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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 May 2021 at 01:32 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-05-12

Kazemi A, Castillo L, OM Curet (2021)

Mangrove roots model suggest an optimal porosity to prevent erosion.

Scientific reports, 11(1):9969.

Mangrove swamps are extremely productive ecosystems providing many ecological services in coastal regions. The hydrodynamic interactions of mangrove roots and water flow have been proposed as a key element to mitigate erosion. Several studies reveal that precise prediction of the morphological evolution of coastal areas, in the face of global warming and the consequent sea-level rise, requires an understanding of interactions between root porosity (the fraction of the volume of void space over the total volume), water flows, and sediment transport. Water flows around the mangrove prop roots create a complex energetic process that mixes up sediments and generates a depositional region posterior to the roots. In this work, we investigated the boundary layer behind permeable arrays of cylinders (patch) that represent the mangrove roots to explore the impact of patch porosity on the onset of sediment transport. The flow measurements were performed in a vertical plane along the water depth downstream of the mangrove root models. A high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used in a flume to observe the impact of porosity on the mean flow, velocity derivatives, skin friction coefficient, and production of turbulent kinetic energy for Reynolds number of 2500 (based on patch diameter length-scale). Here, we proposed a predictive model for critical velocity for incipient motion that takes into account the mangrove roots porosity and the near-bed turbulence effect. It is found that the patch with the [Formula: see text] porosity, has the maximum critical velocity over which the sediment transport initiates. We found the optimum porosity has the minimum sediment erosion and creates negative vorticity sources near the bed that increases the critical velocity. This signifies an optimum porosity for the onset of sediment transport consistent with the porosity of mangroves in nature. The phenomenological model is elucidated based on an analysis of the vorticity evolution equation for viscous incompressible flows. For the optimum porous patch, a sink of vorticity was formed which yielded to lower the near-bed turbulence and vorticity. The minimum velocity fluctuations were sufficient to initiate the boundary layer transition, however, the viscous dissipation dominated the turbulence production to obstruct the sediment transport. This work identified the pivotal role of mangrove root porosity in sediment transport in terms of velocity and its derivatives in wall-bounded flows. Our work also provides insight into the sediment transport and erosion processes that govern the evolution of the shapes of shorelines.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Vasilopoulos K, Lekakis I, Sarris IE, et al (2021)

Large eddy simulation of dispersion of hazardous materials released from a fire accident around a cubical building.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The turbulent smoke dispersion from a pool fire around a cubical building is studied using large eddy simulation at a high Reynolds number, corresponding to existing experimental measurements both in laboratory and field test scales. Emphasis of this work is on the smoke dispersion due to two different fuel pool fire accident scenarios, initiated behind the building. For the setup of fire in the first case, crude oil was used with a heat release rate of 7.8 MW, and in the second, diesel oil with a heat release rate of 13.5 MW. It is found that in both fire scenarios, the downstream extent of the toxic zone is approximately the same. This is explained in terms of the fact that the smoke concentration and dispersion are influenced mainly by the convective buoyant forces and the strong turbulence mixing processes within the wake zone of the building. It is suggested that wind is the dominating factor in these accident scenarios, which represent the conditions resulting in the highest toxicity levels.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Asai T, S Hong (2021)

Aerodynamics of the newly approved football for the English Premier League 2020-21 season.

Scientific reports, 11(1):9578.

Footballs are typically constructed with 32 panels. Recently, the number of panels has been successively reduced to 14, 8, and 6 panels, and official balls have been adopted with complex panel shapes and aerodynamics that differ from those of 32-panel balls. The official ball for the 2020-21 season of the English Premier League comprises just four panels with a complex panel shape and surface groove design; however, its aerodynamics have not yet been clarified. This study aims to clarify the aerodynamic characteristics (drag, side force, lift force, their deviations, and critical Reynolds number) of the new 4-panel ball (Flight 2020, Nike) in comparison to a 6-panel ball (Tsubasa 2020, Adidas) and conventional 32-panel ball (Pelada 2020, Molten) using a wind tunnel test, surface design measurement, and a simple 2D flight simulation. The results showed that Flight 2020 has greater surface roughness and smaller critical Reynolds number than Pelada 2020 and Tsubasa 2020, resulting to its marginally greater drag force in the supercritical region, and slightly smaller fluctuations of the side and lift forces. Furthermore, Flight with a symmetrical orientation exhibits a significantly higher drag coefficient in the supercritical region, suggesting its greater air resistance during flight under this condition.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

Sharan P, Nsamela A, Lesher-Pérez SC, et al (2021)

Microfluidics for Microswimmers: Engineering Novel Swimmers and Constructing Swimming Lanes on the Microscale, a Tutorial Review.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

This paper provides an updated review of recent advances in microfluidics applied to artificial and biohybrid microswimmers. Sharing the common regime of low Reynolds number, the two fields have been brought together to take advantage of the fluid characteristics at the microscale, benefitting microswimmer research multifold. First, microfluidics offer simple and relatively low-cost devices for high-fidelity production of microswimmers made of organic and inorganic materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Microscale confinement and the corresponding fluid properties have demonstrated differential microswimmer behaviors in microchannels or in the presence of various types of physical or chemical stimuli. Custom environments to study these behaviors have been designed in large part with the help of microfluidics. Evaluating microswimmers in increasingly complex lab environments such as microfluidic systems can ensure more effective implementation for in-field applications. The benefits of microfluidics for the fabrication and evaluation of microswimmers are balanced by the potential use of microswimmers for sample manipulation and processing in microfluidic systems, a large obstacle in diagnostic and other testing platforms. In this review various ways in which these two complementary technology fields will enhance microswimmer development and implementation in various fields are introduced.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

Hartl B, Hübl M, Kahl G, et al (2021)

Microswimmers learning chemotaxis with genetic algorithms.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(19):.

Various microorganisms and some mammalian cells are able to swim in viscous fluids by performing nonreciprocal body deformations, such as rotating attached flagella or by distorting their entire body. In order to perform chemotaxis (i.e., to move toward and to stay at high concentrations of nutrients), they adapt their swimming gaits in a nontrivial manner. Here, we propose a computational model, which features autonomous shape adaptation of microswimmers moving in one dimension toward high field concentrations. As an internal decision-making machinery, we use artificial neural networks, which control the motion of the microswimmer. We present two methods to measure chemical gradients, spatial and temporal sensing, as known for swimming mammalian cells and bacteria, respectively. Using the genetic algorithm NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies, surprisingly simple neural networks evolve. These networks control the shape deformations of the microswimmers and allow them to navigate in static and complex time-dependent chemical environments. By introducing noisy signal transmission in the neural network, the well-known biased run-and-tumble motion emerges. Our work demonstrates that the evolution of a simple and interpretable internal decision-making machinery coupled to the environment allows navigation in diverse chemical landscapes. These findings are of relevance for intracellular biochemical sensing mechanisms of single cells or for the simple nervous system of small multicellular organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans.

RevDate: 2021-05-03

Wang S, Liu Z, Wu S, et al (2021)

Microalgae Separation by Inertia-enhanced Pinched Flow Fractionation.

Electrophoresis [Epub ahead of print].

To improve the accuracy and efficiency of ships' ballast water detection, the separation of microalgae according to size is significant. In this paper, a method to separate microalgae based on inertia-enhanced pinched flow fractionation (iPFF) was reported. The method utilized the inertial lift force induced by flow to separate microalgae according to size continuously. The experimental results show that, as the Reynolds number increases, the separation effect becomes better at first, but then stays unchanged. The best separation effect can be obtained when the Reynolds number is 12.3. In addition, with the increase of the flow rate ratio between sheath fluid and microalgae mixture, the separation effect becomes better and the best separation effect can be obtained when the flow rate ratio reaches 10. In this case, the recovery rate of Tetraselmis sp. is about 90%, and the purity is about 86%; the recovery rate of Chlorella sp. is as high as 99%, and the purity is about 99%. After that, the separation effect keeps getting better but very slowly. In general, this study provides a simple method for the separation of microalgae with different size, and lays a foundation for the accurate detection of microalgae in the ballast water. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Rao Y, Li L, Wang S, et al (2021)

Numerical Simulation Study on Flow Laws and Heat Transfer of Gas Hydrate in the Spiral Flow Pipeline with Long Twisted Band.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(4): pii:e23040489.

The natural gas hydrate plugging problems in the mixed pipeline are becoming more and more serious. The hydrate plugging has gradually become an important problem to ensure the safety of pipeline operation. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of natural gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline have been studied. The DPM model (discrete phase model) was used to simulate the motion of solid particles, which was used to simulate the complex spiral flow characteristics of hydrate in the pipeline with a long twisted band. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline were studied. The velocity distribution, pressure drop distribution, heat transfer characteristics, and particle settling characteristics in the pipeline were investigated. The numerical results showed that compared with the straight flow without a long twisted band, two obvious eddies are formed in the flow field with a long twisted band, and the velocities are maximum at the center of the vortices. Along the direction of the pipeline, the two vortices move toward the pipe wall from near the twisted band, which can effectively carry the hydrate particles deposited on the wall. With the same Reynolds number, the twisted rate was greater, the spiral strength was weaker, the tangential velocity was smaller, and the pressure drop was smaller. Therefore, the pressure loss can be reduced as much as possible with effect of the spiral flow. In a straight light flow, the Nusselt number is in a parabolic shape with the opening downwards. At the center of the pipe, the Nusselt number gradually decreased toward the pipe wall at the maximum, and at the near wall, the attenuation gradient of the Nu number was large. For spiral flow, the curve presented by the Nusselt number was a trough at the center of the pipe and a peak at 1/2 of the pipe diameter. With the reduction of twist rate, the Nusselt number becomes larger. Therefore, the spiral flow can make the temperature distribution more even and prevent the large temperature difference, resulting in the mass formation of hydrate particles in the pipeline wall. Spiral flow has a good carrying effect. Under the same condition, the spiral flow carried hydrate particles at a distance about 3-4 times farther than that of the straight flow.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Yuan S, Jiang B, Peng T, et al (2021)

An Investigation of Flow Patterns and Mixing Characteristics in a Cross-Shaped Micromixer within the Laminar Regime.

Micromachines, 12(4): pii:mi12040462.

A fast mixing is critical for subsequent practical development of microfluidic devices, which are often used for assays in the detection of reagents and samples. The present work sets up computational fluid dynamics simulations to explore the flow characteristic and mixing mechanism of fluids in cross-shaped mixers within the laminar regime. First, the effects of increasing an operating parameter on local mixing quality along the microchannels are investigated. It is found that sufficient diffusion cannot occur even though the concentration gradient is large at a high Reynolds number. Meanwhile, a method for calculating local mixing efficiency is also characterized. The mixing efficiency varies exponentially with the flow distance. Second, in order to optimize the cross-shaped mixer, the effects of design parameters, namely aspect ratio, mixing angle and blockage, on mixing quality are captured and the visualization of velocity and concentration distribution are demonstrated. The results show that the aspect ratio and the blockage play an important role in accelerating the mixing process. They can improve the mixing efficiency by increasing the mass transfer area and enhancing the chaotic advection, respectively. In contrast, the inflow angle that affects dispersion length is not an effective parameter. Besides, the surface roughness, which makes the disturbance of fluid flow by roughness more obvious, is considered. Three types of rough elements bring benefits for enhancing mixing quality due to the convection induced by the lateral velocity.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Ansari A, Kavousi S, Helfer F, et al (2021)

An Improved Modelling Approach for the Comprehensive Study of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.

Membranes, 11(5): pii:membranes11050308.

Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) is a promising and feasible technology for water desalination. Most of the models used to simulate DCMD are one-dimensional and/or use a linear function of vapour pressure which relies on experimentally determined parameters. In this study, the model of DCMD using Nusselt correlations was improved by coupling the continuity, momentum, and energy equations to better capture the downstream alteration of flow field properties. A logarithmic function of vapour pressure, which is independent from experiments, was used. This allowed us to analyse DCMD with different membrane properties. The results of our developed model were in good agreement with the DCMD experimental results, with less than 7% deviation. System performance metrics, including water flux, temperature, and concentration polarisation coefficient and thermal efficiency, were analysed by varying inlet feed and permeate temperature, inlet velocity, inlet feed concentration, channel length. In addition, twenty-two commercial membranes were analysed to obtain a real vision on the influence of membrane characteristics on system performance metrics. The results showed that the feed temperature had the most significant effect on water flux and thermal efficiency. The increased feed temperature enhanced the water flux and thermal efficiency; however, it caused more concentration and temperature polarisation. On the other hand, the increased inlet velocity was found to provide increased water flux and reduced temperature and concertation polarisation as well. It was also found that the membrane properties, especially thickness and porosity, can affect the DCMD performance significantly. A two-fold increase of feed temperature increased the water flux and thermal efficiency, 10-fold and 27%, respectively; however, it caused an increase in temperature and concertation polarisation, at 48% and 34%, respectively. By increasing Reynolds number from 80 to 1600, the water flux, CPC, and TPC enhanced by 2.3-fold, 2%, and 21%, respectively. The increased feed concentration from 0 to 250 [g/L] caused a 26% reduction in water flux. To capture the downstream alteration of flow properties, it was shown that the ratio of inlet value to outlet value of system performance metrics decreased significantly throughout the module. Therefore, improvement over the conventional model is undeniable, as the new model can assist in achieving optimal operation conditions.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Yuan C, Zhang H, Li X, et al (2021)

Numerical Investigation of T-Shaped Microfluidic Oscillator with Viscoelastic Fluid.

Micromachines, 12(5): pii:mi12050477.

Oscillatory flow has many applications in micro-scaled devices. The methods of realizing microfluidic oscillators reported so far are typically based on the impinging-jet and Coanda effect, which usually require the flow Reynolds number to be at least at the order of unity. Another approach is to introduce elastomeric membrane into the microfluidic units; however, the manufacturing process is relatively complex, and the membrane will become soft after long-time operation, which leads to deviation from the design condition. From the perspective of the core requirement of a microfluidic circuit, i.e., nonlinearity, the oscillatory microfluidic flow can be realized via the nonlinear characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow. In this paper, the flow characteristics of viscoelastic fluid (Boger-type) in a T-shaped channel and its modified structures are studied by two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS). The main results obtained from the DNS study are as follows: (1) Both Weissenberg (Wi) number and viscosity ratio need to be within a certain range to achieve a periodic oscillating performance; (2) With the presence of the dynamic evolution of the pair of vortices in the upstream near the intersection, the oscillation intensity increases as the elasticity-dominated area in the junction enlarges; (3) Considering the simplicity of the T-type channel as a potential oscillator, the improved structure should have a groove carved toward the entrance near the upper wall. The maximum oscillation intensity measured by the standard deviation of flow rate at outlet is increased by 129% compared with that of the original standard T-shaped channel under the same condition. To sum up, with Wi number and viscosity ratio within a certain range, the regular periodic oscillation characteristics of Oldroyd-B type viscoelastic fluid flow in standard T-shaped and its modified channels can be obtained. This structure can serve as a passive microfluidic oscillator with great potential value at an extremely low Reynolds number, which has the advantages of simplicity, no moving parts and fan-out of two.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Abbasnezhad N, Kebdani M, Shirinbayan M, et al (2021)

Development of a Model Based on Physical Mechanisms for the Explanation of Drug Release: Application to Diclofenac Release from Polyurethane Films.

Polymers, 13(8): pii:polym13081230.

In this study, we present a method for prediction of the drug-release profile based on the physical mechanisms that can intervene in drug release from a drug-carrier. The application presented here incorporates the effects of drug concentration and Reynolds number defining the circulating flow in the testing vein. The experimental data used relate to the release of diclofenac from samples of non-degradable polyurethane subjected to static and continuous flow. This case includes simultaneously three mechanisms: burst-release, diffusion and osmotic pressure, identified beforehand here as being able to contribute to the drug liberation. For this purpose, authors coded the Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm to solve the problem of non-linear optimization. The experimental data used to develop the mathematical model obtained from release studies carried out in water solution at 37 °C, for three concentrations of diclofenac and two water flow rates. We discuss the contribution of mechanisms and kinetics by considering two aforementioned parameters and, following that, we obtain the specific-model and compare the calculated results with the experimental results for the reserved cases. The results showed that drug percentage mostly affect the burst release, however flow rate has affected the osmotic release. In addition, release kinetics of all the mechanisms have increased by increasing the values of two considered parameters.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Wang R, Duan R, H Jia (2021)

Experimental Validation of Falling Liquid Film Models: Velocity Assumption and Velocity Field Comparison.

Polymers, 13(8): pii:polym13081205.

This publication focuses on the experimental validation of film models by comparing constructed and experimental velocity fields based on model and elementary experimental data. The film experiment covers Kapitza numbers Ka = 278.8 and Ka = 4538.6, a Reynolds number range of 1.6-52, and disturbance frequencies of 0, 2, 5, and 7 Hz. Compared to previous publications, the applied methodology has boundary identification procedures that are more refined and provide additional adaptive particle image velocimetry (PIV) method access to synthetic particle images. The experimental method was validated with a comparison with experimental particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence (PIV/PLIF) results, Nusselt's theoretical prediction, and experimental particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) results of flat steady cases, and a good continuity equation reproduction of transient cases proves the method's fidelity. The velocity fields are reconstructed based on different film flow model velocity profile assumptions such as experimental film thickness, flow rates, and their derivatives, providing a validation method of film model by comparison between reconstructed velocity experimental data and experimental velocity data. The comparison results show that the first-order weighted residual model (WRM) and regularized model (RM) are very similar, although they may fail to predict the velocity field in rapidly changing zones such as the front of the main hump and the first capillary wave troughs.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Rasool G, Shafiq A, Alqarni MS, et al (2021)

Numerical Scrutinization of Darcy-Forchheimer Relation in Convective Magnetohydrodynamic Nanofluid Flow Bounded by Nonlinear Stretching Surface in the Perspective of Heat and Mass Transfer.

Micromachines, 12(4): pii:mi12040374.

The aim of this research is mainly concerned with the numerical examination of Darcy-Forchheimer relation in convective magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid flow bounded by non-linear stretching sheet. A visco-elastic and strictly incompressible liquid saturates the designated porous medium under the direct influence of the Darcy-Forchheimer model and convective boundary. The magnetic effect is taken uniformly normal to the flow direction. However, the model is bounded to a tiny magnetic Reynolds number for practical applications. Boundary layer formulations are taken into consideration. The so-formulated leading problems are converted into highly nonlinear ordinary problems using effectively modified transformations. The numerical scheme is applied to solve the governing problems. The outcomes stipulate that thermal layer receives significant modification in the incremental direction for augmented values of thermal radiation parameter Rd . Elevation in thermal Biot number γ1 apparently results a significant rise in thermal layer and associated boundary layer thickness. The solute Biot number is found to be an enhancing factor the concentration profile. Besides the three main profiles, the contour and density graphs are sketched for both the linear and non-linear cases. Furthermore, skin friction jumps for larger porosity and larger Forchheimer number. Both the heat and mass flux numbers receive a reduction for augmented values of the Forchheimer number. Heat flux enhances, while mass flux reduces, the strong effect of thermal Biot number. The considered problem could be helpful in any several industrial and engineering procedures, such as rolling, polymeric extrusion, continuously stretching done in plastic thin films, crystal growth, fiber production, and metallic extrusion, etc.

RevDate: 2021-04-27

Sasaki K, Okue T, Nakai T, et al (2021)

Lateral Growth of Uniformly Thin Gold Nanosheets Facilitated by Two-Dimensional Precursor Supply.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

The nanosheets of highly symmetric materials with a face-centered cubic lattice such as gold have been synthesized by adsorbing the precursors on a flat surface, whose chemical specificity induces the anisotropy of growth rates. We have succeeded in the fabrication of gold nanosheets in a hydrophilic space inside highly separated bilayers, which work as two-dimensional hydrophilic reactors, in a hyperswollen lamellar liquid crystalline phase of an amphiphile solution. One of the physical properties, amphiphilicity, confines the ingredients therein. The nanosheets can only grow in the in-plane direction due to the inhibition of the out-of-plane growth rather than the anisotropy of growth rates probably. Thus, the synthesis can be accelerated; the particles can be completed within 15 min. As not relying on chemical specificity, silver nanosheets could also be synthesized in the same way. The suspension of gold and silver nanosheets without any amphiphiles could be obtained, and the solvent is replaceable. We found that the width of the obtained gold nanosheets is proportional to the Reynolds number of the solution because the area of the bilayer in the hyperswollen lamellar phase depends on shear stress. This implies that the areas of gold nanosheets depend on the areas of the bilayers, and it can be controlled by changing the Reynolds number. This method could be widely used to continuously obtain large-area nanosheets of various materials in a roll-to-roll manufacturing process.

RevDate: 2021-04-27

Heyland A, Roszell J, Chau J, et al (2021)

Mass transfer and flow characterization of novel algae-based nutrient removal system.

Biotechnology for biofuels, 14(1):104.

BACKGROUND: Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are an essential component of sustainable inland seafood production. Still, nutrient removal from these systems can result in substantial environmental problems, or present a major cost factor with few added value options. In this study, an innovative and energy-efficient algae based nutrient removal system (NRS) was developed that has the potential to generate revenue through algal commercialization. We optimized mass transfer in our NRS design using novel aeration and mixing technology, using air lift pumps and developed an original membrane cartridge for the continuous operation of nutrient removal and algae production. Specifically, we designed, manufactured and tested a 60-L NRS prototype. Based on specific airlift mixing conditions as well as concentration gradients, we assessed NRS nutrient removal capacity. We then examined the effects of different internal bioreactor geometries and radial orientations on the mixing efficiency.

RESULTS: Using the start-up dynamic method, the overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be in the range of 0.00164-0.0074 [Formula: see text], depending on flow parameters and we confirmed a scaling relationship of mass transfer across concentration gradients. We found the optimal Reynolds number to be 500 for optimal mass transfer, as higher Reynolds numbers resulted in a relatively reduced increase of mass transfer. This relationship between mass transfer and Reynolds number is critical to assess scalability of our system. Our results demonstrate an even distribution of dissolved oxygen levels across the reactor core, demonstrating adequate mixing by the airlift pump, a critical consideration for optimal algal growth. Distribution of dissolved gases in the reactor was further assessed using flow visualization in order to relate the bubble distribution to the mass transfer capabilities of the reactor. We run a successful proof of principle trial using the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta to assess mass transfer of nutrients across the membrane and biomass production.

CONCLUSIONS: Manipulation of the concentration gradient across the membrane demonstrates a more prominent role of airlift mixing at higher concentration gradients. Specifically, the mass transfer rate increased threefold when the concentration gradient was increased 2.5-fold. We found that we can grow algae in the reactor chamber at rates comparable to those of other production systems and that the membrane scaffolds effectively remove nutrients form the wastewater. Our findings provide support for scalability of the design and support the use of this novel NRS for nutrient removal in aquaculture and potentially other applications.

RevDate: 2021-04-25

Song Z, Tong J, Pfleging W, et al (2021)

A review: Learning from the flight of beetles.

Computers in biology and medicine, 133:104397 pii:S0010-4825(21)00191-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Some Coleoptera (popularly referred to as beetles) can fly at a low Reynolds number with their deployable hind wings, which directly enables a low body weight-a good bioinspiration strategy for miniaturization of micro-air vehicles (MAVs). The hind wing is a significant part of the body and has a folding/unfolding mechanism whose unique function benefits from different structures and materials. This review summarizes the actions, factors, and mechanisms of beetle flight and bioinspired MAVs with deployable wings. The elytron controlled by muscles is the protected part for the folded hind wing and influences flight performance. The resilin, the storage material for elasticity, is located in the folding parts. The hind wings' folding/unfolding mechanism and flight performance can be influenced by vein structures of hollow, solid and wrinkled veins, the hemolymph that flows in hollow veins and its hydraulic mechanism, and various mechanical properties of veins. The action of beetle flight includes flapping flight, hovering, gliding, and landing. The hind wing is passively deformed through force and hemolymph, and the attack angle of the hind wing and the nanomechanics of the veins, muscles and mass body determine the flight performance. Based these factors, bioinspired MAVs with a new deployable wing structure and new materials will be designed to be much more effective and miniaturized. The new fuels and energy supply are significant aspects of MAVs.

RevDate: 2021-04-23

Sadeq AM, Ahmed SF, AK Sleiti (2021)

Dataset for transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel.

Data in brief, 36:106956 pii:S2352-3409(21)00240-7.

A fan-stirred combustion vessel is used to study the premixed turbulent combustion of diesel, Gas to Liquids (GTL) and 50/50 diesel-GTL and to generate these datasets. A numerical simulation approach is implemented for modelling the premixed combustion of the three fuels under different thermodynamics and turbulence initial conditions, using Zimont Turbulent Flame Speed Closure (Zimont TFC) model. Different parameters are obtained from these simulation runs such as turbulent eddy viscosity (µ), turbulent kinetic energy (k), Damkohler number (Da), Reynolds number (ReT) and turbulent flame speed (St). The raw, filtered and pre-processed data are imported from ANSYS Fluent and then listed on filtered tables for the ease of accessibility. These datasets can be then used to perform research in different related areas such as chemical kinetic mechanisms, ignition delay time, flame ignition mechanisms and flame extinction and diffusion. Also, they can be employed to further understand trends, patterns, and anomalies in data. In addition, they can be compared with other numerical models to establish a robust knowledge about the modelling of premixed turbulent combustion. For more information and discussion of the dataset creation, the reader is directed to the full-length article, "Abdellatif M. Sadeq, Samer F. Ahmed, Ahmad K. Sleiti, Transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel in a fan-stirred combustion vessel, Fuel, Volume 291, 2021, 120,184, ISSN 0016 2361," [1].

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Lamont EI, RB Emlet (2021)

Swimming kinematics of cyprids of the barnacle Balanus glandula.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6237900 [Epub ahead of print].

Larvae of barnacles typically pass through naupliar and cyprid planktonic stages before settlement and metamorphosis. As the final larval stage, cyprids swim much faster than nauplii and in turbulent fluid environments with high shears as they seek habitat. Cyprids swim with six pairs of reciprocating thoracic appendages and use two anterior antennules during settlement. Our understanding of how thoracic appendages generate movement is limited due to short stroke intervals (∼5 ms) that impede observations of the shape and trajectory of appendages. Here, we used high speed videography to observe both free-swimming and tethered cyprids of the intertidal acorn barnacle Balanus glandula to produce a comprehensive description of thoracic appendage swimming kinematics. Cyprids used a drag-based method of swimming: their six pairs of thoracic appendages moved through metachronal power strokes and synchronous recovery strokes similar to the thoracopod motions in calanoid copepods during escape swimming. During the power stroke, plumose setae on each appendage pair spread laterally into a high surface area and high drag paddle composed of a meshwork of fused setules. This interconnected setal array collapsed into a low surface area and low drag shape during the recovery stroke. These effective swimming appendages allowed cyprids to move upwards at an average speed of 1.4 cm s-1 (about 25 body lengths s-1) with an average beat frequency of 16 beats s-1, and reach an instantaneous velocity of up to 6 cm s-1. Beat frequency of the thoracic appendages was significantly associated with speed, with higher beat frequencies indicating faster swimming speed. At their average speed, cyprids moved at the intermediate Reynolds number of ∼10, in which both viscous and inertial forces affected movement. Cyprids could alter swimming direction by sweeping the posterior-most appendage pair to one side and beating the remaining thoracic appendages synchronously through the power stroke with greater motion on the outside of their turn. These results greatly enhance our understanding both of cyprid motility and how small planktonic organisms can use swimming appendages with fused setule arrays to reach high swimming speeds and affect directional changes.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Si XA, Talaat M, Su WC, et al (2021)

Inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled respiratory aerosols in the human respiratory tract with locally remodeled conducting lungs.

Inhalation toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Objective: Respiratory diseases are often accompanied by alterations to airway morphology. However, inhalation dosimetry data in remodeled airways are scarce due to the challenges in reconstructing diseased respiratory morphologies. This study aims to study the airway remodeling effects on the inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled nanoparticles in a nose-lung geometry that extends to G9 (ninth generation).Materials and methods: Statistical shape modeling was used to develop four diseased lung models with varying levels of bronchiolar dilation/constriction in the left-lower (LL) lobe (i.e. M1-M4). Respiratory airflow and particle deposition were simulated using a low Reynolds number k-ω turbulence model and a Lagrangian tracking approach.Results: Significant discrepancies were observed in the flow partitions between the left and right lungs, as well as between the lower and upper lobes of the left lung, which changed by 10-fold between the most dilated and constricted models.Much lower doses were predicted on the surface of the constricted LL bronchioles G4-G9, as well as into the peripheral airways beyond G9 of the LL lung. However, the LL lobar remodeling had little effect on the dosimetry in the nasopharynx, as well as on the total dosimetry in the nose-lung geometry (up to G9).Conclusion: It is suggested that airway remodeling may pose a higher viral infection risk to the host by redistributing the inhaled viruses to healthy lung lobes. Airway remodeling effects should also be considered in the treatment planning of inhalation therapies, not only because of the dosimetry variation from altered lung morphology but also its evolution as the disease progresses.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Paredes P, Choudhari MM, F Li (2019)

Instability wave-streak interactions in a hypersonic boundary layer at flight conditions.

Journal of fluid mechanics, 858:474-499.

The interaction of stationary streaks undergoing nonmodal growth with modally unstable instability waves in a hypersonic boundary-layer flow is studied using numerical computations. The geometry and flow conditions are selected to match a relevant trajectory location from the ascent phase of the HIFiRE-1 flight experiment; namely, a 7 degree half-angle, circular cone with 2.5 mm nose radius, freestream Mach number equal to 5.30, unit Reynolds number equal to 13.42 m-1, and wall-to-adiabatic temperature ratio of approximately 0.35 over most of the vehicle. This paper investigates the nonlinear evolution of initially linear optimal disturbances that evolve into finite-amplitude streaks, followed by an analysis of the modal instability characteristics of the perturbed, streaky boundary-layer flow. The investigation is performed with stationary direct numerical simulations (DNS) and plane-marching parabolized stability equations (PSE), in conjunction with partial-differential-equation-based planar eigenvalue analysis. The overall effect of streaks is to reduce the peak amplification factors of instability waves, indicating a possible downstream shift in the onset of laminar-turbulent transition. The present study confirms previous findings that the mean flow distorsion of the nonlinear streak perturbation reduces the amplification rates of the Mack-mode instability. More importantly, however, the present results demonstrate that the spanwise varying component of the streak can produce a larger effect on the Mack-mode amplification. The study with selected azimuthal wavenumbers for the stationary streaks reveals that a wavenumber of approximately 1.4 times larger than the optimal wavenumber is more effective in stabilizing the planar Mack-mode instabilities. In the absence of unstable first-mode waves for the present cold-wall condition, transition onset is expected to be delayed until the peak streak amplitude increases to nearly 35 percent of the freestream velocity, when intrinsic instabilities of the boundary-layer streaks begin to dominate the transition process. For streak amplitudes below that limit a significant net stabilization is achieved, yielding a potential transition delay that can exceed 100 percent of the length of the laminar region in the uncontrolled case.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Trkulja CL, Jungholm O, Davidson M, et al (2021)

Rational antibody design for undruggable targets using kinetically controlled biomolecular probes.

Science advances, 7(16): pii:7/16/eabe6397.

Several important drug targets, e.g., ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors, are extremely difficult to approach with current antibody technologies. To address these targets classes, we explored kinetically controlled proteases as structural dynamics-sensitive druggability probes in native-state and disease-relevant proteins. By using low-Reynolds number flows, such that a single or a few protease incisions are made, we could identify antibody binding sites (epitopes) that were translated into short-sequence antigens for antibody production. We obtained molecular-level information of the epitope-paratope region and could produce high-affinity antibodies with programmed pharmacological function against difficult-to-drug targets. We demonstrate the first stimulus-selective monoclonal antibodies targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, a clinically validated pain target widely considered undruggable with antibodies, and apoptosis-inducing antibodies selectively mediating cytotoxicity in KRAS-mutated cells. It is our hope that this platform will widen the scope of antibody therapeutics for the benefit of patients.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Fouxon I, Feinberg J, Käpylä P, et al (2021)

Reynolds number dependence of Lyapunov exponents of turbulence and fluid particles.

Physical review. E, 103(3-1):033110.

The Navier-Stokes equations generate an infinite set of generalized Lyapunov exponents defined by different ways of measuring the distance between exponentially diverging perturbed and unperturbed solutions. This set is demonstrated to be similar, yet different, from the generalized Lyapunov exponent that provides moments of distance between two fluid particles below the Kolmogorov scale. We derive rigorous upper bounds on dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of the fluid particles that demonstrate the exponent's decay with Reynolds number Re in accord with previous studies. In contrast, terms of cumulant series for exponents of the moments have power-law growth with Re. We demonstrate as an application that the growth of small fluctuations of magnetic field in ideal conducting turbulence is hyperintermittent, being exponential in both time and Reynolds number. We resolve the existing contradiction between the theory, that predicts slow decrease of dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of turbulence with Re, and observations exhibiting quite fast growth. We demonstrate that it is highly plausible that a pointwise limit for the growth of small perturbations of the Navier-Stokes equations exists.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Waringer J, Vitecek S, Martini J, et al (2021)

Hydraulic niche utilization by larvae of the three Drusinae clades (Insecta: Trichoptera).

Biologia, 76(5):1465-1473.

Hydraulic niche descriptors of final instar larvae of nine Drusus species (Trichoptera) were studied in small, spring-fed, first-order headwaters located in the Mühlviertel (Upper Austria), Koralpe (Carinthia, Austria), and in the Austrian and Italian Alps. The species investigated covered all three clades of Drusinae: the shredder clade (Drusus franzi, D. alpinus), the grazer clade (D. biguttatus, D. chauvinianus, D. dudor, D. monticola), and the filtering carnivore clade (D. chrysotus, D. katagelastos, D. muelleri). Flow velocity was measured at front center of 68 larvae, head upstream, on the top of mineral substrate particles at water depths of 10-30 mm, using a tripod-stabilized Micro propeller meter (propeller diameter = 10 mm). Each data series consisted of a sampled measurement lasting 30 s (measuring interval = 1 s). In total, 2040 single velocity measurements were taken. Instantaneous flow velocities and drag at the sites of the 68 larvae varied from 0 to 0.93 m s-1 and 0 to 8346 *10-6 N, respectively. Flow velocities and drag between the three clades were highly significantly different (p < 0.001); mean velocity (± 95% confidence limits) for the three clades were 0.09 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the shredder, 0.25 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the grazer, and 0.31 ± 0.01ms-1 for the filtering carnivore clade; the corresponding data for drag were (85 ± 18)*10-6 N, (422 ± 61)*10-6 N and (1125 ± 83)*10-6 N, respectively. Adhesive friction ranged from (41.07 ± 53.03)*10-6 N in D. franzi to (255.24 ± 216.87)*10-6 N in D. chrysotus. Except in D. franzi and D. dudor adhesive friction was always well below drag force, indicating that submerged weight alone was not sufficient to stabilize the larvae in their hydraulic environment. Reynolds numbers varied between 0 in D. franzi and D. alpinus, and 12,634 in D. katagelastos, with 7% of the total in the laminar (R < 500), 30%in the transitional (R = 500-2000), and 61%in the fully turbulent stage (R > 2000). Froude numbers (Fr) varied from 0 to 2.97. The two Drusus species of the shredder clade and three out of four species of the grazer clade were exposed to subcritical Fr < 1, one species of the grazer clade and two out of three species of the filtering clade to supercritical Froude numbers >1.

RevDate: 2021-04-14

Qixuan W, W Hao (2021)

Mathematical modeling of chemotaxis guided amoeboid cell swimming.

Physical biology [Epub ahead of print].

Cells and microorganisms adopt various strategies to migrate in response to different environmental stimuli. To date, many modeling research has focused on the crawling-based Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) cells migration induced by chemotaixs, yet recent experimental results reveal that even without adhesion or contact to a substrate, Dd cells can still swim to follow chemoattractant signals. In this paper, we develop a modeling framework to investigate the chemotaxis induced amoeboid cell swimming dynamics. A minimal swimming system consists of one deformable Dd amoeboid cell and a dilute suspension of bacteria, and the bacteria produce chemoattractant signals that attract the Dd cell. We use the mathematical amoeba model to generate Dd cell deformation and solve the resulting low Reynolds number flows, and use a moving mesh based finite volume method to solve the reaction-diffusion-convection equation. Using the computational model, we show that chemotaxis guides a swimming Dd cell to follow and catch bacteria, while on the other hand, bacterial rheotaxis may help the bacteria to escape from the predator Dd cell.

RevDate: 2021-04-09
CmpDate: 2021-04-09

Solovev A, BM Friedrich (2021)

Lagrangian mechanics of active systems.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(4):49.

We present a multi-scale modeling and simulation framework for low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics of shape-changing immersed objects, e.g., biological microswimmers and active surfaces. The key idea is to consider principal shape changes as generalized coordinates and define conjugate generalized hydrodynamic friction forces. Conveniently, the corresponding generalized friction coefficients can be pre-computed and subsequently reused to solve dynamic equations of motion fast. This framework extends Lagrangian mechanics of dissipative systems to active surfaces and active microswimmers, whose shape dynamics is driven by internal forces. As an application case, we predict in-phase and anti-phase synchronization in pairs of cilia for an experimentally measured cilia beat pattern.

RevDate: 2021-04-11

Abdal S, Hussain S, Siddique I, et al (2021)

On solution existence of MHD Casson nanofluid transportation across an extending cylinder through porous media and evaluation of priori bounds.

Scientific reports, 11(1):7799.

It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transportation of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of uniform strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter [Formula: see text], magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter [Formula: see text] and Reynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). The core interest for this study aroused to address some analytical aspects. Therefore, existence of solution is proved and uniqueness of this results is discussed with evaluation of bounds for existence of solution. Results for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique. The flow speed retards against M, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for both situations of mass injection and suction. The thermal boundary layer improves with Brownian and thermopherotic diffusions.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Abramowicz-Gerigk T, Burciu Z, Jachowski J, et al (2021)

Experimental Method for the Measurements and Numerical Investigations of Force Generated on the Rotating Cylinder under Water Flow.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(6): pii:s21062216.

The paper presents the experimental test setup and measurement method of hydrodynamic force generated on the rotating cylinder (rotor) under uniform flow including the free surface effect. The experimental test setup was a unique construction installed in the flume tank equipped with advanced flow generating and measuring systems. The test setup consisted of a bearing mounted platform with rotor drive and sensors measuring the hydrodynamic force. The low length to diameter ratio cylinders were selected as models of bow rotor rudders of a shallow draft river barge. The rotor dynamics was tested for the rotational speeds up to 550 rpm and water current velocity up to 0.85 m/s. The low aspect ratio of the cylinder and free surface effect had significant impacts on the phenomena influencing the generated hydrodynamic force. The effects of the rotor length to diameter ratio, rotational velocity to flow velocity ratio, and the Reynolds number on the lift force were analyzed. The validation of the computational model against experimental results is presented. The results show a similar trend of results for the simulation and experiment.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Okuducu MB, MM Aral (2021)

Toward the Next Generation of Passive Micromixers: A Novel 3-D Design Approach.

Micromachines, 12(4): pii:mi12040372.

Passive micromixers are miniaturized instruments that are used to mix fluids in microfluidic systems. In microchannels, combination of laminar flows and small diffusion constants of mixing liquids produce a difficult mixing environment. In particular, in very low Reynolds number flows, e.g., Re < 10, diffusive mixing cannot be promoted unless a large interfacial area is formed between the fluids to be mixed. Therefore, the mixing distance increases substantially due to a slow diffusion process that governs fluid mixing. In this article, a novel 3-D passive micromixer design is developed to improve fluid mixing over a short distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate the performance of the micromixer numerically. The circular-shaped fluid overlapping (CSFO) micromixer design proposed is examined in several fluid flow, diffusivity, and injection conditions. The outcomes show that the CSFO geometry develops a large interfacial area between the fluid bodies. Thus, fluid mixing is accelerated in vertical and/or horizontal directions depending on the injection type applied. For the smallest molecular diffusion constant tested, the CSFO micromixer design provides more than 90% mixing efficiency in a distance between 260 and 470 µm. The maximum pressure drop in the micromixer is found to be less than 1.4 kPa in the highest flow conditioned examined.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Rudl J, Hanzelmann C, Feja S, et al (2021)

Laminar Pipe Flow with Mixed Convection under the Influence of Magnetic Field.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 11(3): pii:nano11030824.

Magnetic influence on ferronanofluid flow is gaining increasing interest from not only the scientific community but also industry. The aim of this study is the examination of the potentials of magnetic forces to control heat transfer. Experiments are conducted to investigate the interaction between four different configurations of permanent magnets and laminar pipe flow with mixed convection. For that purpose a pipe flow test rig is operated with a water-magnetite ferronanofluid. The Reynolds number is varied over one order of magnitude (120-1200). To characterise this suspension, density, solid content, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity are measured. It is found that, depending on the positioning of the magnet(s) and the Reynolds number, heat transfer is either increased or decreased. The experiments indicate that this is a local effect. After relaxation lengths ranging between 2 and 3.5 lengths of a magnet, all changes disappeared. The conclusion from these findings is that magnetic forces are rather a tool to control heat transfer locally than to enhance the overall heat transfer of heat exchangers or the like. Magnetically caused disturbances decay due to viscous dissipation and the flow approaches the basic state again.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Naas TT, Hossain S, Aslam M, et al (2021)

Kinematic Measurements of Novel Chaotic Micromixers to Enhance Mixing Performances at Low Reynolds Numbers: Comparative Study.

Micromachines, 12(4): pii:mi12040364.

In this work, a comparative investigation of chaotic flow behavior inside multi-layer crossing channels was numerically carried out to select suitable micromixers. New micromixers were proposed and compared with an efficient passive mixer called a Two-Layer Crossing Channel Micromixer (TLCCM), which was investigated recently. The computational evaluation was a concern to the mixing enhancement and kinematic measurements, such as vorticity, deformation, stretching, and folding rates for various low Reynolds number regimes. The 3D continuity, momentum, and species transport equations were solved by a Fluent ANSYS CFD code. For various cases of fluid regimes (0.1 to 25 values of Reynolds number), the new configuration displayed a mixing enhancement of 40%-60% relative to that obtained in the older TLCCM in terms of kinematic measurement, which was studied recently. The results revealed that all proposed micromixers have a strong secondary flow, which significantly enhances the fluid kinematic performances at low Reynolds numbers. The visualization of mass fraction and path-lines presents that the TLCCM configuration is inefficient at low Reynolds numbers, while the new designs exhibit rapid mixing with lower pressure losses. Thus, it can be used to enhance the homogenization in several microfluidic systems.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

De Bartolo S, Vittorio M, Francone A, et al (2021)

Direct Scaling of Measure on Vortex Shedding through a Flapping Flag Device in the Open Channel around a Cylinder at Re∼103: Taylor's Law Approach.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(5):.

The problem of vortex shedding, which occurs when an obstacle is placed in a regular flow, is governed by Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, known by dimensional analysis. The present work aims to propose a thin films-based device, consisting of an elastic piezoelectric flapping flag clamped at one end, in order to determine the frequency of vortex shedding downstream an obstacle for a flow field at Reynolds number Re∼103 in the open channel. For these values, Strouhal number obtained in such way is in accordance with the results known in literature. Moreover, the development of the voltage over time, generated by the flapping flag under the load due to flow field, shows a highly fluctuating behavior and satisfies Taylor's law, observed in several complex systems. This provided useful information about the flow field through the constitutive law of the device.

RevDate: 2021-04-20

Chen WH, Mutuku JK, Yang ZW, et al (2021)

An investigation for airflow and deposition of PM2.5 contaminated with SAR-CoV-2 virus in healthy and diseased human airway.

Environmental research, 197:111096 pii:S0013-9351(21)00390-X [Epub ahead of print].

This study is motivated by the amplified transmission rates of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in areas with high concentrations of fine particulates (PM2.5) as reported in northern Italy and Mexico. To develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 in the propagation of the SAR-CoV-2 virus in the population, the deposition patterns and efficiencies (DEs) of PM2.5 laced with the virus in healthy and asthmatic airways are studied. Physiologically correct 3-D models for generations 10-12 of the human airways are applied to carry out a numerical analysis of two-phase flow for full breathing cycles. Two concentrations of PM2.5 are applied for the simulation, i.e., 30 μg⋅m-3 and 80 μg⋅m-3 for three breathing statuses, i.e., rest, light exercise, and moderate activity. All the PM2.5 injected into the control volume is assumed to be 100% contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus. Skewed air-flow phenomena at the bifurcations are proportional to the Reynolds number at the inlet, and their intensity in the asthmatic airway exceeded that of the healthy one. Upon exhalation, two peak air-flow vectors from daughter branches combine to form one big vector in the parent generation. Asthmatic airway models has higher deposition efficiencies (DEs) for contaminated PM2.5 as compared to the healthy one. Higher DEs arise in the asthmatic airway model due to complex secondary flows which increase the impaction of contaminated PM2.5 on airways' walls.

RevDate: 2021-03-26

Edomwonyi-Otu LC, Dosumu AI, N Yusuf (2021)

Effect of oil on the performance of biopolymers as drag reducers in fresh water flow.

Heliyon, 7(3):e06535 pii:S2405-8440(21)00638-1.

This study looks at the effectiveness of natural polymers (biopolymers) as drag reducers in flows of oil-water mixtures. The technique of using drag reducers to minimize the frictional drag in pipeline transportation of fluids is getting more challenging and there is need to be more environmentally friendly by using natural polymers. In this report, two natural polymers: xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG), were used as drag reducers in a 12-mm ID straight conduit with water. The concentration of the gums was varied from 50 to 250 pm while 25, 0.50 and 0.75 fractions of oil were mixed with freshwater. The molecular weight of the gums was also determined to gain insight into their influence on the rheology of the fluids. The result showed that the gums (natural polymers) performed better as drag reducer in freshwater than in mixture with oil. Specifically, the drag reduction (DR) of 200 pm GG and XG solutions at Reynolds number of 59000 in freshwater was 39% and 44% respectively, while with the addition of 50% oil fraction, it was reduced to 19% and 32% respectively. DR reduced with oil fraction. It was concluded that XG performs better in the presence of oil than GG.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Wang L, Ni P, G Xi (2021)

The effect of off-center placement of twisted tape on flow and heat transfer characteristics in a circular tube.

Scientific reports, 11(1):6844.

This study is conducted to investigate the effect of off-center placement of twisted tape on flow distribution and heat transfer in a circular tube. The effect of tape width of 20, 18, 16, 14 and 12 mm on the heat transfer performance is discussed under the same twist ratio of 2.0. The numerical analysis of the flow field, average Nusselt number, friction factor and thermo-hydraulic performance parameter of the tube are discussed with Reynolds number ranged from 2600 to 8760. The results indicate that the Nusselt number of the tube fitted with center-placed twisted tapes at various width is 7-51% higher than the plain tube, and performance in low Reynolds region was found more effective than that in high Reynolds region. The heat transfer for circular tube with twisted tape attached to the wall shows better performance than that for the tube with center-placed twisted tape. With a smaller tape width, a higher increasing ratio of Nu-wall/Nu-center is obtained. The increasing ratio for Nusselt number ranged from 3 to 18%. However, the use of twisted tape inserts is not beneficial for energy saving. The thermo-hydraulic performance parameters for convective heat transfer of helium gas flowing in a circular tube are below unity for the calculated Reynolds region.

RevDate: 2021-03-26
CmpDate: 2021-03-26

Wang X, Liu Z, Cai Y, et al (2021)

A cost-effective serpentine micromixer utilizing ellipse curve.

Analytica chimica acta, 1155:338355.

Due to high mixing performance and simple geometry structure, serpentine micromixer is one typical passive micromixer that has been widely investigated. Traditional zigzag and square-wave serpentine micromixers can achieve sufficient mixing, but tend to induce significant pressure drop. The excessive pressure drop means more energy consumption, which leads to low cost-performance of mixing. To mitigate excessive pressure drop, a novel serpentine micromixer utilizing ellipse curve is proposed. While fluids flowing through ellipse curve microchannels, the flow directions keep continuous changing. Therefore, the Dean vortices are induced throughout the whole flow path. Numerical simulation and visualization experiments are conducted at Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 0.1 to 100. Dean vortices varies with the changing curvature in different ellipse curves, and local Dean numbers are calculated for quantitative evaluation. The results suggest that the ellipse with a larger eccentricity induces stronger Dean vortices, thus better mixing performance can be obtained. A parameter, named mixing performance cost (Mec), is proposed to evaluate the cost-performance of micromixers. Compared with the zigzag, square-wave and other improved serpentine micromixers, the ellipse curve micromixer produces lower pressure drop while have the capability to maintain excellent mixing performance. The ellipse curve micromixer is proved to be more cost-effective for rapid mixing in complex microfluidic systems.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

Ghosh UU, Ali H, Ghosh R, et al (2021)

Bacterial streamers as colloidal systems: Five grand challenges.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 594:265-278 pii:S0021-9797(21)00254-X [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria can thrive in biofilms, which are intricately organized communities with cells encased in a self-secreted matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Imposed hydrodynamic stresses can transform this active colloidal dispersion of bacteria and EPS into slender thread-like entities called streamers. In this perspective article, the reader is introduced to the world of such deformable 'bacteria-EPS' composites that are a subclass of the generic flow-induced colloidal structures. While bacterial streamers have been shown to form in a variety of hydrodynamic conditions (turbulent and creeping flows), its abiotic analogues have only been demonstrated in low Reynolds number (Re < 1) particle-laden polymeric flows. Streamers are relevant to a variety of situations ranging from natural formations in caves and river beds to clogging of biomedical devices and filtration membranes. A critical review of the relevant biophysical aspects of streamer formation phenomena and unique attributes of its material behavior are distilled to unveil five grand scientific challenges. The coupling between colloidal hydrodynamics, device geometry and streamer formation are highlighted.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Mohammadinejad S, Faivre D, S Klumpp (2021)

Stokesian dynamics simulations of a magnetotactic bacterium.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(3):40.

The swimming of bacteria provides insight into propulsion and steering under the conditions of low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics. Here we address the magnetically steered swimming of magnetotactic bacteria. We use Stokesian dynamics simulations to study the swimming of single-flagellated magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in an external magnetic field. Our model MTB consists of a spherical cell body equipped with a magnetic dipole moment and a helical flagellum rotated by a rotary motor. The elasticity of the flagellum as well as magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions is taken into account in this model. We characterized how the swimming velocity is dependent on parameters of the model. We then studied the U-turn motion after a field reversal and found two regimes for weak and strong fields and, correspondingly, two characteristic time scales. In the two regimes, the U-turn time is dominated by the turning of the cell body and its magnetic moment or the turning of the flagellum, respectively. In the regime for weak fields, where turning is dominated by the magnetic relaxation, the U-turn time is approximately in agreement with a theoretical model based on torque balance. In the strong-field regime, strong deformations of the flagellum are observed. We further simulated the swimming of a bacterium with a magnetic moment that is inclined relative to the flagellar axis. This scenario leads to intriguing double helical trajectories that we characterize as functions of the magnetic moment inclination and the magnetic field. For small inclination angles ([Formula: see text]) and typical field strengths, the inclination of the magnetic moment has only a minor effect on the swimming of MTB in an external magnetic field. Large inclination angles result in a strong reduction in the velocity in direction of the magnetic field, consistent with recent observations that bacteria with large inclination angles use a different propulsion mechanism.

RevDate: 2021-04-14

Jamil DF, Saleem S, Roslan R, et al (2021)

Analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic Casson blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery using Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 203:106044.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Arterial diseases would lead to several serious disorders in the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. These disorders are mainly caused by the presence of fatty deposits, cholesterol and lipoproteins inside blood vessel. This paper deals with the analysis of non-Newtonian magnetic blood flow in an inclined stenosed artery.

METHODS: The Casson fluid was used to model the blood that flows under the influences of uniformly distributed magnetic field and oscillating pressure gradient. The governing fractional differential equations were expressed using the Caputo Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel.

RESULTS: The analytical solutions of velocities for non-Newtonian model were then calculated by means of Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. These velocities were then presented graphically. The result shows that the velocity increases with respect to Reynolds number and Casson parameter, while decreases when Hartmann number increases.

CONCLUSIONS: Casson blood was treated as the non-Newtonian fluid. The MHD blood flow was accelerated by pressure gradient. These findings are beneficial for studying atherosclerosis therapy, the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of some medical problems.

RevDate: 2021-03-24

Mouzourides P, Kyprianou A, MK Neophytou (2021)

Exploring the multi-fractal nature of the air flow and pollutant dispersion in a turbulent urban atmosphere and its implications for long range pollutant transport.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 31(1):013110.

This work investigates the multi-fractal nature of a turbulent urban atmosphere using high-resolution atmospheric data. Meteorological and concentration measurements of passive and reactive pollutants collected over a 3-year period in a sub-urban high-Reynolds number atmospheric field were analyzed. Scaling laws characterizing the self-similarity and thereby depicting the multi-fractal nature are determined by calculating the singularity spectra, where a range of Hölder exponents, h, are estimated. In doing so, the complexity of the urban atmosphere entailing different stability regimes was addressed. Using the Monin-Obukhov length (LMO) as a marker of atmospheric stability and thereby an indication of the magnitude of anisotropy, we find where and how self-similarity is manifested relative to the different regimes and we estimate corresponding appropriate scaling laws. We find that the wind speed obeys the -5/3 law suggested by Kolmogorov only when the atmosphere lies within the stable regime as defined by Monin-Obukhov theory. Specifically, when the ratio of the atmospheric boundary layer height (Hb.l) over LMO is greater than 15, and at the same time, the ratio of the height above ground of the wind measurements (z0) over LMO is higher than 3 (i.e., in stable regime), then the singularity spectra of wind speed time series indicate that the dominant Hölder exponent, hmax, coincides with Kolmogorov's second hypothesis. On the contrary under unstable regimes in the atmosphere where the anisotropy is approached, different scaling laws are estimated. In detail, when z0/LMO<0, the dominant Hölder exponent, hmax, of the singularity spectra of the wind speed time series is either negative or close to zero, which is an indication of an impulse-like singularity, that is associated with rapid changes. For the ambient temperature and air quality measurements such as of carbon monoxide and particulate matter concentrations, it was found that they obey different laws, which are related with the long-term correlation of their data fluctuation.

RevDate: 2021-03-24
CmpDate: 2021-03-24

Ji JY, Zhao YG, Yang K, et al (2021)

Effects of the distribution of biological soil crust on the hydrodynamic characteristics of surface runoff.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 32(3):1015-1022.

The distribution pattern of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) is one of the main factors affecting runoff and sediment yield. The relationship between runoff and sediment yield and biocrusts' distribution pattern is not clear, which hinders understanding the mechanism underlying the effects of biocrusts on runoff and sediment from slopes. To fill the knowledge gap, we investigated the relationship between the landscape indices of three biocrusts' distribution patterns, i.e. zonation, chessboard and random, and the hydraulic parameters, using of simulated rainfall experiments and landscape ecology methods. The results showed that biocrust significantly affected the erosion force of slopes and that its distribution pattern could affect slope erosion dynamics. Compared to bare soil, the presence of biocrusts significantly reduced the runoff velocity (54.6%) and Froude number (67.0%), increased the runoff depth (86.2%) and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient (10.68 times), but did not affect the Reynolds number and runoff power. Expect for the runoff depth, there were significant differences in the hydraulic parameters of the three biocrusts' distribution patterns, with the random pattern having the strongest impacts on the dynamics of slope erosion. Based on factor analysis and cluster analysis, five indices of percentage of patch to landscape area, patch density, landscape shape index, patch cohesion and splitting could be used as the indicators for the distribution characteristics of biocrust patches. The patch cohesion and splitting of biocrust patches were the main distribution pattern indices of the hydrodynamics of surface runoff. As the patches patch cohesion decreased, the splitting increased, which caused the surface runoff velocity increase, the resistance decrease, and the slope erosion became more severe.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Pejcic S, Najjari MR, Bisleri G, et al (2021)

Characterization of the dynamic viscoelastic response of the ascending aorta imposed via pulsatile flow.

Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials, 118:104395 pii:S1751-6161(21)00084-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study characterizes the material properties of a viscoelastic, ex vivo porcine ascending aorta under dynamic-loading conditions via pulsatile flow. The deformation of the opaque vessel wall and the pulsatile flow field inside the vessel were recorded using ultrasound imaging. The internal pressure was extracted from the pulsatile flow results and, when coupled with the vessel-wall expansion, was used to calculate the instantaneous elastic modulus from a novel, time-resolved two-dimensional (i.e. axial and circumferential) stress model. The circumferential instantaneous elasticity obtained from the two-dimensional stress model was found to match the uniaxial tensile test for strains below 50%. The agreement in elasticity between the two stress states reveals that the two-dimensional stress model accurately resolves the circumferential stress of the viscoelastic aorta at physiological strains (8%-30%). At higher strains, results from pulsatile flow generated a more compliant response than the uniaxial measurements. Viscoelastic properties (storage modulus and loss factor) were also calculated using the two-dimensional stress model and compared to those obtained from uniaxial tests. While instantaneous elasticity matched between the cylindrical and uniaxial loading, the viscoelastic behaviour significantly diverged between stress states. The storage modulus obtained from the pulsatile flow data was dependent on mean Reynolds number, while the uniaxial storage modulus results exhibited a strong inverse dependency on the frequency. The loss factor for the pulsatile flow data increased alongside the frequency, while the uniaxial data indicated a constant loss factor over the entire frequency range. The results of the current study show that the two-dimensional stress model can accurately extract the material properties of the ex vivo porcine aorta.

RevDate: 2021-03-23

Lu H, Chen L, Wang J, et al (2021)

Using a Modified Turian-Yuan Model to Enhance Heterogeneous Resistance in Municipal Sludge Transportation Pipeline.

ACS omega, 6(10):7199-7211.

Based on the Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model, the simulation results of three urban sludge pipelines with a volumetric concentration of 2.38, 3.94, and 5.39% were analyzed. The reasons for the large deviation of the simulation results under high Reynolds number conditions were also analyzed. The results showed that the deviation of the simulation was mainly caused by the difference between the sludge volumetric concentration (CV), the settlement resistance coefficient (CD), and the values of the two parameters in the Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model. Consequently, it was necessary to optimize the index m1 of CV and the index m2 of CD. Taking mean square deviation as the objective function, using Matlab programming, the abovementioned two indexes were optimized by the simulated annealing algorithm. The optimized index m1 of CV was 0.887, and the index m2 of CD was -0.162. Hence, a modified Turian-Yuan heterogeneous resistance model was obtained. The model verified that the minimum value of the regression coefficient, R2, of the simulated value reached 0.9701, proving that, the model can be used to simulate the heterogeneous resistance of urban sludge pipeline transportation.

RevDate: 2021-03-19

Tajfirooz S, Meijer JG, Kuerten JGM, et al (2021)

Statistical-learning method for predicting hydrodynamic drag, lift, and pitching torque on spheroidal particles.

Physical review. E, 103(2-1):023304.

A statistical learning approach is presented to predict the dependency of steady hydrodynamic interactions of thin oblate spheroidal particles on particle orientation and Reynolds number. The conventional empirical correlations that approximate such dependencies are replaced by a neural-network-based correlation which can provide accurate predictions for high-dimensional input spaces occurring in flows with nonspherical particles. By performing resolved simulations of steady uniform flow at 1≤Re≤120 around a 1:10 spheroidal body, a database consisting of Reynolds number- and orientation-dependent drag, lift, and pitching torque acting on the particle is collected. A multilayer perceptron is trained and validated with the generated database. The performance of the neural network is tested in a point-particle simulation of the buoyancy-driven motion of a 1:10 disk. Our statistical approach outperforms existing empirical correlations in terms of accuracy. The agreement between the numerical results and the experimental observations prove the potential of the method.

RevDate: 2021-04-02

Corbetta A, Menkovski V, Benzi R, et al (2021)

Deep learning velocity signals allow quantifying turbulence intensity.

Science advances, 7(12):.

Turbulence, the ubiquitous and chaotic state of fluid motions, is characterized by strong and statistically nontrivial fluctuations of the velocity field, and it can be quantitatively described only in terms of statistical averages. Strong nonstationarities impede statistical convergence, precluding quantifying turbulence, for example, in terms of turbulence intensity or Reynolds number. Here, we show that by using deep neural networks, we can accurately estimate the Reynolds number within 15% accuracy, from a statistical sample as small as two large-scale eddy turnover times. In contrast, physics-based statistical estimators are limited by the convergence rate of the central limit theorem and provide, for the same statistical sample, at least a hundredfold larger error. Our findings open up previously unexplored perspectives and the possibility to quantitatively define and, therefore, study highly nonstationary turbulent flows as ordinarily found in nature and in industrial processes.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Wiputra H, Lim M, CH Yap (2021)

A transition point for the blood flow wall shear stress environment in the human fetal left ventricle during early gestation.

Journal of biomechanics, 120:110353 pii:S0021-9290(21)00133-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Development of the fetal heart is a fascinating process that involves a tremendous amount of growth. Here, we performed image-based flow simulations of 3 human fetal left ventricles (LV), and investigated the hypothetical scenario where the sizes of the hearts are scaled down, leading to reduced Reynolds number, to emulate earlier fetal stages. The shape and motion of the LV were retained over the scaling to isolate and understand the effects of length scaling on its fluid dynamics. We observed an interesting cut-off point in Reynolds number (Re), across which the dependency of LV wall shear stress (WSS) on Re changed. This was in line with classical fluid mechanic theory where skin friction coefficient exhibited first a decreasing trend and then a plateauing trend with increasing Re. Below this cut-off point, viscous effects dominated, stifling the formation of LV diastolic vorticity structures, and WSS was roughly independent of Reynolds number. However, above this cut-off, inertial effects dominated to cause diastolic vortex ring formation and detachment, and to cause WSS to scale linearly with Reynolds number. Results suggested that this transition point is found at approximately 11 weeks of gestation. Since WSS is thought to be a biomechanical stimuli for growth, this may have implications on normal fetal heart growth and malformation diseases like Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.

RevDate: 2021-03-18

Kumar VRS, Choudhary SK, Radhakrishnan PK, et al (2021)

Lopsided Blood-Thinning Drug Increases the Risk of Internal Flow Choking Leading to Shock Wave Generation Causing Asymptomatic Cardiovascular Disease.

Global challenges (Hoboken, NJ), 5(3):2000076.

The discovery of Sanal flow choking in the cardiovascular-system calls for multidisciplinary and global action to develop innovative treatments and to develop new drugs to negate the risk of asymptomatic-cardiovascular-diseases. Herein, it is shown that when blood-pressure-ratio (BPR) reaches the lower-critical-hemorrhage-index (LCHI) internal-flow-choking and shock wave generation can occur in the cardiovascular-system, with sudden expansion/divergence/vasospasm or bifurcation regions, without prejudice to the percutaneous-coronary-intervention (PCI). Analytical findings reveal that the relatively high and the low blood-viscosity are cardiovascular-risk factors. In vitro studies have shown that nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide gases are dominant in fresh blood samples of humans/guinea pigs at a temperature range of 98.6-104 F. An in silico study demonstrated the Sanal flow choking phenomenon leading to shock-wave generation and pressure-overshoot in the cardiovascular-system. It has been established that disproportionate blood-thinning treatment increases the risk of the internal-flow-choking due to the enhanced boundary-layer-blockage-factor, resulting from an increase in flow-turbulence level in the cardiovascular-system, caused by an increase in Reynolds number as a consequence of low blood-viscosity. The cardiovascular-risk can be diminished by concurrently lessening the viscosity of biofluid/blood and flow-turbulence by raising the thermal-tolerance-level in terms of blood-heat-capacity-ratio (BHCR) and/or by decreasing the systolic-to-diastolic blood-pressure-ratio.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Challita EJ, Alexander SLM, Han SI, et al (2021)

Slingshot spiders build tensed, underdamped webs for ultrafast launches and speedy halts.

Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, 207(2):205-217.

We develop a mathematical model to capture the web dynamics of slingshot spiders (Araneae: Theridiosomatidae), which utilize a tension line to deform their orb webs into conical springs to hunt flying insects. Slingshot spiders are characterized by their ultrafast launch speeds and accelerations (exceeding 1300 [Formula: see text]), however a theoretical approach to characterize the underlying spatiotemporal web dynamics remains missing. To address this knowledge gap, we develop a 2D-coupled damped oscillator model of the web. Our model reveals three key insights into the dynamics of slingshot motion. First, the tension line plays a dual role: enabling the spider to load elastic energy into the web for a quick launch (in milliseconds) to displacements of 10-15 body lengths, but also enabling the spider to halt quickly, attenuating inertial oscillations. Second, the dominant energy dissipation mechanism is viscous drag by the silk lines - acting as a low Reynolds number parachute. Third, the web exhibits underdamped oscillatory dynamics through a finely-tuned balance between the radial line forces, the tension line force and viscous drag dissipation. Together, our work suggests that the conical geometry and tension-line enables the slingshot web to act as both an elastic spring and a shock absorber, for the multi-functional roles of risky predation and self-preservation.

RevDate: 2021-03-15

Basha HT, R Sivaraj (2021)

Exploring the heat transfer and entropy generation of Ag/Fe[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text]-blood nanofluid flow in a porous tube: a collocation solution.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(3):31.

Evaluating the entropy generation is essential in thermal systems to avoid the unnecessarily wasted thermal energy during the thermal processes. Nowadays, researchers are greatly fascinated to scrutinize the entropy generation in a human system because it is utilized as a thermodynamic approach to understand the heat transfer characteristics of cancer systems or wounded tissue and their accessibility status. Further, numerous nanoparticles have been employed as an agent to control the heat transfer of blood and wounded tissue. As a result, the present model manifests the entropy generation, flow characteristics and heat transport of Ag/Fe[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text]-blood flow of a nanofluid in a permeable circular tube with the influence of variable electrical conductivity and linear radiation. Nonlinear transport equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity variables which are solved with weighted residual method. Significant parameters like Reynolds number, dimensionless permeability parameter, extending/contracting parameter, Eckert number and Hartmann number on the radial pressure, axial velocity, radial velocity and temperature are explored through graphs. The obtained results show that temperature distribution of Fe[Formula: see text]O[Formula: see text] nanoparticles is higher than Ag nanoparticle, in case of suction. The dimensionless permeability parameter has an opposite nature on the radial pressure for the suction and injection cases. Growing values of Hartmann number enhance the total entropy generation for the cases of suction and injection.

RevDate: 2021-03-15

Liu Z, Zhang H, H Lai (2021)

Fluid flow effects on the degradation kinetics of bioresorbable polymers.

Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Implants, tissue engineering scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers are widely used in biomedical engineering. The degradation of polymers plays a critical role in the effectiveness of these applications. In this paper, the mechanism of the hydrolytic degradation affected by the flow medium is studied. The results indicate that both high porosity and dynamic conditions may significantly slow down degradation speed. A critical value of the Reynolds number is found to exist. When the Reynolds number is higher than the critical value, the autocatalysis was suppressed. The models reported in this article might serve as a guide to design 3D biodegradable implants.

RevDate: 2021-03-29

Al-Mubarak HFI, Vallatos A, WM Holmes (2021)

Impact of turbulence-induced asymmetric propagators on the accuracy of phase-contrast velocimetry.

Journal of magnetic resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997), 325:106929.

Phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry (PC-MRI) has been widely used to investigate flow properties in numerous systems. In a horizontal cylindrical pipe (3 mm diameter), we investigated the accuracy of PC-MRI as the flow transitioned from laminar to turbulent flow (Reynolds number 352-2708). We focus primarily on velocimetry errors introduced by skewed intra-voxel displacement distributions, a consequence of PC-MRI theory assuming symmetric distributions. We demonstrated how rapid fluctuations in the velocity field, can produce broad asymmetric intravoxel displacement distributions near the wall. Depending on the shape of the distribution, this resulted in PC-MRI measurements under-estimating (positive skewness) or over-estimating (negative skewness) the true mean intravoxel velocity, which could have particular importance to clinical wall shear stress measurements. The magnitude of these velocity errors was shown to increase with the variance and decrease with the kurtosis of the intravoxel displacement distribution. These experimental results confirm our previous theoretical analysis, which gives a relationship for PC-MRI velocimetry errors, as a function of the higher moments of the intravoxel displacement distribution (skewness, variance, and kurtosis) and the experimental parameters q and Δ. This suggests that PC-MRI errors in such unsteady/turbulent flow conditions can potentially be reduced by employing lower q values or shorter observation times Δ.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Cho M (2021)

Aerodynamics and the role of the earth's electric field in the spiders' ballooning flight.

Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, 207(2):219-236.

Some spiders aerially disperse relying on their fine fibres. This behaviour has been known as 'ballooning'. Observations on the ballooning behaviour of spiders have a long history and have more recently received special attention, yet its underlying physics is still poorly understood. It was traditionally believed that spiders rely on the airflows by atmospheric thermal convection to do ballooning. However, a recent experiment showed that exposure to an electric field alone can induce spiders' pre-ballooning behaviours (tiptoe and dropping/dangling) and even pulls them upwards in the air. The controversy between explanations of ballooning by aerodynamic flow or the earth's electric field has long existed. The major obstacle in studying the physics of ballooning is the fact that airflow and electric field are both invisible and our naked eyes can hardly recognise the ballooning silk fibres of spiders. This review explores the theory and evidence for the physical mechanisms of spiders' ballooning connects them to the behavioural physiology of spiders for ballooning. Knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in future studies are identified.

RevDate: 2021-03-08

Riley JM, Price NS, Saaid HM, et al (2021)

In Vitro Clot Trapping Efficiency of the FDA Generic Inferior Vena Cava Filter in an Anatomical Model: An Experimental Fluid-Structure Interaction Benchmark.

Cardiovascular engineering and technology pii:10.1007/s13239-021-00524-z [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Robust experimental data for performing validation of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of the transport of deformable solid bodies in internal flow are currently lacking. This in vitro experimental study characterizes the clot trapping efficiency of a new generic conical-type inferior vena cava (IVC) filter in a rigid anatomical model of the IVC with carefully characterized test conditions, fluid rheological properties, and clot mechanical properties.

METHODS: Various sizes of spherical and cylindrical clots made of synthetic materials (nylon and polyacrylamide gel) and bovine blood are serially injected into the anatomical IVC model under worst-case exercise flow conditions. Clot trapping efficiencies and their uncertainties are then quantified for each combination of clot shape, size, and material.

RESULTS: Experiments reveal the clot trapping efficiency increases with increasing clot diameter and length, with trapping efficiencies ranging from as low as approximately 42% for small 3.2 mm diameter spherical clots up to 100% for larger clot sizes. Because of the asymmetry of the anatomical IVC model, the data also reveal the iliac vein of clot origin influences the clot trapping efficiency, with the trapping efficiency for clots injected into the left iliac vein up to a factor of 7.5 times greater than that for clots injected into the right iliac (trapping efficiencies of approximately 10% versus 75%, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Overall, this data set provides a benchmark for validating simulations predicting IVC filter clot trapping efficiency and, more generally, low-Reynolds number FSI modeling.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Mariotti A, Antognoli M, Galletti C, et al (2021)

A Study on the Effect of Flow Unsteadiness on the Yield of a Chemical Reaction in a T Micro-Reactor.

Micromachines, 12(3):.

Despite the very simple geometry and the laminar flow, T-shaped microreactors have been found to be characterized by different and complex steady and unsteady flow regimes, depending on the Reynolds number. In particular, flow unsteadiness modifies strongly the mixing process; however, little is known on how this change may affect the yield of a chemical reaction. In the present work, experiments and 3-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out jointly to analyze mixing and reaction in a T-shaped microreactor with the ultimate goal to investigate how flow unsteadiness affects the reaction yield. The onset of the unsteady asymmetric regime enhances the reaction yield by more than 30%; however, a strong decrease of the yield back to values typical of the vortex regime is observed when the flow undergoes a transition to the unsteady symmetric regime.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Gao Y, Magaud P, Baldas L, et al (2021)

Inertial Migration of Neutrally Buoyant Spherical Particles in Square Channels at Moderate and High Reynolds Numbers.

Micromachines, 12(2):.

The inertial migration of particles in microchannel flows has been deeply investigated in the last two decades. In spite of numerous reports on the inertial focusing patterns in a square channel, the particle inertial focusing and longitudinal ordering processes remain unclear at high Reynolds numbers (>200) in square microchannels smaller than 100 µm in width. Thus, in this work, in situ visualization of particles flowing in square micro-channels at Reynolds numbers Re ranging from 5 to 280 has been conducted and their migration behaviors have been analyzed. The obtained results confirm that new equilibrium positions appear above a critical Re depending on the particle to channel size ratio and the particle volume fraction. It is also shown that, for a given channel length, an optimal Reynolds number can be identified, for which the ratio of particles located on equilibrium positions is maximal. Moreover, the longitudinal ordering process, i.e., the formation of trains of particles on equilibrium positions and the characterization of their length, has also been analyzed for the different flow conditions investigated in this study.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Xie GF, Zhao L, Dong YY, et al (2021)

Hydraulic and Thermal Performance of Microchannel Heat Sink Inserted with Pin Fins.

Micromachines, 12(3):.

With the development of micromachining technologies, a wider use of microchannel heat sink (MCHS) is achieved in many fields, especially for cooling electronic chips. A microchannel with a width of 500 μm and a height of 500 μm is investigated through the numerical simulation method. Pin fins are arranged at an inclined angle of 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°, when arrangement method includes in-lined pattern and staggered pattern. The effects of inclined angle and arrangement method on flow field and temperature field of MCHSs are studied when Reynolds number ranges from 10 to 300. In addition to this, quantitative analyses of hydraulic and thermal performance are also discussed in this work. With the increase of inclined angle, the variation of friction factor and Nusselt number do not follow certain rules. The best thermal performance is achieved in MCHS with in-lined fines at an inclined angle of 30° accompanied with the largest friction factor. Arrangement method of pin fins plays a less significant role compared with inclined angle from a general view, particularly in the Reynolds number range of 100~300.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Malviya R, Jha S, Fuloria NK, et al (2021)

Determination of Temperature-Dependent Coefficients of Viscosity and Surface Tension of Tamarind Seeds (Tamarindus indica L.) Polymer.

Polymers, 13(4):.

The rheological properties of tamarind seed polymer are characterized for its possible commercialization in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Seed polymer was extracted using water as a solvent and ethyl alcohol as a precipitating agent. The temperature's effect on the rheological behavior of the polymeric solution was studied. In addition to this, the temperature coefficient, viscosity, surface tension, activation energy, Gibbs free energy, Reynolds number, and entropy of fusion were calculated by using the Arrhenius, Gibbs-Helmholtz, Frenkel-Eyring, and Eotvos equations, respectively. The activation energy of the gum was found to be 20.46 ± 1.06 kJ/mol. Changes in entropy and enthalpy were found to be 23.66 ± 0.97 and -0.10 ± 0.01 kJ/mol, respectively. The calculated amount of entropy of fusion was found to be 0.88 kJ/mol. A considerable decrease in apparent viscosity and surface tension was produced when the temperature was raised. The present study concludes that the tamarind seed polymer solution is less sensitive to temperature change in comparison to Albzia lebbac gum, Ficus glumosa gum and A. marcocarpa gum. This study also concludes that the attainment of the transition state of viscous flow for tamarind seed gum is accompanied by bond breaking. The excellent physicochemical properties of tamarind seed polymers make them promising excipients for future drug formulation and make their application in the food and cosmetics industry possible.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Hossain S, Tayeb NT, Islam F, et al (2021)

Enhancement of Mixing Performance of Two-Layer Crossing Micromixer through Surrogate-Based Optimization.

Micromachines, 12(2):.

Optimum configuration of a micromixer with two-layer crossing microstructure was performed using mixing analysis, surrogate modeling, along with an optimization algorithm. Mixing performance was used to determine the optimum designs at Reynolds number 40. A surrogate modeling method based on a radial basis neural network (RBNN) was used to approximate the value of the objective function. The optimization study was carried out with three design variables; viz., the ratio of the main channel thickness to the pitch length (H/PI), the ratio of the thickness of the diagonal channel to the pitch length (W/PI), and the ratio of the depth of the channel to the pitch length (d/PI). Through a primary parametric study, the design space was constrained. The design points surrounded by the design constraints were chosen using a well-known technique called Latin hypercube sampling (LHS). The optimal design confirmed a 32.0% enhancement of the mixing index as compared to the reference design.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Brik M, Harmand S, Zaaroura I, et al (2021)

Experimental and Numerical Study for the Coalescence Dynamics of Vertically Aligned Water Drops in Oil.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 37(10):3139-3147.

In this paper, we propose an experimental and numerical investigation for the impact of the surface tension and the continuous phase viscosity on the dynamics of the liquid bridge during the coalescence process in liquid-liquid systems. A specific configuration of a sessile drop in direct contact with another drop placed over it has been studied. Calculating the redefined Reynolds number Re, it is found that for all studied cases, the coalescence process is dominated by the inertial force. The first step of the work was the validation of the numerical model that has been performed in an axisymmetric coordinate system. This has been done by the comparison between numerical and experimental results obtained in the framework of experimental series realized in parallel for two different liquid-liquid (LL) systems: water drops in silicone oil (SilOil M40.165) and water drops in sunflower oil. A good agreement was found between different results for numerous parameters used for comparisons. It is found that for the first stages of the coalescence (at the start of the drops merging), for a given drop's viscosity, the dynamics of the dimensionless liquid bridge is conducted by the viscosity of the continuous phase where it is illustrated that the more the surrounded viscosity is large, the lower the rate of the liquid bridge growth, the lower the earlier radial velocity of the bridge, and the higher the external capillary pressure generated around the bridge. Moreover, it is depicted that the impact of the surface tension starts appearing after the complete development of the liquid bridge where it is observed that for the same surrounding phase viscosity, the propagation of the capillary wave is faster for a LL system with higher surface tensions than those of lower surface tensions.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Buaria D, Clay MP, Sreenivasan KR, et al (2021)

Turbulence is an Ineffective Mixer when Schmidt Numbers Are Large.

Physical review letters, 126(7):074501.

We solve the advection-diffusion equation for a stochastically stationary passive scalar θ, in conjunction with forced 3D Navier-Stokes equations, using direct numerical simulations in periodic domains of various sizes, the largest being 8192^{3}. The Taylor-scale Reynolds number varies in the range 140-650 and the Schmidt number Sc≡ν/D in the range 1-512, where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and D is the molecular diffusivity of θ. Our results show that turbulence becomes an ineffective mixer when Sc is large. First, the mean scalar dissipation rate ⟨χ⟩=2D⟨|∇θ|^{2}⟩, when suitably nondimensionalized, decreases as 1/logSc. Second, 1D cuts through the scalar field indicate increasing density of sharp fronts on larger scales, oscillating with large excursions leading to reduced mixing, and additionally suggesting weakening of scalar variance flux across the scales. The scaling exponents of the scalar structure functions in the inertial-convective range appear to saturate with respect to the moment order and the saturation exponent approaches unity as Sc increases, qualitatively consistent with 1D cuts of the scalar.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Sleiti AK (2021)

Dataset for measured viscosity of Polyalpha-Olefin- boron nitride nanofluids.

Data in brief, 35:106881 pii:S2352-3409(21)00165-7.

Datasets of measured viscosity of Polyalpha-Olefin- boron nitride (PAO/hBN) nanofluids are reported. An AR-G2 rheometer (from TA Instruments) experimental setup is used for measuring the rheological property of PAO/hBN nanofluids, which is a combined motor and transducer (CMT) instrument. The test fluid sample size is approximately 1.5 ml and the tests were conducted over a temperature range of the tested fluids from - 20 °C to 70 °C by a water circulator chamber. The dataset includes measured viscosities as a function of the BN volumetric concentration (ϕ) of 0, 0.6 and 1%. Two sets of viscosity measurements are conducted insuring the thermal equilibrium conditions are reached for all experiments. In set (1), the viscosity is measured at intervals of 10 °C by fixing the temperature at each interval (at -20, -10, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C), while the shear stress and shear rate are varied. In set (2), the temperature is varied from -20 °C to 70 °C at intervals of 0.5 °C, while the shear stress is fixed and the shear rate is varied accordingly. Set (1) is designed to verify whether the fluids are Newtonian or not and set (2) is designed to derive correlations for the viscosity as a function of temperature. Several characteristics data are recorded including rotational speed of the spindle (RPM), torque, viscosity (Pa- s), shear stress (Pa), shear strain rate (1/s) and temperature (°C). The reuse potential of the dataset includes calculating Reynolds number for further flow studies; heat transfer performance studies of nanofluids; lubrication and lubricants' development studies and characteristics of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The dataset reported here were used (but not published) in the article published by the author in [1] (

RevDate: 2021-03-27

Charlton AJ, Blandin G, Leslie G, et al (2021)

Impact of Forward Osmosis Operating Pressure on Deformation, Efficiency and Concentration Polarisation with Novel Links to CFD.

Membranes, 11(3):.

Forward osmosis (FO) modules currently suffer from performance efficiency limitations due to concentration polarisation (CP), as well as pressure drops during operation. There are incentives to further reduce CP effects, as well as optimise spacer design for pressure drop improvements and mechanical support. In this study, the effects of applying transmembrane pressure (TMP) on FO membrane deformation and the subsequent impact on module performance was investigated by comparing experimental data to 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for three commercial FO modules. At a TMP of 1.5 bar the occlusion of the draw-channel induced by longitudinal pressure hydraulic drop was comparable for the Toray (16%) and HTI modules (12%); however, the hydraulic perimeter of the Profiera module was reduced by 46%. CFD simulation of the occluded channels indicated that a change in hydraulic perimeter due to a 62% increase in shear strain resulted in a 31% increase in the Reynolds number. This reduction in channel dimensions enhanced osmotic efficiency by reducing CP via improved draw-channel hydrodynamics, which significantly disrupted the external concentration polarization (ECP) layer. Furthermore, simulations indicated that the Reynolds number experienced only modest increases with applied TMP and that shear strain at the membrane surface was found to be the most important factor when predicting flux performance enhancement, which varied between the different modules. This work suggests that a numerical approach to assess the effects of draw-spacers on pressure drop and CP can optimize and reduce investment in the design and validation of FO module designs.

RevDate: 2021-02-28

Ramadan IA, Bailliet H, JC Valière (2021)

Experimental investigation of oscillating flow characteristics at the exit of a stacked mesh grid regenerator.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149(2):807.

The aim of this study is to investigate the oscillating flow velocity field at the exit of different stacked mesh grid regenerators using Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. Twelve different experimental cases are discussed, yielding oscillating flow fields at the exit of four kinds of regenerators for different acoustic levels. The regenerators are classified according to the mesh wire size to viscous penetration depth ratio and according to the method of stacking the mesh grids. Based on the analysis of the vorticity fields at the exit of the regenerator, three groups of flow patterns are identified. This classification is correctly verified by using the Reynolds number (based on the acoustic amplitude and wire diameter) and the Strouhal number (based on the acoustic displacement amplitude and wire diameter). The characteristics of the fluctuating velocity components are investigated for these various flow patterns. The critical Reynolds number, past which the flow is highly dissipative, is determined. The dissipation timescale is investigated and the quasi-steady approximation is found to be valid for the analysis of the oscillating flow at the exit of the regenerator mesh.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Bakhuis D, Ezeta R, Bullee PA, et al (2021)

Catastrophic Phase Inversion in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow.

Physical review letters, 126(6):064501.

Emulsions are omnipresent in the food industry, health care, and chemical synthesis. In this Letter the dynamics of metastable oil-water emulsions in highly turbulent (10^{11}≤Ta≤3×10^{13}) Taylor-Couette flow, far from equilibrium, is investigated. By varying the oil-in-water void fraction, catastrophic phase inversion between oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be triggered, changing the morphology, including droplet sizes, and rheological properties of the mixture, dramatically. The manifestation of these different states is exemplified by combining global torque measurements and local in situ laser induced fluorescence microscopy imaging. Despite the turbulent state of the flow and the dynamic equilibrium of the oil-water mixture, the global torque response of the system is found to be as if the fluid were Newtonian, and the effective viscosity of the mixture was found to be several times bigger or smaller than either of its constituents.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Jain PK, Lanjewar A, Jain R, et al (2021)

Performance analysis of multi-gap V-roughness with staggered elements of solar air heater based on artificial neural network and experimental investigations.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Among all renewable energy sources, solar power is one of the major sources which contributes for pollution control and protection of environment. For a number of decades, technologies for utilizing the solar power have been the area of research and development. In the current research, thermal performance parameters of multi-gap V-roughness with staggered elements of a solar air heater (SAH) are experimentally investigated. The artificial neural network (ANN) is also utilized for predicting the thermal performance parameters of SAH. Experiments were executed in a rectangular channel with one roughened side at the top exposed to a uniform heat flux. A significant rise in thermal efficiency performance was reported under a predefined range of Reynolds number (Re) from 3000 to 14000 with an optimized value of relative roughness pitch ratio (P/e) and relative staggered rib length (w/g) as 12 and 1, respectively. The maximum thermal efficiency was attained in the range from 42.15 to 87.02% under considered Reynolds numbers for optimum value of P/e as 12 and w/g as 1. A multilayered perceptron (MLP) feed-forward ANN trained by the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm was utilized to predict the thermal efficiency (ηth), friction (f), and Nusselt number (Nu). The thermal performance parameters such as P/e, w/g, Re, and temperature at the inlet, outlet, and plate were the critical input parameters/signals used in the ANN method. The optimum ANN arrangement/structure to predict the Nu, f, and ηth demonstrate higher accurateness in assessing the performance characteristics of SAH by attaining the root mean squared error (RMSE) in prediction and the Pearson coefficient of association (R2) of 1.591 and 0.994; 0.0012 and 0.851; and 0.025 and 0.981, respectively. The prediction profile plots of the ANN demonstrate the influence of various input parameters on the thermal performance parameters.

RevDate: 2021-02-28

Altmeyer S (2021)

On the ridge of instability in ferrofluidic Couette flow via alternating magnetic field.

Scientific reports, 11(1):4705.

There is a huge number of natural and industrial flows, which are subjected to time-dependent boundary conditions. The flow of a magnetic fluid under the influence of temporal modulations is such an example. Here, we perform numerical simulations of ferrofluidic Couette flow subject to time-periodic modulation (with frequency [Formula: see text]) in a spatially homogeneous magnetic field and report how such a modulation can lead to a significant Reynolds number Re enhancement. Consider a modified Niklas approximation we explain the relation between modulation amplitude, driving frequency and stabilization effect. From this, we describe the system response around the primary instability to be sensitive/critical by an alternating field. We detected that such an alternating field provides an easy and in particular accurate controllable key parameter to trigger the system to change from subcritical to supercritical and vice versa. Our findings provide a framework to study other types of magnetic flows driven by time-dependent forcing.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Sera T, Kamiya N, Fukushima T, et al (2021)

Visualizing the Flow Patterns in an Expanding and Contracting Pulmonary Alveolated Duct Based On Micro-Computed Tomography Images.

Journal of biomechanical engineering pii:1100568 [Epub ahead of print].

We visualized the flow patterns in an alveolated duct model with breathing-like expanding and contracting wall motions using particle image velocimetry, then we investigated the effect of acinar deformation on the flow patterns. We reconstructed a compliant, scaled-up model of an alveolated duct from synchrotron micro-computed tomography images of a mammalian lung. The alveolated duct did not include any bifurcation, and its entire surface was covered with alveoli. We embedded the alveolated duct in a sealed container that was filled with fluid. We oscillated the fluid in the duct and container simultaneously and independently to control the flow and duct volume. We examined the flow patterns in alveoli, with the Reynolds number (Re) at 0.03 or 0.22 and the acinar volume change at 0%, 20%, or 80%. At the same Re, the heterogeneous deformation induced different inspiration and expiration flow patterns, and the recirculating regions in alveoli changed during respiratory cycle. During a larger acinar deformation at Re = 0.03, the flow patterns tended to change from recirculating flow to radial flow during inspiration and vice versa during expiration. Additionally, the alveolar geometric characteristics, particularly the angle between the alveolar duct and mouth, affected this differences in flow patterns. At Re = 0.22, recirculating flow patterns tended to form during inspiration and expiration, regardless of the magnitude of the acinar deformation. Our in vitro experiments suggest the alveolated flows with non-self-similar and heterogeneous wall motions may promote particle mixing and deposition.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Pepper RE, Riley EE, Baron M, et al (2021)

The effect of external flow on the feeding currents of sessile microorganisms.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 18(175):20200953.

Microscopic sessile suspension feeders live attached to surfaces and, by consuming bacteria-sized prey and by being consumed, they form an important part of aquatic ecosystems. Their environmental impact is mediated by their feeding rate, which depends on a self-generated feeding current. The feeding rate has been hypothesized to be limited by recirculating eddies that cause the organisms to feed from water that is depleted of food particles. However, those results considered organisms in still water, while ambient flow is often present in their natural habitats. We show, using a point-force model, that even very slow ambient flow, with speed several orders of magnitude less than that of the self-generated feeding current, is sufficient to disrupt the eddies around perpendicular suspension feeders, providing a constant supply of food-rich water. However, the feeding rate decreases in external flow at a range of non-perpendicular orientations due to the formation of recirculation structures not seen in still water. We quantify the feeding flow and observe such recirculation experimentally for the suspension feeder Vorticella convallaria in external flows typical of streams and rivers.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Ge-JiLe H, Javid K, Khan SU, et al (2021)

Double diffusive convection and Hall effect in creeping flow of viscous nanofluid through a convergent microchannel: a biotechnological applications.

Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Current analysis presents the mathematical modeling for peristaltic transport of nanofluid with applications of double-diffusive convection and Hall features. The flow has been induced by a convergent channel due to peristaltic propulsion. These rheological equations are transformed from fixed to wave frames by using a linear mathematical relation between these two frames. The dimensionless variables are used to transform these rheological equations into nondimensional forms. The flow analysis is carried out under two distinct scientific biological assumptions, one is known as long wavelength and the second one is low Reynolds number. The analytical solutions of these rheological equations are obtained with the help of a rigorous analytical method known as integration in the term of stream function. The physical effects of magnetic and Hall devices, respectively, on the flow features are also considered in the present analysis. The physical influences of dominant hydro-mechanical parameters on the axial velocity, pressure gradient, trapping, volumetric fraction of nanofluid, heat and mass transfer phenomena are studied. The complex scenario of biomimetic propulsions are considered in boundary walls to boost the proficiency of peristaltic micropumps.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Bao G, Y Jian (2021)

Odd-viscosity-induced instability of a falling thin film with an external electric field.

Physical review. E, 103(1-1):013104.

The influence of odd viscosity of Newtonian fluid on the instability of thin film flowing along an inclined plane under a normal electric field is studied. By odd viscosity, we mean apart from the well-known coefficient of shear viscosity, a classical liquid with broken time-reversal symmetry is endowed with a second viscosity coefficient in biological, colloidal, and granular systems. Under the long wave approximation, a nonlinear evolution equation of the free surface is derived by the method of systematic asymptotic expansion. The effects of the odd viscosity and external electric field are considered in this evolution equation and an analytical expression of critical Reynolds number is obtained. It is interesting to find that, by linear stability analysis, the critical Reynolds number increases with odd viscosity and decreases with external strength of electric field. In other words, odd viscosity has a stable effect and electric field has a destabilized effect on flowing of thin film. In addition, through nonlinear analysis, we obtain a Ginsburg-Landau equation and find that the film has not only the supercritical stability zone and the subcritical instability zone but also the unconditional stability zone and the explosive zone. The variations of each zone with related parameters, such as the strength of electric field, odd viscosity, and Reynolds number, etc., are investigated. The results are conducive to the further development of related experiments.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Pereira FS, Grinstein FF, Israel DM, et al (2021)

Molecular viscosity and diffusivity effects in transitional and shock-driven mixing flows.

Physical review. E, 103(1-1):013106.

This paper investigates the importance of molecular viscosity and diffusivity for the prediction of transitional and shock-driven mixing flows featuring high and low Reynolds and Mach number regions. Two representative problems are computed with implicit large-eddy simulations using the inviscid Euler equations (EE) and viscous Navier-Stokes equations (NSE): the Taylor-Green vortex at Reynolds number Re=3000 and initial Mach number Ma=0.28, and an air-SF_{6}-air gas curtain subjected to two shock waves at Ma=1.2. The primary focus is on differences between NSE and EE predictions due to viscous effects. The outcome of the paper illustrates the advantages of utilizing NSE. In contrast to the EE, where the effective viscosity decreases upon grid refinement, NSE predictions can be assessed for simulations of flows with transition to turbulence at prescribed constant Re. The NSE can achieve better agreement between solutions and reference data, and the results converge upon grid refinement. On the other hand, the EE predictions do not converge with grid refinement, and can only exhibit similarities with the NSE results at coarse grid resolutions. We also investigate the effect of viscous effects on the dynamics of the coherent and turbulent fields, as well as on the mechanisms contributing to the production and diffusion of vorticity. The results show that nominally inviscid calculations can exhibit significantly varying flow dynamics driven by changing effective resolution-dependent Reynolds number, and highlight the role of viscous processes affecting the vorticity field. These tendencies become more pronounced upon grid refinement. The discussion of the results concludes with the assessment of the computational cost of inviscid and viscous computations.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Livi C, Di Staso G, Clercx HJH, et al (2021)

Influence of numerical resolution on the dynamics of finite-size particles with the lattice Boltzmann method.

Physical review. E, 103(1-1):013303.

We investigate and compare the accuracy and efficiency of different numerical approaches to model the dynamics of finite-size particles using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This includes the standard bounce-back (BB) and the equilibrium interpolation (EI) schemes. To accurately compare the different implementations, we first introduce a boundary condition to approximate the flow properties of an unbounded fluid in a finite simulation domain, taking into account the perturbation induced by a moving particle. We show that this boundary treatment is efficient in suppressing detrimental effects on the dynamics of spherical and ellipsoidal particles arising from the finite size of the simulation domain. We then investigate the performances of the BB and EI schemes in modeling the dynamics of a spherical particle settling under Stokes conditions, which can now be reproduced with great accuracy thanks to the treatment of the exterior boundary. We find that the EI scheme outperforms the BB scheme in providing a better accuracy scaling with respect to the resolution of the settling particle, while suppressing finite-size effects due to the particle discretization on the lattice grid. Additionally, in order to further increase the capability of the algorithm in modeling particles of sizes comparable to the lattice spacing, we propose an improvement to the EI scheme, the complete equilibrium interpolation (CEI). This approach allows us to accurately capture the boundaries of the particle also when located between two fluid nodes. We evaluate the CEI performance in solving the dynamics of an under-resolved particle under analogous Stokes conditions and also for the case of a rotating ellipsoid in a shear flow. Finally, we show that EI and CEI are able to recover the correct flow solutions also at small, but finite, Reynolds number. Adopting the CEI scheme it is not only possible to detect particles with zero lattice occupation, but also to increase up to one order of magnitude the accuracy of the dynamics of particles with a size comparable to the lattice spacing with respect to the BB and the EI schemes.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Pskowski A, Bagchi P, JD Zahn (2021)

Investigation of red blood cell partitioning in an in vitro microvascular bifurcation.

Artificial organs [Epub ahead of print].

There is a long history of research examining red blood cell (RBC) partitioning in microvasculature bifurcations. These studies commonly report results describing partitioning that exists as either regular partitioning, which occurs when the RBC flux ratio is greater than the bulk fluid flowrate ratio, or reverse partitioning when the RBC flux ratio is less than or equal to that of the bulk fluid flowrate. This paper presents a study of RBC partitioning in a single bifurcating microchannel with dimensions of 6 to 16 μm, investigating the effects of hematocrit, channel width, daughter channel flowrate ratio, and bifurcation angle. The erythrocyte flux ratio, N*, manifests itself as either regular or reverse partitioning, and time-dependent partitioning is much more dynamic, occurring as both regular and reverse partitioning. We report a significant reduction in the well-known sigmoidal variation of the erythrocyte flux ratio (N*) versus the volumetric flowrate ratio (Q*), partitioning behavior with increasing hematocrit in microchannels when the channel dimensions are comparable with cell size. RBCs "lingering" or jamming at the bifurcation were also observed and quantified in vitro. Results from trajectory analyses suggest that the RBC position in the feeder channel strongly affects both partitioning and lingering frequency of RBCs, with both being significantly reduced when RBCs flow on streamlines near the edge of the channel as opposed to the center of the channel. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that even at low Reynolds number, partitioning is affected by the bifurcation angle by increasing cell-cell interactions. The presented results provide further insight into RBC partitioning as well as perfusion throughout the microvasculature.

RevDate: 2021-04-19
CmpDate: 2021-02-16

Ender H, J Kierfeld (2021)

From diffusive mass transfer in Stokes flow to low Reynolds number Marangoni boats.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(1):4 pii:10.1140/epje/s10189-021-00034-9.

We present a theory for the self-propulsion of symmetric, half-spherical Marangoni boats (soap or camphor boats) at low Reynolds numbers. Propulsion is generated by release (diffusive emission or dissolution) of water-soluble surfactant molecules, which modulate the air-water interfacial tension. Propulsion either requires asymmetric release or spontaneous symmetry breaking by coupling to advection for a perfectly symmetrical swimmer. We study the diffusion-advection problem for a sphere in Stokes flow analytically and numerically both for constant concentration and constant flux boundary conditions. We derive novel results for concentration profiles under constant flux boundary conditions and for the Nusselt number (the dimensionless ratio of total emitted flux and diffusive flux). Based on these results, we analyze the Marangoni boat for small Marangoni propulsion (low Peclet number) and show that two swimming regimes exist, a diffusive regime at low velocities and an advection-dominated regime at high swimmer velocities. We describe both the limit of large Marangoni propulsion (high Peclet number) and the effects from evaporation by approximative analytical theories. The swimming velocity is determined by force balance, and we obtain a general expression for the Marangoni forces, which comprises both direct Marangoni forces from the surface tension gradient along the air-water-swimmer contact line and Marangoni flow forces. We unravel whether the Marangoni flow contribution is exerting a forward or backward force during propulsion. Our main result is the relation between Peclet number and swimming velocity. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and, thus, swimming occur for a perfectly symmetrical swimmer above a critical Peclet number, which becomes small for large system sizes. We find a supercritical swimming bifurcation for a symmetric swimmer and an avoided bifurcation in the presence of an asymmetry.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Hosseini SA, Safari H, D Thevenin (2021)

Lattice Boltzmann Solver for Multiphase Flows: Application to High Weber and Reynolds Numbers.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(2):.

The lattice Boltzmann method, now widely used for a variety of applications, has also been extended to model multiphase flows through different formulations. While already applied to many different configurations in low Weber and Reynolds number regimes, applications to higher Weber/Reynolds numbers or larger density/viscosity ratios are still the topic of active research. In this study, through a combination of a decoupled phase-field formulation-the conservative Allen-Cahn equation-and a cumulant-based collision operator for a low-Mach pressure-based flow solver, we present an algorithm that can be used for higher Reynolds/Weber numbers. The algorithm was validated through a variety of test cases, starting with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in both 2D and 3D, followed by the impact of a droplet on a liquid sheet. In all simulations, the solver correctly captured the flow dynamics andmatched reference results very well. As the final test case, the solver was used to model droplet splashing on a thin liquid sheet in 3D with a density ratio of 1000 and kinematic viscosity ratio of 15, matching the water/air system at We = 8000 and Re = 1000. Results showed that the solver correctly captured the fingering instabilities at the crown rim and their subsequent breakup, in agreement with experimental and numerical observations reported in the literature.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Gungor A, A Hemmati (2021)

Implications of changing synchronization in propulsive performance of side-by-side pitching foils.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

The unsteady hydrodynamics of side-by-side pitching foils are studied numerically at Reynolds number of 4000 with altering phase differences in the middle of an oscillation cycle. This represents a change in synchronization of oscillating foils, inspired by experimental observations on group swimming of Red nose tetra fish. The hybrid oscillation cases are based on an initially out-of-phase pitching that switch to in-phase at the 20th cycle of oscillation. Various sequential combinations of out-of-phase and in-phase pitching are also examined in terms of foil propulsive performance. It is observed that out-of-phase pitching foils initially produce zero total side-force. However, they start producing negative total side-force after 13 oscillation cycles. Contrarily for the in-phase oscillation cases, the initially positive total side-force reverted to zero over time. In hybrid oscillation cases, the negative total side-force produced during the initial out-of-phase oscillations abruptly adjusted to zero following a change of synchronization that led to in-phase oscillations, which is inspired from a particular swimming behavior in fish. Based on three hybrid modes, defined on the onset of mid-cycle switch to in-phase oscillations, it was apparent that the benefit of synchronization, or there lack of, greatly depended on the timing of the change in synchronization. Thus, mid-swimming change of synchronization in side-by-side systems inspired by fish schools compensates for their non-zero total side-force production to maintain their lateral position. Such changes do not translate to significant gains in neither thrust generation nor efficiency.

RevDate: 2021-02-09

Longo SJ, Ray W, Farley GM, et al (2021)

Snaps of a tiny amphipod push the boundary of ultrafast, repeatable movement.

Current biology : CB, 31(3):R116-R117.

Surprisingly, the fastest motions are not produced by large animals or robots. Rather, small organisms or structures, including cnidarian stinging cells, fungal shooting spores, and mandible strikes of ants, termites, and spiders, hold the world acceleration records.1-5 These diverse systems share common features: they rapidly convert potential energy - stored in deformed material or fluid - into kinetic energy when a latch is released.4-6 However, the fastest of these are not repeatable, because mechanical components are broken or ejected.5,6 Furthermore, some of these systems must overcome the added challenge of moving in water, where high density and viscosity constrain acceleration at small sizes. Here we report the kinematics of repeatable, ultrafast snaps by tiny marine amphipods (Dulichiella cf. appendiculata). Males use their enlarged major claw, which can exceed 30% of body mass, to snap a 1 mm-long dactyl with a diameter equivalent to a human hair (184 μm). The claw snaps closed extremely rapidly, averaging 93 μs, 17 m s-1, and 2.4 x 105 m s-2. These snaps are among the smallest and fastest of any documented repeatable movement, and are sufficiently fast to operate in the inertial hydrodynamic regime (Reynolds number (Re) >10,000). They generate audible pops and rapid water jets, which occasionally yield cavitation, and may be used for defense. These amphipod snaps push the boundaries of acceleration and size for repeatable movements, particularly in water, and exemplify how new biomechanical insights can arise from unassuming animals. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Yang F (2021)

Homogeneous nucleation in a Poiseuille flow.

Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP, 23(6):3974-3982.

Nucleation in a dynamical environment plays an important role in the synthesis and manufacturing of quantum dots and nanocrystals. In this work, we investigate the effects of fluid flow (low Reynolds number flow) on the homogeneous nucleation in a circular microchannel in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The contributions of the configuration entropy from the momentum-phase space and the kinetic energy and strain energy of a microcluster are incorporated in the calculation of the change of the Gibbs free energy from a flow state without a microcluster to a flow state with a microcluster. An analytical equation is derived for the determination of the critical nucleus size. Using this analytical equation, an analytical solution of the critical nucleus size for the formation of a critical liquid nucleus is found. For the formation of a critical solid nucleus, the contributions from both the kinetic energy and the strain energy are generally negligible. We perform numerical analysis of the homogeneous nucleation of a sucrose microcluster in a representative volume element of an aqueous solution, which flows through a circular microchannel. The numerical results reveal the decrease of the critical nucleus size and the corresponding work of formation of a critical nucleus with the increase of the distance to axisymmetric axis for the same numbers of solvent atoms and solute atoms/particles.

RevDate: 2021-02-08

Buaria D, Clay MP, Sreenivasan KR, et al (2021)

Small-Scale Isotropy and Ramp-Cliff Structures in Scalar Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 126(3):034504.

Passive scalars advected by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence exhibit a fundamental anomaly in odd-order moments because of the characteristic ramp-cliff structures, violating small-scale isotropy. We use data from direct numerical simulations with grid resolution of up to 8192^{3} at high Péclet numbers to understand this anomaly as the scalar diffusivity, D, diminishes, or as the Schmidt number, Sc=ν/D, increases; here ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The microscale Reynolds number varies from 140 to 650 and Sc varies from 1 to 512. A simple model for the ramp-cliff structures is developed and shown to characterize the scalar derivative statistics very well. It accurately captures how the small-scale isotropy is restored in the large-Sc limit, and additionally suggests a possible correction to the Batchelor length scale as the relevant smallest scale in the scalar field.

RevDate: 2021-02-08

Nasouri B, Vilfan A, R Golestanian (2021)

Minimum Dissipation Theorem for Microswimmers.

Physical review letters, 126(3):034503.

We derive a theorem for the lower bound on the energy dissipation rate by a rigid surface-driven active microswimmer of arbitrary shape in a fluid at a low Reynolds number. We show that, for any swimmer, the minimum dissipation at a given velocity can be expressed in terms of the resistance tensors of two passive bodies of the same shape with a no-slip and perfect-slip boundary. To achieve the absolute minimum dissipation, the optimal swimmer needs a surface velocity profile that corresponds to the flow around the perfect-slip body, and a propulsive force density that corresponds to the no-slip body. Using this theorem, we propose an alternative definition of the energetic efficiency of microswimmers that, unlike the commonly used Lighthill efficiency, can never exceed unity. We validate the theory by calculating the efficiency limits of spheroidal swimmers.

RevDate: 2021-02-04

Yu P, Durgesh V, Xing T, et al (2021)

Application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to Study Coherent Flow Structures in a Saccular Aneurysm.

Journal of biomechanical engineering pii:1097187 [Epub ahead of print].

Aneurysms are localized expansions of weakened blood vessels that can be debilitating or fatal upon rupture. Previous studies have shown that flow in an aneurysm exhibits complex flow structures that are correlated with its inflow conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to study the impact of different inflow conditions on energetic flow structures and their temporal behavior in an aneurysm. To achieve this objective, experiments were performed on an idealized rigid sidewall aneurysm model. A piston pump system was used for precise inflow control, i.e., peak Reynolds number ($Re_p$) and Womersley number ($\alpha$) were varied from 50-270 and 2-5, respectively. The velocity flow field measurements at the mid-plane location of the idealized aneurysm model were performed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results demonstrate the efficacy of POD in decomposing complex data, and POD was able to capture the energetic flow structures unique to each studied inflow condition. Furthermore, the time-varying coefficient results highlighted the interplay between the coefficients and their corresponding POD modes, which in turn helped explain how POD modes impact certain flow features. The low-order reconstruction results were able to capture the flow evolution and provide information on complex flow in an aneurysm. The POD and low-order reconstruction results also indicated that vortex formation, evolution, and convection varied with an increase in $\alpha$, while vortex strength and formation of secondary structures were correlated with an increase in $Re_p$.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Selimefendigil F, HF Öztop (2021)

Thermal Management and Modeling of Forced Convection and Entropy Generation in a Vented Cavity by Simultaneous Use of a Curved Porous Layer and Magnetic Field.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(2):.

The effects of using a partly curved porous layer on the thermal management and entropy generation features are studied in a ventilated cavity filled with hybrid nanofluid under the effects of inclined magnetic field by using finite volume method. This study is performed for the range of pertinent parameters of Reynolds number (100≤Re≤1000), magnetic field strength (0≤Ha≤80), permeability of porous region (10-4≤Da≤5×10-2), porous layer height (0.15H≤tp≤0.45H), porous layer position (0.25H≤yp≤0.45H), and curvature size (0≤b≤0.3H). The magnetic field reduces the vortex size, while the average Nusselt number of hot walls increases for Ha number above 20 and highest enhancement is 47% for left vertical wall. The variation in the average Nu with permeability of the layer is about 12.5% and 21% for left and right vertical walls, respectively, while these amounts are 12.5% and 32.5% when the location of the porous layer changes. The entropy generation increases with Hartmann number above 20, while there is 22% increase in the entropy generation for the case at the highest magnetic field. The porous layer height reduced the entropy generation for domain above it and it give the highest contribution to the overall entropy generation. When location of the curved porous layer is varied, the highest variation of entropy generation is attained for the domain below it while the lowest value is obtained at yp=0.3H. When the size of elliptic curvature is varied, the overall entropy generation decreases from b=0 to b=0.2H by about 10% and then increases by 5% from b=0.2H to b=0.3H.

RevDate: 2021-01-31

Sato N, Kawashima D, M Takei (2021)

Concentration profiles of ions and particles under hydrodynamic focusing in Y-shaped square microchannel.

Scientific reports, 11(1):2585.

Three-dimensional ion and particle concentrations under hydrodynamic focusing in a Y-shaped square microchannel are numerically simulated to clarify the decrease of the ion concentration along the flow direction within the focused particle stream. The simulation model is theoretically governed by the laminar flow and advection-diffusion equations. The governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The ion and particle concentration distributions at five cross sections after the confluence of the branch channels are analyzed in 30 cases in which the sheath to sample flow rate ratio Qsh/Qsam and the Reynolds number Re are varied as parameters. The results show that the decrease of the cross-sectional average ion concentration along the flow direction within the particle stream [Formula: see text] is described by the diffusion length during the residence time with a characteristic velocity scale. In addition, the deformation of the particle stream due to inertial effects is described by a scaled Reynolds number that is a function of the flow rate ratio. The simulated particle stream thicknesses are validated by theory and a simple experiment. This paper reveals the relationship between the ion and particle concentrations and the dimensionless parameters for hydrodynamic focusing in the Y-shaped square microchannel under typical conditions.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

Andreotti B, Claudin P, Iversen JJ, et al (2021)

A lower-than-expected saltation threshold at Martian pressure and below.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(5):.

Aeolian sediment transport is observed to occur on Mars as well as other extraterrestrial environments, generating ripples and dunes as on Earth. The search for terrestrial analogs of planetary bedforms, as well as environmental simulation experiments able to reproduce their formation in planetary conditions, are powerful ways to question our understanding of geomorphological processes toward unusual environmental conditions. Here, we perform sediment transport laboratory experiments in a closed-circuit wind tunnel placed in a vacuum chamber and operated at extremely low pressures to show that Martian conditions belong to a previously unexplored saltation regime. The threshold wind speed required to initiate saltation is only quantitatively predicted by state-of-the art models up to a density ratio between grain and air of [Formula: see text] but unexpectedly falls to much lower values for higher density ratios. In contrast, impact ripples, whose emergence is continuously observed on the granular bed over the whole pressure range investigated, display a characteristic wavelength and propagation velocity essentially independent of pressure. A comparison of these findings with existing models suggests that sediment transport at low Reynolds number but high grain-to-fluid density ratio may be dominated by collective effects associated with grain inertia in the granular collisional layer.

RevDate: 2021-03-12

Hoeger K, T Ursell (2021)

Steric scattering of rod-like swimmers in low Reynolds number environments.

Soft matter, 17(9):2479-2489.

Microbes form integral components of all natural ecosystems. In most cases, the surrounding micro-environment has physical variations that affect the movements of micro-swimmers, including solid objects of varying size, shape and density. As swimmers move through viscous environments, a combination of hydrodynamic and steric forces are known to significantly alter their trajectories in a way that depends on surface curvature. In this work, our goal was to clarify the role of steric forces when rod-like swimmers interact with solid objects comparable to cell size. We imaged hundreds-of-thousands of scattering interactions between swimming bacteria and micro-fabricated pillars with radii from ∼1 to ∼10 cell lengths. Scattering interactions were parameterized by the angle of the cell upon contact with the pillar, and primarily produced forward-scattering events that fell into distinct chiral distributions for scattering angle - no hydrodynamic trapping was observed. The chirality of a scattering event was a stochastic variable whose probability smoothly and symmetrically depended on the contact angle. Neglecting hydrodynamics, we developed a model that only considers contact forces and torques for a rear-pushed thin-rod scattering from a cylinder - the model predictions were in good agreement with measured data. Our results suggest that alteration of bacterial trajectories is subject to distinct mechanisms when interacting with objects of different size; primarily steric for objects below ∼10 cell lengths and requiring incorporation of hydrodynamics at larger scales. These results contribute to a mechanistic framework in which to examine (and potentially engineer) microbial movements through natural and synthetic environments that present complex steric structure.

RevDate: 2021-02-28

Ambreen T, Saleem A, CW Park (2021)

Homogeneous and Multiphase Analysis of Nanofluids Containing Nonspherical MWCNT and GNP Nanoparticles Considering the Influence of Interfacial Layering.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 11(2): pii:nano11020277.

The practical implication of nanofluids is essentially dependent on their accurate modelling, particularly in comparison with the high cost of experimental investigations, yet the accuracy of different computational approaches to simulate nanofluids remains controversial to this day. Therefore, the present study is aimed at analysing the homogenous, multiphase Eulerian-Eulerian (volume of fluid, mixture, Eulerian) and Lagrangian-Eulerian approximation of nanofluids containing nonspherical nanoparticles. The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-based and multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene nanoplatelets (MWCNT/GNP)-based nanofluids are computed by incorporating the influence of several physical mechanisms, including interfacial nanolayering. The accuracy of tested computational approaches is evaluated by considering particle concentration and Reynolds number ranges of 0.075-0.25 wt% and 200-470, respectively. The results demonstrate that for all nanofluid combinations and operational conditions, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approximation provides the most accurate convective heat transfer coefficient values with a maximum deviation of 5.34% for 0.25 wt% of MWCNT-water nanofluid at the largest Reynolds number, while single-phase and Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase models accurately estimate the thermal fields of the diluted nanofluids at low Reynolds numbers, but overestimate the results for denser nanofluids at high Reynolds numbers.

RevDate: 2021-01-29

Mahrous SA, Sidik NAC, KM Saqr (2021)

Numerical study on the energy cascade of pulsatile Newtonian and power-law flow models in an ICA bifurcation.

PloS one, 16(1):e0245775.

The complex physics and biology underlying intracranial hemodynamics are yet to be fully revealed. A fully resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) study has been performed to identify the intrinsic flow dynamics in an idealized carotid bifurcation model. To shed the light on the significance of considering blood shear-thinning properties, the power-law model is compared to the commonly used Newtonian viscosity hypothesis. We scrutinize the kinetic energy cascade (KEC) rates in the Fourier domain and the vortex structure of both fluid models and examine the impact of the power-law viscosity model. The flow intrinsically contains coherent structures which has frequencies corresponding to the boundary frequency, which could be associated with the regulation of endothelial cells. From the proposed comparative study, it is found that KEC rates and the vortex-identification are significantly influenced by the shear-thinning blood properties. Conclusively, from the obtained results, it is found that neglecting the non-Newtonian behavior could lead to underestimation of the hemodynamic parameters at low Reynolds number and overestimation of the hemodynamic parameters by increasing the Reynolds number. In addition, we provide physical insight and discussion onto the hemodynamics associated with endothelial dysfunction which plays significant role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms.

RevDate: 2021-01-25

Ibrahim W, M Hirpho (2021)

Finite element analysis of mixed convection flow in a trapezoidal cavity with non-uniform temperature.

Heliyon, 7(1):e05933 pii:S2405-8440(21)00038-4.

A two dimensional flow analysis in a cavity shaped isosceles trapezium is carried out. Non-parallel sides of a trapezium are adiabatic. A varying sinusoidal temperature is applied to the lower wall while the upper wall is at constant temperature. Upper wall of the cavity moves with a velocity η 0 in the positive x-direction. Also, B 0 is constant magnetic field of strength aligned in the same x-direction and Newtonian fluid is considered. The values of magnetic field parameter used are H a = 0 , 50 , the Richardson number is R i = 0.1 , 1 , 10 , R e = 100 is Reynolds number used for the analysis, the amplitude of sinusoidal temperature is m = 0.25 , 0.5 , 1 . The impacts of different leading parameters are analyzed by plotting streamlines for flow fields and isotherm contours for temperature of the flow dynamics. The graphs that signify the variation of average Nusselt number and local Nusselt number are sketched for both lower and upper walls of the cavity. Result indicated that with constant temperature the top wall of the boundary layer thickness decreases as Richardson number Ri increases and for bottom wall with variable temperature. The Nusselt number gets higher with an increment in the amplitude of the oscillation of temperature function. Furthermore, the study revealed that the average Nusselt number gets reduced as the intensity of magnetic field is enhanced. The variation in transit of heat at the bottom wall is similar but the maximum value of heat transfer at the bottom wall shows a variation from 3.8 to 20 when H a = 0 and from 3 to 18 when H a = 50 . The accuracy of the present numerical algorithms is also established.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

Kim GY, Son J, Han JI, et al (2021)

Inertial Microfluidics-Based Separation of Microalgae Using a Contraction-Expansion Array Microchannel.

Micromachines, 12(1):.

Microalgae separation technology is essential for both executing laboratory-based fundamental studies and ensuring the quality of the final algal products. However, the conventional microalgae separation technology of micropipetting requires highly skilled operators and several months of repeated separation to obtain a microalgal single strain. This study therefore aimed at utilizing microfluidic cell sorting technology for the simple and effective separation of microalgae. Microalgae are characterized by their various morphologies with a wide range of sizes. In this study, a contraction-expansion array microchannel, which utilizes these unique properties of microalgae, was specifically employed for the size-based separation of microalgae. At Reynolds number of 9, two model algal cells, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis), were successfully separated without showing any sign of cell damage, yielding a purity of 97.9% for C. vulgaris and 94.9% for H. pluvialis. The result supported that the inertia-based separation technology could be a powerful alternative to the labor-intensive and time-consuming conventional microalgae separation technologies.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Liu C, DF Gayme (2020)

Input-output inspired method for permissible perturbation amplitude of transitional wall-bounded shear flows.

Physical review. E, 102(6-1):063108.

The precise set of parameters governing transition to turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows remains an open question; many theoretical bounds have been obtained, but there is not yet a consensus between these bounds and experimental or simulation results. In this work, we focus on a method to provide a provable Reynolds-number-dependent bound on the amplitude of perturbations a flow can sustain while maintaining the laminar state. Our analysis relies on an input-output approach that partitions the dynamics into a feedback interconnection of the linear and nonlinear dynamics (i.e., a Luré system that represents the nonlinearity as static feedback). We then construct quadratic constraints of the nonlinear term that is restricted by system physics to be energy-conserving (lossless) and to have bounded input-output energy. Computing the region of attraction of the laminar state (set of safe perturbations) and permissible perturbation amplitude are then reformulated as linear matrix inequalities, which allows more computationally efficient solutions than prevailing nonlinear approaches based on the sum of squares programming. The proposed framework can also be used for energy method computations and linear stability analysis. We apply our approach to low-dimensional nonlinear shear flow models for a range of Reynolds numbers. The results from our analytically derived bounds are consistent with the bounds identified through exhaustive simulations. However, they have the added benefit of being achieved at a much lower computational cost and providing a provable guarantee that a certain level of perturbation is permissible.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Shaheen S, Beg OA, Gul F, et al (2021)

Electro-Osmotic Propulsion of Jeffrey Fluid in a Ciliated Channel Under the Effect of Nonlinear Radiation and Heat Source/Sink.

Journal of biomechanical engineering pii:1096600 [Epub ahead of print].

Mathematical modelling of mechanical system in microfluidics is an emerging area of interest in micro scale engineering. Since microfluidic devices use the hair like structure of artificial cilia for pumping, mixing and sensing in different fields, therefore; electro osmotic cilia driven flow help to generate the fluid velocity for the Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid. Due to the deployment of artificial ciliated walls, the present research reports the combined effect of an electro osmotic flow and convective heat transfer on Jeffrey viscoelastic electrolytic fluid flow in a two-dimensional ciliated vertical channel. Heat generation/absorption and nonlinear radiation effects are included in the present mathematical model. After applying Debye-Huckel approximation and small Reynolds number approximation to momentum and energy equation, the system of nonlinear partial differential equation is reduced into non-homogenous boundary value problem. The problem determines the velocity, pressure and temperature profiles by the application of semi-analytical technique known as Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) with the help of software Mathematica. The graphical results of the study suggest that HPM is a reliable methodology for thermo physical electro-osmotic rheological transport in micro channels.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Javid K, Riaz M, Chu YM, et al (2021)

Peristaltic activity for electro-kinetic complex driven cilia transportation through a non-uniform channel.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 200:105926.

MOTIVATIONS: Now-a-days in medical science, the transport study of biological fluids through non-uniform vessels are going to increase due to their close relation to the reality. Motivated through such type of complex transportation, the current study is presented of cilia hydro-dynamics of an aqueous electrolytic viscous fluid through a non-uniform channel under an applied axial electric field. Mathematical Formulations: Because of the complexity shape and nature of flow channel, we have used curvilinear coordinates in the derivation of continuity and momentum equationsin a fixed frame of reference. A linear transformation is used to renovate the flow system of equations from fixed (laboratory) to moving (wave) frame. For further simplification, the dimensionless variables are introduced to make the flow system of equations into the dimensionless form and at last convert these equations in term of stream function by using the mathematical terminologies of streamlines. The whole analysis is performed under (low Reynolds number) creeping phenomena and long wavelength approximation, respectively. Additionally, small ionic Peclet number and Debye-Huckel linearization are used to simplify the Nernst-Planck and Poisson-Boltzmann equations. The BVP4C technique is used to obtain the numerical solution for velocity distribution, pressure gradient, pressure rise and stream function through MATLAB.

MAIN OUTCOMES: The amplitude of velocity distribution is increased (decreased) at larger values of non-uniform parameter (cilia length). The non-uniform parameter played a vital role not only in the enhancement of circulation at the upper half of the channel but also the length of bolus increased. Results of straight channel are gained for larger value of the dimensionless radius of curvature parameter as well as cilia length.

RevDate: 2021-01-18

Pan Z, Nunes JK, HA Stone (2020)

Regime Map and Triple Point in Selective Withdrawal.

Physical review letters, 125(26):264502.

Entrainment in selective withdrawal occurs when both the top and bottom phases are withdrawn through a capillary tube oriented perpendicular to a flat gravitationally separated liquid-liquid interface. The tube introduces two distinct features to the conditions for fluid entrainment. First, the ratio of the two phases being withdrawn is affected by the region of influence of the flow upstream of the tube's orifice. Second, a minimum withdrawal flow rate must be reached for entrainment regardless of the distance between the interface and the tube. We show that these phenomena can be understood based on the Reynolds number that governs the external flow field around the capillary tube and the capillary number that regulates the effect of the viscosity and capillarity.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Shit GC, A Bera (2020)

Mathematical model to verify the role of magnetic field on blood flow and its impact on thermal behavior of biological tissue for tumor treatment.

Biomedical physics & engineering express, 6(1):015032.

The numerical computation has been performed to study the effects of static magnetic field on thermal behavior of tumor surrounded by living biological tissues and blood vessels. A small rectangular shaped tumor enclosing the blood vessel surrounded by healthy tissue is considered. The model consists of two-layer composite system in which the microvessel for blood flow is considered as a fluid layer and the living biological tissue including tumor as a solid layer. The wave bioheat transfer equation in the tissue layer together with energy transport equation for blood flow layer has been used in the cylindrical polar coordinates. The analytical expression for blood velocity in the presence of magnetic field has been used from Gold's solution. The computational work has been performed by employing the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method. A comparison has been made to validate our numerical results with the previous solution by setting some parameters. The temperature profiles have been plotted at different locations of the axial tissue length for various values of the Hartmann number, Prandtl number, Womersley number and Reynolds number. It is observed that the application of magnetic field increases heat transfer rate within tumor tissues which in turn attribute to an enhancement of temperature about 316 K or above for hyperthermic treatment in cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2021-01-24

Gnapowski E, Pytka J, Józwik J, et al (2021)

Wind Tunnel Testing of Plasma Actuator with Two Mesh Electrodes to Boundary Layer Control at High Angle of Attack.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(2):.

The manuscript presents experimental research carried out on the wing model with the SD 7003 profile. A plasma actuator with DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge) discharges was placed on the wing surface to control boundary layer. The experimental tests were carried out in the AeroLab wind tunnel where the forces acting on the wing during the tests were measured. The conducted experimental research concerns the analysis of the phenomena that take place on the surface of the wing with the DBD plasma actuator turned off and on. The plasma actuator used during the experimental tests has a different structure compared to the classic plasma actuator. The commonly tested plasma actuator uses solid/impermeable electrodes, while in the research, the plasma actuator uses a new type of electrodes, two mesh electrodes separated by an impermeable Kapton dielectric. The experimental research was carried out for the angle of attack α = 15° and several air velocities V = 5-15 m/s with a step of 5 m/s for the Reynolds number Re = 87,500-262,500. The critical angle of attack at which the SD 7003 profile has the maximum lift coefficient is about 11°; during the experimental research, the angle was 15°. Despite the high angle of attack, it was possible to increase the lift coefficient. The use of a plasma actuator with two mesh electrodes allowed to increase the lift by 5%, even at a high angle of attack. During experimental research used high voltage power supply for powering the DBD plasma actuator in the voltage range from 7.5 to 15 kV.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Monsalve E, Brunet M, Gallet B, et al (2020)

Quantitative Experimental Observation of Weak Inertial-Wave Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 125(25):254502.

We report the quantitative experimental observation of the weak inertial-wave turbulence regime of rotating turbulence. We produce a statistically steady homogeneous turbulent flow that consists of nonlinearly interacting inertial waves, using rough top and bottom boundaries to prevent the emergence of a geostrophic flow. As the forcing amplitude increases, the temporal spectrum evolves from a discrete set of peaks to a continuous spectrum. Maps of the bicoherence of the velocity field confirm such a gradual transition between discrete wave interactions at weak forcing amplitude and the regime described by weak turbulence theory (WTT) for stronger forcing. In the former regime, the bicoherence maps display a near-zero background level, together with sharp localized peaks associated with discrete resonances. By contrast, in the latter regime, the bicoherence is a smooth function that takes values of the order of the Rossby number in line with the infinite-domain and random-phase assumptions of WTT. The spatial spectra then display a power-law behavior, both the spectral exponent and the spectral level being accurately predicted by WTT at high Reynolds number and low Rossby number.

RevDate: 2021-01-06

Klein AK, A Dietzel (2021)

A Primer on Microfluidics: From Basic Principles to Microfabrication.

Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Microfluidic systems enable manipulating fluids in different functional units which are integrated on a microchip. This chapter describes the basics of microfluidics, where physical effects have a different impact compared to macroscopic systems. Furthermore, an overwiew is given on the microfabrication of these systems. The focus lies on clean-room fabrication methods based on photolithography and soft lithography. Finally, an outlook on advanced maskless micro- and nanofabrication methods is given. Special attention is paid to laser structuring processes.

RevDate: 2021-04-01
CmpDate: 2021-04-01

Chen W, Wen Y, Fan X, et al (2021)

Magnetically actuated intelligent hydrogel-based child-parent microrobots for targeted drug delivery.

Journal of materials chemistry. B, 9(4):1030-1039.

Small intestine-targeted drug delivery by oral administration has aroused the growing interest of researchers. In this work, the child-parent microrobot (CPM) as a vehicle protects the child microrobots (CMs) under a gastric acid environment and releases them in the small intestinal environment. The intelligent hydrogel-based CPMs with sphere, mushroom, red blood cell, and teardrop shapes are fabricated by an extrusion-dripping method. The CPMs package uniform CMs, which are fabricated by designed microfluidic (MF) devices. The fabrication mechanism and tunability of CMs and CPMs with different sizes and shapes are analyzed, modeled, and simulated. The shape of CPM can affect its drug release efficiency and kinetic characteristics. A vision-feedback magnetic driving system (VMDS) actuates and navigates CPM along the predefined path to the destination and continuously releases drug in the simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, a low Reynolds number (Re) regime) using a new motion control method with the tracking-learning-detection (TLD) algorithm. The newly designed CPM combines the advantages of powerful propulsion, good biocompatibility, and remarkable drug loading and release capacity at the intestinal level, which is expected to be competent for oral administration of small intestine-targeted therapy in the future.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Avila K, B Hof (2020)

Second-Order Phase Transition in Counter-Rotating Taylor-Couette Flow Experiment.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(1):.

In many basic shear flows, such as pipe, Couette, and channel flow, turbulence does not arise from an instability of the laminar state, and both dynamical states co-exist. With decreasing flow speed (i.e., decreasing Reynolds number) the fraction of fluid in laminar motion increases while turbulence recedes and eventually the entire flow relaminarizes. The first step towards understanding the nature of this transition is to determine if the phase change is of either first or second order. In the former case, the turbulent fraction would drop discontinuously to zero as the Reynolds number decreases while in the latter the process would be continuous. For Couette flow, the flow between two parallel plates, earlier studies suggest a discontinuous scenario. In the present study we realize a Couette flow between two concentric cylinders which allows studies to be carried out in large aspect ratios and for extensive observation times. The presented measurements show that the transition in this circular Couette geometry is continuous suggesting that former studies were limited by finite size effects. A further characterization of this transition, in particular its relation to the directed percolation universality class, requires even larger system sizes than presently available.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Elsinga GE, Ishihara T, JCR Hunt (2020)

Extreme dissipation and intermittency in turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 476(2243):20200591.

Extreme dissipation events in turbulent flows are rare, but they can be orders of magnitude stronger than the mean dissipation rate. Despite its importance in many small-scale physical processes, there is presently no accurate theory or model for predicting the extrema as a function of the Reynolds number. Here, we introduce a new model for the dissipation probability density function (PDF) based on the concept of significant shear layers, which are thin regions of elevated local mean dissipation. At very high Reynolds numbers, these significant shear layers develop layered substructures. The flow domain is divided into the different layer regions and a background region, each with their own PDF of dissipation. The volume-weighted regional PDFs are combined to obtain the overall PDF, which is subsequently used to determine the dissipation variance and maximum. The model yields Reynolds number scalings for the dissipation maximum and variance, which are in agreement with the available data. Moreover, the power law scaling exponent is found to increase gradually with the Reynolds numbers, which is also consistent with the data. The increasing exponent is shown to have profound implications for turbulence at atmospheric and astrophysical Reynolds numbers. The present results strongly suggest that intermittent significant shear layer structures are key to understanding and quantifying the dissipation extremes, and, more generally, extreme velocity gradients.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Foo CT, Unterberger A, Menser J, et al (2021)

Tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions.

Optics express, 29(1):244-255.

The method of tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions is presented. Measurements of the peak natural CH* chemiluminescence in the flame and luminescence from different vaporised alkali metal salts that were seeded in a multi-annulus burner were used. An array of 29 CCD cameras around the Cambridge-Sandia burner was deployed, with 3 sets of cameras each measuring a different colour channel using bandpass optical filters. The three-dimensional instantaneous and time-averaged fields of the individual measured channels were reconstructed and superimposed for two new operating conditions, with differing cold flow Reynolds numbers. The contour of the reconstructed flame front followed the interface between the burnt side of the flame, where the alkali salt luminescence appears, and the cold gas region. The increased mixing between different reconstructed channels in the downstream direction that is promoted by the higher levels of turbulence in the larger Reynolds number case was clearly demonstrated. The TIMes method enabled combustion zones originating from different streams and the flame front to be distinguished and their overlap regions to be identified, in the entire volume.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )