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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 02 Aug 2021 at 01:30 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-07-28

Singh RK, Mahato LK, DK Mandal (2021)

Airflow-Assisted Impact of Drops of Various Viscosities: The Role of Viscous Dissipation, Normal Imposed Pressure, and Shear Flow of Air.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

The role of liquid viscosity on the spreading for an airflow-assisted impact of drops on a surface is investigated. The spreading diameter is found to increase with the Reynolds number of the airflow (Reair) for a given viscosity and impact Weber number (We) compared to the still air. The increment is higher at a low We for viscous drops, whereas the effect of Reair dominates at the intermediate We as the viscosity decreases. Two extra forces, the normal imposed pressure and shear force of air, act on the drop and influence the spreading along with the viscous dissipation. The drop's curvature decreases depending on the viscosity and impact velocity while spreading. Large-scale eddies near the drop-surface region are observed due to the separation of the incident airflow. The formation of eddies signifies low-pressure zones, which extract the trapped air, causing the spreading diameter of the viscous drop to increase at a low We. With the increase in the We, the lamella thickness of low-viscosity drops decreases and is pushed out by the air shear causing the spreading factor to increase. The boundary layer thickness is estimated using the energy balance method to predict the maximum spreading factor. The prediction compares well with the experimental one for higher viscosities. The accuracy improves when the effect of low pressure is incorporated. To confirm, the experimental spreading is compared with that obtained from three existing models, and one, which considers the influence, is observed to provide a better prediction.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Sharifi A, Gendernalik A, Garrity D, et al (2021)

Valveless pumping behavior of the simulated embryonic heart tube as a function of contractile patterns and myocardial stiffness.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology pii:10.1007/s10237-021-01489-7 [Epub ahead of print].

During development, the heart begins pumping as a valveless multilayered tube capable of driving blood flow throughout the embryonic vasculature. The mechanical properties and how they interface with pumping function are not well-defined at this stage. Here, we evaluate pumping patterns using a fluid-structure interaction computational model, combined with experimental data and an energetic analysis to investigate myocardial mechanical properties. Through this work, we propose that a myocardium modeled as a Neo-Hookean material with a material constant on the order of 10 kPa is necessary for the heart tube to function with an optimal pressure and cardiac output.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Akram S, Athar M, Saeed K, et al (2021)

Crossbreed impact of double-diffusivity convection on peristaltic pumping of magneto Sisko nanofluids in non-uniform inclined channel: A bio-nanoengineering model.

Science progress, 104(3):368504211033677.

The consequences of double-diffusivity convection on the peristaltic transport of Sisko nanofluids in the non-uniform inclined channel and induced magnetic field are discussed in this article. The mathematical modeling of Sisko nanofluids with induced magnetic field and double-diffusivity convection is given. To simplify PDEs that are highly nonlinear in nature, the low but finite Reynolds number, and long wavelength estimation are used. The Numerical solution is calculated for the non-linear PDEs. The exact solution of concentration, temperature and nanoparticle are obtained. The effect of various physical parameters of flow quantities is shown in numerical and graphical data. The outcomes show that as the thermophoresis and Dufour parameters are raised, the profiles of temperature, concentration, and nanoparticle fraction all significantly increase.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Kasoju VT, Moen DS, Ford MP, et al (2021)

Interspecific variation in bristle number on forewings of tiny insects does not influence clap-and-fling aerodynamics.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:271001 [Epub ahead of print].

Miniature insects must overcome significant viscous resistance in order to fly. They typically possess wings with long bristles on the fringes and use clap-and-fling mechanism to augment lift. These unique solutions to the extreme conditions of flight at tiny sizes (< 2 mm body length) suggest that natural selection has optimized wing design for better aerodynamic performance. However, species vary in wingspan, number of bristles (n), and bristle gap (G) to diameter (D) ratio (G/D). How this variation relates to body length (BL) and its effects on aerodynamics remain unknown. We measured forewing images of 38 species of thrips and 21 species of fairyflies. Our phylogenetic comparative analyses showed that n and wingspan scaled positively and similarly with body length across both groups, whereas G/D decreased with BL, with a sharper decline in thrips. We next measured aerodynamic forces and visualized flow on physical models of bristled wings performing clap-and-fling kinematics at chord-based Reynolds number of 10 using a dynamically scaled robotic platform. We examined the effects of dimensional (G, D, wingspan) and non-dimensional (n, G/D) geometric variables on dimensionless lift and drag. We found that: (a) increasing G reduced drag more than decreasing D; (b) changing n had minimal impact on lift generation; and (c) varying G/D minimally affected aerodynamic forces. These aerodynamic results suggest little pressure to functionally optimize n and G/D. Combined with the scaling relationships between wing variables and BL, much wing variation in tiny flying insects might be best explained by underlying shared growth factors.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Dvoriashyna M, E Lauga (2021)

Hydrodynamics and direction change of tumbling bacteria.

PloS one, 16(7):e0254551 pii:PONE-D-21-10002.

The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) swims in viscous fluids by rotating several helical flagellar filaments, which are gathered in a bundle behind the cell during 'runs' wherein the cell moves steadily forward. In between runs, the cell undergoes quick 'tumble' events, during which at least one flagellum reverses its rotation direction and separates from the bundle, resulting in erratic motion in place and a random reorientation of the cell. Alternating between runs and tumbles allows cells to sample space by stochastically changing their propulsion direction after each tumble. The change of direction during a tumble is not uniformly distributed but is skewed towards smaller angles with an average of about 62°-68°, as first measured by Berg and Brown (1972). Here we develop a theoretical approach to model the angular distribution of swimming E. coli cells during tumbles. We first use past experimental imaging results to construct a kinematic description of the dynamics of the flagellar filaments during a tumble. We then employ low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics to compute the consequences of the kinematic model on the force and torque balance of the cell and to deduce the overall change in orientation. The results of our model are in good agreement with experimental observations. We find that the main change of direction occurs during the 'bundling' part of the process wherein, at the end of a tumble, the dispersed flagellar filaments are brought back together in the helical bundle, which we confirm using a simplified forced-sphere model.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Ishak MS, Alsabery AI, Hashim I, et al (2021)

Entropy production and mixed convection within trapezoidal cavity having nanofluids and localised solid cylinder.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14700.

The entropy production and mixed convection within a trapezoidal nanofluid-filled cavity having a localised solid cylinder is numerically examined using the finite element technique. The top horizontal surface moving at a uniform velocity is kept at a cold temperature, while the bottom horizontal surface is thermally activated. The remaining surfaces are maintained adiabatic. Water-based nanofluids ([Formula: see text] nanoparticles) are used in this study, and the Boussinesq approximation applies. The influence of the Reynolds number, Richardson number, nanoparticles volume fraction, dimensionless radius and location of the solid cylinder on the streamlines, isotherms and isentropic are examined. The results show that the solid cylinder's size and location are significant control parameters for optimising the heat transfer and the Bejan number inside the trapezoidal cavity. Furthermore, the maximum average Nusselt numbers are obtained for high R values, where the average Nusselt number is increased by 30% when R is raised from 0 to 0.25.

RevDate: 2021-07-18

Gurovich AN, Rodriguez L, F Morales-Acuna (2021)

There are no differences in brachial artery endothelial shear stress and blood flow patterns between males and females during exercise.

Clinical physiology and functional imaging [Epub ahead of print].

Premenopausal females have lower cardiovascular risk than males. Sex differences on exercise-induced endothelial shear stress (ESS) and blood flow patterns may explain part of this risk reduction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in brachial artery exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns between males and females. Thirty subjects (13 females) were recruited to perform a three-workload steady-state exercise test based on blood lactate levels (i.e., <2.0, 2.0-4.0, >4.0 mmol/l). ESS and blood flow patterns were estimated at rest and during each workload by Womersley's approximation and Reynolds number, respectively. Both males and females showed an exercise intensity-dependent increase in antegrade and retrograde ESS. There was no significant sex effect or interaction for antegrade ESS (F(1, 30) =0.715, p=0.405 and F(1.672, 60) =1.511, p=0.232, respectively) or retrograde ESS (F(1, 30) =0.794, p=0.380 and F(1.810, 60) =1.022, p=0.361, respectively). Additionally, antegrade blood flow was turbulent during all bouts of exercise while retrograde blood flow became disturbed at moderate and high exercise intensities in both groups. Exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns are no different between male and females when the exercise load is equivalent. This suggest that the vascular benefits of exercise training are similar in both sexes from a hemodynamic standpoint.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Gul H, Ramzan M, Chung JD, et al (2021)

Multiple slips impact in the MHD hybrid nanofluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and autocatalytic chemical reaction.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14625.

The present study deliberates the nanofluid flow containing multi and single-walled carbon nanotubes submerged into Ethylene glycol in a Darcy-Forchheimer permeable media over a stretching cylinder with multiple slips. The innovation of the envisaged mathematical model is enriched by considering the impacts of non-uniform source/sink and modified Fourier law in the energy equation and autocatalytic chemical reaction in the concentration equation. Entropy optimization analysis of the mathematical model is also performed in the present problem. Pertinent transformations procedure is implemented for the conversion of the non-linear system to the ordinary differential equations. The succor of the Shooting technique combined with the bvp4c MATLAB software is utilized for the solution of a highly nonlinear system of equations. The impacts of the leading parameters versus engaged fields are inspected through graphical sketches. The outcomes show that a strong magnetic field strengthens the temperature profile and decays the velocity profile. Also, the fluid velocity is lessened for growing estimates of the parameter of slip. Additionally, it is detected that entropy number augmented for higher thermal relaxation parameter and Reynolds number. To substantiate the existing mathematical model, a comparison table is also added. An excellent correlation is achieved here.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Wang H, Enders A, Preuss JA, et al (2021)

3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14584.

3D printing of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices enables rapid prototyping of robust and complex structures. In this work, we designed and fabricated a 3D printed lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation. The final 3D printed chip offers three key features, such as (1) an optimized fiber channel design for precise alignment of optical fibers, (2) an optically clear window to visualize the trapping region, and (3) a sample channel which facilitates hydrodynamic focusing of samples. A square zig-zag structure incorporated in the sample channel increases the number of particles at the trapping site and focuses the cells and particles during experiments when operating the chip at low Reynolds number. To evaluate the performance of the device for optical manipulation, we implemented on-chip, fiber-based optical trapping of different-sized microscopic particles and performed trap stiffness measurements. In addition, optical stretching of MCF-7 cells was successfully accomplished for the purpose of studying the effects of a cytochalasin metabolite, pyrichalasin H, on cell elasticity. We observed distinct changes in the deformability of single cells treated with pyrichalasin H compared to untreated cells. These results demonstrate that 3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices offer a cost-effective and customizable platform for applications in optical manipulation.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Dubey A, Vasu B, Bég OA, et al (2021)

Finite element computation of magneto-hemodynamic flow and heat transfer in a bifurcated artery with saccular aneurysm using the Carreau-Yasuda biorheological model.

Microvascular research pii:S0026-2862(21)00091-1 [Epub ahead of print].

"Existing computational fluid dynamics studies of blood flows have demonstrated that the lower wall stress and higher oscillatory shear index might be the cause of acceleration in atherogenesis of vascular walls in hemodynamics. To prevent the chances of aneurysm wall rupture in the saccular aneurysm at distal aortic bifurcation, clinical biomagnetic studies have shown that extra-corporeal magnetic fields can be deployed to regulate the blood flow. Motivated by these developments, in the current study a finite element computational fluid dynamics simulation has been conducted of unsteady two-dimensional non-Newtonian magneto-hemodynamic heat transfer in electrically conducting blood flow in a bifurcated artery featuring a saccular aneurysm. The fluid flow is assumed to be pulsatile, non-Newtonian and incompressible. The Carreau-Yasuda model is adopted for blood to mimic non-Newtonian characteristics. The transformed equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically by employing the finite element method with the variational approach in the FreeFEM++ code. Hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics are elucidated in detail for the effects of key non-dimensional parameters i.e. Reynolds number (Re = 14, 21, 100, 200), Prandtl number (Pr = 14, 21) and magnetic body force parameter (Hartmann number) (M = 0.6, 1.2, 1.5) at the aneurysm and throughout the arterial domain. The influence of vessel geometry on blood flow characteristics i.e. velocity, pressure and temperature fields are also visualized through instantaneous contour patterns. It is found that an increase in the magnetic parameter reduces the pressure but increases the skin-friction coefficient in the domain. The temperature decreases at the parent artery (inlet) and both the distant and prior artery with the increment in the Prandtl number. A higher Reynolds number also causes a reduction in velocity as well as in pressure. The blood flow shows different characteristic contours with time variation at the aneurysm as well as in the arterial segment. The novelty of the current research is therefore to present a combined approach amalgamating the Carreau-Yasuda model, heat transfer and magnetohydrodynamics with complex geometric features in realistic arterial hemodynamics with extensive visualization and interpretation, in order to generalize and extend previous studies. In previous studies these features have been considered separately and not simultaneously as in the current study. The present simulations reveal some novel features of biomagnetic hemodynamics in bifurcated arterial transport featuring a saccular aneurysm which are envisaged to be of relevance in furnishing improved characterization of the rheological biomagnetic hemodynamics of realistic aneurysmic bifurcations in clinical assessment, diagnosis and magnetic-assisted treatment of cardiovascular disease."

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Han E, Zhu L, Shaevitz JW, et al (2021)

Low-Reynolds-number, biflagellated Quincke swimmers with multiple forms of motion.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(29):.

In the limit of zero Reynolds number (Re), swimmers propel themselves exploiting a series of nonreciprocal body motions. For an artificial swimmer, a proper selection of the power source is required to drive its motion, in cooperation with its geometric and mechanical properties. Although various external fields (magnetic, acoustic, optical, etc.) have been introduced, electric fields are rarely utilized to actuate such swimmers experimentally in unbounded space. Here we use uniform and static electric fields to demonstrate locomotion of a biflagellated sphere at low Re via Quincke rotation. These Quincke swimmers exhibit three different forms of motion, including a self-oscillatory state due to elastohydrodynamic-electrohydrodynamic interactions. Each form of motion follows a distinct trajectory in space. Our experiments and numerical results demonstrate a method to generate, and potentially control, the locomotion of artificial flagellated swimmers.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Zhang B, Leishangthem P, Ding Y, et al (2021)

An effective and efficient model of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions for active suspensions of bacteria.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(28):.

Near-field hydrodynamic interactions in active fluids are essential to determine many important emergent behaviors observed, but have not been successfully modeled so far. In this work, we propose an effective model capturing the essence of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions through a tensorial coefficient of resistance, validated numerically by a pedagogic model system consisting of an Escherichia coli bacterium and a passive sphere. In a critical test case that studies the scattering angle of the bacterium-sphere pair dynamics, we prove that the near-field hydrodynamics can make a qualitative difference even for this simple two-body system: Calculations based on the proposed model reveal a region in parameter space where the bacterium is trapped by the passive sphere, a phenomenon that is regularly observed in experiments but cannot be explained by any existing model. In the end, we demonstrate that our model also leads to efficient simulation of active fluids with tens of thousands of bacteria, sufficiently large for investigations of many emergent behaviors.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Charakopoulos A, Karakasidis T, I Sarris (2021)

Analysis of magnetohydrodynamic channel flow through complex network analysis.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 31(4):043123.

Velocity time series of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flow are analyzed by means of complex network analysis in order to understand the mechanism of fluid patterns modification due to the external magnetic field. Direct numerical simulations of two cases are used, one for the plane hydrodynamic turbulent channel flow at the low Reynolds number of 180, based on the friction velocity, and the corresponding MHD flow with an external streamwise magnetic field with a magnetic interaction number of 0.1. By applying the visibility graph algorithm, we first transformed the time series into networks and then we evaluated the network topological properties. Results show that the proposed network analysis is not only able to identify and detect dynamical transitions in the system's behavior that identifies three distinct fluid areas in accordance with turbulent flow theory but also can quantify the effect of the magnetic field on the time series transitions. Moreover, we find that the topological measures of networks without a magnetic field and as compared to the one with a magnetic field are statistically different within a 95% confidence interval. These results provide a way to discriminate and characterize the influence of the magnetic field on the turbulent flows.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Tang TQ, Hsu SY, Dahiya A, et al (2021)

Numerical modeling of pulsatile blood flow through a mini-oxygenator in artificial lungs.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 208:106241 pii:S0169-2607(21)00315-1 [Epub ahead of print].

While previous in vitro studies showed divergent results concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on oxygen advection in oxygenators, no study was done to investigate the uncertainty affected by blood flow dynamics. The aim of this study is to utilize a computational fluid dynamics model to clarify the debate concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on the oxygen transport. The computer model is based on a validated 2D finite volume approach that predicts oxygen transfer in pulsatile blood flow passing through a 300-micron hollow-fiber membrane bundle with a length of 254 mm, a building block for an artificial lung device. In this study, the flow parameters include the steady Reynolds number (Re = 2, 5, 10 and 20), Womersley parameter (Wo = 0.29, 0.38 and 0.53) and sinusoidal amplitude (A = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). Specifically, the computer model is extended to verify, for the first time, the previously measured O2 transport that was observed to be hindered by pulsating flow in the Biolung, developed by Michigan Critical Care Consultants. A comprehensive analysis is carried out on computed profiles and fields of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) as a function of Re, Wo and A. Based on the present results, we observe the positive and negative effects of pulsatile flow on PO2 at different blood flow rates. Besides, the SO2 variation is not much influenced by the pulsatile flow conditions investigated. While being consistent with a recent experimental study, the computed O2 volume flow rate is found to be increased at high blood flow rates operated with low frequency and high amplitude. Furthermore, the present study qualitatively explains that divergent outcomes reported in previous in vitro experimental studies could be owing to the different blood flow rates adopted. Finally, the contour analysis reveals how the spatial distributions of PO2 and SO2 vary over time.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Meng X, Ghaffar A, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

Very low Reynolds number causes a monotonic force enhancement trend for a three-dimensional hovering wing in ground effect.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

This research reports the numerical results of the ground effect trend for a three-dimensional (3D) flapping insect wing at a very low Reynolds number (Re=10). It demonstrates that the ground effect trend at this Re has a "single force regime," i.e., the forces only enhance as the ground distance decreases. This phenomenon is unlike the widely expected non-monotonic trend publicized in previous studies for higher Reynolds numbers, that shows "three force regimes," i.e., the forces reduce, recover, and also enhance as the ground distance decreases. The force trend in the ground effect correlates to a similar trend in wing-wake interaction or the downwash strength on the wing's head. At very low Re (10), the very large viscosity causes diffused vortices and less advected vortex wake, while at relatively high Re, the vortices are easily separated from the wing and then advected downwards. This different development of the vortex wake caused different force trends for the flapping wing in the ground effect. Furthermore, by examining only the first stroke when there is no vortex wake, we found that the "ramming effect" enhances the forces on the wing. This effect increases the pressure of the lower wing surface due to the squeezed air between the wing and the ground. The "ramming effect", combined with the reduced downwash (or wing-wake interaction) effect, causes the force enhancement of the wing near the ground's vicinity. It is further comprehended that the trend is dependent on Re. As the Re is increased, the trend becomes non-monotonic. The effect of varying angles of attack, flapping amplitude and wing planform at very low Re does not change this trend. This ground effect might help insects by enhancing their lift while they hover above the surface. This finding might prove beneficial for developing Micro Air Vehicles.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Iyer KP, Bewley GP, Biferale L, et al (2021)

Oscillations Modulating Power Law Exponents in Isotropic Turbulence: Comparison of Experiments with Simulations.

Physical review letters, 126(25):254501.

Inertial-range features of turbulence are investigated using data from experimental measurements of grid turbulence and direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence simulated in a periodic box, both at the Taylor-scale Reynolds number R_{λ}∼1000. In particular, oscillations modulating the power-law scaling in the inertial range are examined for structure functions up to sixth-order moments. The oscillations in exponent ratios decrease with increasing sample size in simulations, although in experiments they survive at a low value of 4 parts in 1000 even after massive averaging. The two datasets are consistent in their intermittent character but differ in small but observable respects. Neither the scaling exponents themselves nor all the viscous effects are consistently reproduced by existing models of intermittency.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Gojon R, Jardin T, H Parisot-Dupuis (2021)

Experimental investigation of low Reynolds number rotor noise.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149(6):3813.

In this paper, an experimental characterisation of low Reynolds number rotors is performed in an anechoic room. Two commercially available two-bladed rotors as well as four three-dimensional (3D)-printed rotors with different numbers of blades (from two to five) are tested. The latter have canonical geometry, with an NACA0012 blade section profile, extruded in the radial direction with constant chord and constant 10° pitch. The experimental setup and the 3D printing strategy are first validated using results from the literature for the commercially available rotors. For all the tested rotors, four noise characteristics are analysed: the overall sound pressure level (OASPL), the amplitude of the blade passing frequency (BPF), and the amplitude of its first harmonic and the high-frequency broadband noise. For all the rotors, an increase in all noise characteristics is observed with the rotational speed (rpm) for all directivity angles. Moreover, an interesting change of pattern is observed for the amplitudes of the BPF and of its first harmonic, with, in the vicinity of the rotor plane, a minimum value for low rpm and/or high number of blades, and a maximum value for high rpm and/or low number of blades. This change in directivity leads to a similar change of directivity of the OASPL. For the broadband noise, a dipole-like pattern is obtained with a minimum value at θ=-10°, i.e., aligned with the trailing edge and thus indicating the generation of trailing edge noise. Finally, scaling laws that characterise the amplitude of the different noise components with respect to the rpm are proposed.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Mazharmanesh S, Stallard J, Medina A, et al (2021)

Effects of uniform vertical inflow perturbations on the performance of flapping wings.

Royal Society open science, 8(6):210471.

Flapping wings have attracted significant interest for use in miniature unmanned flying vehicles. Although numerous studies have investigated the performance of flapping wings under quiescent conditions, effects of freestream disturbances on their performance remain under-explored. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of uniform vertical inflows on flapping wings using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at Reynolds number ≈ 3600. The overall lift and drag produced by a flapping wing were measured by varying the magnitude of inflow perturbation from J Vert = -1 (downward inflow) to J Vert = 1 (upward inflow), where J Vert is the ratio of the inflow velocity to the wing's velocity. The interaction between flapping wing and downward-oriented inflows resulted in a steady linear reduction in mean lift and drag coefficients, C ¯ L and C ¯ D , with increasing inflow magnitude. While a steady linear increase in C ¯ L and C ¯ D was noted for upward-oriented inflows between 0 < J Vert < 0.3 and J Vert > 0.7, a significant unsteady wing-wake interaction occurred when 0.3 ≤ J Vert < 0.7, which caused large variations in instantaneous forces over the wing and led to a reduction in mean performance. These findings highlight asymmetrical effects of vertically oriented perturbations on the performance of flapping wings and pave the way for development of suitable control strategies.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Connolly S, Newport D, K McGourty (2021)

Cell specific variation in viability in suspension in in vitro Poiseuille flow conditions.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13997.

The influence of Poiseuille flow on cell viability has applications in the areas of cancer metastasis, lab-on-a-chip devices and flow cytometry. Indeed, retaining cell viability is important in the emerging field of adoptive cell therapy, as cells need to be returned to patients' bodies, while the viability of other cells, which are perhaps less accustomed to suspension in a fluidic environment, is important to retain in flow cytometers and other such devices. Despite this, it is unclear how Poiseuille flow affects cell viability. Following on from previous studies which investigated the viability and inertial positions of circulating breast cancer cells in identical flow conditions, this study investigated the influence that varying flow rate, and the corresponding Reynolds number has on the viability of a range of different circulating cells in laminar pipe flow including primary T-cells, primary fibroblasts and neuroblastoma cells. It was found that Reynolds numbers as high as 9.13 had no effect on T-cells while the viabilities of neuroblastoma cells and intestinal fibroblasts were significantly reduced in comparison. This indicates that in vitro flow devices need to be tailored to cell-specific flow regimes.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Shanbrom C, Balisacan J, Wilkens G, et al (2021)

Geometric Methods for Efficient Planar Swimming of Copepod Nauplii.

Micromachines, 12(6):.

Copepod nauplii are larval crustaceans with important ecological functions. Due to their small size, they experience an environment of low Reynolds number within their aquatic habitat. Here we provide a mathematical model of a swimming copepod nauplius with two legs moving in a plane. This model allows for both rotation and two-dimensional displacement by the periodic deformation of the swimmer's body. The system is studied from the framework of optimal control theory, with a simple cost function designed to approximate the mechanical energy expended by the copepod. We find that this model is sufficiently realistic to recreate behavior similar to those of observed copepod nauplii, yet much of the mathematical analysis is tractable. In particular, we show that the system is controllable, but there exist singular configurations where the degree of non-holonomy is non-generic. We also partially characterize the abnormal extremals and provide explicit examples of families of abnormal curves. Finally, we numerically simulate normal extremals and observe some interesting and surprising phenomena.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Ali A, Bukhari Z, Umar M, et al (2021)

Cu and Cu-SWCNT Nanoparticles' Suspension in Pulsatile Casson Fluid Flow via Darcy-Forchheimer Porous Channel with Compliant Walls: A Prospective Model for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(12):.

The use of experimental relations to approximate the efficient thermophysical properties of a nanofluid (NF) with Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and hybrid nanofluid (HNF) with Cu-SWCNT NPs and subsequently model the two-dimensional pulsatile Casson fluid flow under the impact of the magnetic field and thermal radiation is a novelty of the current study. Heat and mass transfer analysis of the pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian Casson HNF via a Darcy-Forchheimer porous channel with compliant walls is presented. Such a problem offers a prospective model to study the blood flow via stenosed arteries. A finite-difference flow solver is used to numerically solve the system obtained using the vorticity stream function formulation on the time-dependent governing equations. The behavior of Cu-based NF and Cu-SWCNT-based HNF on the wall shear stress (WSS), velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are analyzed graphically. The influence of the Casson parameter, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, Darcy number, Soret number, Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and Peclet number on the flow profiles are analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of the flow parameters on the non-dimensional numbers such as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number is also discussed. These quantities escalate as the Reynolds number is enhanced and reduce by escalating the porosity parameter. The Peclet number shows a high impact on the microorganism's density in a blood NF. The HNF has been shown to have superior thermal properties to the traditional one. These results could help in devising hydraulic treatments for blood flow in highly stenosed arteries, biomechanical system design, and industrial plants in which flow pulsation is essential.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Ju Y, Zhu T, Mashayekhi R, et al (2021)

Evaluation of Multiple Semi-Twisted Tape Inserts in a Heat Exchanger Pipe Using Al2O3 Nanofluid.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6):.

The hydrothermal performance of multiple semi-twisted tape inserts inside a heat exchanger pipe is numerically examined in three-dimensions. This study aims to find the optimum case for having the highest heat transfer enhancement with the lowest friction factor using nanofluid (Al2O3/water). A performance evaluation criterion (PEC) is defined to characterize the performance based on both friction factor and heat transfer. It was found that increasing the number of semi-twisted tapes increases the number of swirl flow streams and leads to an enhancement in the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. The average Nusselt number increases from 15.13 to 28.42 and the average friction factor enhances from 0.022 to 0.052 by increasing the number of the semi-twisted tapes from 0 to 4 for the Reynolds number of 1000 for the base fluid. By using four semi-twisted tapes, the average Nusselt number increases from 12.5 to 28.5, while the friction factor reduces from 0.155 to 0.052 when the Reynolds number increases from 250 to 1000 for the base fluid. For the Reynolds number of 1000, the increase in nanofluid concentration from 0 to 3% improves the average Nusselt number and friction factor by 6.41% and 2.29%, respectively. The highest PEC is equal to 1.66 and belongs to the Reynolds number of 750 using four semi-twisted tape inserts with 3% nanoparticles. This work offers instructions to model an advanced design of twisted tape integrated with tubes using multiple semi-twisted tapes, which helps to provide a higher amount of energy demand for solar applications.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Elsafy KM, MZ Saghir (2021)

Forced Convection in Wavy Microchannels Porous Media Using TiO2 and Al2O3-Cu Nanoparticles in Water Base Fluids: Numerical Results.

Micromachines, 12(6): pii:mi12060654.

In the present work, an attempt is made to investigate the performance of three fluids with forced convection in a wavy channel. The fluids are water, a nanofluid of 1% TiO2 in a water solution and a hybrid fluid which consists of 1% Al2O3-Cu nanoparticles in a water solution. The wavy channel has a porous insert with a permeability of 10 PPI, 20 PPI and 40 PPI, respectively. Since Reynolds number is less than 1000, the flow is assumed laminar, Newtonian and steady state. Results revealed that wavy channel provides a better heat enhancement than a straight channel of the same dimension. Porous material increases heat extraction at the expenses of the pressure drop. The nanofluid of 1% TiO2 in water provided the highest performance evaluation criteria.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Ahmed S, J Perez-Mercader (2021)

Autonomous Low-Reynolds-Number Soft Robots with Structurally Encoded Motion and Their Thermodynamic Efficiency.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 37(27):8148-8156.

Soft low-Reynolds-number robotics hold the potential to significantly impact numerous fields including drug delivery, sensing, and diagnostics. Realizing this potential is predicated upon the ability to design soft robots tailored to their intended function. In this work, we identify the effect of different geometric and symmetry parameters on the motion of soft, autonomous robots that operate in the low-Reynolds-number regime and use organic fuel. The ability to power low-Reynolds-number soft robots using an organic fuel would provide a new avenue for their potential use in biomedical applications, as is the use of a polymeric biocompatible material as is done here. We introduce a simple and cost-effective 3D-printer-assisted method to fabricate robots of different shapes that is scalable and widely applicable for a variety of materials. The efficiency of chemical energy to mechanical energy conversion is measured in soft low-Reynolds-number robots for the first time, and their mechanism of motion is assessed. Motion is a result of a periodic and oscillatory change in the charge state of the gel. This work lays the groundwork for the structure-function design of soft, chemically operated, and autonomous low-Reynolds-number robots.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Yang F, Zeng YH, WX Huai (2021)

A new model for settling velocity of non-spherical particles.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The settlement of non-spherical particles, such as propagules of plants and natural sediments, is commonly observed in riverine ecosystems. The settling process is influenced by both particle properties (size, density, and shape) and fluid properties (density and viscosity). Therefore, the drag law of non-spherical particles is a function of both particle Reynolds number and particle shape. Herein, a total of 828 settling data are collected from the literatures, which cover a wide range of particle Reynolds number (0.008-10000). To characterize the influence of particle shapes, sphericity is adopted as the general shape factor, which varies from 0.421 to 1.0. By comparing the measured drag with the standard drag curve of spheres, we modify the spherical drag law with three shape-dependent functions to develop a new drag law for non-spherical particles. Combined with an iterative procedure, a new model is thus obtained to predict the settling velocity of non-spherical particles of various shapes and materials. Further applications in hydrochorous propagule dispersal and sediment transport are projected based on deeper understanding of the settling process.

RevDate: 2021-06-21

Hill JL, Hsu PS, Jiang N, et al (2021)

Hypersonic N2 boundary layer flow velocity profile measurements using FLEET.

Applied optics, 60(15):C38-C46.

Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used in the boundary layer of an ogive-cylinder model in a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube. One-dimensional velocity profiles were extracted from the FLEET signal in laminar boundary layers from pure N2 flows at unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.4×106/m to3.9×106/m. The effects of model tip bluntness and the unit Reynolds number on the velocity profiles were investigated. The challenges and strategies of applying FLEET for direct boundary layer velocity measurement are discussed. The potential of utilizing FLEET velocimetry for understanding the dynamics of laminar and turbulent boundary layers in hypersonic flows is demonstrated.

RevDate: 2021-06-17

Mazharmanesh S, Stallard J, Medina A, et al (2021)

Performance of passively pitching flapping wings in the presence of vertical inflows.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

The successful implementation of passively pitching flapping wings strongly depends on their ability to operate efficiently in wind disturbances. In this study, we experimentally investigated the interaction between a uniform vertical inflow perturbation and a passive-pitching flapping wing using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at Reynolds number ≈ 3600. A parametric study was performed by systematically varying the Cauchy number (Ch) of the wings from 0.09 to 11.52. The overall lift and drag, and pitch angle of the wing were measured by varying the magnitude of perturbation from J_Vert=-0.6 (downward inflow) to J_Vert=0.6 (upward inflow) at each Ch, where J_Vert is the ratio of the inflow velocity to the wing's velocity. We found that the lift and drag had remarkably different characteristics in response to both Ch and J_Vert. Across all Ch, while mean lift tended to increase as the inflow perturbation varied from -0.6 to 0.6, drag was significantly less sensitive to the perturbation. However effect of the vertical inflow on drag was dependent on Ch, where it tended to vary from an increasing to a decreasing trend as Ch was changed from 0.09 to 11.52. The differences in the lift and drag with perturbation magnitude could be attributed to the reorientation of the net force over the wing as a result of the interaction with the perturbation. These results highlight the complex interactions between passively pitching flapping wings and freestream perturbations and will guide the design of miniature flying crafts with such architectures.

RevDate: 2021-06-17

Li H, Tian B, He Z, et al (2021)

Growth mechanism of interfacial fluid-mixing width induced by successive nonlinear wave interactions.

Physical review. E, 103(5-1):053109.

Interfacial fluid mixing induced by successive waves, such as shock, rarefaction, and compression waves, plays a fundamental role in engineering applications, e.g., inertial confinement fusion, and in natural phenomena, e.g., supernova explosion. These waves bring nonuniform, unsteady external forces into the mixing zone, which leads to a complex mixing process. The growth rate of the mixing width is analyzed by decomposing the turbulent flow field into the averaged field and the fluctuating counterpart. The growth rate is thus divided into three parts: (i) the stretching or compression (S(C)) effect induced by the averaged-velocity difference between two ends of the mixing zone, (ii) the penetration effect induced by the fluctuations which represent the penetration of the two species into each other, and (iii) the diffusive effect, which is induced by the molecular diffusion and is negligible in high-Reynolds-number flows at Schmidt number of order unity. The penetration effect is further divided into the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) effect, which is induced by fluctuations that were deposited by earlier wave interactions, and the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) effect, which is caused by the fluctuations that arise in an overall acceleration of the mixing zone. During the passage of the rarefaction waves, the mixing zone is stretched, while during the passage of the compression waves or shock waves, the mixing zone is compressed. To illustrate these effects, a physical model of RM mixing with reshock is used. By combining the S(C), RM, and RT effects, the entire evolution of mixing width is restructured, which agrees well with numerical simulations for problems with a wide range of density ratios.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Ahookhosh K, Saidi M, Mohammadpourfard M, et al (2021)

Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.

European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 164:105911.

Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. The upper airway geometry, which includes the extrathoracic region, trachea, and bronchial airways up to the fourth generation in some branches, was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) images of an adult healthy female. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed using the k-ω model with low-Reynolds number (LRN) corrections to accomplish the objectives. The deposition results of the present study were verified with the in vitro deposition data of our previous investigation on pulmonary drug delivery using a hollow replica of the same airway geometry as used for CFD modeling. It was found that the flow structure inside the pMDI and extrathoracic region strongly depends on inhalation flow rate and geometry of the inhaler. In addition, regional aerosol deposition patterns were investigated at four inhalation flow rates between 30 and 120 L/min and for 60 L/min yielding highest deposition fractions of 24.4% and 3.1% for the extrathoracic region (EX) and the trachea, respectively. It was also revealed that particle deposition was larger in the right branches of the bronchial airways (right lung) than the left branches (left lung) for all of the considered cases. Also, optimization of spray characteristics showed that the optimum values for initial spray velocity, spray cone angle and spray duration were 100 m/s, 10° and 0.1 sec, respectively. Moreover, spray cone angle, more than any other of the investigated pMDI parameters can change the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the airway model. In conclusion, the present investigation provides a validated CFD model for particle deposition and new insights into the relevance of flow structure for deposition of pMDI-emitted pharmaceutical aerosols in the upper respiratory tract.

RevDate: 2021-06-18

Shah Z, Jafaryar M, Sheikholeslami M, et al (2021)

Heat transfer intensification of nanomaterial with involve of swirl flow device concerning entropy generation.

Scientific reports, 11(1):12504.

The thermal features of hybrid nano-powder turbulent motion through a pipe employing helical turbulator is numerically simulated via Finite Volume Method (FVM). The hybrid nanofluid (MWCNTs + Fe3O4 + H2O) is obtained by uniformly dispersing MWCNTs + Fe3O4 nanomaterials in H2O. The characteristics features of thermal energy transfer of hybrid nanofluid are investigated by varying the pitch ratio (P) of the helical turbulator and Reynolds number (Re) of the fluid. The outputs of the study are depicted in terms of contour plots of temperature, velocity, frictional irreversibility Sgen,f, and thermal irreversibility Sgen,th. The variation of Sgen,f, and Sgen,th with changing P and Re are also displayed by 3D plots. It is found that making the fluid more turbulent by increasing Re, the temperature of the fluid drops whereas the fluid velocity augments. The frictional irreversibility enhances, whereas the thermal irreversibility drops with the increasing turbulent motion. The decreasing P causes to drop the temperature of the higher turbulent fluid flow, while opposite effect is observed for smaller Re. The decreasing P causes to enhance the fluid mixing and thus augments the fluid velocity. Sgen,f and Sgen,th both augment with decreasing P. The comparison of current outputs with the older article shows an acceptable accuracy. The results of the present investigation will be useful in modelling of efficient thermal energy transfer systems.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Tian G, Zhu Y, Feng X, et al (2021)

Investigation of the Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure over a Sparsely Spaced Biomimetic Spine-Covered Protrusion Surface.

ACS omega, 6(22):14220-14229.

Multiperspective particle image velocimetry was used to investigate the turbulent boundary layer structure over biomimetic spine-covered protrusion (BSCP) samples inspired by dorsal skin of pufferfish. The comparison of BSCP samples of two sparse "k-type" arrangements (aligned and staggered) with roughness height k + = 5-7 (nearly hydraulically smooth) and smooth case were manufactured in bulk Reynolds number Re b = 37,091, 44,510. The negative value of the roughness function ΔU + shows a downward shift of the mean velocity profile of BSCP samples, which shows a drag reduction effect. The results of turbulent statistics present strong fluctuation over the aligned case in the streamwise direction, while little influence is observed in the wall-normal and spanwise direction, which promotes turbulence stability. The same phenomenon was found based on the probability density function of fluctuation velocity that the suppression of turbulent flow is better over the staggered case. It is obvious that the shear stress induced is governed by the streamwise fluctuations. Furthermore, the Q-criterion and the λci-criterion improved with vorticity ω were introduced for vortex identification, which indicates less prograde vortex population and weaker swirling strength over BSCP samples than over the smooth one. Finally, the spatial coherent structure appeared similar and more orderly over the staggered case in the streamwise and wall-normal direction based on the analysis of two-point correlations R uu. These results provide further guidance to reveal the mechanism of drag reduction on the BSCP surface.

RevDate: 2021-06-13

Velho Rodrigues MF, Lisicki M, E Lauga (2021)

The bank of swimming organisms at the micron scale (BOSO-Micro).

PloS one, 16(6):e0252291.

Unicellular microscopic organisms living in aqueous environments outnumber all other creatures on Earth. A large proportion of them are able to self-propel in fluids with a vast diversity of swimming gaits and motility patterns. In this paper we present a biophysical survey of the available experimental data produced to date on the characteristics of motile behaviour in unicellular microswimmers. We assemble from the available literature empirical data on the motility of four broad categories of organisms: bacteria (and archaea), flagellated eukaryotes, spermatozoa and ciliates. Whenever possible, we gather the following biological, morphological, kinematic and dynamical parameters: species, geometry and size of the organisms, swimming speeds, actuation frequencies, actuation amplitudes, number of flagella and properties of the surrounding fluid. We then organise the data using the established fluid mechanics principles for propulsion at low Reynolds number. Specifically, we use theoretical biophysical models for the locomotion of cells within the same taxonomic groups of organisms as a means of rationalising the raw material we have assembled, while demonstrating the variability for organisms of different species within the same group. The material gathered in our work is an attempt to summarise the available experimental data in the field, providing a convenient and practical reference point for future studies.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Amani M, Amani P, Bahiraei M, et al (2021)

Latest developments in nanofluid flow and heat transfer between parallel surfaces: A critical review.

Advances in colloid and interface science, 294:102450 pii:S0001-8686(21)00091-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The enhancement of heat transfer between parallel surfaces, including parallel plates, parallel disks, and two concentric pipes, is vital because of their wide applications ranging from lubrication systems to water purification processes. Various techniques can be utilized to enhance heat transfer in such systems. Adding nanoparticles to the conventional working fluids is an effective solution that could remarkably enhance the heat transfer rate. No published review article focuses on the recent advances in nanofluid flow between parallel surfaces; therefore, the present paper aims to review the latest experimental and numerical studies on the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids (mixtures of nanoparticles and conventional working fluids) in such configurations. For the performance analysis of thermal systems composed of parallel surfaces and operating with nanofluids, it is necessary to know the physical phenomena and parameters that influence the flow and heat transfer characteristics in these systems. Significant results obtained from this review indicate that, in most cases, the heat transfer rate between parallel surfaces is enhanced with an increase in the Rayleigh number, the Reynolds number, the magnetic number, and Brownian motion. On the other hand, an increase in thermophoresis parameter, as well as flow parameters, including the Eckert number, buoyancy ratio, Hartmann number, and Lewis number, leads to heat transfer rate reduction.

RevDate: 2021-06-17

Das S, Pal TK, Jana RN, et al (2021)

Significance of Hall currents on hybrid nano-blood flow through an inclined artery having mild stenosis: Homotopy perturbation approach.

Microvascular research, 137:104192.

The rheological perspective of blood flow with the suspension of metallic or non-metallic nanoparticles through arteries having cardiovascular diseases is getting more attention due to momentous applications in obstructed hemodynamics, nano-hemodynamics, nano-pharmacology, blood purification system, treatment of hemodynamic ailments, etc. Motivated by the novel significance and research in this direction, a mathematical hemodynamics model is developed to mimic the hemodynamic features of blood flow under the concentration of hybrid nanoparticles through an inclined artery with mild stenosis in the existence of dominating electromagnetic field force, Hall currents, heat source, and porous substance. Copper (Cu) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles are submerged into the blood to form hybrid nano-blood suspension (Cu-CuO/blood). The attribute of the medium porosity on the blood flow is featured by Darcy's law. The mathematical equations describing the flow are formulated and simplified under mild stenosis and small Reynolds number assumptions. To determine the analytical solution of the resulting nonlinear momentum equation, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is employed. Several figures are graphed to assess the hemodynamical contributions of various intricate physical parameters on blood flow phenomena through the inclined stenosed artery. Significant outcomes from graphical elucidation envisage that the hemodynamic resistance to the blood flow is reduced due to the dispersion of more hybrid nanoparticles in the blood. The hemodynamic resistance (impedance) increases approximately two times by dispersing 0.11% hybrid nanoparticles in the blood flow. The temperature of Cu-CuO/blood is found to be lower in comparison to Cu-blood and pure blood. Intensification of Hall parameter attenuates the wall shear stress at the arterial wall. The trapping phenomena are also outlined via streamline plots which exemplify the blood flow pattern in the stenosed artery under the variation of the emerging parameters. As anticipated, the addition of a large number of hybrid nanoparticles significantly modulates the blood flow pattern in the stenotic region. The novel feature of this model is the impressive impact of Hall currents on hybrid nanoparticle doped blood flow through the stenosed artery. There is another piece of significance is that HPM is the most suitable method to handle the nonlinear momentum equation under the aforementioned flow constraints. Outcomes of this simulation may be valuable for advanced study and research in biomedical engineering, bio-nanofluid mechanics, nano-pharmacodynamics.

RevDate: 2021-06-06

Usman AH, Khan NS, Humphries UW, et al (2021)

Computational optimization for the deposition of bioconvection thin Oldroyd-B nanofluid with entropy generation.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11641.

The behavior of an Oldroyd-B nanoliquid film sprayed on a stretching cylinder is investigated. The system also contains gyrotactic microorganisms with heat and mass transfer flow. Similarity transformations are used to make the governing equations non-dimensional ordinary differential equations and subsequently are solved through an efficient and powerful analytic technique namely homotopy analysis method (HAM). The roles of all dimensionless profiles and spray rate have been investigated. Velocity decreases with the magnetic field strength and Oldroyd-B nanofluid parameter. Temperature is increased with increasing the Brownian motion parameter while it is decreased with the increasing values of Prandtl and Reynolds numbers. Nanoparticle's concentration is enhanced with the higher values of Reynolds number and activation energy parameter. Gyrotactic microorganism density increases with bioconvection Rayleigh number while it decreases with Peclet number. The film size naturally increases with the spray rate in a nonlinear way. A close agreement is achieved by comparing the present results with the published results.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-03

Kadiri VM, Günther JP, Kottapalli SN, et al (2021)

Light- and magnetically actuated FePt microswimmers.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(6):74.

Externally controlled microswimmers offer prospects for transport in biological research and medical applications. This requires biocompatibility of the swimmers and the possibility to tailor their propulsion mechanisms to the respective low Reynolds number environment. Here, we incorporate low amounts of the biocompatible alloy of iron and platinum (FePt) in its [Formula: see text] phase in microstructures by a versatile one-step physical vapor deposition process. We show that the hard magnetic properties of [Formula: see text] FePt are beneficial for the propulsion of helical micropropellers with rotating magnetic fields. Finally, we find that the FePt coatings are catalytically active and also make for Janus microswimmers that can be light-actuated and magnetically guided.

RevDate: 2021-06-04

Choe YW, Sim SB, YM Choo (2021)

New Equation for Predicting Pipe Friction Coefficients Using the Statistical Based Entropy Concepts.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(5): pii:e23050611.

In general, this new equation is significant for designing and operating a pipeline to predict flow discharge. In order to predict the flow discharge, accurate determination of the flow loss due to pipe friction is very important. However, existing pipe friction coefficient equations have difficulties in obtaining key variables or those only applicable to pipes with specific conditions. Thus, this study develops a new equation for predicting pipe friction coefficients using statistically based entropy concepts, which are currently being used in various fields. The parameters in the proposed equation can be easily obtained and are easy to estimate. Existing formulas for calculating pipe friction coefficient requires the friction head loss and Reynolds number. Unlike existing formulas, the proposed equation only requires pipe specifications, entropy value and average velocity. The developed equation can predict the friction coefficient by using the well-known entropy, the mean velocity and the pipe specifications. The comparison results with the Nikuradse's experimental data show that the R2 and RMSE values were 0.998 and 0.000366 in smooth pipe, and 0.979 to 0.994 or 0.000399 to 0.000436 in rough pipe, and the discrepancy ratio analysis results show that the accuracy of both results in smooth and rough pipes is very close to zero. The proposed equation will enable the easier estimation of flow rates.

RevDate: 2021-06-26

Zhou T, Chen B, H Liu (2021)

Study of the Performance of a Novel Radiator with Three Inlets and One Outlet Based on Topology Optimization.

Micromachines, 12(6): pii:mi12060594.

In recent years, in order to obtain a radiator with strong heat exchange capacity, researchers have proposed a lot of heat exchangers to improve heat exchange capacity significantly. However, the cooling abilities of heat exchangers designed by traditional design methods is limited even if the geometric parameters are optimized at the same time. However, using topology optimization to design heat exchangers can overcome this design limitation. Furthermore, researchers have used topology optimization theory to designed one-to-one and many-to-many inlet and outlet heat exchangers because it can effectively increase the heat dissipation rate. In particular, it can further decrease the hot-spot temperature for many-to-many inlet and outlet heat exchangers. Therefore, this article proposes novel heat exchangers with three inlets and one outlet designed by topology optimization to decrease the fluid temperature at the outlet. Subsequently, the effect of the channel depth on the heat exchanger design is also studied. The results show that the type of exchanger varies with the channel depth, and there exists a critical depth value for obtaining the minimum substrate temperature difference. Then, the flow and heat transfer performance of the heat exchangers are numerically investigated. The numerical results show that the heat exchanger derived by topology optimization with the minimum temperature difference as the goal (Model-2) is the best design for flow and heat transfer performance compared to other heat sink designs, including the heat exchanger derived by topology optimization having the average temperature as the goal (Model-1) and conventional straight channels (Model-3). The temperature difference of Model-1 can be reduced by 37.5%, and that of Model-2 can be decreased by 62.5% compared to Model-3. Compared with Model-3, the thermal resistance of Model-1 can be reduced by 21.86%, while that of Model-2 can be decreased by 47.99%. At room temperature, we carried out the forced convention experimental test for Model-2 to measure its physical parameters (temperature, pressure drop) to verify the numerical results. The error of the average wall temperature between experimental results and simulation results is within 2.6 K, while that of the fluid temperature between the experimental and simulation results is within 1.4 K, and the maximum deviation of the measured Nu and simulated Nu was less than 5%. This indicated that the numerical results agreed well with the experimental results.

RevDate: 2021-06-05

Gu B, Adjiman CS, XY Xu (2021)

Correlations for Concentration Polarization and Pressure Drop in Spacer-Filled RO Membrane Modules Based on CFD Simulations.

Membranes, 11(5):.

Empirical correlations for mass transfer coefficient and friction factor are often used in process models for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. These usually involve four dimensionless groups, namely Reynolds number (Re), Sherwood number (Sh), friction factor (f), and Schmidt number (Sc), with the associated coefficients and exponents being obtained by fitting to experimental data. However, the range of geometric and operating conditions covered by the experiments is often limited. In this study, new dimensionless correlations for concentration polarization (CP) modulus and friction factor are presented, which are obtained by dimensional analysis and using simulation data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two-dimensional CFD simulations are performed on three configurations of spacer-filled channels with 76 combinations of operating and geometric conditions for each configuration, covering a broad range of conditions encountered in RO membrane systems. Results obtained with the new correlations are compared with those from existing correlations in the literature. There is good consistency in the predicted CP with mean discrepancies less than 6%, but larger discrepancies for pressure gradient are found among the various friction factor correlations. Furthermore, the new correlations are implemented in a process model with six spiral wound modules in series and the predicted recovery, pressure drop, and specific energy consumption are compared with a reference case obtained by ROSA (Reverse Osmosis System Analysis, The Dow Chemical Company). Differences in predicted recovery and pressure drop are up to 5% and 83%, respectively, highlighting the need for careful selection of correlations when using predictive models in process design. Compared to existing mass transfer correlations, a distinct advantage of our correlations for CP modulus is that they can be directly used to estimate the impact of permeate flux on CP at a membrane surface without having to resort to the film theory.

RevDate: 2021-06-04

Pang M, Zhang T, Guo Y, et al (2021)

Re-crushing process and non-Darcian seepage characteristics of broken coal medium in coal mine water inrush.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11380.

The initiation process of the mine water inrush accident, the essence of this process is the sudden change of the seepage state of the broken coal medium under pressure and the instability of the skeleton. In order to study the re-crushing mechanism and seepage characteristics of the broken coal medium under load, a set of three-axis seepage system was designed independently. Using the steady-state infiltration method, multiple flow factors under different particle size combinations and different stress conditions of the broken coal medium were obtained. The results of the study indicate: in one hand, the reduction of the porosity of the broken coal medium will cause the flow channel to be rebuilt, and the sudden change of flow rate will directly lead to the non-Darcian flow behavior. The early stage of compaction mainly affects the permeability k value, and the later stage of compaction mainly affects the non-Darcian β value; On the other hand, the seepage throat in the broken coal medium may have a sharp increase in its flow rate, leading to a sudden change in the flow pattern. The critical Reynolds number is also used to determine whether non-Darcian flow is formed, and its value in the water inrush system is about 40-133; at the same time, the non-Darcian flow in the broken coal medium conforms to the Forchheimer-type flow law. By analyzing the dependence relationship between factors, a seepage factor representation algebraic relationship suitable for Forchheimer type non-Darcian flow of broken coal medium is given, which can be used as a calculation basis in the prevention and treatment of mine water inrush accidents.

RevDate: 2021-05-31

Agarwal JR, Torres CF, S Shah (2021)

Development of Dimensionless Parameters and Groups of Heat and Mass Transfer to Predict Wax Deposition in Crude Oil Pipelines.

ACS omega, 6(16):10578-10591.

A new methodology has been developed for analyzing heat and mass transfer to predict wax deposition in crude oil pipelines using the law of the wall dimensionless parameters. A set of physically meaningful dimensionless groups and parameters has laid a strong foundation behind the proposed methodology. The paper presents a discussion regarding the development of scale-up correlations from laboratory scale to field scale, considering the combination of both analytical groups and empirical correlations. Data from previous literature studies were employed for determining realistic values for the developed parameters and scale-up correlations. The utilization of new dimensionless scale-up parameters indicated that the wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is independent of the Reynolds number and the inner diameter of the pipeline. It further indicates that wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is mainly dependent on the heat transfer process and not on the shear reduction process. The dimensionless technique developed here can be utilized for determining the optimum pipe size and pigging frequencies to reduce and mitigate the effect of the wax deposition process.

RevDate: 2021-05-29

Ford MP, A Santhanakrishnan (2021)

Closer appendage spacing augments metachronal swimming speed by promoting tip vortex interactions.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6288460 [Epub ahead of print].

Numerous species of aquatic invertebrates, including crustaceans, swim by oscillating multiple closely spaced appendages. The coordinated, out-of-phase motion of these appendages, known as "metachronal paddling", has been well-established to improve swimming performance relative to synchronous paddling. Invertebrates employing this propulsion strategy cover a wide range of body sizes and shapes, but the ratio of appendage spacing (G) to the appendage length (L) has been reported to lie in a comparatively narrow range of 0.2 < G/L ≤ 0.65. The functional role of G/L on metachronal swimming performance is unknown. We hypothesized that for a given Reynolds number and stroke amplitude, hydrodynamic interactions promoted by metachronal stroke kinematics with small G/L can increase forward swimming speed. We used a dynamically scaled self-propelling robot to comparatively examine swimming performance and wake development of metachronal and synchronous paddling under varying G/L, phase lag, and stroke amplitude. G/L was varied from 0.4 to 1.5, with the expectation that when G/L is large, there should be no performance difference between metachronal and synchronous paddling due to a lack of interaction between vortices that form on the appendages. Metachronal stroking at non-zero phase lag with G/L in the biological range produced faster swimming speeds than synchronous stroking. As G/L increased and as stroke amplitude decreased, the influence of phase lag on the swimming speed of the robot was reduced. For smaller G/L, vortex interactions between adjacent appendages generated a horizontally-oriented wake and increased momentum fluxes relative to larger G/L, which contributed to increasing swimming speed. We find that while metachronal motion augments swimming performance for closely spaced appendages (G/L < 1), moderately spaced appendages (1.0 ≤ G/L ≤ 1.5) can benefit from metachronal motion only when the stroke amplitude is large.

RevDate: 2021-05-29

Shankar BM, IS Shivakumara (2021)

Benchmark solution for the stability of plane Couette flow with net throughflow.

Scientific reports, 11(1):10901.

This paper investigates the stability of an incompressible viscous fluid flow between relatively moving horizontal parallel plates in the presence of a uniform vertical throughflow. A linear stability analysis has been performed by employing the method of normal modes and the resulting stability equation is solved numerically using the Chebyshev collocation method. Contrary to the stability of plane Couette flow (PCF) to small disturbances for all values of the Reynolds number in the absence of vertical throughflow, it is found that PCF becomes unstable owing to the change in the sign of growth rate depending on the magnitude of throughflow. The critical Reynolds number triggering the instability is computed for different values of throughflow dependent Reynolds number and it is shown that throughflow instills both stabilizing and destabilizing effect on the base flow. It is seen that the direction of throughflow has no influence on the stability of fluid flow. A comparative study between plane Poiseuille flow and PCF has also been carried out and the similarities and differences are highlighted.

RevDate: 2021-05-25

Kasoju VT, A Santhanakrishnan (2021)

Pausing after clap reduces power required to fling wings apart at low Reynolds number.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

The smallest flying insects such as thrips (body length < 2 mm) are challenged with needing to move in air at chord-based Reynolds number (Rec) on the order of 10. Pronounced viscous dissipation at such lowRecrequires considerable energetic expenditure for tiny insects to stay aloft. Thrips flap their densely bristled wings at large stroke amplitudes, bringing both wings in close proximity of each other at the end of upstroke ("clap") and moving their wings apart at the start of downstroke ("fling"). From high-speed videos of free take-off flight of thrips, we observed that their forewings remain clapped for approximately 10% of the wingbeat cycle before start of downstroke (fling stroke). We sought to examine if there are aerodynamic advantages associated with pausing wing motion after upstroke (clap stroke) and before downstroke (fling stroke) atRec=10. A dynamically scaled robotic clap and fling platform was used to measure lift and drag forces generated by physical models of solid (non-bristled) and bristled wings in single wing and wing pair configurations, for pause times ranging between 0% to 41% of the cycle. For solid and bristled wing pairs, pausing before the start of downstroke (fling stroke) dissipated vorticity generated at the end of upstroke (clap stroke). This resulted in decreasing the drag coefficient averaged across downstroke (fling stroke) and in turn reduced power requirements. Also, increasing the pause time resulted in a larger decrease of dimensionless power coefficient for the wing pair configurations as compared to the single wing configurations. Our findings show that wing-wing interaction observed in clap and fling motion of tiny insect wings is necessary to realize aerodynamic benefits of pausing before fling, via reducing the power required to clap and fling for a small compromise in lift.

RevDate: 2021-05-25

Wanzheng A, Z Pengfei (2021)

Correction and laboratory investigation for energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate.

Science progress, 104(2):368504211018571.

A lot of studies have shown that the hydraulic characteristics of orifice plate are mainly controlled by its contraction ratio, but the thickness of square-edged orifice plate also has many impacts on energy loss characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to investigated the effects of square-edged orifice plate thickness on energy loss characteristics. In this paper, the effects of square-edged orifice plate thickness on energy loss characteristics are investigated by numerical simulation using CFD. Orifice plate discharge tunnel is axial symmetric, two dimensional numerical simulations of orifice plate discharge tunnel flow was used. The equation (9) for calculating energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater considering the influence of thickness is proposed. The results of the present research demonstrate that energy loss coefficient decreases with increase of the orifice plate thickness. The results of model experiment are consistence with the results calculated by using rectified equation in present paper. The CFD simulations and Model experiment for the flow through an orifice plate are carried out. For square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater, the relative orifice plate thickness T/D has remarkable impacts on its energy loss coefficient ξ. The Traditional equation (8) is corrected by numerical results. The equation (9) for calculating energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater considering the influence of thickness is proposed and this equation is available in the condition of d/D = 0.4-0.8, T/D = 0.05-0.25, and Re > 105(Re is Reynolds number). Comparing with the physical model experimental data, the relative errors of equation (9) is smaller than 15%.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Murayama Y, Nakata T, H Liu (2021)

Flexible Flaps Inspired by Avian Feathers Can Enhance Aerodynamic Robustness in low Reynolds Number Airfoils.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 9:612182.

Unlike rigid rotors of drones, bird wings are composed of flexible feathers that can passively deform while achieving remarkable aerodynamic robustness in response to wind gusts. In this study, we conduct an experimental study on the effects of the flexible flaps inspired by the covert of bird wings on aerodynamic characteristics of fixed-wings in disturbances. Through force measurements and flow visualization in a low-speed wind tunnel, it is found that the flexible flaps can suppress the large-scale vortex shedding and hence reduce the fluctuations of aerodynamic forces in a disturbed flow behind an oscillating plate. Our results demonstrate that the stiffness of the flaps strongly affects the aerodynamic performance, and the force fluctuations are observed to be reduced when the deformation synchronizes with the strong vortex generation. The results point out that the simple attachment of the flexible flaps on the upper surface of the wing is an effective method, providing a novel biomimetic design to improve the aerodynamic robustness of small-scale drones with fixed-wings operating in unpredictable aerial environments.

RevDate: 2021-05-27

Chassagne F, Barbour MC, Chivukula VK, et al (2021)

The effect of Dean, Reynolds, and Womersley number on the flow in a spherical cavity on a curved round pipe. Part 1. Fluid mechanics in the cavity as a canonical flow representing intracranial aneurysms.

Journal of fluid mechanics, 915:.

Flow in side-wall cerebral aneurysms can be ideally modelled as the combination of flow over a spherical cavity and flow in a curved circular pipe, two canonical flows. Flow in a curved pipe is known to depend on the Dean number De, combining the effects of Reynolds number, Re, and of the curvature along the pipe centreline, κ. Pulsatility in the flow introduces a dependency on the Womersley number Wo. Using stereo PIV measurements, this study investigated the effect of these three key non-dimensional parameters, by modifying pipe curvature (De), flow-rate (Re), and pulsatility frequency (Wo), on the flow patterns in a spherical cavity. A single counter-rotating vortex was observed in the cavity for all values of pipe curvature κ and Re, for both steady and pulsatile inflow conditions. Increasing the pipe curvature impacted both the flow patterns in the pipe and the cavity, by shifting the velocity profile towards the cavity opening and increasing the flow rate into the cavity. The circulation in the cavity was found to collapse well with only the Dean number, for both steady and pulsatile inflows. For pulsatile inflow, the counter-rotating vortex was unstable and the location of its centre over time was impacted by the curvature of the pipe, as well as the Re and the Wo in the freestream. The circulation in the cavity was higher for steady inflow than for the equivalent average Reynolds and Dean number pulsatile inflow, with very limited impact of the Womersley in the range studied.

RevDate: 2021-05-20

Aljabair S, Ekaid AL, Ibrahim SH, et al (2021)

Mixed convection in sinusoidal lid driven cavity with non-uniform temperature distribution on the wall utilizing nanofluid.

Heliyon, 7(5):e06907.

Mixed convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluid in an arc cavity with non-uniform heating has been numerically studied. The top flat moving wall is isothermally cooled at Tc and moved with a constant velocity. While the heated arc stationary wall of the cavity is maintained at a hot temperature Th. FORTRAN code is used to solve the mass, momentum, and energy equations in dimensionless form with suitable boundary conditions. In this study, the Reynolds number changed from 1 to 2000, and the Rayleigh number changed from 0 to 107. Also, the range of nanoparticles volume fraction extends from ϕ = 0 to 0.07. Stream vorticity method selected for the discretization of flow and energy equations. The present results are compared with the previous results for the validation part, where the results found a good agreement with the others works. The isotherms are regulated near the arc-shape wall causing a steep temperature gradient at these regions and the local and average heat transfer rate increases with increased volume fraction or Reynolds number or Rayleigh number. Finally, Correlation equations of the average Nusselt number from numerical results are presented.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Fouxon I, Feinberg J, M Mond (2021)

Linear and nonlinear hydromagnetic stability in laminar and turbulent flows.

Physical review. E, 103(4-1):043104.

We consider the evolution of arbitrarily large perturbations of a prescribed pure hydrodynamical flow of an electrically conducting fluid. We study whether the flow perturbations as well as the generated magnetic fields decay or grow with time and constitute a dynamo process. For that purpose we derive a generalized Reynolds-Orr equation for the sum of the kinetic energy of the hydrodynamic perturbation and the magnetic energy. The flow is confined in a finite volume so the normal component of the velocity at the boundary is zero. The tangential component is left arbitrary in contrast with previous works. For the magnetic field we mostly employ the classical boundary conditions where the field extends in the whole space. We establish critical values of hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers below which arbitrarily large initial perturbations of the hydrodynamic flow decay. This involves generalization of the Rayleigh-Faber-Krahn inequality for the smallest eigenvalue of an elliptic operator. For high Reynolds number turbulence we provide an estimate of critical magnetic Reynolds number below which arbitrarily large fluctuations of the magnetic field decay.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Gissinger JR, Zinchenko AZ, RH Davis (2021)

Internal circulation and mixing within tight-squeezing deformable droplets.

Physical review. E, 103(4-1):043106.

The internal flow and mixing properties inside deformable droplets, after reaching the steady state within two types of passive droplet traps, are visualized and analyzed as dynamical systems. The first droplet trap (constriction) is formed by three spheres arranged in an equilateral triangle, while the second consists of two parallel spherocylinders (capsules). The systems are assumed to be embedded in a uniform far-field flow at low Reynolds number, and the steady shapes and interfacial velocities on the drops are generated using the boundary-integral method. The internal velocity field is recovered by solving the internal Dirichlet problem, also via a desingularized boundary-integral method. Calculation of 2D streamlines within planes of symmetry reveals the internal equilibria of the flow. The type of each equilibrium is classified in 3D and their interactions probed using passive tracers and their Poincaré maps. For the two-capsule droplet, saddle points located on orthogonal symmetry planes influence the regular flow within the drop. For the three-sphere droplet, large regions of chaos are observed, embedded with simple periodic orbits. Flow is visualized via passive dyes, using material lines and surfaces. In 2D, solely the interface between two passive interior fluids is advected using an adaptive number of linked tracer particles. The reduction in dimension decreases the number of required tracer points, and also resolves arbitrarily thin filaments, in contrast to backward cell-mapping methods. In 3D, the advection of a material surface, bounded by the droplet interface, is enabled using an adaptive mesh scheme. Off-lattice 3D contour advection allows for highly resolved visualizations of the internal flow and quantification of the associated degree of mixing. Analysis of the time-dependent growth of material surfaces and 3D mixing numbers suggests the three-sphere droplet exhibits superior mixing properties compared to the two-capsule droplet.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Brahmachary S, Natarajan G, Kulkarni V, et al (2021)

Role of solution reconstruction in hypersonic viscous computations using a sharp interface immersed boundary method.

Physical review. E, 103(4-1):043302.

This work discusses the development of a sharp interface immersed boundary (IB) method for viscous compressible flows and its assessment for accurate computations of wall shear and heat fluxes in hypersonic flows. The IB method is implemented in an unstructured Cartesian finite-volume (FV) framework and resolves the geometric interface sharply on the nonconformal mesh through direct imposition of boundary conditions employing a local reconstruction approach. The efficacy of the IB-FV solver is investigated for canonical high-speed viscous flows over a range of Mach numbers. The numerical results indicate that the surface pressure and shear stress distributions are computed with reasonable accuracy, whereas surface heat fluxes for aerodynamically blunt configurations are underpredicted. Employing a set of carefully designed experiments and simple diagnostic tools, we probe the possible causes for the underprediction in heat flux. We show that there exist two sources of error-one due to grid resolution and the other due to solution reconstruction, with the latter being more prominent and responsible for the observed underprediction in heat fluxes. Studies reveal that the heat flux estimates are sensitive to the choice of temperature reconstruction and linear interpolations could lead to poor estimates of heat flux. Our investigations conclusively point out the fact that existing polynomial-based reconstruction approaches for sharp interface IB techniques are not necessarily adequate for heat transfer predictions in high Reynolds number hypersonic flows.

RevDate: 2021-06-02
CmpDate: 2021-05-24

Nguyen QM, Abouezzi J, L Ristroph (2021)

Early turbulence and pulsatile flows enhance diodicity of Tesla's macrofluidic valve.

Nature communications, 12(1):2884.

Microfluidics has enabled a revolution in the manipulation of small volumes of fluids. Controlling flows at larger scales and faster rates, or macrofluidics, has broad applications but involves the unique complexities of inertial flow physics. We show how such effects are exploited in a device proposed by Nikola Tesla that acts as a diode or valve whose asymmetric internal geometry leads to direction-dependent fluidic resistance. Systematic tests for steady forcing conditions reveal that diodicity turns on abruptly at Reynolds number [Formula: see text] and is accompanied by nonlinear pressure-flux scaling and flow instabilities, suggesting a laminar-to-turbulent transition that is triggered at unusually low [Formula: see text]. To assess performance for unsteady forcing, we devise a circuit that functions as an AC-to-DC converter, rectifier, or pump in which diodes transform imposed oscillations into directed flow. Our results confirm Tesla's conjecture that diodic performance is boosted for pulsatile flows. The connections between diodicity, early turbulence and pulsatility uncovered here can inform applications in fluidic mixing and pumping.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Chen X, Zhang Y, J Wang (2021)

Simulation analysis of mixing in passive microchannel with fractal obstacles based on Murray's law.

Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

In this paper, we designed fractal obstacles according to Murray's law and set them in a microchannel. We study the influence of the numbers of fractal obstacles, channel widths, branch widths, and the distance between fractal obstacles on mixing efficiency. The optimized micromixer has a high mixing efficiency of more than 90% at all velocities. This paper focuses on the analysis of the variation of mixing efficiency and pressure drop in the range of Reynolds number (Re) 0.1-150. The simulation results show that when the fluid velocity is low, the mixing efficiency of the fluids is mainly improved by molecular diffusion, when the fluid velocity is high, the microchannel with fractal obstacles can promote chaotic convection of the fluids and improve the mixing efficiency. The fractal structure based on Murray's law can be widely used in the design of passive micromixer.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Su J, Chen X, Zhu Y, et al (2021)

Machine learning assisted fast prediction of inertial lift in microchannels.

Lab on a chip, 21(13):2544-2556.

Inertial effect has been extensively used in manipulating both engineered particles and biocolloids in microfluidic platforms. The design of inertial microfluidic devices largely relies on precise prediction of particle migration that is determined by the inertial lift acting on the particle. In spite of being the only means to accurately obtain the lift forces, direct numerical simulation (DNS) often consumes high computational cost and even becomes impractical when applied to microchannels with complex geometries. Herein, we proposed a fast numerical algorithm in conjunction with machine learning techniques for the analysis and design of inertial microfluidic devices. A database of inertial lift forces was first generated by conducting DNS over a wide range of operating parameters in straight microchannels with three types of cross-sectional shapes, including rectangular, triangular and semicircular shapes. A machine learning assisted model was then developed to gain the inertial lift distribution, by simply specifying the cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and particle blockage ratio. The resultant inertial lift was integrated into the Lagrangian tracking method to quickly predict the particle trajectories in two types of microchannels in practical devices and yield good agreement with experimental observations. Our database and the associated codes allow researchers to expedite the development of the inertial microfluidic devices for particle manipulation.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Garayev K, DW Murphy (2021)

Metachronal swimming of mantis shrimp: kinematics and interpleopod vortex interactions.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6276570 [Epub ahead of print].

Mantis shrimp swim via metachronal rowing, a pattern in which the pleopods (swimming limbs) stroke sequentially, starting with the last pair and followed by anterior neighbors. A similar swimming pattern is used at various sizes, Reynolds numbers, and advance ratios by diverse organisms including ciliates, ctenophores, copepods, krill, and lobsters. Understanding this type of locomotion is important because it is widespread and may inspire the design of underwater vehicles where efficiency, robustness, and maneuverability are desired. However, detailed measurements of the flow around free-swimming, metachronally rowing organisms are scarce, especially for organisms swimming in a high Reynolds number regime (Re ≥ 104). In this study, we present time-resolved, planar PIV measurements of a swimming peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). Simultaneous kinematics measurements of the animal, which had body and pleopod lengths of 114 mm and 20 mm, respectively, reveal mean swimming speeds of 0.2-1.9 m s - 1 and pleopod beat frequencies of 3.6-13 Hz, corresponding to advance ratios of 0.75-1.84 and body-based Reynolds numbers of 23,000-217,000. Further, the animal's stroke is not purely metachronal, with a long phase lag between initiation of the first and fifth pleopod power strokes. Flow measurements in the sagittal plane show that each stroking pleopod pair creates a posteriorly moving tip vortex which evades destruction by the recovery strokes of other pleopod pairs. The vortex created by the anteriormost pleopod pair is the strongest and, owing to the animal's high advance ratio, is intercepted by the power stroke of the posteriormost pleopod pair. The vortex strength increases as a result of this interaction, which may increase swimming speed or efficiency. A relationship for vortex interception by the posterior pleopod is proposed that relates the phase lag between the interacting pleopods to the beat frequency, distance between those pleopods, and speed of the vortex relative to the animal. We describe this interaction with a novel parameter called the interpleopod vortex phase matching Strouhal number StIVPM which is equal to the phase lag between interacting pleopods. This new nondimensional parameter may be useful in predicting the conditions where a constructive interaction may occur in other species or in physical models. Finally, we relate the advance ratio to the Reynolds number ratio, the ratio between the body-based Reynolds number and the pleopod-based Reynolds number. The importance of these parameters in promoting the interpleopod vortex interactions identified here, in dynamically scaled experiments, and in wake signatures behind schooling metachronal swimmers is discussed.

RevDate: 2021-05-16

Mehboudi A, J Yeom (2021)

A passive Stokes flow rectifier for Newtonian fluids.

Scientific reports, 11(1):10182.

Non-linear effects of the Navier-Stokes equations disappear under the Stokes regime of Newtonian fluid flows disallowing a flow rectification behavior. Here we show that passive flow rectification of Newtonian fluids is obtainable under the Stokes regime of both compressible and incompressible flows by introducing nonlinearity into the otherwise linear Stokes equations. Asymmetric flow resistances arise in shallow nozzle/diffuser microchannels with deformable ceiling, in which the fluid flow is governed by a non-linear coupled fluid-solid mechanics equation. The proposed model captures the unequal deflection profile of the deformable ceiling depending on the flow direction under the identical applied pressure, permitting a larger flow rate in the nozzle configuration. Ultra-low aspect ratio microchannels sealed by a flexible membrane have been fabricated to demonstrate passive flow rectification for low-Reynolds-number flows (0.001 < Re < 10) of common Newtonian fluids such as water, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol. The proposed rectification mechanism is also extended to compressible flows, leading to the first demonstration of rectifying equilibrium gas flows under the Stokes flow regime. While the maximum rectification ratio experimentally obtained in this work is limited to 1.41, a higher value up to 1.76 can be achieved by optimizing the width profile of the asymmetric microchannels.

RevDate: 2021-05-15

Kazemi A, Castillo L, OM Curet (2021)

Mangrove roots model suggest an optimal porosity to prevent erosion.

Scientific reports, 11(1):9969.

Mangrove swamps are extremely productive ecosystems providing many ecological services in coastal regions. The hydrodynamic interactions of mangrove roots and water flow have been proposed as a key element to mitigate erosion. Several studies reveal that precise prediction of the morphological evolution of coastal areas, in the face of global warming and the consequent sea-level rise, requires an understanding of interactions between root porosity (the fraction of the volume of void space over the total volume), water flows, and sediment transport. Water flows around the mangrove prop roots create a complex energetic process that mixes up sediments and generates a depositional region posterior to the roots. In this work, we investigated the boundary layer behind permeable arrays of cylinders (patch) that represent the mangrove roots to explore the impact of patch porosity on the onset of sediment transport. The flow measurements were performed in a vertical plane along the water depth downstream of the mangrove root models. A high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used in a flume to observe the impact of porosity on the mean flow, velocity derivatives, skin friction coefficient, and production of turbulent kinetic energy for Reynolds number of 2500 (based on patch diameter length-scale). Here, we proposed a predictive model for critical velocity for incipient motion that takes into account the mangrove roots porosity and the near-bed turbulence effect. It is found that the patch with the [Formula: see text] porosity, has the maximum critical velocity over which the sediment transport initiates. We found the optimum porosity has the minimum sediment erosion and creates negative vorticity sources near the bed that increases the critical velocity. This signifies an optimum porosity for the onset of sediment transport consistent with the porosity of mangroves in nature. The phenomenological model is elucidated based on an analysis of the vorticity evolution equation for viscous incompressible flows. For the optimum porous patch, a sink of vorticity was formed which yielded to lower the near-bed turbulence and vorticity. The minimum velocity fluctuations were sufficient to initiate the boundary layer transition, however, the viscous dissipation dominated the turbulence production to obstruct the sediment transport. This work identified the pivotal role of mangrove root porosity in sediment transport in terms of velocity and its derivatives in wall-bounded flows. Our work also provides insight into the sediment transport and erosion processes that govern the evolution of the shapes of shorelines.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Vasilopoulos K, Lekakis I, Sarris IE, et al (2021)

Large eddy simulation of dispersion of hazardous materials released from a fire accident around a cubical building.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The turbulent smoke dispersion from a pool fire around a cubical building is studied using large eddy simulation at a high Reynolds number, corresponding to existing experimental measurements both in laboratory and field test scales. Emphasis of this work is on the smoke dispersion due to two different fuel pool fire accident scenarios, initiated behind the building. For the setup of fire in the first case, crude oil was used with a heat release rate of 7.8 MW, and in the second, diesel oil with a heat release rate of 13.5 MW. It is found that in both fire scenarios, the downstream extent of the toxic zone is approximately the same. This is explained in terms of the fact that the smoke concentration and dispersion are influenced mainly by the convective buoyant forces and the strong turbulence mixing processes within the wake zone of the building. It is suggested that wind is the dominating factor in these accident scenarios, which represent the conditions resulting in the highest toxicity levels.

RevDate: 2021-05-09

Asai T, S Hong (2021)

Aerodynamics of the newly approved football for the English Premier League 2020-21 season.

Scientific reports, 11(1):9578.

Footballs are typically constructed with 32 panels. Recently, the number of panels has been successively reduced to 14, 8, and 6 panels, and official balls have been adopted with complex panel shapes and aerodynamics that differ from those of 32-panel balls. The official ball for the 2020-21 season of the English Premier League comprises just four panels with a complex panel shape and surface groove design; however, its aerodynamics have not yet been clarified. This study aims to clarify the aerodynamic characteristics (drag, side force, lift force, their deviations, and critical Reynolds number) of the new 4-panel ball (Flight 2020, Nike) in comparison to a 6-panel ball (Tsubasa 2020, Adidas) and conventional 32-panel ball (Pelada 2020, Molten) using a wind tunnel test, surface design measurement, and a simple 2D flight simulation. The results showed that Flight 2020 has greater surface roughness and smaller critical Reynolds number than Pelada 2020 and Tsubasa 2020, resulting to its marginally greater drag force in the supercritical region, and slightly smaller fluctuations of the side and lift forces. Furthermore, Flight with a symmetrical orientation exhibits a significantly higher drag coefficient in the supercritical region, suggesting its greater air resistance during flight under this condition.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Sharan P, Nsamela A, Lesher-Pérez SC, et al (2021)

Microfluidics for Microswimmers: Engineering Novel Swimmers and Constructing Swimming Lanes on the Microscale, a Tutorial Review.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), 17(26):e2007403.

This paper provides an updated review of recent advances in microfluidics applied to artificial and biohybrid microswimmers. Sharing the common regime of low Reynolds number, the two fields have been brought together to take advantage of the fluid characteristics at the microscale, benefitting microswimmer research multifold. First, microfluidics offer simple and relatively low-cost devices for high-fidelity production of microswimmers made of organic and inorganic materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Microscale confinement and the corresponding fluid properties have demonstrated differential microswimmer behaviors in microchannels or in the presence of various types of physical or chemical stimuli. Custom environments to study these behaviors have been designed in large part with the help of microfluidics. Evaluating microswimmers in increasingly complex lab environments such as microfluidic systems can ensure more effective implementation for in-field applications. The benefits of microfluidics for the fabrication and evaluation of microswimmers are balanced by the potential use of microswimmers for sample manipulation and processing in microfluidic systems, a large obstacle in diagnostic and other testing platforms. In this review various ways in which these two complementary technology fields will enhance microswimmer development and implementation in various fields are introduced.

RevDate: 2021-05-22

Hartl B, Hübl M, Kahl G, et al (2021)

Microswimmers learning chemotaxis with genetic algorithms.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(19):.

Various microorganisms and some mammalian cells are able to swim in viscous fluids by performing nonreciprocal body deformations, such as rotating attached flagella or by distorting their entire body. In order to perform chemotaxis (i.e., to move toward and to stay at high concentrations of nutrients), they adapt their swimming gaits in a nontrivial manner. Here, we propose a computational model, which features autonomous shape adaptation of microswimmers moving in one dimension toward high field concentrations. As an internal decision-making machinery, we use artificial neural networks, which control the motion of the microswimmer. We present two methods to measure chemical gradients, spatial and temporal sensing, as known for swimming mammalian cells and bacteria, respectively. Using the genetic algorithm NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies, surprisingly simple neural networks evolve. These networks control the shape deformations of the microswimmers and allow them to navigate in static and complex time-dependent chemical environments. By introducing noisy signal transmission in the neural network, the well-known biased run-and-tumble motion emerges. Our work demonstrates that the evolution of a simple and interpretable internal decision-making machinery coupled to the environment allows navigation in diverse chemical landscapes. These findings are of relevance for intracellular biochemical sensing mechanisms of single cells or for the simple nervous system of small multicellular organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans.

RevDate: 2021-05-22

Wang S, Liu Z, Wu S, et al (2021)

Microalgae separation by inertia-enhanced pinched flow fractionation.

Electrophoresis [Epub ahead of print].

To improve the accuracy and efficiency of ships' ballast water detection, the separation of microalgae according to size is significant. In this article, a method to separate microalgae based on inertia-enhanced pinched flow fractionation (iPFF) was reported. The method utilized the inertial lift force induced by flow to separate microalgae according to size continuously. The experimental results show that, as the Reynolds number increases, the separation effect becomes better at first, but then stays unchanged. The best separation effect can be obtained when the Reynolds number is 12.3. In addition, with the increase of the flow rate ratio between sheath fluid and microalgae mixture, the separation effect becomes better and the best separation effect can be obtained when the flow rate ratio reaches 10. In this case, the recovery rate of Tetraselmis sp. is about 90%, and the purity is about 86%; the recovery rate of Chlorella sp. is as high as 99%, and the purity is about 99%. After that, the separation effect keeps getting better but very slowly. In general, this study provides a simple method for the separation of microalgae with different sizes, and lays a foundation for the accurate detection of microalgae in the ballast water.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Rao Y, Li L, Wang S, et al (2021)

Numerical Simulation Study on Flow Laws and Heat Transfer of Gas Hydrate in the Spiral Flow Pipeline with Long Twisted Band.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(4): pii:e23040489.

The natural gas hydrate plugging problems in the mixed pipeline are becoming more and more serious. The hydrate plugging has gradually become an important problem to ensure the safety of pipeline operation. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of natural gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline have been studied. The DPM model (discrete phase model) was used to simulate the motion of solid particles, which was used to simulate the complex spiral flow characteristics of hydrate in the pipeline with a long twisted band. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline were studied. The velocity distribution, pressure drop distribution, heat transfer characteristics, and particle settling characteristics in the pipeline were investigated. The numerical results showed that compared with the straight flow without a long twisted band, two obvious eddies are formed in the flow field with a long twisted band, and the velocities are maximum at the center of the vortices. Along the direction of the pipeline, the two vortices move toward the pipe wall from near the twisted band, which can effectively carry the hydrate particles deposited on the wall. With the same Reynolds number, the twisted rate was greater, the spiral strength was weaker, the tangential velocity was smaller, and the pressure drop was smaller. Therefore, the pressure loss can be reduced as much as possible with effect of the spiral flow. In a straight light flow, the Nusselt number is in a parabolic shape with the opening downwards. At the center of the pipe, the Nusselt number gradually decreased toward the pipe wall at the maximum, and at the near wall, the attenuation gradient of the Nu number was large. For spiral flow, the curve presented by the Nusselt number was a trough at the center of the pipe and a peak at 1/2 of the pipe diameter. With the reduction of twist rate, the Nusselt number becomes larger. Therefore, the spiral flow can make the temperature distribution more even and prevent the large temperature difference, resulting in the mass formation of hydrate particles in the pipeline wall. Spiral flow has a good carrying effect. Under the same condition, the spiral flow carried hydrate particles at a distance about 3-4 times farther than that of the straight flow.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Yuan S, Jiang B, Peng T, et al (2021)

An Investigation of Flow Patterns and Mixing Characteristics in a Cross-Shaped Micromixer within the Laminar Regime.

Micromachines, 12(4):.

A fast mixing is critical for subsequent practical development of microfluidic devices, which are often used for assays in the detection of reagents and samples. The present work sets up computational fluid dynamics simulations to explore the flow characteristic and mixing mechanism of fluids in cross-shaped mixers within the laminar regime. First, the effects of increasing an operating parameter on local mixing quality along the microchannels are investigated. It is found that sufficient diffusion cannot occur even though the concentration gradient is large at a high Reynolds number. Meanwhile, a method for calculating local mixing efficiency is also characterized. The mixing efficiency varies exponentially with the flow distance. Second, in order to optimize the cross-shaped mixer, the effects of design parameters, namely aspect ratio, mixing angle and blockage, on mixing quality are captured and the visualization of velocity and concentration distribution are demonstrated. The results show that the aspect ratio and the blockage play an important role in accelerating the mixing process. They can improve the mixing efficiency by increasing the mass transfer area and enhancing the chaotic advection, respectively. In contrast, the inflow angle that affects dispersion length is not an effective parameter. Besides, the surface roughness, which makes the disturbance of fluid flow by roughness more obvious, is considered. Three types of rough elements bring benefits for enhancing mixing quality due to the convection induced by the lateral velocity.

RevDate: 2021-05-27

Ansari A, Kavousi S, Helfer F, et al (2021)

An Improved Modelling Approach for the Comprehensive Study of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.

Membranes, 11(5):.

Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) is a promising and feasible technology for water desalination. Most of the models used to simulate DCMD are one-dimensional and/or use a linear function of vapour pressure which relies on experimentally determined parameters. In this study, the model of DCMD using Nusselt correlations was improved by coupling the continuity, momentum, and energy equations to better capture the downstream alteration of flow field properties. A logarithmic function of vapour pressure, which is independent from experiments, was used. This allowed us to analyse DCMD with different membrane properties. The results of our developed model were in good agreement with the DCMD experimental results, with less than 7% deviation. System performance metrics, including water flux, temperature, and concentration polarisation coefficient and thermal efficiency, were analysed by varying inlet feed and permeate temperature, inlet velocity, inlet feed concentration, channel length. In addition, twenty-two commercial membranes were analysed to obtain a real vision on the influence of membrane characteristics on system performance metrics. The results showed that the feed temperature had the most significant effect on water flux and thermal efficiency. The increased feed temperature enhanced the water flux and thermal efficiency; however, it caused more concentration and temperature polarisation. On the other hand, the increased inlet velocity was found to provide increased water flux and reduced temperature and concertation polarisation as well. It was also found that the membrane properties, especially thickness and porosity, can affect the DCMD performance significantly. A two-fold increase of feed temperature increased the water flux and thermal efficiency, 10-fold and 27%, respectively; however, it caused an increase in temperature and concertation polarisation, at 48% and 34%, respectively. By increasing Reynolds number from 80 to 1600, the water flux, CPC, and TPC enhanced by 2.3-fold, 2%, and 21%, respectively. The increased feed concentration from 0 to 250 [g/L] caused a 26% reduction in water flux. To capture the downstream alteration of flow properties, it was shown that the ratio of inlet value to outlet value of system performance metrics decreased significantly throughout the module. Therefore, improvement over the conventional model is undeniable, as the new model can assist in achieving optimal operation conditions.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Yuan C, Zhang H, Li X, et al (2021)

Numerical Investigation of T-Shaped Microfluidic Oscillator with Viscoelastic Fluid.

Micromachines, 12(5):.

Oscillatory flow has many applications in micro-scaled devices. The methods of realizing microfluidic oscillators reported so far are typically based on the impinging-jet and Coanda effect, which usually require the flow Reynolds number to be at least at the order of unity. Another approach is to introduce elastomeric membrane into the microfluidic units; however, the manufacturing process is relatively complex, and the membrane will become soft after long-time operation, which leads to deviation from the design condition. From the perspective of the core requirement of a microfluidic circuit, i.e., nonlinearity, the oscillatory microfluidic flow can be realized via the nonlinear characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow. In this paper, the flow characteristics of viscoelastic fluid (Boger-type) in a T-shaped channel and its modified structures are studied by two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS). The main results obtained from the DNS study are as follows: (1) Both Weissenberg (Wi) number and viscosity ratio need to be within a certain range to achieve a periodic oscillating performance; (2) With the presence of the dynamic evolution of the pair of vortices in the upstream near the intersection, the oscillation intensity increases as the elasticity-dominated area in the junction enlarges; (3) Considering the simplicity of the T-type channel as a potential oscillator, the improved structure should have a groove carved toward the entrance near the upper wall. The maximum oscillation intensity measured by the standard deviation of flow rate at outlet is increased by 129% compared with that of the original standard T-shaped channel under the same condition. To sum up, with Wi number and viscosity ratio within a certain range, the regular periodic oscillation characteristics of Oldroyd-B type viscoelastic fluid flow in standard T-shaped and its modified channels can be obtained. This structure can serve as a passive microfluidic oscillator with great potential value at an extremely low Reynolds number, which has the advantages of simplicity, no moving parts and fan-out of two.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Abbasnezhad N, Kebdani M, Shirinbayan M, et al (2021)

Development of a Model Based on Physical Mechanisms for the Explanation of Drug Release: Application to Diclofenac Release from Polyurethane Films.

Polymers, 13(8):.

In this study, we present a method for prediction of the drug-release profile based on the physical mechanisms that can intervene in drug release from a drug-carrier. The application presented here incorporates the effects of drug concentration and Reynolds number defining the circulating flow in the testing vein. The experimental data used relate to the release of diclofenac from samples of non-degradable polyurethane subjected to static and continuous flow. This case includes simultaneously three mechanisms: burst-release, diffusion and osmotic pressure, identified beforehand here as being able to contribute to the drug liberation. For this purpose, authors coded the Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm to solve the problem of non-linear optimization. The experimental data used to develop the mathematical model obtained from release studies carried out in water solution at 37 °C, for three concentrations of diclofenac and two water flow rates. We discuss the contribution of mechanisms and kinetics by considering two aforementioned parameters and, following that, we obtain the specific-model and compare the calculated results with the experimental results for the reserved cases. The results showed that drug percentage mostly affect the burst release, however flow rate has affected the osmotic release. In addition, release kinetics of all the mechanisms have increased by increasing the values of two considered parameters.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Wang R, Duan R, H Jia (2021)

Experimental Validation of Falling Liquid Film Models: Velocity Assumption and Velocity Field Comparison.

Polymers, 13(8):.

This publication focuses on the experimental validation of film models by comparing constructed and experimental velocity fields based on model and elementary experimental data. The film experiment covers Kapitza numbers Ka = 278.8 and Ka = 4538.6, a Reynolds number range of 1.6-52, and disturbance frequencies of 0, 2, 5, and 7 Hz. Compared to previous publications, the applied methodology has boundary identification procedures that are more refined and provide additional adaptive particle image velocimetry (PIV) method access to synthetic particle images. The experimental method was validated with a comparison with experimental particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence (PIV/PLIF) results, Nusselt's theoretical prediction, and experimental particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) results of flat steady cases, and a good continuity equation reproduction of transient cases proves the method's fidelity. The velocity fields are reconstructed based on different film flow model velocity profile assumptions such as experimental film thickness, flow rates, and their derivatives, providing a validation method of film model by comparison between reconstructed velocity experimental data and experimental velocity data. The comparison results show that the first-order weighted residual model (WRM) and regularized model (RM) are very similar, although they may fail to predict the velocity field in rapidly changing zones such as the front of the main hump and the first capillary wave troughs.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Rasool G, Shafiq A, Alqarni MS, et al (2021)

Numerical Scrutinization of Darcy-Forchheimer Relation in Convective Magnetohydrodynamic Nanofluid Flow Bounded by Nonlinear Stretching Surface in the Perspective of Heat and Mass Transfer.

Micromachines, 12(4):.

The aim of this research is mainly concerned with the numerical examination of Darcy-Forchheimer relation in convective magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid flow bounded by non-linear stretching sheet. A visco-elastic and strictly incompressible liquid saturates the designated porous medium under the direct influence of the Darcy-Forchheimer model and convective boundary. The magnetic effect is taken uniformly normal to the flow direction. However, the model is bounded to a tiny magnetic Reynolds number for practical applications. Boundary layer formulations are taken into consideration. The so-formulated leading problems are converted into highly nonlinear ordinary problems using effectively modified transformations. The numerical scheme is applied to solve the governing problems. The outcomes stipulate that thermal layer receives significant modification in the incremental direction for augmented values of thermal radiation parameter Rd. Elevation in thermal Biot number γ1 apparently results a significant rise in thermal layer and associated boundary layer thickness. The solute Biot number is found to be an enhancing factor the concentration profile. Besides the three main profiles, the contour and density graphs are sketched for both the linear and non-linear cases. Furthermore, skin friction jumps for larger porosity and larger Forchheimer number. Both the heat and mass flux numbers receive a reduction for augmented values of the Forchheimer number. Heat flux enhances, while mass flux reduces, the strong effect of thermal Biot number. The considered problem could be helpful in any several industrial and engineering procedures, such as rolling, polymeric extrusion, continuously stretching done in plastic thin films, crystal growth, fiber production, and metallic extrusion, etc.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Sasaki K, Okue T, Nakai T, et al (2021)

Lateral Growth of Uniformly Thin Gold Nanosheets Facilitated by Two-Dimensional Precursor Supply.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 37(19):5872-5877.

The nanosheets of highly symmetric materials with a face-centered cubic lattice such as gold have been synthesized by adsorbing the precursors on a flat surface, whose chemical specificity induces the anisotropy of growth rates. We have succeeded in the fabrication of gold nanosheets in a hydrophilic space inside highly separated bilayers, which work as two-dimensional hydrophilic reactors, in a hyperswollen lamellar liquid crystalline phase of an amphiphile solution. One of the physical properties, amphiphilicity, confines the ingredients therein. The nanosheets can only grow in the in-plane direction due to the inhibition of the out-of-plane growth rather than the anisotropy of growth rates probably. Thus, the synthesis can be accelerated; the particles can be completed within 15 min. As not relying on chemical specificity, silver nanosheets could also be synthesized in the same way. The suspension of gold and silver nanosheets without any amphiphiles could be obtained, and the solvent is replaceable. We found that the width of the obtained gold nanosheets is proportional to the Reynolds number of the solution because the area of the bilayer in the hyperswollen lamellar phase depends on shear stress. This implies that the areas of gold nanosheets depend on the areas of the bilayers, and it can be controlled by changing the Reynolds number. This method could be widely used to continuously obtain large-area nanosheets of various materials in a roll-to-roll manufacturing process.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Heyland A, Roszell J, Chau J, et al (2021)

Mass transfer and flow characterization of novel algae-based nutrient removal system.

Biotechnology for biofuels, 14(1):104.

BACKGROUND: Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are an essential component of sustainable inland seafood production. Still, nutrient removal from these systems can result in substantial environmental problems, or present a major cost factor with few added value options. In this study, an innovative and energy-efficient algae based nutrient removal system (NRS) was developed that has the potential to generate revenue through algal commercialization. We optimized mass transfer in our NRS design using novel aeration and mixing technology, using air lift pumps and developed an original membrane cartridge for the continuous operation of nutrient removal and algae production. Specifically, we designed, manufactured and tested a 60-L NRS prototype. Based on specific airlift mixing conditions as well as concentration gradients, we assessed NRS nutrient removal capacity. We then examined the effects of different internal bioreactor geometries and radial orientations on the mixing efficiency.

RESULTS: Using the start-up dynamic method, the overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be in the range of 0.00164-0.0074 [Formula: see text], depending on flow parameters and we confirmed a scaling relationship of mass transfer across concentration gradients. We found the optimal Reynolds number to be 500 for optimal mass transfer, as higher Reynolds numbers resulted in a relatively reduced increase of mass transfer. This relationship between mass transfer and Reynolds number is critical to assess scalability of our system. Our results demonstrate an even distribution of dissolved oxygen levels across the reactor core, demonstrating adequate mixing by the airlift pump, a critical consideration for optimal algal growth. Distribution of dissolved gases in the reactor was further assessed using flow visualization in order to relate the bubble distribution to the mass transfer capabilities of the reactor. We run a successful proof of principle trial using the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta to assess mass transfer of nutrients across the membrane and biomass production.

CONCLUSIONS: Manipulation of the concentration gradient across the membrane demonstrates a more prominent role of airlift mixing at higher concentration gradients. Specifically, the mass transfer rate increased threefold when the concentration gradient was increased 2.5-fold. We found that we can grow algae in the reactor chamber at rates comparable to those of other production systems and that the membrane scaffolds effectively remove nutrients form the wastewater. Our findings provide support for scalability of the design and support the use of this novel NRS for nutrient removal in aquaculture and potentially other applications.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Song Z, Tong J, Pfleging W, et al (2021)

A review: Learning from the flight of beetles.

Computers in biology and medicine, 133:104397.

Some Coleoptera (popularly referred to as beetles) can fly at a low Reynolds number with their deployable hind wings, which directly enables a low body weight-a good bioinspiration strategy for miniaturization of micro-air vehicles (MAVs). The hind wing is a significant part of the body and has a folding/unfolding mechanism whose unique function benefits from different structures and materials. This review summarizes the actions, factors, and mechanisms of beetle flight and bioinspired MAVs with deployable wings. The elytron controlled by muscles is the protected part for the folded hind wing and influences flight performance. The resilin, the storage material for elasticity, is located in the folding parts. The hind wings' folding/unfolding mechanism and flight performance can be influenced by vein structures of hollow, solid and wrinkled veins, the hemolymph that flows in hollow veins and its hydraulic mechanism, and various mechanical properties of veins. The action of beetle flight includes flapping flight, hovering, gliding, and landing. The hind wing is passively deformed through force and hemolymph, and the attack angle of the hind wing and the nanomechanics of the veins, muscles and mass body determine the flight performance. Based these factors, bioinspired MAVs with a new deployable wing structure and new materials will be designed to be much more effective and miniaturized. The new fuels and energy supply are significant aspects of MAVs.

RevDate: 2021-04-23

Sadeq AM, Ahmed SF, AK Sleiti (2021)

Dataset for transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel.

Data in brief, 36:106956 pii:S2352-3409(21)00240-7.

A fan-stirred combustion vessel is used to study the premixed turbulent combustion of diesel, Gas to Liquids (GTL) and 50/50 diesel-GTL and to generate these datasets. A numerical simulation approach is implemented for modelling the premixed combustion of the three fuels under different thermodynamics and turbulence initial conditions, using Zimont Turbulent Flame Speed Closure (Zimont TFC) model. Different parameters are obtained from these simulation runs such as turbulent eddy viscosity (µ), turbulent kinetic energy (k), Damkohler number (Da), Reynolds number (ReT) and turbulent flame speed (St). The raw, filtered and pre-processed data are imported from ANSYS Fluent and then listed on filtered tables for the ease of accessibility. These datasets can be then used to perform research in different related areas such as chemical kinetic mechanisms, ignition delay time, flame ignition mechanisms and flame extinction and diffusion. Also, they can be employed to further understand trends, patterns, and anomalies in data. In addition, they can be compared with other numerical models to establish a robust knowledge about the modelling of premixed turbulent combustion. For more information and discussion of the dataset creation, the reader is directed to the full-length article, "Abdellatif M. Sadeq, Samer F. Ahmed, Ahmad K. Sleiti, Transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel in a fan-stirred combustion vessel, Fuel, Volume 291, 2021, 120,184, ISSN 0016 2361," [1].

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Lamont EI, RB Emlet (2021)

Swimming kinematics of cyprids of the barnacle Balanus glandula.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6237900 [Epub ahead of print].

Larvae of barnacles typically pass through naupliar and cyprid planktonic stages before settlement and metamorphosis. As the final larval stage, cyprids swim much faster than nauplii and in turbulent fluid environments with high shears as they seek habitat. Cyprids swim with six pairs of reciprocating thoracic appendages and use two anterior antennules during settlement. Our understanding of how thoracic appendages generate movement is limited due to short stroke intervals (∼5 ms) that impede observations of the shape and trajectory of appendages. Here, we used high speed videography to observe both free-swimming and tethered cyprids of the intertidal acorn barnacle Balanus glandula to produce a comprehensive description of thoracic appendage swimming kinematics. Cyprids used a drag-based method of swimming: their six pairs of thoracic appendages moved through metachronal power strokes and synchronous recovery strokes similar to the thoracopod motions in calanoid copepods during escape swimming. During the power stroke, plumose setae on each appendage pair spread laterally into a high surface area and high drag paddle composed of a meshwork of fused setules. This interconnected setal array collapsed into a low surface area and low drag shape during the recovery stroke. These effective swimming appendages allowed cyprids to move upwards at an average speed of 1.4 cm s-1 (about 25 body lengths s-1) with an average beat frequency of 16 beats s-1, and reach an instantaneous velocity of up to 6 cm s-1. Beat frequency of the thoracic appendages was significantly associated with speed, with higher beat frequencies indicating faster swimming speed. At their average speed, cyprids moved at the intermediate Reynolds number of ∼10, in which both viscous and inertial forces affected movement. Cyprids could alter swimming direction by sweeping the posterior-most appendage pair to one side and beating the remaining thoracic appendages synchronously through the power stroke with greater motion on the outside of their turn. These results greatly enhance our understanding both of cyprid motility and how small planktonic organisms can use swimming appendages with fused setule arrays to reach high swimming speeds and affect directional changes.

RevDate: 2021-05-27
CmpDate: 2021-05-27

Si XA, Talaat M, Su WC, et al (2021)

Inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled respiratory aerosols in the human respiratory tract with locally remodeled conducting lungs.

Inhalation toxicology, 33(4):143-159.

Objective: Respiratory diseases are often accompanied by alterations to airway morphology. However, inhalation dosimetry data in remodeled airways are scarce due to the challenges in reconstructing diseased respiratory morphologies. This study aims to study the airway remodeling effects on the inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled nanoparticles in a nose-lung geometry that extends to G9 (ninth generation).Materials and methods: Statistical shape modeling was used to develop four diseased lung models with varying levels of bronchiolar dilation/constriction in the left-lower (LL) lobe (i.e. M1-M4). Respiratory airflow and particle deposition were simulated using a low Reynolds number k-ω turbulence model and a Lagrangian tracking approach.Results: Significant discrepancies were observed in the flow partitions between the left and right lungs, as well as between the lower and upper lobes of the left lung, which changed by 10-fold between the most dilated and constricted models.Much lower doses were predicted on the surface of the constricted LL bronchioles G4-G9, as well as into the peripheral airways beyond G9 of the LL lung. However, the LL lobar remodeling had little effect on the dosimetry in the nasopharynx, as well as on the total dosimetry in the nose-lung geometry (up to G9).Conclusion: It is suggested that airway remodeling may pose a higher viral infection risk to the host by redistributing the inhaled viruses to healthy lung lobes. Airway remodeling effects should also be considered in the treatment planning of inhalation therapies, not only because of the dosimetry variation from altered lung morphology but also its evolution as the disease progresses.

RevDate: 2021-06-25

Trkulja CL, Jungholm O, Davidson M, et al (2021)

Rational antibody design for undruggable targets using kinetically controlled biomolecular probes.

Science advances, 7(16):.

Several important drug targets, e.g., ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors, are extremely difficult to approach with current antibody technologies. To address these targets classes, we explored kinetically controlled proteases as structural dynamics-sensitive druggability probes in native-state and disease-relevant proteins. By using low-Reynolds number flows, such that a single or a few protease incisions are made, we could identify antibody binding sites (epitopes) that were translated into short-sequence antigens for antibody production. We obtained molecular-level information of the epitope-paratope region and could produce high-affinity antibodies with programmed pharmacological function against difficult-to-drug targets. We demonstrate the first stimulus-selective monoclonal antibodies targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, a clinically validated pain target widely considered undruggable with antibodies, and apoptosis-inducing antibodies selectively mediating cytotoxicity in KRAS-mutated cells. It is our hope that this platform will widen the scope of antibody therapeutics for the benefit of patients.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Fouxon I, Feinberg J, Käpylä P, et al (2021)

Reynolds number dependence of Lyapunov exponents of turbulence and fluid particles.

Physical review. E, 103(3-1):033110.

The Navier-Stokes equations generate an infinite set of generalized Lyapunov exponents defined by different ways of measuring the distance between exponentially diverging perturbed and unperturbed solutions. This set is demonstrated to be similar, yet different, from the generalized Lyapunov exponent that provides moments of distance between two fluid particles below the Kolmogorov scale. We derive rigorous upper bounds on dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of the fluid particles that demonstrate the exponent's decay with Reynolds number Re in accord with previous studies. In contrast, terms of cumulant series for exponents of the moments have power-law growth with Re. We demonstrate as an application that the growth of small fluctuations of magnetic field in ideal conducting turbulence is hyperintermittent, being exponential in both time and Reynolds number. We resolve the existing contradiction between the theory, that predicts slow decrease of dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of turbulence with Re, and observations exhibiting quite fast growth. We demonstrate that it is highly plausible that a pointwise limit for the growth of small perturbations of the Navier-Stokes equations exists.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Waringer J, Vitecek S, Martini J, et al (2021)

Hydraulic niche utilization by larvae of the three Drusinae clades (Insecta: Trichoptera).

Biologia, 76(5):1465-1473.

Hydraulic niche descriptors of final instar larvae of nine Drusus species (Trichoptera) were studied in small, spring-fed, first-order headwaters located in the Mühlviertel (Upper Austria), Koralpe (Carinthia, Austria), and in the Austrian and Italian Alps. The species investigated covered all three clades of Drusinae: the shredder clade (Drusus franzi, D. alpinus), the grazer clade (D. biguttatus, D. chauvinianus, D. dudor, D. monticola), and the filtering carnivore clade (D. chrysotus, D. katagelastos, D. muelleri). Flow velocity was measured at front center of 68 larvae, head upstream, on the top of mineral substrate particles at water depths of 10-30 mm, using a tripod-stabilized Micro propeller meter (propeller diameter = 10 mm). Each data series consisted of a sampled measurement lasting 30 s (measuring interval = 1 s). In total, 2040 single velocity measurements were taken. Instantaneous flow velocities and drag at the sites of the 68 larvae varied from 0 to 0.93 m s-1 and 0 to 8346 *10-6 N, respectively. Flow velocities and drag between the three clades were highly significantly different (p < 0.001); mean velocity (± 95% confidence limits) for the three clades were 0.09 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the shredder, 0.25 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the grazer, and 0.31 ± 0.01ms-1 for the filtering carnivore clade; the corresponding data for drag were (85 ± 18)*10-6 N, (422 ± 61)*10-6 N and (1125 ± 83)*10-6 N, respectively. Adhesive friction ranged from (41.07 ± 53.03)*10-6 N in D. franzi to (255.24 ± 216.87)*10-6 N in D. chrysotus. Except in D. franzi and D. dudor adhesive friction was always well below drag force, indicating that submerged weight alone was not sufficient to stabilize the larvae in their hydraulic environment. Reynolds numbers varied between 0 in D. franzi and D. alpinus, and 12,634 in D. katagelastos, with 7% of the total in the laminar (R < 500), 30%in the transitional (R = 500-2000), and 61%in the fully turbulent stage (R > 2000). Froude numbers (Fr) varied from 0 to 2.97. The two Drusus species of the shredder clade and three out of four species of the grazer clade were exposed to subcritical Fr < 1, one species of the grazer clade and two out of three species of the filtering clade to supercritical Froude numbers >1.

RevDate: 2021-05-21

Wang Q, H Wu (2021)

Mathematical modeling of chemotaxis guided amoeboid cell swimming.

Physical biology, 18(4):.

Cells and microorganisms adopt various strategies to migrate in response to different environmental stimuli. To date, many modeling research has focused on the crawling-basedDictyostelium discoideum(Dd) cells migration induced by chemotaxis, yet recent experimental results reveal that even without adhesion or contact to a substrate, Dd cells can still swim to follow chemoattractant signals. In this paper, we develop a modeling framework to investigate the chemotaxis induced amoeboid cell swimming dynamics. A minimal swimming system consists of one deformable Dd amoeboid cell and a dilute suspension of bacteria, and the bacteria produce chemoattractant signals that attract the Dd cell. We use themathematical amoeba modelto generate Dd cell deformation and solve the resulting low Reynolds number flows, and use a moving mesh based finite volume method to solve the reaction-diffusion-convection equation. Using the computational model, we show that chemotaxis guides a swimming Dd cell to follow and catch bacteria, while on the other hand, bacterial rheotaxis may help the bacteria to escape from the predator Dd cell.

RevDate: 2021-05-28
CmpDate: 2021-04-09

Solovev A, BM Friedrich (2021)

Lagrangian mechanics of active systems.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(4):49.

We present a multi-scale modeling and simulation framework for low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics of shape-changing immersed objects, e.g., biological microswimmers and active surfaces. The key idea is to consider principal shape changes as generalized coordinates and define conjugate generalized hydrodynamic friction forces. Conveniently, the corresponding generalized friction coefficients can be pre-computed and subsequently reused to solve dynamic equations of motion fast. This framework extends Lagrangian mechanics of dissipative systems to active surfaces and active microswimmers, whose shape dynamics is driven by internal forces. As an application case, we predict in-phase and anti-phase synchronization in pairs of cilia for an experimentally measured cilia beat pattern.

RevDate: 2021-04-11

Abdal S, Hussain S, Siddique I, et al (2021)

On solution existence of MHD Casson nanofluid transportation across an extending cylinder through porous media and evaluation of priori bounds.

Scientific reports, 11(1):7799.

It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transportation of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of uniform strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter [Formula: see text], magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter [Formula: see text] and Reynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). The core interest for this study aroused to address some analytical aspects. Therefore, existence of solution is proved and uniqueness of this results is discussed with evaluation of bounds for existence of solution. Results for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique. The flow speed retards against M, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for both situations of mass injection and suction. The thermal boundary layer improves with Brownian and thermopherotic diffusions.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Abramowicz-Gerigk T, Burciu Z, Jachowski J, et al (2021)

Experimental Method for the Measurements and Numerical Investigations of Force Generated on the Rotating Cylinder under Water Flow.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(6): pii:s21062216.

The paper presents the experimental test setup and measurement method of hydrodynamic force generated on the rotating cylinder (rotor) under uniform flow including the free surface effect. The experimental test setup was a unique construction installed in the flume tank equipped with advanced flow generating and measuring systems. The test setup consisted of a bearing mounted platform with rotor drive and sensors measuring the hydrodynamic force. The low length to diameter ratio cylinders were selected as models of bow rotor rudders of a shallow draft river barge. The rotor dynamics was tested for the rotational speeds up to 550 rpm and water current velocity up to 0.85 m/s. The low aspect ratio of the cylinder and free surface effect had significant impacts on the phenomena influencing the generated hydrodynamic force. The effects of the rotor length to diameter ratio, rotational velocity to flow velocity ratio, and the Reynolds number on the lift force were analyzed. The validation of the computational model against experimental results is presented. The results show a similar trend of results for the simulation and experiment.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Okuducu MB, MM Aral (2021)

Toward the Next Generation of Passive Micromixers: A Novel 3-D Design Approach.

Micromachines, 12(4):.

Passive micromixers are miniaturized instruments that are used to mix fluids in microfluidic systems. In microchannels, combination of laminar flows and small diffusion constants of mixing liquids produce a difficult mixing environment. In particular, in very low Reynolds number flows, e.g., Re < 10, diffusive mixing cannot be promoted unless a large interfacial area is formed between the fluids to be mixed. Therefore, the mixing distance increases substantially due to a slow diffusion process that governs fluid mixing. In this article, a novel 3-D passive micromixer design is developed to improve fluid mixing over a short distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate the performance of the micromixer numerically. The circular-shaped fluid overlapping (CSFO) micromixer design proposed is examined in several fluid flow, diffusivity, and injection conditions. The outcomes show that the CSFO geometry develops a large interfacial area between the fluid bodies. Thus, fluid mixing is accelerated in vertical and/or horizontal directions depending on the injection type applied. For the smallest molecular diffusion constant tested, the CSFO micromixer design provides more than 90% mixing efficiency in a distance between 260 and 470 µm. The maximum pressure drop in the micromixer is found to be less than 1.4 kPa in the highest flow conditioned examined.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Rudl J, Hanzelmann C, Feja S, et al (2021)

Laminar Pipe Flow with Mixed Convection under the Influence of Magnetic Field.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 11(3): pii:nano11030824.

Magnetic influence on ferronanofluid flow is gaining increasing interest from not only the scientific community but also industry. The aim of this study is the examination of the potentials of magnetic forces to control heat transfer. Experiments are conducted to investigate the interaction between four different configurations of permanent magnets and laminar pipe flow with mixed convection. For that purpose a pipe flow test rig is operated with a water-magnetite ferronanofluid. The Reynolds number is varied over one order of magnitude (120-1200). To characterise this suspension, density, solid content, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity are measured. It is found that, depending on the positioning of the magnet(s) and the Reynolds number, heat transfer is either increased or decreased. The experiments indicate that this is a local effect. After relaxation lengths ranging between 2 and 3.5 lengths of a magnet, all changes disappeared. The conclusion from these findings is that magnetic forces are rather a tool to control heat transfer locally than to enhance the overall heat transfer of heat exchangers or the like. Magnetically caused disturbances decay due to viscous dissipation and the flow approaches the basic state again.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Naas TT, Hossain S, Aslam M, et al (2021)

Kinematic Measurements of Novel Chaotic Micromixers to Enhance Mixing Performances at Low Reynolds Numbers: Comparative Study.

Micromachines, 12(4):.

In this work, a comparative investigation of chaotic flow behavior inside multi-layer crossing channels was numerically carried out to select suitable micromixers. New micromixers were proposed and compared with an efficient passive mixer called a Two-Layer Crossing Channel Micromixer (TLCCM), which was investigated recently. The computational evaluation was a concern to the mixing enhancement and kinematic measurements, such as vorticity, deformation, stretching, and folding rates for various low Reynolds number regimes. The 3D continuity, momentum, and species transport equations were solved by a Fluent ANSYS CFD code. For various cases of fluid regimes (0.1 to 25 values of Reynolds number), the new configuration displayed a mixing enhancement of 40%-60% relative to that obtained in the older TLCCM in terms of kinematic measurement, which was studied recently. The results revealed that all proposed micromixers have a strong secondary flow, which significantly enhances the fluid kinematic performances at low Reynolds numbers. The visualization of mass fraction and path-lines presents that the TLCCM configuration is inefficient at low Reynolds numbers, while the new designs exhibit rapid mixing with lower pressure losses. Thus, it can be used to enhance the homogenization in several microfluidic systems.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

De Bartolo S, Vittorio M, Francone A, et al (2021)

Direct Scaling of Measure on Vortex Shedding through a Flapping Flag Device in the Open Channel around a Cylinder at Re∼103: Taylor's Law Approach.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(5):.

The problem of vortex shedding, which occurs when an obstacle is placed in a regular flow, is governed by Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, known by dimensional analysis. The present work aims to propose a thin films-based device, consisting of an elastic piezoelectric flapping flag clamped at one end, in order to determine the frequency of vortex shedding downstream an obstacle for a flow field at Reynolds number Re∼103 in the open channel. For these values, Strouhal number obtained in such way is in accordance with the results known in literature. Moreover, the development of the voltage over time, generated by the flapping flag under the load due to flow field, shows a highly fluctuating behavior and satisfies Taylor's law, observed in several complex systems. This provided useful information about the flow field through the constitutive law of the device.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Chen WH, Mutuku JK, Yang ZW, et al (2021)

An investigation for airflow and deposition of PM2.5 contaminated with SAR-CoV-2 virus in healthy and diseased human airway.

Environmental research, 197:111096.

This study is motivated by the amplified transmission rates of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in areas with high concentrations of fine particulates (PM2.5) as reported in northern Italy and Mexico. To develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 in the propagation of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in the population, the deposition patterns and efficiencies (DEs) of PM2.5 laced with the virus in healthy and asthmatic airways are studied. Physiologically correct 3-D models for generations 10-12 of the human airways are applied to carry out a numerical analysis of two-phase flow for full breathing cycles. Two concentrations of PM2.5 are applied for the simulation, i.e., 30 μg⋅m-3 and 80 μg⋅m-3 for three breathing statuses, i.e., rest, light exercise, and moderate activity. All the PM2.5 injected into the control volume is assumed to be 100% contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus. Skewed air-flow phenomena at the bifurcations are proportional to the Reynolds number at the inlet, and their intensity in the asthmatic airway exceeded that of the healthy one. Upon exhalation, two peak air-flow vectors from daughter branches combine to form one big vector in the parent generation. Asthmatic airway models has higher deposition efficiencies (DEs) for contaminated PM2.5 as compared to the healthy one. Higher DEs arise in the asthmatic airway model due to complex secondary flows which increase the impaction of contaminated PM2.5 on airways' walls.

RevDate: 2021-03-26

Edomwonyi-Otu LC, Dosumu AI, N Yusuf (2021)

Effect of oil on the performance of biopolymers as drag reducers in fresh water flow.

Heliyon, 7(3):e06535 pii:S2405-8440(21)00638-1.

This study looks at the effectiveness of natural polymers (biopolymers) as drag reducers in flows of oil-water mixtures. The technique of using drag reducers to minimize the frictional drag in pipeline transportation of fluids is getting more challenging and there is need to be more environmentally friendly by using natural polymers. In this report, two natural polymers: xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG), were used as drag reducers in a 12-mm ID straight conduit with water. The concentration of the gums was varied from 50 to 250 pm while 25, 0.50 and 0.75 fractions of oil were mixed with freshwater. The molecular weight of the gums was also determined to gain insight into their influence on the rheology of the fluids. The result showed that the gums (natural polymers) performed better as drag reducer in freshwater than in mixture with oil. Specifically, the drag reduction (DR) of 200 pm GG and XG solutions at Reynolds number of 59000 in freshwater was 39% and 44% respectively, while with the addition of 50% oil fraction, it was reduced to 19% and 32% respectively. DR reduced with oil fraction. It was concluded that XG performs better in the presence of oil than GG.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Wang L, Ni P, G Xi (2021)

The effect of off-center placement of twisted tape on flow and heat transfer characteristics in a circular tube.

Scientific reports, 11(1):6844.

This study is conducted to investigate the effect of off-center placement of twisted tape on flow distribution and heat transfer in a circular tube. The effect of tape width of 20, 18, 16, 14 and 12 mm on the heat transfer performance is discussed under the same twist ratio of 2.0. The numerical analysis of the flow field, average Nusselt number, friction factor and thermo-hydraulic performance parameter of the tube are discussed with Reynolds number ranged from 2600 to 8760. The results indicate that the Nusselt number of the tube fitted with center-placed twisted tapes at various width is 7-51% higher than the plain tube, and performance in low Reynolds region was found more effective than that in high Reynolds region. The heat transfer for circular tube with twisted tape attached to the wall shows better performance than that for the tube with center-placed twisted tape. With a smaller tape width, a higher increasing ratio of Nu-wall/Nu-center is obtained. The increasing ratio for Nusselt number ranged from 3 to 18%. However, the use of twisted tape inserts is not beneficial for energy saving. The thermo-hydraulic performance parameters for convective heat transfer of helium gas flowing in a circular tube are below unity for the calculated Reynolds region.

RevDate: 2021-03-26
CmpDate: 2021-03-26

Wang X, Liu Z, Cai Y, et al (2021)

A cost-effective serpentine micromixer utilizing ellipse curve.

Analytica chimica acta, 1155:338355.

Due to high mixing performance and simple geometry structure, serpentine micromixer is one typical passive micromixer that has been widely investigated. Traditional zigzag and square-wave serpentine micromixers can achieve sufficient mixing, but tend to induce significant pressure drop. The excessive pressure drop means more energy consumption, which leads to low cost-performance of mixing. To mitigate excessive pressure drop, a novel serpentine micromixer utilizing ellipse curve is proposed. While fluids flowing through ellipse curve microchannels, the flow directions keep continuous changing. Therefore, the Dean vortices are induced throughout the whole flow path. Numerical simulation and visualization experiments are conducted at Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 0.1 to 100. Dean vortices varies with the changing curvature in different ellipse curves, and local Dean numbers are calculated for quantitative evaluation. The results suggest that the ellipse with a larger eccentricity induces stronger Dean vortices, thus better mixing performance can be obtained. A parameter, named mixing performance cost (Mec), is proposed to evaluate the cost-performance of micromixers. Compared with the zigzag, square-wave and other improved serpentine micromixers, the ellipse curve micromixer produces lower pressure drop while have the capability to maintain excellent mixing performance. The ellipse curve micromixer is proved to be more cost-effective for rapid mixing in complex microfluidic systems.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Ghosh UU, Ali H, Ghosh R, et al (2021)

Bacterial streamers as colloidal systems: Five grand challenges.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 594:265-278.

Bacteria can thrive in biofilms, which are intricately organized communities with cells encased in a self-secreted matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Imposed hydrodynamic stresses can transform this active colloidal dispersion of bacteria and EPS into slender thread-like entities called streamers. In this perspective article, the reader is introduced to the world of such deformable 'bacteria-EPS' composites that are a subclass of the generic flow-induced colloidal structures. While bacterial streamers have been shown to form in a variety of hydrodynamic conditions (turbulent and creeping flows), its abiotic analogues have only been demonstrated in low Reynolds number (Re < 1) particle-laden polymeric flows. Streamers are relevant to a variety of situations ranging from natural formations in caves and river beds to clogging of biomedical devices and filtration membranes. A critical review of the relevant biophysical aspects of streamer formation phenomena and unique attributes of its material behavior are distilled to unveil five grand scientific challenges. The coupling between colloidal hydrodynamics, device geometry and streamer formation are highlighted.

RevDate: 2021-05-21

Mohammadinejad S, Faivre D, S Klumpp (2021)

Stokesian dynamics simulations of a magnetotactic bacterium.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(3):40.

The swimming of bacteria provides insight into propulsion and steering under the conditions of low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics. Here we address the magnetically steered swimming of magnetotactic bacteria. We use Stokesian dynamics simulations to study the swimming of single-flagellated magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in an external magnetic field. Our model MTB consists of a spherical cell body equipped with a magnetic dipole moment and a helical flagellum rotated by a rotary motor. The elasticity of the flagellum as well as magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions is taken into account in this model. We characterized how the swimming velocity is dependent on parameters of the model. We then studied the U-turn motion after a field reversal and found two regimes for weak and strong fields and, correspondingly, two characteristic time scales. In the two regimes, the U-turn time is dominated by the turning of the cell body and its magnetic moment or the turning of the flagellum, respectively. In the regime for weak fields, where turning is dominated by the magnetic relaxation, the U-turn time is approximately in agreement with a theoretical model based on torque balance. In the strong-field regime, strong deformations of the flagellum are observed. We further simulated the swimming of a bacterium with a magnetic moment that is inclined relative to the flagellar axis. This scenario leads to intriguing double helical trajectories that we characterize as functions of the magnetic moment inclination and the magnetic field. For small inclination angles ([Formula: see text]) and typical field strengths, the inclination of the magnetic moment has only a minor effect on the swimming of MTB in an external magnetic field. Large inclination angles result in a strong reduction in the velocity in direction of the magnetic field, consistent with recent observations that bacteria with large inclination angles use a different propulsion mechanism.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Jamil DF, Saleem S, Roslan R, et al (2021)

Analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic Casson blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery using Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 203:106044.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Arterial diseases would lead to several serious disorders in the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. These disorders are mainly caused by the presence of fatty deposits, cholesterol and lipoproteins inside blood vessel. This paper deals with the analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery.

METHODS: The Casson fluid was used to model the blood that flows under the influences of uniformly distributed magnetic field and oscillating pressure gradient. The governing fractional differential equations were expressed using the Caputo Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel.

RESULTS: The analytical solutions of velocities for non-Newtonian model were then calculated by means of Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. These velocities were then presented graphically. The result shows that the velocity increases with respect to Reynolds number and Casson parameter, while decreases when Hartmann number increases.

CONCLUSIONS: Casson blood was treated as the non-Newtonian fluid. The MHD blood flow was accelerated by pressure gradient. These findings are beneficial for studying atherosclerosis therapy, the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of some medical problems.

RevDate: 2021-03-24

Mouzourides P, Kyprianou A, MK Neophytou (2021)

Exploring the multi-fractal nature of the air flow and pollutant dispersion in a turbulent urban atmosphere and its implications for long range pollutant transport.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 31(1):013110.

This work investigates the multi-fractal nature of a turbulent urban atmosphere using high-resolution atmospheric data. Meteorological and concentration measurements of passive and reactive pollutants collected over a 3-year period in a sub-urban high-Reynolds number atmospheric field were analyzed. Scaling laws characterizing the self-similarity and thereby depicting the multi-fractal nature are determined by calculating the singularity spectra, where a range of Hölder exponents, h, are estimated. In doing so, the complexity of the urban atmosphere entailing different stability regimes was addressed. Using the Monin-Obukhov length (LMO) as a marker of atmospheric stability and thereby an indication of the magnitude of anisotropy, we find where and how self-similarity is manifested relative to the different regimes and we estimate corresponding appropriate scaling laws. We find that the wind speed obeys the -5/3 law suggested by Kolmogorov only when the atmosphere lies within the stable regime as defined by Monin-Obukhov theory. Specifically, when the ratio of the atmospheric boundary layer height (Hb.l) over LMO is greater than 15, and at the same time, the ratio of the height above ground of the wind measurements (z0) over LMO is higher than 3 (i.e., in stable regime), then the singularity spectra of wind speed time series indicate that the dominant Hölder exponent, hmax, coincides with Kolmogorov's second hypothesis. On the contrary under unstable regimes in the atmosphere where the anisotropy is approached, different scaling laws are estimated. In detail, when z0/LMO<0, the dominant Hölder exponent, hmax, of the singularity spectra of the wind speed time series is either negative or close to zero, which is an indication of an impulse-like singularity, that is associated with rapid changes. For the ambient temperature and air quality measurements such as of carbon monoxide and particulate matter concentrations, it was found that they obey different laws, which are related with the long-term correlation of their data fluctuation.

RevDate: 2021-03-24
CmpDate: 2021-03-24

Ji JY, Zhao YG, Yang K, et al (2021)

Effects of the distribution of biological soil crust on the hydrodynamic characteristics of surface runoff.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 32(3):1015-1022.

The distribution pattern of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) is one of the main factors affecting runoff and sediment yield. The relationship between runoff and sediment yield and biocrusts' distribution pattern is not clear, which hinders understanding the mechanism underlying the effects of biocrusts on runoff and sediment from slopes. To fill the knowledge gap, we investigated the relationship between the landscape indices of three biocrusts' distribution patterns, i.e. zonation, chessboard and random, and the hydraulic parameters, using of simulated rainfall experiments and landscape ecology methods. The results showed that biocrust significantly affected the erosion force of slopes and that its distribution pattern could affect slope erosion dynamics. Compared to bare soil, the presence of biocrusts significantly reduced the runoff velocity (54.6%) and Froude number (67.0%), increased the runoff depth (86.2%) and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient (10.68 times), but did not affect the Reynolds number and runoff power. Expect for the runoff depth, there were significant differences in the hydraulic parameters of the three biocrusts' distribution patterns, with the random pattern having the strongest impacts on the dynamics of slope erosion. Based on factor analysis and cluster analysis, five indices of percentage of patch to landscape area, patch density, landscape shape index, patch cohesion and splitting could be used as the indicators for the distribution characteristics of biocrust patches. The patch cohesion and splitting of biocrust patches were the main distribution pattern indices of the hydrodynamics of surface runoff. As the patches patch cohesion decreased, the splitting increased, which caused the surface runoff velocity increase, the resistance decrease, and the slope erosion became more severe.

RevDate: 2021-05-19
CmpDate: 2021-05-19

Pejcic S, Najjari MR, Bisleri G, et al (2021)

Characterization of the dynamic viscoelastic response of the ascending aorta imposed via pulsatile flow.

Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials, 118:104395.

This study characterizes the material properties of a viscoelastic, ex vivo porcine ascending aorta under dynamic-loading conditions via pulsatile flow. The deformation of the opaque vessel wall and the pulsatile flow field inside the vessel were recorded using ultrasound imaging. The internal pressure was extracted from the pulsatile flow results and, when coupled with the vessel-wall expansion, was used to calculate the instantaneous elastic modulus from a novel, time-resolved two-dimensional (i.e. axial and circumferential) stress model. The circumferential instantaneous elasticity obtained from the two-dimensional stress model was found to match the uniaxial tensile test for strains below 50%. The agreement in elasticity between the two stress states reveals that the two-dimensional stress model accurately resolves the circumferential stress of the viscoelastic aorta at physiological strains (8%-30%). At higher strains, results from pulsatile flow generated a more compliant response than the uniaxial measurements. Viscoelastic properties (storage modulus and loss factor) were also calculated using the two-dimensional stress model and compared to those obtained from uniaxial tests. While instantaneous elasticity matched between the cylindrical and uniaxial loading, the viscoelastic behaviour significantly diverged between stress states. The storage modulus obtained from the pulsatile flow data was dependent on mean Reynolds number, while the uniaxial storage modulus results exhibited a strong inverse dependency on the frequency. The loss factor for the pulsatile flow data increased alongside the frequency, while the uniaxial data indicated a constant loss factor over the entire frequency range. The results of the current study show that the two-dimensional stress model can accurately extract the material properties of the ex vivo porcine aorta.

RevDate: 2021-03-23

Lu H, Chen L, Wang J, et al (2021)

Using a Modified Turian-Yuan Model to Enhance Heterogeneous Resistance in Municipal Sludge Transportation Pipeline.

ACS omega, 6(10):7199-7211.

Based on the Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model, the simulation results of three urban sludge pipelines with a volumetric concentration of 2.38, 3.94, and 5.39% were analyzed. The reasons for the large deviation of the simulation results under high Reynolds number conditions were also analyzed. The results showed that the deviation of the simulation was mainly caused by the difference between the sludge volumetric concentration (C V), the settlement resistance coefficient (C D), and the values of the two parameters in the Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model. Consequently, it was necessary to optimize the index m 1 of C V and the index m 2 of C D. Taking mean square deviation as the objective function, using Matlab programming, the abovementioned two indexes were optimized by the simulated annealing algorithm. The optimized index m 1 of C V was 0.887, and the index m 2 of C D was -0.162. Hence, a modified Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model was obtained. The model verified that the minimum value of the regression coefficient, R 2, of the simulated value reached 0.9701, proving that, the model can be used to simulate the heterogeneous resistance of urban sludge pipeline transportation.

RevDate: 2021-03-19

Tajfirooz S, Meijer JG, Kuerten JGM, et al (2021)

Statistical-learning method for predicting hydrodynamic drag, lift, and pitching torque on spheroidal particles.

Physical review. E, 103(2-1):023304.

A statistical learning approach is presented to predict the dependency of steady hydrodynamic interactions of thin oblate spheroidal particles on particle orientation and Reynolds number. The conventional empirical correlations that approximate such dependencies are replaced by a neural-network-based correlation which can provide accurate predictions for high-dimensional input spaces occurring in flows with nonspherical particles. By performing resolved simulations of steady uniform flow at 1≤Re≤120 around a 1:10 spheroidal body, a database consisting of Reynolds number- and orientation-dependent drag, lift, and pitching torque acting on the particle is collected. A multilayer perceptron is trained and validated with the generated database. The performance of the neural network is tested in a point-particle simulation of the buoyancy-driven motion of a 1:10 disk. Our statistical approach outperforms existing empirical correlations in terms of accuracy. The agreement between the numerical results and the experimental observations prove the potential of the method.

RevDate: 2021-04-02

Corbetta A, Menkovski V, Benzi R, et al (2021)

Deep learning velocity signals allow quantifying turbulence intensity.

Science advances, 7(12):.

Turbulence, the ubiquitous and chaotic state of fluid motions, is characterized by strong and statistically nontrivial fluctuations of the velocity field, and it can be quantitatively described only in terms of statistical averages. Strong nonstationarities impede statistical convergence, precluding quantifying turbulence, for example, in terms of turbulence intensity or Reynolds number. Here, we show that by using deep neural networks, we can accurately estimate the Reynolds number within 15% accuracy, from a statistical sample as small as two large-scale eddy turnover times. In contrast, physics-based statistical estimators are limited by the convergence rate of the central limit theorem and provide, for the same statistical sample, at least a hundredfold larger error. Our findings open up previously unexplored perspectives and the possibility to quantitatively define and, therefore, study highly nonstationary turbulent flows as ordinarily found in nature and in industrial processes.

RevDate: 2021-05-27
CmpDate: 2021-05-27

Wiputra H, Lim M, CH Yap (2021)

A transition point for the blood flow wall shear stress environment in the human fetal left ventricle during early gestation.

Journal of biomechanics, 120:110353.

Development of the fetal heart is a fascinating process that involves a tremendous amount of growth. Here, we performed image-based flow simulations of 3 human fetal left ventricles (LV), and investigated the hypothetical scenario where the sizes of the hearts are scaled down, leading to reduced Reynolds number, to emulate earlier fetal stages. The shape and motion of the LV were retained over the scaling to isolate and understand the effects of length scaling on its fluid dynamics. We observed an interesting cut-off point in Reynolds number (Re), across which the dependency of LV wall shear stress (WSS) on Re changed. This was in line with classical fluid mechanic theory where skin friction coefficient exhibited first a decreasing trend and then a plateauing trend with increasing Re. Below this cut-off point, viscous effects dominated, stifling the formation of LV diastolic vorticity structures, and WSS was roughly independent of Reynolds number. However, above this cut-off, inertial effects dominated to cause diastolic vortex ring formation and detachment, and to cause WSS to scale linearly with Reynolds number. Results suggested that this transition point is found at approximately 11 weeks of gestation. Since WSS is thought to be a biomechanical stimuli for growth, this may have implications on normal fetal heart growth and malformation diseases like Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )