comparison of Micro-Mixing in Time Pulsed Newtonian Fluid and Viscoelastic Fluid.

Micromachines, 10(4): pii:mi10040262.

Fluid mixing plays an essential role in many microfluidic applications. Here, we compare the mixing in time pulsing flows for both a Newtonian fluid and a viscoelastic fluid at different pulsing frequencies. In general, the mixing degree in the viscoelastic fluid is higher than that in the Newtonian fluid. Particularly, the mixing in Newtonian fluid with time pulsing is decreased when the Reynolds number Re is between 0.002 and 0.01, while it is enhanced when Re is between 0.1 and 0.2 compared with that at a constant flow rate. In the viscoelastic fluid, on the other hand, the time pulsing does not change the mixing degree when the Weissenberg number Wi ≤ 20, while a larger mixing degree is realized at a higher pulsing frequency when Wi = 50.

RevDate: 2019-04-19

Duran-Matute M, van Gorp MD, GJF van Heijst (2019)

Wavelength selection of vortex ripples in an oscillating cylinder: The effect of curvature and background rotation.

Physical review. E, 99(3-1):033105.

We present results of laboratory experiments on the formation, evolution, and wavelength selection of vortex ripples. These ripples formed on a sediment bed at the bottom of a water-filled oscillating cylindrical tank mounted on top of a rotating table. The table is made to oscillate sinusoidally in time, while a constant background rotation was added for some experiments. The changes in bed thickness are measured using a light attenuation technique. It was found that the wavelength normalized with the excursion length depends on both a Reynolds number and the Strouhal number. This differs from straight or annular geometries where the wavelength is proportional to the excursion length. The flow in an oscillating cylinder has the peculiarity that it develops a secondary flow in the radial direction that depends on the excursion length. The effect of this secondary circulation is evident in the radial transport for small values of the Strouhal number or in the orientation of the ripples for strong enough background rotation. Additionally, ripples in an oscillating cylinder present a rich dynamic behavior where the number of ripples can oscillate even with constant forcing parameters.

RevDate: 2019-04-19

Dutta AK, Ramachandran G, S Chaudhuri (2019)

Investigating thermoacoustic instability mitigation dynamics with a Kuramoto model for flamelet oscillators.

Physical review. E, 99(3-1):032215.

In this paper, we present experimental observations and phenomenological modeling of the intermittent dynamics that emerge while mitigating thermoacoustic instability by rotating the otherwise static swirler in a lean premixed, laboratory-scale combustor. Starting with a self-excited thermoacoustically unstable combustor, here we find that a progressive increase in swirler rotation rate does not uniformly decrease amplitudes of coherent, sinusoidal pressure or heat-release-rate oscillations. Instead, these oscillations emerge as high-amplitude bursts separated by low-amplitude noise in the signal. At increased rotational speeds, the high-amplitude coherent oscillations become scarce and their duration in the signal reduces. The velocity field from high-speed particle image velocimetry and simultaneous pressure and chemiluminescence data support these observations. Such an intermittent route to instability mitigation is reminiscent of the opposite transition implemented by changing the Reynolds number from a fully chaotic state to a fully unstable state. To model such dynamics phenomenologically, we discretize the swirling turbulent premixed flame into an ensemble of flamelet oscillators arranged circumferentially around the center body of the swirler. The Kuramoto model is proposed for these flamelet oscillators which is subsequently used to analyze their synchronization dynamics. The order parameter r, which is a measure of the synchronization between the oscillator phases, provides critical insights on the transition from the thermoacoustically unstable to stable states via intermittency. Finally, it is shown that the Kuramoto model for flamelet oscillator can qualitatively reproduce the time-averaged and intermittent dynamics while transitioning from the state of thermoacoustic instability to a state of incoherent noisy oscillations.

RevDate: 2019-04-19

Shaik VA, AM Ardekani (2019)

Swimming sheet near a plane surfactant-laden interface.

Physical review. E, 99(3-1):033101.

In this work we analyze the velocity of a swimming sheet near a plane surfactant-laden interface by assuming the Reynolds number and the sheet's deformation to be small. We observe a nonmonotonic dependence of the sheet's velocity on the Marangoni number (Ma) and the surface Péclet number (Pe_{s}). For a sheet passing only transverse waves, the swimming velocity increases with an increase in Ma for any fixed Pe_{s}. When Pe_{s} is increasing, on the other hand, the swimming velocity of the same sheet either increases (at large Ma) or it initially increases and then decreases (at small Ma). This dependence of the swimming velocity on Ma and Pe_{s} is altered if the sheet is passing longitudinal waves in addition to the transverse waves along its surface.

RevDate: 2019-04-18

Ricco P, PD Hicks (2018)

Streamwise-travelling viscous waves in channel flows.

Journal of engineering mathematics, 111(1):23-49.

The unsteady viscous flow induced by streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity in an incompressible laminar channel flow is investigated. Wall waves belonging to this category have found important practical applications, such as microfluidic flow manipulation via electro-osmosis and surface acoustic forcing and reduction of wall friction in turbulent wall-bounded flows. An analytical solution composed of the classical streamwise Poiseuille flow and a spanwise velocity profile described by the parabolic cylinder function is found. The solution depends on the bulk Reynolds number R, the scaled streamwise wavelength λ , and the scaled wave phase speed U. Numerical solutions are discussed for various combinations of these parameters. The flow is studied by the boundary-layer theory, thereby revealing the dominant physical balances and quantifying the thickness of the near-wall spanwise flow. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffreys (WKBJ) theory is also employed to obtain an analytical solution, which is valid across the whole channel. For positive wave speeds which are smaller than or equal to the maximum streamwise velocity, a turning-point behaviour emerges through the WKBJ analysis. Between the wall and the turning point, the wall-normal viscous effects are balanced solely by the convection driven by the wall forcing, while between the turning point and the centreline, the Poiseuille convection balances the wall-normal diffusion. At the turning point, the Poiseuille convection and the convection from the wall forcing cancel each other out, which leads to a constant viscous stress and to the break down of the WKBJ solution. This flow regime is analysed through a WKBJ composite expansion and the Langer method. The Langer solution is simpler and more accurate than the WKBJ composite solution, while the latter quantifies the thickness of the turning-point region. We also discuss how these waves can be generated via surface acoustic forcing and electro-osmosis and propose their use as microfluidic flow mixing devices. For the electro-osmosis case, the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity at the edge of the Debye-Hückel layer, which drives the bulk electrically neutral flow, is obtained by matched asymptotic expansion.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Cheng JL, Au JS, MJ MacDonald (2019)

Peripheral artery endothelial function responses to altered shear stress patterns in humans.

Experimental physiology [Epub ahead of print].

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of altered shear stress pattern, with, or without, concurrent neurohumoral and metabolic activation, on the acute endothelial function response assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation? What is the main finding and its importance? Despite generating distinctive shear stress patterns (i.e., increases in anterograde only, anterograde only with neurohumoral and metabolic activation, and both anterograde and retrograde), similar acute improvements were observed in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation response with all conditions, indicating that anterograde and/or turbulent shear stress may be the essential element to induce acute increases in endothelial function.

ABSTRACT: Endothelial function is influenced by both shear stress direction and magnitude. Whereas acute improvements in endothelial function have mostly been attributed to increased anterograde shear, results from many interventional models in humans suggest that enhancing shear stress in an oscillatory manner (anterograde + retrograde) may be optimal. Here, we determined the acute brachial artery shear stress (SS) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) responses to three shear-altering interventions (passive heat stress (HEAT), mechanical forearm compression (CUFF), and handgrip exercise (HGEX)) and examined the relationship between changes in oscillatory shear index (OSI) and changes in FMD. In separate visits, 10 young healthy males (22 ± 3 years) underwent 10-minutes of HEAT, CUFF, or HGEX in their left forearm. Anterograde and retrograde SS, Reynolds number (Re), OSI, and FMD were assessed at rest and during/after each intervention. Anterograde SS increased during all interventions in a stepwise manner (P < 0.05 between interventions), with the change in HGEX (∆37.7 ± 12.2 dynes/cm2 , P < 0.05) > CUFF (∆25.1 ± 11.9 dynes/cm2 , P < 0.05) > HEAT (∆14.5 ± 7.9 dynes/cm2 , P < 0.05). Retrograde SS increased during CUFF (∆-19.6 ± 4.3 dynes/cm2 , P < 0.05). Anterograde blood flow was turbulent (i.e., Re≥|2000|) during all interventions (P < 0.05). FMD% improved after all interventions (P = 0.01) and there was no relationship between ∆OSI and ∆FMD. We elicited changes in SS profiles including increased anterograde SS (HEAT and HGEX), and both increased anterograde and retrograde SS (CUFF); regardless of SS pattern, FMD improved to the same extent. These findings suggest that the presence of anterograde and/or turbulent SS may be the key to optimizing endothelial function in acute assessment paradigms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Wei D, Dehnavi PG, Aubin-Tam ME, et al (2019)

Is the Zero Reynolds Number Approximation Valid for Ciliary Flows?.

Physical review letters, 122(12):124502.

Stokes equations are commonly used to model the hydrodynamic flow around cilia on the micron scale. The validity of the zero Reynolds number approximation is investigated experimentally with a flow velocimetry approach based on optical tweezers, which allows the measurement of periodic flows with high spatial and temporal resolution. We find that beating cilia generate a flow, which fundamentally differs from the stokeslet field predicted by Stokes equations. In particular, the flow velocity spatially decays at a faster rate and is gradually phase delayed at increasing distances from the cilia. This indicates that the quasisteady approximation and use of Stokes equations for unsteady ciliary flow are not always justified and the finite timescale for vorticity diffusion cannot be neglected. Our results have significant implications in studies of synchronization and collective dynamics of microswimmers.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Shekar A, McMullen RM, Wang SN, et al (2019)

Critical-Layer Structures and Mechanisms in Elastoinertial Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 122(12):124503.

Simulations of elastoinertial turbulence (EIT) of a polymer solution at low Reynolds number are shown to display localized polymer stretch fluctuations. These are very similar to structures arising from linear stability (Tollmien-Schlichting modes) and resolvent analyses, i.e., critical-layer structures localized where the mean fluid velocity equals the wave speed. Computations of self-sustained nonlinear Tollmien-Schlichting waves reveal that the critical layer exhibits stagnation points that generate sheets of large polymer stretch. These kinematics may be the genesis of similar structures in EIT.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

M AA, M V (2019)

Demand factor definition-A dimensionless parameter for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines.

MethodsX, 6:567-581 pii:S2215-0161(19)30048-2.

The use of dimensionless numbers like Reynolds Number, Froude Number and Webber Number has historically simplified the process of comparison of phenomena irrespective of their scales and in their classification into different categories. This paper deals with the derivational aspects of a dimensionless parameter named "Demand Factor" for optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). •The input parameters considered in this derivation are power, wind velocity, the aspect ratio of the turbine, density of air and viscosity of air and the output parameters are length of the blade, number of blades, chord length, aerofoil shape, radius of the turbine and angular velocity at rated speed.•Four rounds of variable definition trials are carried out through the arrangement of the input parameters on the numerator and denominator positions. With the filtering out of unsuitable combinations at different stages of elimination, out of 32 combinations the expression that holds the potential to represent demand factor was identified. The process of carrying out single point optimization based on Demand factor expression is discussed along with the steps involved in numerically calculating output parameters.•The expression of Demand factor developed provides a different perspective on the process of design and optimization of VAWTs.

RevDate: 2019-04-10

Bhambri P, Narain R, B Fleck (2017)

Drag Reduction Using Polysaccharides in a Taylor⁻Couette Flow.

Polymers, 9(12): pii:polym9120683.

Three different polysaccharides, aloe vera, Tamarind powder and pineapple fibers, are utilized as drag reducing agents in a turbulent flow. Using a Taylor⁻Couette setup, consisting of a rotating inner cylinder, for measuring the drag reduction, a range of Reynolds numbers from 4 × 10⁴ to 3 × 10⁵ has been explored in this study. The results are in good agreement with previous studies on polysaccharides conducted in a pipe/channel flow and a maximum drag reduction of 35% has been observed. Further, novel additives such as cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), surfactants and CNC grafted with surfactants are also examined in this study for drag reduction. CNC due to its rigid rod structure reduced the drag by 30%. Surfactant, due to its unique micelle formation showed maximum drag reduction of 80% at low Re. Further, surfactant was grafted on CNC and was examined for drag reduction. However, drag reduction property of surfactant was observed to be significantly reduced after grafting on CNC. The effect of Reynolds number on drag reduction is studied for all the additives investigated in this study.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Wang Y, Wang Y, Z Cheng (2019)

Direct Numerical Simulation of Gas-Liquid Drag-Reducing Cavity Flow by the VOSET Method.

Polymers, 11(4): pii:polym11040596.

Drag reduction by polymer is an important energy-saving technology, which can reduce pumping pressure or promote the flow rate of the pipelines transporting fluid. It has been widely applied to single-phase pipelines, such as oil pipelining, district heating systems, and firefighting. However, the engineering application of the drag reduction technology in two-phase flow systems has not been reported. The reason is an unrevealed complex mechanism of two-phase drag reduction and lack of numerical tools for mechanism study. Therefore, we aim to propose governing equations and numerical methods of direct numerical simulation (DNS) for two-phase gas-liquid drag-reducing flow and try to explain the reason for the two-phase drag reduction. Efficient interface tracking method-coupled volume-of-fluid and level set (VOSET) and typical polymer constitutive model Giesekus are combined in the momentum equation of the two-phase turbulent flow. Interface smoothing for conformation tensor induced by polymer is used to ensure numerical stability of the DNS. Special features and corresponding explanations of the two-phase gas-liquid drag-reducing flow are found based on DNS results. High shear in a high Reynolds number flow depresses the efficiency of the gas-liquid drag reduction, while a high concentration of polymer promotes the efficiency. To guarantee efficient drag reduction, it is better to use a high concentration of polymer drag-reducing agents (DRAs) for high shear flow.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Stocking JB, Laforsch C, Sigl R, et al (2018)

The role of turbulent hydrodynamics and surface morphology on heat and mass transfer in corals.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 15(149):20180448.

Corals require efficient heat and mass transfer with the overlying water column to support key biological processes, such as nutrient uptake and mitigation of thermal stress. Transfer rates are primarily determined by flow conditions, coral morphology and the physics of the resulting fluid-structure interaction, yet the relationship among these parameters is poorly understood especially for wave-dominated coral habitats. To investigate the interactive effects of these factors on fluxes of heat and mass, we measure hydrodynamic characteristics in situ over three distinct surface morphologies of massive stony corals in a Panamanian reef. Additionally, we implement a numerical model of flow and thermal transport for both current and wave conditions past a natural coral surface, as well as past three simplified coral morphologies with varying ratios of surface roughness spacing-to-height. We find oscillatory flow enhances rates of heat and mass transfer by 1.2-2.0× compared with unidirectional flow. Additionally, increases in Reynolds number and in surface roughness ratio produce up to a 3.3× and a 2.0× enhancement, respectively. However, as waves begin to dominate the flow regime relative to unidirectional currents, the underlying physical mechanisms mediating transfer rates shift from predominantly turbulence-driven to greater control by inertial accelerations, resulting in larger heat and mass transfer for small surface roughness ratios. We show that for rough corals in wave-dominated flows, novel trade-off dynamics for heat and mass transfer exist between broadly spaced roughness that enhances turbulence production versus narrowly spaced roughness that produces greater surface area. These findings have important implications for differential survivorship during heat-induced coral bleaching, particularly as thermal stress events become increasingly common with global climate change.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Tuttle LJ, Robinson HE, Takagi D, et al (2019)

Going with the flow: hydrodynamic cues trigger directed escapes from a stalking predator.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 16(151):20180776.

In the coevolution of predator and prey, different and less well-understood rules for threat assessment apply to freely suspended organisms than to substrate-dwelling ones. Particularly vulnerable are small prey carried with the bulk movement of a surrounding fluid and thus deprived of sensory information within the bow waves of approaching predators. Some planktonic prey have solved this apparent problem, however. We quantified cues generated by the slow approach of larval clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) that triggered a calanoid copepod (Bestiolina similis) to escape before the fish could strike. To estimate water deformation around the copepod immediately preceding its jump, we represented the body of the fish as a rigid sphere in a hydrodynamic model that we parametrized with measurements of fish size, approach speed and distance to the copepod. Copepods of various developmental stages (CII-CVI) were sensitive to the water flow caused by the live predator, at deformation rates as low as 0.04 s-1. This rate is far lower than that predicted from experiments that used artificial predator-mimics. Additionally, copepods localized the source, with 87% of escapes directed away (greater than or equal to 90°) from the predator. Thus, copepods' survival in life-threatening situations relied on their detection of small nonlinear signals within an environment of locally linear deformation.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Nguyen H, Koehl MAR, Oakes C, et al (2019)

Effects of cell morphology and attachment to a surface on the hydrodynamic performance of unicellular choanoflagellates.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 16(150):20180736.

Choanoflagellates, eukaryotes that are important predators on bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, are closely related to animals and are used as a model system to study the evolution of animals from protozoan ancestors. The choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta has a complex life cycle with different morphotypes, some unicellular and some multicellular. Here we use computational fluid dynamics to study the hydrodynamics of swimming and feeding by different unicellular stages of S. rosetta: a swimming cell with a collar of prey-capturing microvilli surrounding a single flagellum, a thecate cell attached to a surface and a dispersal-stage cell with a slender body, long flagellum and short collar. We show that a longer flagellum increases swimming speed, longer microvilli reduce speed and cell shape only affects speed when the collar is very short. The flux of prey-carrying water into the collar capture zone is greater for swimming than sessile cells, but this advantage decreases with collar size. Stalk length has little effect on flux for sessile cells. We show that ignoring the collar, as earlier models have done, overestimates flux and greatly overestimates the benefit to feeding performance of swimming versus being attached, and of a longer stalk for attached cells.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Asadzadeh SS, Nielsen LT, Andersen A, et al (2019)

Hydrodynamic functionality of the lorica in choanoflagellates.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 16(150):20180478.

Choanoflagellates are unicellular eukaryotes that are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They have a single flagellum that creates a flow toward a collar filter composed of filter strands that extend from the cell. In one common group, the loricate choanoflagellates, the cell is suspended in an elaborate basket-like structure, the lorica, the function of which remains unknown. Here, we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to explore the possible hydrodynamic function of the lorica. We use the choanoflagellate Diaphaoneca grandis as a model organism. It has been hypothesized that the function of the lorica is to prevent refiltration (flow recirculation) and to increase the drag and, hence, increase the feeding rate and reduce the swimming speed. We find no support for these hypotheses. On the contrary, motile prey are encountered at a much lower rate by the loricate organism. The presence of the lorica does not affect the average swimming speed, but it suppresses the lateral motion and rotation of the cell. Without the lorica, the cell jiggles from side to side while swimming. The unsteady flow generated by the beating flagellum causes reversed flow through the collar filter that may wash away captured prey while it is being transported to the cell body for engulfment. The lorica substantially decreases such flow, hence it potentially increases the capture efficiency. This may be the main adaptive value of the lorica.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Asadzadeh SS, Larsen PS, Riisgård HU, et al (2019)

Hydrodynamics of the leucon sponge pump.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 16(150):20180630.

Leuconoid sponges are filter-feeders with a complex system of branching inhalant and exhalant canals leading to and from the close-packed choanocyte chambers. Each of these choanocyte chambers holds many choanocytes that act as pumping units delivering the relatively high pressure rise needed to overcome the system pressure losses in canals and constrictions. Here, we test the hypothesis that, in order to deliver the high pressures observed, each choanocyte operates as a leaky, positive displacement-type pump owing to the interaction between its beating flagellar vane and the collar, open at the base for inflow but sealed above. The leaking backflow is caused by small gaps between the vaned flagellum and the collar. The choanocyte pumps act in parallel, each delivering the same high pressure, because low-pressure and high-pressure zones in the choanocyte chamber are separated by a seal (secondary reticulum). A simple analytical model is derived for the pump characteristic, and by imposing an estimated system characteristic we obtain the back-pressure characteristic that shows good agreement with available experimental data. Computational fluid dynamics is used to verify a simple model for the dependence of leak flow through gaps in a conceptual collar-vane-flagellum system and then applied to models of a choanocyte tailored to the parameters of the freshwater demosponge Spongilla lacustris to study its flows in detail. It is found that both the impermeable glycocalyx mesh covering the upper part of the collar and the secondary reticulum are indispensable features for the choanocyte pump to deliver the observed high pressures. Finally, the mechanical pump power expended by the beating flagellum is compared with the useful (reversible) pumping power received by the water flow to arrive at a typical mechanical pump efficiency of about 70%.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Janke T, Koullapis P, Kassinos SC, et al (2019)

PIV measurements of the SimInhale benchmark case.

European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 133:183-189 pii:S0928-0987(19)30134-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements with the aim of providing experimental data for the SimInhale benchmark case are presented within this work. We, therefore, present a refractive index matched, transparent model of the benchmark geometry, in which the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy fields are examined at flow rates comparable to 15, 30 and 60 L/min (Re ≈ 1000-4500) in air. Furthermore, these results are compared with Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The results reveal a Reynolds number independence of the qualitative velocity field in the range covered within this work. Good agreement is found between the PIV and LES data, with a slight over-prediction of turbulent kinetic energies by the simulations. The obtained experimental data will be part of a common, publicly accessible ERCOFTAC database along with additional results published recently.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Mancini V, Bergersen AW, Vierendeels J, et al (2019)

High-Frequency Fluctuations in Post-stenotic Patient Specific Carotid Stenosis Fluid Dynamics: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Strategy Study.

Cardiovascular engineering and technology pii:10.1007/s13239-019-00410-9 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Screening of asymptomatic carotid stenoses is performed by auscultation of the carotid bruit, but the sensitivity is poor. Instead, it has been suggested to detect carotid bruit as neck's skin vibrations. We here take a first step towards a computational fluid dynamics proof-of-concept study, and investigate the robustness of our numerical approach for capturing high-frequent fluctuations in the post-stenotic flow. The aim was to find an ideal solution strategy from a pragmatic point of view, balancing accuracy with computational cost comparing an under-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach vs. three common large eddy simulation (LES) models (static/dynamic Smagorinsky and Sigma).

METHOD: We found a reference solution by performing a spatial and temporal refinement study of a stenosed carotid bifurcation with constant flow rate. The reference solution [Formula: see text] was compared against LES for both a constant and pulsatile flow.

RESULTS: Only the Sigma and Dynamic Smagorinsky models were able to replicate the flow field of the reference solution for a pulsatile simulation, however the computational cost of the Sigma model was lower. However, none of the sub-grid scale models were able to replicate the high-frequent flow in the peak-systolic constant flow rate simulations, which had a higher mean Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: The Sigma model was the best combination between accuracy and cost for simulating the pulsatile post-stenotic flow field, whereas for the constant flow rate, the under-resolved DNS approach was better. These results can be used as a reference for future studies investigating high-frequent flow features.

RevDate: 2019-04-05
CmpDate: 2019-04-05

Ma J, Xu L, Tian FB, et al (2019)

Dynamic characteristics of a deformable capsule in a simple shear flow.

Physical review. E, 99(2-1):023101.

The dynamic characteristics of a two-dimensional deformable capsule in a simple shear flow are studied with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. Simulations are conducted by varying the Reynolds number (Re) from 0.0125 to 2000 and the dimensionless shear rate (G) from 0.001 to 0.5. The G-Re plane can be divided into four regions according to the deformation dependence on the parameters considered: viscous dominant, inertia dominant, transitional, and anomalous regions. There are four typical dynamic behaviors over the G-Re plane: steady deformation, prerupture state, quasisteady deformation, and continuous elongation. Analysis indicates that the pressure distribution and its variations due to the interplay of the fluid inertia force, the viscous shear stress, and the membrane elastic force determines the complex behaviors of the capsule. The effects of the bending rigidity and the internal-to-external viscosity ratio on the dynamics of the capsule are further studied. It is found that the capsule experiences smaller deformation when the higher bending rigidity is included, and the low bending rigidity does not have a remarkable influence on the capsule deformation. The capsule normally experiences smaller deformation due to the increase of the internal-to-external viscosity ratio.

RevDate: 2019-04-05
CmpDate: 2019-04-05

Pereira M, Gissinger C, S Fauve (2019)

1/f noise and long-term memory of coherent structures in a turbulent shear flow.

Physical review. E, 99(2-1):023106.

A shear flow of liquid metal (Galinstan) is driven in an annular channel by counter-rotating traveling magnetic fields imposed at the end caps. When the traveling velocities are large, the flow is turbulent and its azimuthal component displays random reversals. Power spectra of the velocity field exhibit a 1/f^{α} power law on several decades and are related to power-law probability distributions P(τ)∼τ^{-β} of the waiting times between successive reversals. This 1/f type spectrum is observed only when the Reynolds number is large enough. In addition, the exponents α and β are controlled by the symmetry of the system; a continuous transition between two different types of Flicker noise is observed as the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Tang X, D Staack (2019)

Bioinspired mechanical device generates plasma in water via cavitation.

Science advances, 5(3):eaau7765 pii:aau7765.

Nature can generate plasma in liquids more efficiently than human-designed devices using electricity, acoustics, or light. In the animal world, snapping shrimp can induce cavitation that collapses to produce high pressures and temperatures, leading to efficient plasma formation with photon and shock wave emission via energy focusing. Here, we report a bioinspired mechanical device that mimics the plasma generation technique of the snapping shrimp. This device was manufactured using additive manufacturing based on micro-x-ray computed tomography of a snapping shrimp claw molt. A spring fixture was designed to reliably actuate the claw with appropriate force and velocity to produce a high-speed water jet that matches the cavitation number and Reynolds number of the shrimp. Light emission and shocks were imaged, which indicate that our device reproduces the shrimp's plasma generation technique and is more efficient than other plasma generation methods.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Nagaraju G, M Garvandha (2019)

Magnetohydrodynamic viscous fluid flow and heat transfer in a circular pipe under an externally applied constant suction.

Heliyon, 5(2):e01281 pii:e01281.

An analytical investigation of two-dimensional heat transfer behavior of an axisymmetric incompressible dissipative viscous fluid flow in a circular pipe is considered. The flow is subjected to an externally applied uniform suction over the pipe wall in the transverse direction and a constant magnetic field opposite to the wall. The reduced Navier-Stokes equations in the cylindrical system are applied for the velocity and temperature fields. Constant wall temperature is considered as the thermal boundary condition. The velocity components are expressed into stream function and its solution is acquired by the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effects of magnetic body force parameter(M), suction Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr)and Eckert number (Ec) on velocity and temperature are examined and are presented in a graphical frame. Streamlines, isotherms and pressure contours are likewise pictured. It is observed that with increasing suction Reynold number decelerates axial flow, whereas it enhances the radial flow. The temperature distribution increases with an increase in Prandtl number, whereas it decreases with an increase in Eckert number (viscous dissipation effect).

RevDate: 2019-03-29
CmpDate: 2019-03-18

El-Sapa S (2019)

Settling slip velocity of a spherical particle in an unbounded micropolar fluid.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 42(3):32 pii:10.1140/epje/i2019-11791-1.

The gravitational settling of small spherical particles in an unbounded micropolar fluid with slip surfaces is considered. The motion is studied under the assumption of low Reynolds number. The slip boundary conditions on velocity and microrotation at the surface of the spherical particle is used. The solution for the stream function of the fluid flow is obtained analytically. The settling velocity is obtained and is plotted against the Knudsen number for various values of the micropolarity parameter and constants depending on the material of the solid surface. The problem of rotational motion of a particle with slip surface is also solved and the torque coefficient acting on the spherical particle is obtained and is plotted against Knudsen number for different values of micropolarity parameter, spin parameter, and the material constants. The correction to the Basset equation for settling velocity under gravity for slip particle in micropolar fluids is discussed with the range of Knudsen number which has been proven with known results available in the literature.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Sun J, Liu C, B Bhushan (2019)

A review of beetle hindwings: Structure, mechanical properties, mechanism and bioinspiration.

Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials, 94:63-73 pii:S1751-6161(18)31307-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Insects have a small mass and size and a low flying Reynolds number. Consequently, they serve as an excellent bionic representation of a micro air vehicle (MAV). Coleoptera (popularly referred to as beetles) have different characteristics from other flying insects. Not only can they fly at a low Reynolds number, but they also have deployable hindwings, which directly leads to a reduction in the size of their bodies. In narrow working spaces or unfavorable environments, a beetle's hindwings can fold automatically under the hard elytron. When the environment becomes conducive to flight, the hindwings can extend and help the beetle take off. This characteristic provides inspiration for the design of a bionic deployable wing system. In this paper, the structures and mechanical properties of hindwings and the mechanism of hindwing movement are reviewed, in addition to research on bioinspired deployable wings.

RevDate: 2019-03-15

Sepehr H, Nikrityuk P, Breakey D, et al (2019)

Numerical study of crude oil batch mixing in a long channel.

Petroleum science, 16(1):187-198.

The main objective of this work is to predict the mixing of two different miscible oils in a very long channel. The background to this problem relates to the mixing of heavy and light oil in a pipeline. As a first step, a 2D channel with an aspect ratio of 250 is considered. The batch-mixing of two miscible crude oils with different viscosities and densities is modeled using an unsteady laminar model and unsteady RANS model available in the commercial CFD solver ANSYS-Fluent. For a comparison, a LES model was used for a 3D version of the 2D channel. The distinguishing feature of this work is the Lagrangian coordinate system utilized to set no-slip wall boundary conditions. The global CFD model has been validated against classical analytical solutions. Excellent agreement has been achieved. Simulations were carried out for a Reynolds number of 6300 (calculated using light oil properties) and a Schmidt number of 10 4 . The results show that, in contrast to the unsteady RANS model, the LES and unsteady laminar models produce comparable mixing dynamics for two oils in the channel. Analysis of simulations also shows that, for a channel length of 100 m and a height of 0.4 m, the complete mixing of two oils across the channel has not been achieved. We showed that the mixing zone consists of the three different mixing sub-zones, which have been identified using the averaged mass fraction of the heavy oil along the flow direction. The first sub-zone corresponds to the main front propagation area with a length of several heights of the channel. The second and third sub-zones are characterized by so-called shear-flow-driven mixing due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices occurring between oils in the axial direction. It was observed that the third sub-zone has a steeper mass fraction gradient of the heavy oil in the axial direction in comparison with the second sub-zone, which corresponds to the flow-averaged mass fraction of 0.5 for the heavy oil.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Kawale D, Jayaraman J, PE Boukany (2019)

Microfluidic rectifier for polymer solutions flowing through porous media.

Biomicrofluidics, 13(1):014111 pii:013901BMF.

Fluidic rectification refers to anisotropic flow resistance upon changing the flow direction. Polymeric solutions, in contrast to Newtonian fluids, can exhibit an anisotropic flow resistance in microfluidic devices by tuning the channel shape at low Reynolds number. Such a concept has not been investigated in an anisotropic porous medium. We have developed a fluidic rectifier based on an anisotropic porous medium consisting of a periodic array of triangular pillars that can operate at a low Reynolds number. Rectification is achieved, when the type of high Weissenberg number elastic instabilities changes with the flow direction. The flow resistance differs across the two directions of the anisotropic porous medium geometry. We have identified the type of elastic instabilities that appear in both forward and backward directions. Particularly, we found a qualitative relation between the dead-zone instability and the onset of fluidic rectification.

RevDate: 2019-03-14

Faris Abdullah M, Zulkifli R, Harun Z, et al (2019)

Impact of the TiO₂ Nanosolution Concentration on Heat Transfer Enhancement of the Twin Impingement Jet of a Heated Aluminum Plate.

Micromachines, 10(3): pii:mi10030176.

Here, the researchers carried out an experimental analysis of the effect of the TiO₂ nanosolution concentration on the heat transfer of the twin jet impingement on an aluminum plate surface. We used three different heat transfer enhancement processes. We considered the TiO₂ nanosolution coat, aluminum plate heat sink, and a twin jet impingement system. We also analyzed several other parameters like the nozzle spacing, nanosolution concentration, and the nozzle-to-plate distance and noted if these parameters could increase the heat transfer rate of the twin jet impingement system on a hot aluminum surface. The researchers prepared different nanosolutions, which consisted of varying concentrations, and coated them on the metal surface. Thereafter, we carried out an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis for determining the structure and the homogeneous surface coating of the nanosolutions. This article also studied the different positions of the twin jets for determining the maximal Nusselt number (Nu). The researchers analyzed all the results and noted that the flow structure of the twin impingement jets at the interference zone was the major issue affecting the increase in the heat transfer rate. The combined influence of the spacing and nanoparticle concentration affected the flow structure, and therefore the heat transfer properties, wherein the Reynolds number (1% by volume concentration) maximally affected the Nusselt number. This improved the performance of various industrial and engineering applications. Hypothesis: Nusselt number was affected by the ratio of the nanoparticle size to the surface roughness. Heat transfer characteristics could be improved if the researchers selected an appropriate impingement system and selected the optimal levels of other factors. The surface coating with the TiO₂ nanosolution also positively affected the heat transfer rate.

RevDate: 2019-03-31

Hamid AH, Javed T, N Ali (2019)

Numerical study of hydromagnetic axisymmetric peristaltic flow at high Reynolds number and wave number.

Biophysical reviews, 11(2):139-147.

The computational study of MHD peristaltic motion is investigated for axisymmetric flow problem. The developed model is present in the form of partial differential equations. Then obtained partial differential equations are transferred into stream-vorticity (ψ - ω) form. Then Galerkin Finite element method is used to find the computational results of governing problem. The current study is compared with the existing well-known results at low Reynolds number and wave number. It is revealed that the present results are in well agreement with existing results in the literature. So, it is effective for higher values of Reynolds number and wave number. The variations of streamline are present graphically against high Reynolds number. It concludes that high Reynolds number and Hartmann number increase pressure rise per unit wavelength in positive pumping region sharply.

RevDate: 2019-04-05
CmpDate: 2019-04-05

Luo X, Yin H, Ren J, et al (2019)

Enhanced mixing of binary droplets induced by capillary pressure.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 545:35-42.

The mixing of binary droplets is of paramount importance in microfluidic systems. In order to reveal the mixing mechanism of two free droplets suspended in the immiscible phase, we have developed a novel experimental setup to study the internal mixing in coalescing droplets with varying interfacial tension differences and droplet sizes. It is confirmed that the interfacial energy of droplets supports the jet flow and liquid bridge expansion during the coalescence of droplets. The increase of interfacial tension difference can increase the intensity of jet flow accompanied with slower liquid bridge expansion, which enhances the mixing of droplets. The decrease of droplet size can increase the initial velocity of jet flow. However, the intensity of jet flow decreases due to the rapid expansion of the liquid bridge, which results in weaker internal mixing. On this basis, a Reynolds number incorporating the jet velocity and droplet size is proposed to characterize the vortex size, which represents the degree of droplet mixing. This study presents an effective approach for enhancing the mixing of droplets.

RevDate: 2019-03-08

Ye C, Liu J, Wu X, et al (2019)

Hydrophobicity Influence on Swimming Performance of Magnetically Driven Miniature Helical Swimmers.

Micromachines, 10(3): pii:mi10030175.

Helical microswimmers have been involved in a wide variety of applications, ranging from in vivo tasks such as targeted drug delivery to in vitro tasks such as transporting micro objects. Over the past decades, a number of studies have been established on the swimming performance of helical microswimmers and geometrical factors influencing their swimming performance. However, limited studies have focused on the influence of the hydrophobicity of swimmers' surface on their swimming performance. In this paper, we first demonstrated through theoretical analysis that the hydrophobicity of swimmer's surface material of the swimmer does affect its swimming performance: the swimmer with more hydrophobic surface is exerted less friction drag torque, and should therefore exhibit a higher step-out frequency, indicating that the swimmer with more hydrophobic surface should have better swimming performance. Then a series of experiments were conducted to verify the theoretical analysis. As a result, the main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that one potential approach to improve the helical microswimmers' swimming performance could be making its surface more hydrophobic.

RevDate: 2019-03-08

Xia Z, Xiao Y, Yang Z, et al (2019)

Droplet Impact on the Super-Hydrophobic Surface with Micro-Pillar Arrays Fabricated by Hybrid Laser Ablation and Silanization Process.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:ma12050765.

A super-hydrophobic aluminum alloy surface with decorated pillar arrays was obtained by hybrid laser ablation and further silanization process. The as-prepared surface showed a high apparent contact angle of 158.2 ± 2.0° and low sliding angle of 3 ± 1°. Surface morphologies and surface chemistry were explored to obtain insights into the generation process of super-hydrophobicity. The main objective of this current work is to investigate the maximum spreading factor of water droplets impacting on the pillar-patterned super-hydrophobic surface based on the energy conservation concept. Although many previous studies have investigated the droplet impacting behavior on flat solid surfaces, the empirical models were proposed based on a few parameters including the Reynolds number (Re), Weber number (We), as well as the Ohnesorge number (Oh). This resulted in limitations for the super-hydrophobic surfaces due to the ignorance of the geometrical parameters of the pillars and viscous energy dissipation for liquid flow within the pillar arrays. In this paper, the maximum spreading factor was deduced from the perspective of energy balance, and the predicted results were in good agreement with our experimental results with a mean error of 4.99% and standard deviation of 0.10.

RevDate: 2019-03-10

Yang G, Hou C, Zhao M, et al (2019)

Comparison of convective heat transfer for Kagome and tetrahedral truss-cored lattice sandwich panels.

Scientific reports, 9(1):3731 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-39704-2.

The aim of this paper is to make a thorough comparison between Kagome and tetrahedral truss-cored lattices both experimentally and numerically. Two titanium sandwich panels -one cored with the Kagome lattice and the other with the tetrahedral lattice -are manufactured by 3D printing technology. Comparisons of the thermal insulation, the inner flow pattern and the heat transfer between the two sandwich panels are completed subsequently according to the results from forced convective experiments and numerical simulation. Within the Reynolds number range of interest for this study, the Kagome lattice exhibits excellent heat dissipation compared with the tetrahedral lattice. In particular, when the cooling air flows in the direction OB of the two sandwich panels, the Kagome lattice provides an 8~37% higher overall Nusselt number for the sandwich panel compared to the tetrahedral lattice. The superiority of the Kagome lattice comes from a unique configuration in which the centre vertex acting as the vortex generator not only disturbs the primary flow but also induces more serious flow stagnation and separation. The complex fluid flow behaviours enhance heat transfer on both the endwalls and the trusses while causing a pressure drop that is almost two times higher than that of the tetrahedral lattice in the flow direction OB.

RevDate: 2019-03-14

Khair AS, B Balu (2019)

The lift force on a charged sphere that translates and rotates in an electrolyte.

Electrophoresis [Epub ahead of print].

The distortion of the charge cloud around a uniformly charged, dielectric, rigid sphere that translates and rotates in an unbounded binary, symmetric electrolyte at zero Reynolds number is examined. The zeta potential of the particle ζ is assumed small relative to the thermal voltage scale. It is assumed that the equilibrium structure of the cloud is slightly distorted, which requires that the Péclet numbers characterizing distortion due to particle translation, Pe t = U a / D , and rotation, Pe r = Ω a 2 / D , are small compared to unity. Here, a is radius of the particle; D is the ionic diffusion coefficient; U = | U | and Ω = | Ω | , where U and Ω are the rectilinear and angular velocities of the particle, respectively. Perturbation expansions for small Pe t and Pe r are employed to calculate the nonequilibrium structure of the cloud, whence the force and torque on the particle are determined. In particular, we predict that the sphere experiences a force orthogonal to its directions of translation and rotation. This "lift" force arises from the nonlinear distortion of the cloud under the combined actions of particle translation and rotation. The lift force is given by F lift = L (κ a) (ε a 3 ζ 2 / D 2) U × Ω [ 1 + O (Pe t , Pe r) ] . Here, ε is the permittivity of the electrolyte; κ - 1 is the Debye length; and L (κ a) is a negative function that decreases in magnitude with increasing κ a . The lift force implies that an unconstrained particle would follow a curved path; an electrokinetic analog of the inertial Magnus effect. Finally, the implication of the lift force on cross-streamline migration of an electrophoretic particle in shear flow is discussed.

RevDate: 2019-03-02

Rehman D, Morini GL, C Hong (2019)

A Comparison of Data Reduction Methods for Average Friction Factor Calculation of Adiabatic Gas Flows in Microchannels.

Micromachines, 10(2): pii:mi10030171.

In this paper, a combined numerical and experimental approach for the estimation of the average friction factor along adiabatic microchannels with compressible gas flows is presented. Pressure-drop experiments are performed for a rectangular microchannel with a hydraulic diameter of 295 μ m by varying Reynolds number up to 17,000. In parallel, the calculation of friction factor has been repeated numerically and results are compared with the experimental work. The validated numerical model was also used to gain an insight of flow physics by varying the aspect ratio and hydraulic diameter of rectangular microchannels with respect to the channel tested experimentally. This was done with an aim of verifying the role of minor loss coefficients for the estimation of the average friction factor. To have laminar, transitional, and turbulent regimes captured, numerical analysis has been performed by varying Reynolds number from 200 to 20,000. Comparison of numerically and experimentally calculated gas flow characteristics has shown that adiabatic wall treatment (Fanno flow) results in better agreement of average friction factor values with conventional theory than the isothermal treatment of gas along the microchannel. The use of a constant value for minor loss coefficients available in the literature is not recommended for microflows as they change from one assembly to the other and their accurate estimation for compressible flows requires a coupling of numerical analysis with experimental data reduction. Results presented in this work demonstrate how an adiabatic wall treatment along the length of the channel coupled with the assumption of an isentropic flow from manifold to microchannel inlet results in a self-sustained experimental data reduction method for the accurate estimation of friction factor values even in presence of significant compressibility effects. Results also demonstrate that both the assumption of perfect expansion and consequently wrong estimation of average temperature between inlet and outlet of a microchannel can be responsible for an apparent increase in experimental average friction factor in choked flow regime.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Xia Y, Yuan M, Chen M, et al (2019)

Liquid jet breakup: A new method for the preparation of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres.

European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V, 137:140-147.

The purpose of this study was to apply the phenomenon of liquid jet breakup to the preparation of sustained-release microspheres. The mechanisms of liquid jet breakup in different jet states were investigated and the single factor method was used to study the effect of each process parameter on the particle size and size distribution of microspheres. Meantime, the prepared microspheres were characterized by morphology, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release. The results indicated that the process of liquid jet breakup could have 5 different states. The laminar flow state dominated when the Reynolds number (Re) was low, and the prepared microspheres had larger particle sizes. When the Re was high, the turbulent state was dominant and the microspheres had smaller particle sizes. And during the transition state from the laminar flow to the turbulence, the microspheres had a wide particle size distribution. Different process parameters could affect the particle size and distribution of microspheres by changing the Re, surface tension coefficient and viscosity. The microspheres prepared by liquid jet breakup were smooth and round with the drug loading of 35% and the encapsulation efficiency of 88%. In addition, when the polymeric carrier materials were different, the microspheres could have various drug release models such as sustained release with a lag phase, sustained release with no lag phase, pulsed release and so on, which could be applied widespread in the future.

RevDate: 2019-02-28

Kim J, Davidson S, A Mani (2019)

Characterization of Chaotic Electroconvection near Flat Inert Electrodes under Oscillatory Voltages.

Micromachines, 10(3): pii:mi10030161.

The onset of electroconvective instability in an aqueous binary electrolyte under external oscillatory electric fields at a single constant frequency is investigated in a 2D parallel flat electrode setup. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Poisson⁻Nernst⁻Planck equations coupled with the Navier⁻Stokes equations at a low Reynolds number are carried out. Previous studies show that direct current (DC) electric field can create electroconvection near ion-selecting membranes in microfluidic devices. In this study, we show that electroconvection can be generated near flat inert electrodes when the applied electric field is oscillatory in time. A range of applied voltage, the oscillation frequency and the ratio of ionic diffusivities is examined to characterize the regime in which electroconvection takes place. Similar to electroconvection under DC voltages, AC electroconvection occurs at sufficiently high applied voltages in units of thermal volts and is characterized by transverse instabilities, physically manifested by an array of counter-rotating vortices near the electrode surfaces. The oscillating external electric field periodically generate and destroy such unsteady vortical structures. As the oscillation frequency is reduced to O (10 - 1) of the intrinsic resistor⁻capacitor (RC) frequency of electrolyte, electroconvective instability is considerably amplified. This is accompanied by severe depletion of ionic species outside the thin electric double layer and by vigorous convective transport involving a wide range of scales including those comparable to the distance L between the parallel electrodes. The underlying mechanisms are distinctly nonlinear and multi-dimensional. However, at higher frequencies of order of the RC frequency, the electrolyte response becomes linear, and the present DNS prediction closely resembles those explained by 1D asymptotic studies. Electroconvective instability supports increased electric current across the system. Increasing anion diffusivity results in stronger amplification of electroconvection over all oscillation frequencies examined in this study. Such asymmetry in ionic diffusivity, however, does not yield consistent changes in statistics and energy spectrum at all wall-normal locations and frequencies, implying more complex dynamics and different scaling for electrolytes with unequal diffusivities. Electric current is substantially amplified beyond the ohmic current at high oscillation frequencies. Also, it is found that anion diffusivity higher than cation has stronger impact on smaller-scale motions (≲ 0.1 L).

RevDate: 2019-03-10

Khani M, Lawrence BJ, Sass LR, et al (2019)

Characterization of intrathecal cerebrospinal fluid geometry and dynamics in cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) by magnetic resonance imaging.

PloS one, 14(2):e0212239 pii:PONE-D-18-36037.

Recent advancements have been made toward understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and related hydrodynamics. Increased understanding of CSF dynamics may lead to improved detection of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and optimized delivery of CSF based CNS therapeutics, with many proposed therapeutics hoping to successfully treat or cure debilitating neurological conditions. Before significant strides can be made toward the research and development of interventions designed for human use, additional research must be carried out with representative subjects such as non-human primates (NHP). This study presents a geometric and hydrodynamic characterization of CSF in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) at baseline and two-week follow-up. Results showed that CSF flow along the entire spine was laminar with a Reynolds number ranging up to 80 and average Womersley number ranging from 4.1-7.7. Maximum CSF flow rate occurred ~25 mm caudal to the foramen magnum. Peak CSF flow rate ranged from 0.3-0.6 ml/s at the C3-C4 level. Geometric analysis indicated that average intrathecal CSF volume below the foramen magnum was 7.4 ml. The average surface area of the spinal cord and dura was 44.7 and 66.7 cm2 respectively. Subarachnoid space cross-sectional area and hydraulic diameter ranged from 7-75 mm2 and 2-3.7 mm, respectively. Stroke volume had the greatest value of 0.14 ml at an axial location corresponding to C3-C4.

RevDate: 2019-03-25
CmpDate: 2019-03-25

Mayzel J, Steinberg V, A Varshney (2019)

Stokes flow analogous to viscous electron current in graphene.

Nature communications, 10(1):937 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-08916-5.

Electron transport in two-dimensional conducting materials such as graphene, with dominant electron-electron interaction, exhibits unusual vortex flow that leads to a nonlocal current-field relation (negative resistance), distinct from the classical Ohm's law. The transport behavior of these materials is best described by low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, where the constitutive pressure-speed relation is Stoke's law. Here we report evidence of such vortices observed in a viscous flow of Newtonian fluid in a microfluidic device consisting of a rectangular cavity-analogous to the electronic system. We extend our experimental observations to elliptic cavities of different eccentricities, and validate them by numerically solving bi-harmonic equation obtained for the viscous flow with no-slip boundary conditions. We verify the existence of a predicted threshold at which vortices appear. Strikingly, we find that a two-dimensional theoretical model captures the essential features of three-dimensional Stokes flow in experiments.

RevDate: 2019-04-06

Tassew FA, Bergland WH, Dinamarca C, et al (2019)

Settling velocity and size distribution measurement of anaerobic granular sludge using microscopic image analysis.

Journal of microbiological methods, 159:81-90.

Settling velocity and size distribution of anaerobic granular sludge samples were studied using microscopic image analysis and settling column experiments. Five granule samples were considered in this study. Three samples were collected at the Top, Middle and Bottom sections of a lab scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB). Two other granule samples were obtained from industries. This paper aims to establish a method that uses microscopic image analysis and shape factor as a tool to determine the size distribution and settling velocity of anaerobic granules. Image analysis technique was used to calculate the shape factor and equivalent diameter of granules. The equivalent diameter was then used to calculate the theoretical settling velocities based on Allen's formula and estimate size distributions. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental mean settling velocity values. Both measured and calculated settling velocities increased with increasing Reynolds number (Re). However, the agreement between measured and calculated values was found to be weaker at higher Re values. Size distribution analyses of the granules have revealed that there was significant difference in the size distribution of granule samples collected at different heights of the lab scale reactor. Overall, granules from the bottom section of the reactor had larger diameter, settling velocity and shape factor than those at the middle and top section granules. Whereas granules collected from the top section exhibited the smallest granular diameter, settling velocity and shape factor.

RevDate: 2019-02-27

Marner F, Scholle M, Herrmann D, et al (2019)

Competing Lagrangians for incompressible and compressible viscous flow.

Royal Society open science, 6(1):181595 pii:rsos181595.

A recently proposed variational principle with a discontinuous Lagrangian for viscous flow is reinterpreted against the background of stochastic variational descriptions of dissipative systems, underpinning its physical basis from a different viewpoint. It is shown that additional non-classical contributions to the friction force occurring in the momentum balance vanish by time averaging. Accordingly, the discontinuous Lagrangian can alternatively be understood from the standpoint of an analogous deterministic model for irreversible processes of stochastic character. A comparison is made with established stochastic variational descriptions and an alternative deterministic approach based on a first integral of Navier-Stokes equations is undertaken. The applicability of the discontinuous Lagrangian approach for different Reynolds number regimes is discussed considering the Kolmogorov time scale. A generalization for compressible flow is elaborated and its use demonstrated for damped sound waves.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Medici G, West LJ, SA Banwart (2019)

Groundwater flow velocities in a fractured carbonate aquifer-type: Implications for contaminant transport.

Journal of contaminant hydrology, 222:1-16.

Contaminants that are highly soluble in groundwater are rapidly transported via fractures in mechanically resistant sedimentary rock aquifers. Hence, a rigorous methodology is needed to estimate groundwater flow velocities in such fractured aquifers. Here, we propose an approach using borehole hydraulic testing to compute flow velocities in an un-faulted area of a fractured carbonate aquifer by applying the cubic law to a parallel plate model. The Cadeby Formation (Yorkshire, NE England) - a Permian dolostone aquifer present beneath the University of Leeds Farm - is the fractured aquifer selected for this hydraulic experiment. The bedding plane fractures of this dolostone aquifer, which are sub-horizontal, sub-parallel and laterally persistent, largely dominate the flow at shallow (<~40 mBGL) depths. These flowing bedding plane discontinuities are separated by a rock matrix which is relatively impermeable (Kwell-test/Kcore-plug~104) as is common in fractured carbonate aquifers. In the workflow reported here, the number of flowing fractures - mainly bedding plane fractures - intersecting three open monitoring wells are found from temperature/fluid conductivity and acoustic/optical televiewer logging. Following well installation, average fracture hydraulic apertures for screened intervals are found from analysis of slug tests. For the case study aquifer, this workflow predicts hydraulic apertures ranging from 0.10 up to 0.54 mm. However, groundwater flow velocities range within two order of magnitude from 13 up to 242 m/day. Notably, fracture apertures and flow velocities rapidly reduce with increasing depth below the water table; the upper ~10 m shows relatively high values of hydraulic conductivity (0.30-2.85 m/day) and corresponding flow velocity (33-242 m/day). Permeability development around the water table in carbonate aquifer-types is common, and arises where high pCO2 recharge water from the soil zone causes calcite/dolomite dissolution. Hence, agricultural contaminants entering the aquifer with recharge water are laterally transported rapidly within this upper part. Computation of groundwater flow velocities allows determination of the Reynolds number. Values of up ~1, indicating the lower limit of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, are found at the studied site, which is situated away from major fault traces. Hence, turbulent flow is likely to arise in proximity to tectonic structures, such as normal faults, which localize flow and enhance karstification. The occurrence of turbulent flow in correspondence of such tectonic structures should be represented in regional groundwater flow simulations.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Hyeon J, H So (2019)

Microfabricaton of microfluidic check valves using comb-shaped moving plug for suppression of backflow in microchannel.

Biomedical microdevices, 21(1):19 pii:10.1007/s10544-019-0365-1.

This study reports on an efficient microscale one-way valve system that combines the physical properties of photopolymerized microstructures and viscoelastic microchannels to rectify flows with low Reynolds numbers. The comb-shaped moving plug in the microchannel prevented backflow in the closed state to ensure that the microchannel remained completely blocked in the closed state, but allowed forward flow in the open state. This microfluidic check valve was microfabricated using the combination of the soft lithography and the releasing methods with the use of a double photoresist layer to create microchannels and free-moving comb-shaped microstructures, respectively. As a result, the microfluidic check valves elicited average high-pressure differences as much as 10.75 kPa between the backward and forward flows at low Reynolds numbers of the order of 0.253, thus demonstrating efficient rectification of microfluids. This study supports the use of rectification systems for the development of biomedical devices, such as drug delivery, micropumps, and lab-on-a-chip, by allowing unidirectional flow.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Wang P, Cilliers JJ, Neethling SJ, et al (2019)

Effect of Particle Size on the Rising Behavior of Particle-Laden Bubbles.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 35(10):3680-3687.

The rising behavior of bubbles, initially half and fully coated with glass beads of various sizes, was investigated. The bubble velocity, aspect ratio, and oscillation periods were determined using high-speed photography and image analysis. In addition, the acting forces, drag modification factor, and modified drag coefficient were calculated and interpreted. Results show that the aspect ratio oscillation of the rising bubbles is similar, irrespective of the attached particle size. As the particle size is increased, the rising bubbles have a lower velocity and aspect ratio amplitude, with the time from release to each aspect ratio peak increasing. Higher particle coverage is shown to decrease the bubble velocity and dampen the oscillations, reducing the number of aspect ratio peaks observed. The highest rise velocities correspond to the lowest aspect ratios and vice versa, whereas a constant aspect ratio yields a constant rise velocity, independent of the particle size. Force analysis shows that the particle drag modification factor increases with the increased particle size and is greatest for fully laden bubbles. The modified drag coefficient of particle-laden bubbles increases with the increased particle size, although it decreases with the increased Reynolds number independent of the particle size. The drag force exerted by the particles plays a more dominant role in decreasing bubble velocities as the particle size increases. The results and interpretation produced a quantitative description of the behavior of rising particle-laden bubbles and the development of correlations will enhance the modeling of industrial applications.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Álvarez-Regueiro E, Vallejo JP, Fernández-Seara J, et al (2019)

Experimental Convection Heat Transfer Analysis of a Nano-Enhanced Industrial Coolant.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 9(2): pii:nano9020267.

Convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of four functionalized graphene nanoplatelet nanofluids based on the commercial coolant Havoline® XLC Pre-mixed 50/50 were experimentally determined to assess its thermal performance. The potential heat transfer enhancement produced by nanofluids could play an important role in increasing the efficiency of cooling systems. Particularly in wind power, the increasing size of the wind turbines, up to 10 MW nowadays, requires sophisticated liquid cooling systems to keep the nominal temperature conditions and protect the components from temperature degradation and hazardous environment in off-shore wind parks. The effect of nanoadditive loading, temperature and Reynolds number in convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops is discussed. A dimensionless analysis of the results is carried out and empirical correlations for the Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor are proposed. A maximum enhancement in the convection heat transfer coefficient of 7% was found for the nanofluid with nanoadditive loading of 0.25 wt %. Contrarily, no enhancement was found for the nanofluids of higher functionalized graphene nanoplatelet mass fraction.

RevDate: 2019-03-04
CmpDate: 2019-03-04

Lyu YZ, Zhu HJ, M Sun (2019)

Flapping-mode changes and aerodynamic mechanisms in miniature insects.

Physical review. E, 99(1-1):012419.

Miniature insects fly at very low Reynolds number (Re); low Re means large viscous effect. If flapping as larger insects, sufficient vertical force cannot be produced. We measure the wing kinematics for miniature-insect species of different sizes and compute the aerodynamic forces. The planar upstroke commonly used by larger insects changes to a U-shaped upstroke, which becomes deeper as size or Re decreases. For relatively large miniature insects, the U-shaped upstroke produces a larger vertical force than a planar upstroke by having a larger wing velocity and, for very small ones, the deep U-shaped upstroke produces a large transient drag directed upwards, providing the required vertical force.

RevDate: 2019-02-26
CmpDate: 2019-02-26

Jiang L, Sun C, E Calzavarini (2019)

Robustness of heat transfer in confined inclined convection at high Prandtl number.

Physical review. E, 99(1-1):013108.

We investigate the dependency of the magnitude of heat transfer in a convection cell as a function of its inclination by means of experiments and simulations. The study is performed with a working fluid of large Prandtl number, Pr≃480, and at Rayleigh numbers Ra≃10^{8} and Ra≃5×10^{8} in a quasi-two-dimensional rectangular cell with unit aspect ratio. By changing the inclination angle (β) of the convection cell, the character of the flow can be changed from moderately turbulent, for β=0^{∘}, to laminar and steady at β=90^{∘}. The global heat transfer is found to be insensitive to the drastic reduction of turbulent intensity, with maximal relative variations of the order of 20% at Ra≃10^{8} and 10% at Ra≃5×10^{8}, while the Reynolds number, based on the global root-mean-square velocity, is strongly affected with a decay of more than 85% occurring in the laminar regime. We show that the intensity of the heat flux in the turbulent regime can be only weakly enhanced by establishing a large-scale circulation flow by means of small inclinations. However, in the laminar regime the heat is transported solely by a slow large-scale circulation flow which exhibits large correlations between the velocity and temperature fields. For inclination angles close to the transition regime in-between the turbulentlike and laminar state, a quasiperiodic heat-flow bursting phenomenon is observed.

RevDate: 2019-02-26
CmpDate: 2019-02-26

Suman VK, Viknesh S S, Tekriwal MK, et al (2019)

Grid sensitivity and role of error in computing a lid-driven cavity problem.

Physical review. E, 99(1-1):013305.

The investigation on grid sensitivity for the bifurcation problem of the canonical lid-driven cavity (LDC) flow results is reported here with very fine grids. This is motivated by different researchers presenting different first bifurcation critical Reynolds number (Re_{cr1}), which appears to depend on the formulation, numerical method, and choice of grid. By using a very-high-accuracy parallel algorithm, and the same method with which sequential results were presented by Lestandi et al. [Comput. Fluids 166, 86 (2018)CPFLBI0045-793010.1016/j.compfluid.2018.01.038] [for (257 × 257) and (513 × 513) uniformly spaced grid], we present results using (1025×1025) and (2049×2049) grid points. Detailed results presented using these grids help us understand the computational physics of the numerical receptivity of the LDC flow, with and without explicit excitation. The mathematical physics of the investigated problem will become apparent when we identify the roles of numerical errors with the ambient omnipresent disturbances in real physical flows as interchangeable. In physical or in numerical setups, presence of disturbances cannot be ignored. In this context, the need for explicit excitation for the used compact scheme arises for a definitive threshold amplitude, below which the flow relaxes back to quiescent state after the excitation is removed in computations. We also implement the present parallel method to show the physical aspects of primary and secondary instabilities to be maintained for other numerical schemes, and we show the results to reflect the complex physics during multiple subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Also, we relate the various sources of errors during computations that is typical of such shear-driven flow. These results, with near spectral accuracy, constitute universal benchmark results for the solution of Navier-Stokes equation for LDC.

RevDate: 2019-02-26
CmpDate: 2019-02-26

Takamure K, S Ozono (2019)

Relative importance of initial conditions on outflows from multiple fans.

Physical review. E, 99(1-1):013112.

Generation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence was attempted using an innovative "multifan wind tunnel" with 99 fans installed. The driving method used is based on a principle that the shear layers generated between outflows from the adjacent ducts lead to turbulent flow downstream. First, a signal composed of two frequency components is set, and then it is fed to all the fans for three kinds of arrangements of phases. Here, parameter N is introduced as the number of phases used for the 99 fans, which represents a variety of emanated shear layers. Furthermore, S is introduced as a measure of shear magnitude at the inlet of the test section. Relative importance of the initial conditions (N and S) in the development of turbulence was investigated. To estimate the contribution from naturally induced turbulence, we numerically decomposed the resulting velocity fluctuations into the periodic and nonperiodic component. Energy spectra for three values of N were calculated using nonperiodic data. The inertial subrange of a gradient of -5/3 widens with increasing N. The value S is the largest for N=2, but the turbulence intensity of the nonperiodic component is the largest for N=99. Hence, it might be suggested that the shear magnitude at the inlet of the test section is not as important as the variety of shear layers for effective generation of high-Reynolds-number turbulence.

RevDate: 2019-02-16

Li R, Xu D, Q Yin (2019)

Effects of channel morphology on nitrate retention in a headwater agricultural stream in Lake Chaohu Basin, China.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-019-04484-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Five field tracer experiments and relevant detailed investigations of physical characterizations were conducted to investigate the effects of channel geomorphic settings on nitrate uptake efficiency on a 310-m long geomorphically distinct stream reach in a headwater agricultural stream in Hefei District, Lake Chaohu Basin. The model-fitted parameters from the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage model were used to estimate the transient storage metric ([Formula: see text]) and determine the total nitrate uptake coefficient (k) for the study reach. And then, a nutrient spiraling approach was applied to reach-scale nitrate uptake estimates (Sw, Vf, and U). The results showed that the main channel was the major contributor to nitrate uptake retention, and the higher geomorphic complexity might result in better nitrate uptake efficiency. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis showed strong correlations between the independent variables as geomorphic settings, Reynolds number and transient storage, and the dependent variables as nitrate uptake metrics, which further underscored the importance of stream physical characteristics on measurement of stream nitrate uptake.

RevDate: 2019-03-05

Morales-Acuna F, Ochoa L, Valencia C, et al (2019)

Characterization of blood flow patterns and endothelial shear stress during flow-mediated dilation.

Clinical physiology and functional imaging [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction is considered the first step in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) has been the most common assessment of endothelial function in research but it has failed in obtaining a widespread use in clinical settings due to a lack of standardization and a large inter-subject variability. Normalization of FMD to endothelial shear stress (ESS) has been proposed to solve its technical limitations. However, studies have not considered the characteristic of the blood flow during FMD under pulsatile conditions in their ESS estimations.

METHODS: A total of 26 young healthy subjects (15 females and 11 males) underwent FMD testing. Microhematocrit measurement was used to determine blood viscosity (μ). ESS was calculated by Womersley's approximation, ESS = μ*2K*Velocity/Diameter, where K is a function of Womersley's parameter (α). Blood flow patterns were determined by critical Reynolds number. Statistical analysis included repeated measures ANOVA to detect ESS differences during FMD until peak dilation. Significance was established at P≤0.05.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) FMD% and time to peak dilation were 7·4 (3·1) % and 35 (9·3) seconds, respectively. ESS was significantly reduced during FMD until peak dilation (P<0·001). Turbulent blood flow was the only pattern observed until peak dilation in 96·15% of the sample.

CONCLUSION: Peak FMD dilation in a young healthy population is triggered mostly by high-ESS under turbulent flow conditions. Due to the pulsatile nature of blood flow and the appearance of a turbulent pattern during FMD, ESS should be estimated by Womersley's approximation rather than Poiseuille's law.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Tang H, Hu F, Xu L, et al (2019)

Variations in hydrodynamic characteristics of netting panels with various twine materials, knot types, and weave patterns at small attack angles.

Scientific reports, 9(1):1923 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-35907-1.

It is essential to conduct hydrodynamic experiments for fishing gear at small attack angles along the flow direction to better understand the hydrodynamic characteristics of netting and application of gear. The hydrodynamic characteristics of netting panels made of different materials at small attack angles were investigated by a self-designed setup; this is essential for the effective use of netting on different types of gears. As confirmed by experiments, the measured drag of designed frame without netting accounted for less than 20% of the total setup drag including experimental netting and remained in a steady state under various current speeds and small attack angles, indicating that the self-designed frame setup is suitable for such trials. The drag coefficient was determined by varying the attack angle, solidity ratio, Reynolds number, knot types, weave pattern, and twine materials at small attack angles. The results indicate that the drag coefficient increased as the attack angle increased, but decreased as the solidity ratio and Reynolds number increased. The drag generated by knot accounted for 21% of the total drag of nylon (PA) netting. For braided knotless netting, the drag coefficient of PA netting was about 8.4% lower than that of polythene netting (PE) and 7% lower than that of polyester netting (PES). Compared with twined netting, the braided netting exhibited a higher resistance to flow, corresponding to higher values of drag coefficient.

RevDate: 2019-02-13

Sera T, Kuninaga H, Fukasaku K, et al (2019)

The Effectiveness of An Averaged Airway Model in Predicting the Airflow and Particle Transport Through the Airway.

Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In this study, we proposed an averaged airway model design based on four healthy subjects and numerically evaluated its effectiveness for predicting the airflow and particle transport through an airway.

METHODS: Direct-averaged models of the conducting airways of four subjects were restored by averaging the three-dimensional (3D) skeletons of four healthy airways, which were calculated using an inverse 3D thinning algorithm. We simulated the airflow and particle transport in the individual and the averaged airway models using computational fluid dynamics.

RESULTS: The bifurcation geometry differs even among healthy subjects, but the averaged model retains the typical geometrical characteristics of the airways. The Reynolds number of the averaged model varied within the range found in the individual subject models, and the averaged model had similar inspiratory flow characteristics as the individual subject models. The deposition fractions at almost all individual lobes ranged within the variation observed in the subjects, however, the deposition fraction was higher in only one lobe. The deposition distribution at the main bifurcation point differed among the healthy subjects, but the characteristics of the averaged model fell within the variation observed in the individual subject models. On the contrary, the deposition fraction of the averaged model was higher than that of the average of the individual subject models and deviated from the range observed in the subject models.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the direct-averaged model may be useful for predicting the individual airflow and particle transport on a macroscopic scale.

RevDate: 2019-03-15

Amer M, Feng Y, JD Ramsey (2019)

Using CFD simulations and statistical analysis to correlate oxygen mass transfer coefficient to both geometrical parameters and operating conditions in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

Biotechnology progress [Epub ahead of print].

Optimization of a bioreactor design can be an especially challenging process. For instance, testing different bioreactor vessel geometries and different impeller and sparger types, locations, and dimensions can lead to an exceedingly large number of configurations and necessary experiments. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), therefore, has been widely used to model multiphase flow in stirred-tank bioreactors to minimize the number of optimization experiments. In this study, a multiphase CFD model with population balance equations are used to model gas-liquid mixing, as well as gas bubble distribution, in a 50 L single-use bioreactor vessel. The vessel is the larger chamber in an early prototype of a multichamber bioreactor for mammalian cell culture. The model results are validated with oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kL a) measurements within the prototype. The validated model is projected to predict the effect of using ring or pipe spargers of different sizes and the effect of varying the impeller diameter on kL a. The simulations show that ring spargers result in a superior kL a compared to pipe spargers, with an optimum sparger-to-impeller diameter ratio of 0.8. In addition, larger impellers are shown to improve kL a. A correlation of kL a is presented as a function of both the reactor geometry (i.e., sparger-to-impeller diameter ratio and impeller-to-vessel diameter ratio) and operating conditions (i.e., Reynolds number and gas flow rate). The resulting correlation can be used to predict kL a in a bioreactor and to optimize its design, geometry, and operating conditions.

RevDate: 2019-02-14

Huang HW, Uslu FE, Katsamba P, et al (2019)

Adaptive locomotion of artificial microswimmers.

Science advances, 5(1):eaau1532 pii:aau1532.

Bacteria can exploit mechanics to display remarkable plasticity in response to locally changing physical and chemical conditions. Compliant structures play a notable role in their taxis behavior, specifically for navigation inside complex and structured environments. Bioinspired mechanisms with rationally designed architectures capable of large, nonlinear deformation present opportunities for introducing autonomy into engineered small-scale devices. This work analyzes the effect of hydrodynamic forces and rheology of local surroundings on swimming at low Reynolds number, identifies the challenges and benefits of using elastohydrodynamic coupling in locomotion, and further develops a suite of machinery for building untethered microrobots with self-regulated mobility. We demonstrate that coupling the structural and magnetic properties of artificial microswimmers with the dynamic properties of the fluid leads to adaptive locomotion in the absence of on-board sensors.

RevDate: 2019-02-15
CmpDate: 2019-02-12

Waheed W, Alazzam A, Al-Khateeb AN, et al (2019)

Investigation of DPD transport properties in modeling bioparticle motion under the effect of external forces: Low Reynolds number and high Schmidt scenarios.

The Journal of chemical physics, 150(5):054901.

We have used a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model to study the movement of microparticles in a microfluidic device at extremely low Reynolds number (Re). The particles, immersed in a medium, are transported in the microchannel by a flow force and deflected transversely by an external force along the way. An in-house Fortran code is developed to simulate a two-dimensional fluid flow using DPD at Re ≥ 0.0005, which is two orders of magnitude less than the minimum Re value previously reported in the DPD literature. The DPD flow profile is verified by comparing it with the exact solution of Hagen-Poiseuille flow. A bioparticle based on a rigid spring-bead model is introduced in the DPD fluid, and the employed model is verified via comparing the velocity profile past a stationary infinite cylinder against the profile obtained via the finite element method. Moreover, the drag force and drag coefficient on the stationary cylinder are also computed and compared with the reported literature results. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is investigated as a case study for the proposed DPD model to compute the trajectories of red blood cells in a microfluidic device. A mapping mechanism to scale the external deflecting force from the physical to DPD domain is performed. We designed and built our own experimental setup with the aim to compare the experimental trajectories of cells in a microfluidic device to validate our DPD model. These experimental results are used to investigate the dependence of the trajectory results on the Reynolds number and the Schmidt number. The numerical results agree well with the experiment results, and it is found that the Schmidt number is not a significant parameter for the current application; Reynolds numbers combined with the DEP-to-drag force ratio are the only important parameters influencing the behavior of particles inside the microchannel.

RevDate: 2019-02-09

Tai J, YC Lam (2019)

Elastic Turbulence of Aqueous Polymer Solution in Multi-Stream Micro-Channel Flow.

Micromachines, 10(2): pii:mi10020110.

Viscous liquid flow in micro-channels is typically laminar because of the low Reynolds number constraint. However, by introducing elasticity into the fluids, the flow behavior could change drastically to become turbulent; this elasticity can be realized by dissolving small quantities of polymer molecules into an aqueous solvent. Our recent investigation has directly visualized the extension and relaxation of these polymer molecules in an aqueous solution. This elastic-driven phenomenon is known as 'elastic turbulence'. Hitherto, existing studies on elastic flow instability are mostly limited to single-stream flows, and a comprehensive statistical analysis of a multi-stream elastic turbulent micro-channel flow is needed to provide additional physical understanding. Here, we investigate the flow field characteristics of elastic turbulence in a 3-stream contraction-expansion micro-channel flow. By applying statistical analyses and flow visualization tools, we show that the flow field bares many similarities to that of inertia-driven turbulence. More interestingly, we observed regions with two different types of power-law dependence in the velocity power spectra at high frequencies. This is a typical characteristic of two-dimensional turbulence and has hitherto not been reported for elastic turbulent micro-channel flows.

RevDate: 2019-02-06

Mehrdel P, Karimi S, Farré-Lladós J, et al (2018)

Novel Variable Radius Spiral⁻Shaped Micromixer: From Numerical Analysis to Experimental Validation.

Micromachines, 9(11): pii:mi9110552.

A novel type of spiral micromixer with expansion and contraction parts is presented in order to enhance the mixing quality in the low Reynolds number regimes for point-of-care tests (POCT). Three classes of micromixers with different numbers of loops and modified geometries were studied. Numerical simulation was performed to study the flow behavior and mixing performance solving the steady-state Navier⁻Stokes and the convection-diffusion equations in the Reynolds range of 0.1⁻10.0. Comparisons between the mixers with and without expansion parts were made to illustrate the effect of disturbing the streamlines on the mixing performance. Image analysis of the mixing results from fabricated micromixers was used to verify the results of the simulations. Since the proposed mixer provides up to 92% of homogeneity at Re 1.0, generating 442 Pa of pressure drop, this mixer makes a suitable candidate for research in the POCT field.

RevDate: 2019-03-04
CmpDate: 2019-03-04

Schaaf C, Rühle F, H Stark (2019)

A flowing pair of particles in inertial microfluidics.

Soft matter, 15(9):1988-1998.

A flowing pair of particles in inertial microfluidics gives important insights into understanding and controlling the collective dynamics of particles like cells or droplets in microfluidic devices. They are applied in medical cell analysis and engineering. We study the dynamics of a pair of solid particles flowing through a rectangular microchannel using lattice Boltzmann simulations. We determine the inertial lift force profiles as a function of the two particle positions, their axial distance, and the Reynolds number. Generally, the profiles strongly differ between particles leading and lagging in flow and the lift forces are enhanced due to the presence of a second particle. At small axial distances, they are determined by viscous forces, while inertial forces dominate at large separations. We identify cross-streamline pairs as stable fixed points in the lift force profiles and argue that same-streamline configurations are only one-sided stable. Depending on the initial conditions, the two-particle lift forces in combination with the Poiseuille flow give rise to three types of unbound particle trajectories, called moving-apart, passing, and swapping, and one type of bound trajectory, where the particles perform damped oscillations towards the cross-stream line configuration. The damping rate scales with Reynolds number squared, since inertial forces are responsible for driving the particles to their steady-state positions.

RevDate: 2019-02-04

Lippert T, Bandelin J, Schlederer F, et al (2019)

Impact of ultrasound-induced cavitation on the fluid dynamics of water and sewage sludge in ultrasonic flatbed reactors.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry pii:S1350-4177(18)31722-X [Epub ahead of print].

The fluid dynamics of water, thickened waste activated sludge (WAS, total solids concentration 4.4%) and digested sludge (DS, total solids concentration 2.5%) within a lab-scale ultrasonic flatbed reactor were experimentally investigated. For a visual observation of the opaque sludge flow, sewage sludges were approximated by transparent xanthan solutions with identical flow behavior. The visualization of the flow was realized by use of an ultrasonic reactor with a transparent panel and dye streams injected into the flow. Without ultrasonic treatment, xanthan solutions showed distinct laminar flow behavior (generalized Reynolds numbers < 1), at a flow rate of 100 L/h. In water, dye streams remained coherent as well, but with slightly unsteady features (Reynolds number ∼ 350). Activation of the ultrasound reactor caused strong fluid dynamic disturbance in the water flow and dye streams were dissolved instantly, thus indicating turbulent mixing. For the xanthan solutions, however, mixing was considerably less pronounced. The dye streams in the DS substitute (0.5% xanthan solution) remained overall in laminar shape, but exhibited an eruption-like branching and an increase in diameter with advancing treatment duration. For the solution resembling WAS (2.0% xanthan solution), only weak dye stream disruption was observed, thus indicating that WAS flow in flatbed reactors is nearly laminar during ultrasonic treatment.

RevDate: 2019-02-04

Ibrahim MG, Hasona WM, AA ElShekhipy (2019)

Concentration-dependent viscosity and thermal radiation effects on MHD peristaltic motion of Synovial Nanofluid: Applications to rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 170:39-52.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The biomedical fluid which fills the Synovial joint cavity is called Synovial fluid which behaves as in the fluid classifications to Non-Newtonian fluids. Also it's described as a several micrometers thick layer among the interstitial cartilages with very low friction coefficient. Consequently, the present paper opts to investigate the influence of the concentration-dependent viscosity on Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic flow of Synovial Nanofluid in an asymmetric channel in presence of thermal radiation effect.

METHOD: Our problem is solved for two models, in the first model which referred as Model-(I), viscosity is considered exponentially dependent on the concentration. Model-(2), Shear thinning index is considered as a function of concentration. Those models are introduced for the first time in peristaltic or Nanofluid flows literature. The governing problem is reformulated under the assumption of low Reynolds number and long wavelength. The resulting system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Parametric ND Solve.

RESULTS: Detailed comparisons have been made between Model-(I) and Model-(2) and found unrealistic results between them. Results for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration distributions as well as pressure gradient and pressure rise are offered graphically for different values of various physical parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: Such models are applicable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Rheumatoid arthritis patients can be treated by applying the magnetic field on an electrically conducting fluid, due to the movement of the ions within the cell which accelerates the metabolism of fluids.

RevDate: 2019-03-21

Tandler T, Gellman E, De La Cruz D, et al (2019)

Drag coefficient estimates from coasting bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus.

Journal of fish biology, 94(3):532-534.

The drag coefficient bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus was estimated from coasting deceleration as (mean ± SD) 0.0154 ± 0.0070 at a Reynolds number of 41,000 ± 14,000. This was within the coasting range in other species and lower than values obtained from dead drag measurements in this species and others. Low momentum losses during coasting may allow its use during intermittent propulsion to modulate power output or maximize energy economy.

RevDate: 2019-03-04
CmpDate: 2019-03-04

Haward SJ, Kitajima N, Toda-Peters K, et al (2019)

Flow of wormlike micellar solutions around microfluidic cylinders with high aspect ratio and low blockage ratio.

Soft matter, 15(9):1927-1941.

We employ time-resolved flow velocimetry and birefringence imaging methods to study the flow of a well-characterized shear-banding wormlike micellar solution around a novel glass-fabricated microfluidic circular cylinder. In contrast with typical microfluidic cylinders, our geometry is characterized by a high aspect ratio α = H/W = 5 and a low blockage ratio β = 2r/W = 0.1, where H and W are the channel height and width, and the cylinder radius r = 20 μm. The small cylinder radius allows access up to very high Weissenberg numbers 1.9 ≤ Wi = λMU/r ≤ 3750 (where λM is the Maxwell relaxation time) while inertial effects remain entirely negligible (Reynolds number, Re < 10-4). At low Wi values, the flow remains steady and symmetric and a birefringent region (indicating micellar alignment and tensile stress) develops downstream of the cylinder. Above a critical value Wic ≈ 60 the flow transitions to a steady asymmetric state, characterized as a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, in which the fluid takes a preferential path around one side of the cylinder. At a second critical value Wic2 ≈ 130, the flow becomes time-dependent, with a characteristic frequency f0 ≈ 1/λM. This initial transition to time dependence has characteristics of a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Power spectra of the measured fluctuations become complex as Wi is increased further, showing a gradual slowing down of the dynamics and emergence of harmonics. A final transition at very high Wic3 corresponds to the re-emergence of a single peak in the power spectrum but at much higher frequency. We discuss this in terms of possible flow-induced breakage of micelles into shorter species with a faster relaxation time.

RevDate: 2019-02-06

Luo L, Y He (2019)

Magnetically Induced Flow Focusing of Non-Magnetic Microparticles in Ferrofluids under Inclined Magnetic Fields.

Micromachines, 10(1): pii:mi10010056.

The ability to focus biological particles into a designated position of a microchannel is vital for various biological applications. This paper reports particle focusing under vertical and inclined magnetic fields. We analyzed the effect of the angle of rotation (θ) of the permanent magnets and the critical Reynolds number (Rec) on the particle focusing in depth. We found that a rotation angle of 10° is preferred; a particle loop has formed when Re < Rec and Rec of the inclined magnetic field is larger than that of the vertical magnetic field. We also conducted experiments with polystyrene particles (10.4 μm in diameter) to prove the calculations. Experimental results show that the focusing effectiveness improved with increasing applied magnetic field strength or decreasing inlet flow rate.

RevDate: 2019-01-28
CmpDate: 2019-01-28

Iyer KP, Schumacher J, Sreenivasan KR, et al (2018)

Steep Cliffs and Saturated Exponents in Three-Dimensional Scalar Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 121(26):264501.

The intermittency of a passive scalar advected by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of 650 is studied using direct numerical simulations on a 4096^{3} grid; the Schmidt number is unity. By measuring scalar increment moments of high orders, while ensuring statistical convergence, we provide unambiguous evidence that the scaling exponents saturate to 1.2 for moment orders beyond about 12, indicating that scalar intermittency is dominated by the most singular shocklike cliffs in the scalar field. We show that the fractal dimension of the spatial support of steep cliffs is about 1.8, whose sum with the saturation exponent value of 1.2 adds up to the space dimension of 3, thus demonstrating a deep connection between the geometry and statistics in turbulent scalar mixing. The anomaly for the fourth and sixth order moments is comparable to that in the Kraichnan model for the roughness exponent of 4/3.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

Caracappa JC, DM Munroe (2018)

Morphological Variability Among Broods of First-Stage Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Zoeae.

The Biological bulletin, 235(3):123-133.

External morphology has been shown to influence predation and locomotion of decapod larvae and is, therefore, directly related to their ability to survive and disperse. The first goal of this study was to characterize first-stage blue crab zoeal morphology and its variability across larval broods to test whether inter-brood differences in morphology exist. The second was to identify possible correlations between maternal characteristics and zoeal morphology. The offspring of 21 individuals were hatched in the laboratory, photographed, and measured. Zoeae exhibited substantial variability, with all metrics showing significant inter-brood differences. The greatest variability was seen in the zoeal abdomen, rostrum, and dorsal spine length. A principal component analysis showed no distinct clustering of broods, with variation generally driven by larger zoeae. Using observed morphology, models of drag induced by swimming and sinking also showed significant inter-brood differences, with a maximum twofold difference across broods. In contrast to trends in other decapod taxa, maternal characteristics (female carapace width and mass and egg sponge volume and mass) are not significant predictors of zoeal morphology. These results suggest that brood effects are present across a wide range of morphological characteristics and that future experiments involving Callinectes sapidus morphology or its functionality should explicitly account for inter-brood variation. Additionally, inter-brood morphological differences may result in differential predation mortality and locomotory abilities among broods.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

Lamont EI, RB Emlet (2018)

Permanently Fused Setules Create Unusual Folding Fans Used for Swimming in Cyprid Larvae of Barnacles.

The Biological bulletin, 235(3):185-194.

Many crustacean swimming appendages carry arrays of plumose setae-exoskeletal, feather-like structures of long bristles (setae) with short branches (setules) distributed along two sides. Although closely spaced, setae are not physically interconnected. Setal arrays function during swimming as drag-based leaky paddles that push the organism through water. Barnacle cyprids, the final, non-feeding larval stage, swim with six pairs of legs (thoracopods) that open and close setal arrays in alternating high-drag power strokes and low-drag recovery strokes. While studying cyprid swimming, we found that their thoracopods contained setae permanently cross-linked by fused setules. These cuticular connections would seem highly unlikely because setae are individually produced exoskeletal secretions, and the connections imply unknown processes for the production or modification of crustacean setae. We describe the morphology and function of plumose setae on cyprids of Balanus glandula and other species across the clade Cirripedia. Setules from adjacent plumose setae are seamlessly joined at their tips and occur in three distinct linkage patterns. Thoracopods lack muscles to open and close the array; interconnected setae are instead pulled apart, producing a paddle-like fan with high drag when appendages spread laterally during power strokes. Setules are spring-like, passively closing setae into tight bundles with low drag during recovery strokes. The linked setules occur in the three main clades of the Cirripedia. This cuticular arrangement is effective in swimming, may eliminate the need for muscles to close the setal array, and may represent a unique swimming structure within the Crustacea.

RevDate: 2019-01-04

Kunze E (2019)

Biologically Generated Mixing in the Ocean.

Annual review of marine science, 11:215-226.

This article assesses the contribution to ocean mixing by the marine biosphere at both high and low Reynolds numbers Re= uℓ/ ν. While back-of-the-envelope estimates have suggested that swimming marine organisms might generate as much high-Reynolds-number turbulence as deep-ocean tide- and wind-generated internal waves, and that turbulent dissipation rates of O(10-5 W kg-1) (Re ∼ 105) could be produced by aggregations of organisms ranging from O(0.01 m) krill to O(10 m) cetaceans, comparable to strong wind and buoyancy forcing near the surface, microstructure measurements do not find consistently elevated dissipation associated with diel vertically migrating krill. Elevated dissipation rates are associated with schools of O(0.1- 1 m) fish but with low mixing coefficients (γ ∼ 0.002-0.02, as compared with γ ∼ 0.2 for geophysical turbulence). Likewise, viscously induced drift at low Reynolds numbers produces little mixing of temperature, solutes, dissolved nutrients, and gases when realistic swimmers and molecular scalar diffusion are taken into account. The conclusion is that, while the marine biosphere can generate turbulence, it contributes little ocean mixing compared with breaking internal gravity waves.

RevDate: 2019-01-03

Itzhak N, D Greenblatt (2019)

Aerodynamic Factors Affecting Rebreathing in Infants.

Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) [Epub ahead of print].

The rebreathing of expired air, with high carbon dioxide and low oxygen concentrations, has long been implicated in unexplained Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) when infants are placed to sleep in a prone (facedown) position. This study elucidates the effect of aerodynamic parameters: Reynolds number, Strouhal number and Froude number, on the percentage of expired air that is re-inspired (rebreathed). A nasal module was designed that served as a simplified geometric representation of infant nostrils and placed above a hard flat surface. Quantitative and flow visualization experiments were performed to measure rebreathing, using water as the working medium, under conditions of dynamic similarity. Different anatomical (e.g. tidal volume, nostril diameter), physiological (e.g. breathing frequency) and environmental (e.g. temperature, distance from the surface) factors were considered. Increases in Strouhal number (breathing frequency), always produced higher rebreathed percentages, because rolled-up vortices in the vicinity of the nostrils had less time to move away by self-induction. Positively and negatively buoyant flows resulted in significant rebreathing. In the latter case, consistent with a warm environment or a high percentage of rebreathed CO2, denser gas pooled in the vicinity of the nostrils. Reynolds numbers below 200 also dramatically increased rebreathing because the expired gas pooled much closer to the nostrils. These results clearly elucidated how the prone position dramatically increases rebreathing by a number of different mechanisms. Furthermore, the results offer plausible explanations of why a high temperature environment and low birthweight are SIDS risk factors.

RevDate: 2019-01-03

Wu P, Gao Q, PL Hsu (2019)

On the representation of effective stress for computing hemolysis.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology pii:10.1007/s10237-018-01108-y [Epub ahead of print].

Hemolysis is a major concern in blood-circulating devices, which arises due to hydrodynamic loading on red blood cells from ambient flow environment. Hemolysis estimation models have often been used to aid hemocompatibility design. The preponderance of hemolysis models was formulated on the basis of laminar flows. However, flows in blood-circulating devices are rather complex and can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. It is an extrapolation to apply these models to turbulent flows. For the commonly used power-law models, effective stress has often been represented using Reynolds stresses for estimating hemolysis in turbulent flows. This practice tends to overpredict hemolysis. This study focused on the representation of effective stress in power-law models. Through arithmetic manipulations from Navier-Stokes equation, we showed that effective stress can be represented in terms of energy dissipation, which can be readily obtained from CFD simulations. Three cases were tested, including a capillary tube, the FDA benchmark cases of nozzle model and blood pump. The results showed that the representation of effective stress in terms of energy dissipation greatly improved the prediction of hemolysis for a wide range of flow conditions. The improvement increases as Reynolds number increases; the overprediction of hemolysis was reduced by up to two orders of magnitude.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Szaszák N, Roloff C, Bordás R, et al (2018)

A novel type of semi-active jet turbulence grid.

Heliyon, 4(12):e01026 pii:e01026.

This article describes a novel approach to generate increased turbulence levels in an incoming flow. It relies on a cost-effective and robust semi-active jet grid, equipped with flexible tubes as moving elements attached onto tube connections placed at the intersections of a fixed, regular grid. For the present study, these flexible tubes are oriented in counter-flow direction in a wind tunnel. Tube motion is governed by multiple interactions between the main flow and the jets exiting the tubes, resulting in chaotic velocity fluctuations and high turbulence intensities in the test section. After describing the structure of the turbulence generator, the turbulent properties of the airflow downstream of the grid in both passive and active modes are measured by hot-wire anemometry and compared with one another. When activating the turbulence generator, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and the Taylor Reynolds number are noticeably increased in comparison with the passive mode (corresponding to simple grid turbulence). Furthermore, the inertial subrange of the turbulent energy spectrum becomes wider and closely follows Kolmogorov's -5/3 law. These results show that the semi-active grid, in contrast to passive systems, is capable of producing high turbulence levels, even at low incoming flow velocity. Compared to alternatives based on actuators driven by servo-motors, the production and operation costs of the semi-active grid are very moderate and its robustness is much higher.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Garcia F, F Stefani (2018)

Continuation and stability of rotating waves in the magnetized spherical Couette system: secondary transitions and multistability.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 474(2220):20180281.

Rotating waves (RW) bifurcating from the axisymmetric basic magnetized spherical Couette (MSC) flow are computed by means of Newton-Krylov continuation techniques for periodic orbits. In addition, their stability is analysed in the framework of Floquet theory. The inner sphere rotates while the outer is kept at rest and the fluid is subjected to an axial magnetic field. For a moderate Reynolds number Re = 103 (measuring inner rotation), the effect of increasing the magnetic field strength (measured by the Hartmann number Ha) is addressed in the range Ha∈(0, 80) corresponding to the working conditions of the HEDGEHOG experiment at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The study reveals several regions of multistability of waves with azimuthal wavenumber m = 2, 3, 4, and several transitions to quasi-periodic flows, i.e modulated rotating waves. These nonlinear flows can be classified as the three different instabilities of the radial jet, the return flow and the shear layer, as found in the previous studies. These two flows are continuously linked, and part of the same branch, as the magnetic forcing is increased. Midway between the two instabilities, at a certain critical Ha, the non-axisymmetric component of the flow is maximum.

RevDate: 2019-03-01

Murphy EAK, Barros JM, Schultz MP, et al (2018)

Roughness effects of diatomaceous slime fouling on turbulent boundary layer hydrodynamics.

Biofouling, 34(9):976-988.

Biofilm fouling significantly impacts ship performance. Here, the impact of biofilm on boundary layer structure at a ship-relevant, low Reynolds number was investigated. Boundary layer measurements were performed over slime-fouled plates using high resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity profile over the biofilm showed a downward shift in the log-law region (ΔU+), resulting in an effective roughness height (ks) of 8.8 mm, significantly larger than the physical thickness of the biofilm (1.7 ± 0.5 mm) and generating more than three times as much frictional drag as the smooth-wall. The skin-friction coefficient, Cf, of the biofilm was 9.0 × 10-3 compared with 2.9 × 10-3 for the smooth wall. The biofilm also enhances turbulent kinetic energy (tke) and Reynolds shear stress, which are more heterogeneous in the streamwise direction than smooth-wall flows. This suggests that biofilms increase drag due to high levels of momentum transport, likely resulting from protruding streamers and surface compliance.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-02-19

Wang WX, Wang WL, Kang HL, et al (2018)

Effect of naturally restored grassland on the ephemeral gully erosion in the loess hilly and gully region.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 29(12):3891-3899.

Ephemeral gully erosion is an important erosion type in hilly and gully regions of Loess Plateau. While previous studies mainly focused on ephemeral gullies in agricultural land, little is known about the effects of naturally restored grassland on ephemeral gully erosion. In this study, taking the bare ephemeral gullies as the baseline, we conducted in-situ flushing tests to explore runoff and sediment yield characteristics and erosion mechanism of grassland ephemeral gullies under the runoff conditions of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 L·min-1. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, average flow velocity, stable runoff rate, Reynolds number and Froude number of grassland ephe-meral gullies was reduced by 25.4%-67.3%, 8.4%-26.6%, 54.9%-80.5%, 18.6%-65.1%, respectively, whereas resistance coefficient was increased by 0.09-7.18 folds. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, the maximum sediment yield rate, stable sediment yield rate, average sediment yield rate of grassland ephemeral gullies was decreased by 55.1%-90.9%, 61.8%-95.4%, and 64.8%-92.4%, respectively. The sediment yield reduction benefit of the naturally restored grassland under the discharge flow rate of 5-25 L·min-1 could reach 65.9%-88.8%, which decreased with increasing discharge flow rate. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, average stream power and average shear stress of grassland ephemeral gullies was reduced by 54.9%-80.5% and 12.4%-51.1%, respectively, whereas the critical stream power and critical shear stress was increased by 1.43 folds and 33.7%, respectively. The average sediment yield of grassland and bare ephemeral gullies was signifi-cantly linearly related to average stream power and shear stress. Naturally restored grassland significantly increased the erosion resistance and reduced runoff erosion potential of ephemeral gullies.

RevDate: 2018-12-28
CmpDate: 2018-12-28

Gabbana A, Polini M, Succi S, et al (2018)

Prospects for the Detection of Electronic Preturbulence in Graphene.

Physical review letters, 121(23):236602.

Based on extensive numerical simulations, accounting for electrostatic interactions and dissipative electron-phonon scattering, we propose experimentally realizable geometries capable of sustaining electronic preturbulence in graphene samples. In particular, preturbulence is predicted to occur at experimentally attainable values of the Reynolds number between 10 and 50, over a broad spectrum of frequencies between 10 and 100 GHz.

RevDate: 2018-12-17

Bass K, Boc S, Hindle M, et al (2018)

High-Efficiency Nose-to-Lung Aerosol Delivery in an Infant: Development of a Validated Computational Fluid Dynamics Method.

Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a powerful tool for developing new high-efficiency aerosol delivery strategies, such as nose-to-lung (N2L) aerosol administration to infants and children using correctly sized aerosols. The objective of this study was to establish numerically efficient CFD solution methods and guidelines for simulating N2L aerosol administration to an infant based on comparisons with concurrent in vitro experiments.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: N2L administration of a micrometer-sized aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter [MMAD] = 1.4 μm) was evaluated using concurrent CFD simulations and in vitro experiments. Aerosol transport and deposition was assessed in a new nasal airway geometry of a 6-month-old infant with a streamlined nasal cannula interface, which was constructed as a CFD mesh and three-dimensionally printed to form an identical physical prototype. CFD meshes explored were a conventional tetrahedral approach with near-wall (NW) prism elements and a new polyhedral mesh style with an equally refined NW layer. The presence of turbulence in the model was evaluated using a highly efficient low-Reynolds number (LRN) k-ω turbulence model, with previously established NW corrections that accounted for anisotropic wall-normal turbulence as well as improved NW velocity interpolations and hydrodynamic particle damping.

RESULTS: Use of the new polyhedral mesh was found to improve numerical efficiency by providing more rapid convergence and requiring fewer control volumes. Turbulent flow was found in the nasal geometry, generated by the inlet jets from the nasal cannula interface. However, due to the small particle size, turbulent dispersion was shown to have little effect on deposition. Good agreement was established between the CFD predictions using the numerically efficient LRN k-ω model with appropriate NW corrections and in vitro deposition data. Aerosol transmission efficiencies through the delivery tube, nasal cannula, and infant nasal model, based on experimental and CFD predictions, were 93.0% and 91.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: A numerically efficient CFD approach was established to develop transnasal aerosol administration to infants and children. Small particle aerosols with aerodynamic diameters of ∼1.5 μm were confirmed to have low inertial depositional loss, and have low deposition from turbulent dispersion, making them ideal for high-efficiency lung delivery through an infant nasal cannula interface.

RevDate: 2019-01-11

Enders A, Siller IG, Urmann K, et al (2019)

3D Printed Microfluidic Mixers-A Comparative Study on Mixing Unit Performances.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), 15(2):e1804326.

One of the basic operations in microfluidic systems for biological and chemical applications is the rapid mixing of different fluids. However, flow profiles in microfluidic systems are laminar, which means molecular diffusion is the only mixing effect. Therefore, mixing structures are crucial to enable more efficient mixing in shorter times. Since traditional microfabrication methods remain laborious and expensive, 3D printing has emerged as a potential alternative for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. In this work, five different passive micromixers known from literature are redesigned in comparable dimensions and manufactured using high-definition MultiJet 3D printing. Their mixing performance is evaluated experimentally, using sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein solutions, and numerically via computational fluid dynamics. Both experimental and numerical analysis results show that HC and Tesla-like mixers achieve complete mixing after 0.99 s and 0.78 s, respectively, at the highest flow rate (Reynolds number (Re) = 37.04). In comparison, Caterpillar mixers exhibit a lower mixing rate with complete mixing after 1.46 s and 1.9 s. Furthermore, the HC mixer achieves very good mixing performances over all flow rates (Re = 3.7 to 37.04), while other mixers show improved mixing only at higher flow rates.

RevDate: 2018-12-14

Sreenivasan KR (2018)

Turbulent mixing: A perspective.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1800463115 [Epub ahead of print].

Mixing of initially distinct substances plays an important role in our daily lives as well as in ecological and technological worlds. From the continuum point of view, which we adopt here, mixing is complete when the substances come together across smallest flow scales determined in part by molecular mechanisms, but important stages of the process occur via the advection of substances by an underlying flow. We know how smooth flows enable mixing but less well the manner in which a turbulent flow influences it; but the latter is the more common occurrence on Earth and in the universe. We focus here on turbulent mixing, with more attention paid to the postmixing state than to the transient process of initiation. In particular, we examine turbulent mixing when the substance is a scalar (i.e., characterized only by the scalar property of its concentration), and the mixing process does not influence the flow itself (i.e., the scalar is "passive"). This is the simplest paradigm of turbulent mixing. Within this paradigm, we discuss how a turbulently mixed state depends on the flow Reynolds number and the Schmidt number of the scalar (the ratio of fluid viscosity to the scalar diffusivity), point out some fundamental aspects of turbulent mixing that render it difficult to be addressed quantitatively, and summarize a set of ideas that help us appreciate its physics in diverse circumstances. We consider the so-called universal and anomalous features and summarize a few model studies that help us understand them both.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Bodling A, A Sharma (2018)

Numerical investigation of low-noise airfoils inspired by the down coat of owls.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics, 14(1):016013.

Numerical analysis of airfoil geometries inspired by the down coat of the night owl is presented. The bioinspired geometry consists of an array of 'finlet fences', which is placed near the trailing edge of the baseline (NACA 0012) airfoil. Two fences with maximum nondimensional heights, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are investigated, where [Formula: see text] is the displacement thickness at 2.9% chord upstream of the airfoil trailing edge. Wall-resolved large eddy simulations are performed at chord-based Reynolds number, [Formula: see text], flow Mach number, [Formula: see text], and angle of attack, [Formula: see text]. The simulation results show significant reductions in unsteady surface pressure and farfield radiated noise with the fences, in agreement with the measurements available in the literature. Analysis of the results reveals that the fences increase the distance between the boundary layer turbulence (source) and the airfoil trailing (scattering) edge, which is identified to be the mechanism behind high-frequency noise reduction. These reductions are larger for the taller fence as the source-scattering edge separation is greater. Two-point correlations show that the fences reduce the spanwise coherence at low frequencies for separation distances greater than a fence pitch (distance between two adjacent fences) and increase the coherence for smaller distances, the increase being higher for the taller fence. This increase in coherence and the reduced obliqueness of the leading edge of the fence are hypothesized to be responsible for the small increase in farfield noise at low frequencies observed in the simulations with the taller fence.

RevDate: 2018-12-28

Paxman T, Noga M, Finlay WH, et al (2019)

Experimental evaluation of pressure drop for flows of air and heliox through upper and central conducting airway replicas of 4- to 8-year-old children.

Journal of biomechanics, 82:134-141.

Airway resistance describes the ratio between pressure drop and flow rate through the conducting respiratory airways. Analytical models of airway resistance for tracheobronchial airways have previously been developed and assessed without upper airways positioned upstream of the trachea. This work investigated pressure drop as a function of flow rate and gas properties for upper and central airway replicas of 10 child subjects, ages 4-8. Replica geometries were built based on computed tomography scan data and included airways from the nose through 3-5 distal branching airway generations. Pressure drop through the replicas was measured for constant inspiratory flows of air and heliox. For both the nose-throat and branching airways, the relationship between non-dimensional coefficient of friction, CF, with Reynolds number, Re, was found to resemble the turbulent Blasius equation for pipe flow, where CF∝Re-0.25. Additionally, pressure drop ratios between heliox and air were consistent with analytical predictions for turbulent flow. The presence of turbulence in the branching airways likely resulted from convection of turbulence produced upstream in the nose and throat. An airway resistance model based on the Blasius pipe friction correlation for turbulent flow was proposed for prediction of pressure drop through the branching bronchial airways downstream from the upper airway.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Acconcia CN, Wright A, DE Goertz (2018)

Translational dynamics of individual microbubbles with millisecond scale ultrasound pulses.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 144(5):2859.

It is established that radiation forces can be used to transport ultrasound contrast agents, particularly for molecular imaging applications. However, the ability to model and control this process in the context of therapeutic ultrasound is limited by a paucity of data on the translational dynamics of encapsulated microbubbles under the influence of longer pulses. In this work, the translation of individual microbubbles, isolated with optical tweezers, was experimentally investigated over a range of diameters (1.8-8.8 μm, n = 187) and pressures (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kPa) with millisecond pulses. Data were compared with theoretical predictions of the translational dynamics, assessing the role of shell and history force effects. A pronounced feature of the displacement curves was an effective threshold size, below which there was only minimal translation. At higher pressures (≥150 kPa) a noticeable structure emerged where multiple local maxima occurred as a function of bubble size. The ability to accurately capture these salient features depended on the encapsulation model employed. In low Reynolds number conditions (i.e., low pressures, or high pressures, off-resonance) the inclusion of history force more accurately fit the data. After pulse cessation, bubbles exhibited substantial displacements consistent with the influence of history effects.

RevDate: 2018-12-14
CmpDate: 2018-12-14

Jeon W, Kim T, Kim SM, et al (2018)

Fast mass transport-assisted convective heat transfer through a multi-walled carbon nanotube array.

Nanoscale, 10(48):23103-23112.

The recently reported fast mass transport through nanochannels provides a unique opportunity to explore nanoscale energy transport. Here we experimentally investigated the convective heat transport of air through vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWNTs). The flow through the unit cell, defined as an interstitial space among four adjacent nanotubes (hydraulic diameter = 84.9 nm), was in the transition (0.62 ≤ Knudsen number ≤ 0.78) and creeping flow (3.83 × 10-5 ≤ Reynolds number (Re) ≤ 1.55 × 10-4) regime. The constant heat flux (0.102 or 0.286 W m-2) was supplied by a single-mode microwave (2.45 GHz) instantly heating the VAMWNTs. The volume flow rate was two orders of magnitude greater than the Hagen-Poiseuille theory value. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficient (h, 3.70 × 10-4-4.01 × 10-3 W m-2 K-1) and Nusselt number (Nu, 1.17 × 10-9-1.26 × 10-8) were small partly due to the small Re. A further increase in Re (2.12 × 10-3) with the support of a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh significantly increased h (5.48 × 10-2 W m-2 K-1) and Nu (2.37 × 10-7). A large number of nanochannels in a given cross-section of heat sinks may enhance the heat dissipation significantly.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Wang C, H Tang (2018)

Influence of complex driving motion on propulsion performance of a heaving flexible foil.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics, 14(1):016011.

This study explores the effects of complex driving motion on the propulsion performance of a flexible foil heaving in the flight regimes of natural flyers. Such a fluid-structure interaction problem is numerically studied using an immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) based numerical framework. It is found that, at the Reynolds number 200 and when the foil's bending stiffness and mass ratio are moderate, adding an extra driving motion of doubled frequency to a purely harmonic motion on the foil's leading edge can enhance the thrust and propulsive efficiency by about 860% and 70%, respectively. The improvement in thrust increases with the extra-driving-motion amplitude. When the extra-driving-motion amplitude is fixed, there exists an optimal extra-driving-motion phase angle. As the foil becomes much stiffer or lighter, the improvement in the propulsion performance turns less. On the other hand, as the foil becomes much more flexible or heavier, drag instead of thrust is generated, and extra driving motion brings no improvement. Although the extra driving motion can improve the foil's propulsion performance in flows of different Reynolds numbers, the increasing rate of the thrust reduces with the Reynolds number. Through this study, details about the competitions among various forces exerted on the foil and their roles in the foil's dynamics are also revealed.

RevDate: 2018-12-18

Kamal A, EE Keaveny (2018)

Enhanced locomotion, effective diffusion and trapping of undulatory micro-swimmers in heterogeneous environments.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 15(148): pii:rsif.2018.0592.

Swimming cells and microorganisms must often move through complex fluids that contain an immersed microstructure such as polymer molecules or filaments. In many important biological processes, such as mammalian reproduction and bacterial infection, the size of the immersed microstructure is comparable to that of the swimming cells. This leads to discrete swimmer-microstructure interactions that alter the swimmer's path and speed. In this paper, we use a combination of detailed simulation and data-driven stochastic models to examine the motion of a planar undulatory swimmer in an environment of spherical obstacles tethered via linear springs to random points in the plane of locomotion. We find that, depending on environmental parameters, the interactions with the obstacles can enhance swimming speeds or prevent the swimmer from moving at all. We also show how the discrete interactions produce translational and angular velocity fluctuations that over time lead to diffusive behaviour primarily due to the coupling of swimming and rotational diffusion. Our results demonstrate that direct swimmer-microstructure interactions can produce changes in swimmer motion that may have important implications for the spreading of cell populations in or the trapping of harmful pathogens by complex fluids.

RevDate: 2018-12-07
CmpDate: 2018-11-26

Grosjean G, Hubert M, Collard Y, et al (2018)

Surface swimmers, harnessing the interface to self-propel.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 41(11):137.

In the study of microscopic flows, self-propulsion has been particularly topical in recent years, with the rise of miniature artificial swimmers as a new tool for flow control, low Reynolds number mixing, micromanipulation or even drug delivery. It is possible to take advantage of interfacial physics to propel these microrobots, as demonstrated by recent experiments using the proximity of an interface, or the interface itself, to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number. This paper discusses how a nearby interface can provide the symmetry breaking necessary for propulsion. An overview of recent experiments illustrates how forces at the interface can be used to generate locomotion. Surface swimmers ranging from the microscopic scale to typically the capillary length are covered. Two systems are then discussed in greater detail. The first is composed of floating ferromagnetic spheres that assemble through capillarity into swimming structures. Two previously studied configurations, triangular and collinear, are discussed and contrasted. A new interpretation for the triangular swimmer is presented. Then, the non-monotonic influence of surface tension and viscosity is evidenced in the collinear case. Finally, a new system is introduced. It is a magnetically powered, centimeter-sized piece that swims similarly to water striders.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
21454 NE 143rd Street
Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )