Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account
picture

  MENU

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

icon

Bibliography Options Menu

icon
QUERY RUN:
HITS:
PAGE OPTIONS:
Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
NOTE:
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.

More About:  ESP | OUR CONTENT | THIS WEBSITE | WHAT'S NEW | WHAT'S HOT

ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jul 2020 at 01:30 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

Created with PubMed® Query: "reynolds number" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

-->

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Silverberg O, Demir E, Mishler G, et al (2020)

Realization of a Push-Me-Pull-You swimmer at low Reynolds numbers.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Locomotion at low Reynolds numbers encounters stringent physical constraints due to the dominance of viscous over inertial forces. A variety of swimming microorganisms has demonstrated diverse strategies to generate self-propulsion in the absence of inertia. In particular, ameboid and euglenoid movements exploit shape deformations of the cell body for locomotion. Inspired by these biological organisms, the "Push-Me-Pull-You" (PMPY) swimmer (Avron JE, Kenneth O, Oaknin DH 2005 New J. Phys., 7, 234) represents an elegant artificial swimmer that can escape from the constraints of the scallop theorem and generate self-propulsion in highly viscous fluid environments. In this work, we present the first experimental realization of the PMPY swimmer, which consists of a pair of expandable spheres connected by an extensible link. We designed and constructed robotic PMPY swimmers and characterized their propulsion performance in highly viscous silicone oil in dynamically similar, macroscopic experiments. The proof-of-concept demonstrates the feasibility and robustness of the PMPY mechanism as a viable locomotion strategy at low Reynolds numbers.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Yu K, N Shinji (2020)

Hemodialysis efficiency management from the viewpoint of blood removal pressure.

Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Degradation of dialysis efficiency during hemodialysis, caused by incompatible indwelling needle size or increase in hematocrit, is a serious problem that can threaten a patient's life. This study aims to derive a quantitative index for determining the indwelling needle diameter that can maintain an appropriate blood flow rate, and presents an effective method to prevent a decrease in the actual blood flow rate. The relationships between the set flow rate and various parameters such as indwelling needle diameter, blood viscosity, and arterial line pressure are analyzed. A simple and reliable method for estimating the actual blood flow rate is derived from these relationships. A correlation between viscosity and actual blood flow rate is estimated adequately by regression analysis using a least-squares method. The relationship between Reynolds number and the flow rate reduction ratio is also evaluated. A new parameter (simple estimation method for actual blood flow) is derived by measuring the blood removal pressure. A pump control approach that uses blood removal pressure is suggested, which can be a future research direction in the field of hemodialysis.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Zhou T, Zhang X, S Zhong (2020)

An experimental study of trailing edge noise from a heaving airfoil.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147(6):4020.

In this study, the far-field noise and near-field flow properties from a heaving NACA 0012 airfoil at the Reynolds number of 6.6×104 were investigated experimentally in a 0.4 m2 anechoic wind tunnel. The airfoil had an incident angle of 0° and followed a sinusoidal heaving motion. The Strouhal number, controlled by changing the heaving frequency and amplitude, varied from 0.0024 to 0.008. The acoustic properties were measured by a free-field microphone placed at a distance of 1.2 m away from the tunnel central line, and the flow structures near the trailing edge were acquired using the particle image velocimetry. It was found that the heaving motion could reduce the sound pressure level (SPL) of the primary peak in the time-averaged spectra. The spectrograms obtained by the short-time Fourier transform revealed that the discrete tones were produced when the airfoil passed through the maximum heaving position. During the corresponding period, a sequence of large-scaled vortices convected on the airfoil surface was observed, and then was shed from the trailing edge to the wake region at the same frequency as the primary tone of the induced sound. With the increase of Strouhal number, the sound signals tended to be broadband, and the overall SPL was increased in the far field.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Xu W, Luo W, Wang Y, et al (2020)

Data-driven three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of a turbulent jet flame using a generative adversarial network.

Applied optics, 59(19):5729-5736.

Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) is becoming a well-established tool for turbulent combustion diagnostics. However, the 3D CT technique suffers from contradictory demands of spatial resolution and domain size. This work therefore reports a data-driven 3D super-resolution approach to enhance the spatial resolution by two times along each spatial direction. The approach, named 3D super-resolution generative adversarial network (3D-SR-GAN), builds a generator and a discriminator network to learn the topographic information and infer high-resolution 3D turbulent flame structure with a given low-resolution counterpart. This work uses numerically simulated 3D turbulent jet flame structures as training data to update model parameters of the GAN network. Extensive performance evaluations are then conducted to show the superiority of the proposed 3D-SR-GAN network, compared with other direct interpolation methods. The results show that a convincing super-resolution (SR) operation with the overall error of ∼4% and the peak signal-to-noise ratio of 37 dB can be reached with an upscaling factor of 2, representing an eight times enhancement of the total voxel number. Moreover, the trained network can predict the SR structure of the jet flame with a different Reynolds number without retraining the network parameters.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Moum JN (2020)

Variations in Ocean Mixing from Seconds to Years.

Annual review of marine science [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past several decades, there has developed a community-wide appreciation for the importance of mixing at the smallest scales to geophysical fluid dynamics on all scales. This appreciation has spawned greater participation in the investigation of ocean mixing and new ways to measure it. These are welcome developments given the tremendous separation in scales between the basins, 𝒪(107) m, and the turbulence, 𝒪 (10-2) m, and the fact that turbulence that leads to thermodynamically irreversible mixing in high-Reynolds-number geophysical flows varies by at least eight orders of magnitude in both space and time. In many cases, it is difficult to separate the dependencies because measurements are sparse, also in both space and time. Comprehensive shipboard turbulence profiling experiments supplemented by Doppler sonar current measurements provide detailed observations of the evolution of the vertical structure of upper-ocean turbulence on timescales of minutes to weeks. Recent technical developments now permit measurements of turbulence in the ocean, at least at a few locations, for extended periods. This review summarizes recent and classic results in the context of our expanding knowledge of the temporal variability of ocean mixing, beginning with a discussion of the timescales of the turbulence itself (seconds to minutes) and how turbulence-enhanced mixing varies over hours, days, tidal cycles, monsoons, seasons, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation timescales (years). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science, Volume 13 is January 3, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Campinho P, Vilfan A, J Vermot (2020)

Blood Flow Forces in Shaping the Vascular System: A Focus on Endothelial Cell Behavior.

Frontiers in physiology, 11:552.

The endothelium is the cell monolayer that lines the interior of the blood vessels separating the vessel lumen where blood circulates, from the surrounding tissues. During embryonic development, endothelial cells (ECs) must ensure that a tight barrier function is maintained whilst dynamically adapting to the growing vascular tree that is being formed and remodeled. Blood circulation generates mechanical forces, such as shear stress and circumferential stretch that are directly acting on the endothelium. ECs actively respond to flow-derived mechanical cues by becoming polarized, migrating and changing neighbors, undergoing shape changes, proliferating or even leaving the tissue and changing identity. It is now accepted that coordinated changes at the single cell level drive fundamental processes governing vascular network morphogenesis such as angiogenic sprouting, network pruning, lumen formation, regulation of vessel caliber and stability or cell fate transitions. Here we summarize the cell biology and mechanics of ECs in response to flow-derived forces, discuss the latest advances made at the single cell level with particular emphasis on in vivo studies and highlight potential implications for vascular pathologies.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Nichols A, Rubinato M, Cho YH, et al (2020)

Optimal Use of Titanium Dioxide Colourant to Enable Water Surfaces to Be Measured by Kinect Sensors.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 20(12): pii:s20123507.

Recent studies have sought to use Microsoft Kinect sensors to measure water surface shape in steady flows or transient flow processes. They have typically employed a white colourant, usually titanium dioxide (TiO2), in order to make the surface opaque and visible to the infrared-based sensors. However, the ability of Kinect Version 1 (KV1) and Kinect Version 2 (KV2) sensors to measure the deformation of ostensibly smooth reflective surfaces has never been compared, with most previous studies using a V1 sensor with no justification. Furthermore, the TiO2 has so far been used liberally and indeterminately, with no consideration as to the type of TiO2 to use, the optimal proportion to use or the effect it may have on the very fluid properties being measured. This paper examines the use of anatase TiO2 with two generations of the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Assessing their performance for an ideal flat surface, it is shown that surface data obtained using the V2 sensor is substantially more reliable. Further, the minimum quantity of colourant to enable reliable surface recognition is discovered (0.01% by mass). A stability test shows that the colourant has a strong tendency to settle over time, meaning the fluid must remain well mixed, having serious implications for studies with low Reynolds number or transient processes such as dam breaks. Furthermore, the effect of TiO2 concentration on fluid properties is examined. It is shown that previous studies using concentrations in excess of 1% may have significantly affected the viscosity and surface tension, and thus the surface behaviour being measured. It is therefore recommended that future studies employ the V2 sensor with an anatase TiO2 concentration of 0.01%, and that the effects of TiO2 on the fluid properties are properly quantified before any TiO2-Kinect-derived dataset can be of practical use, for example, in validation of numerical models or in physical models of hydrodynamic processes.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Rhodeland B, Hoeger K, T Ursell (2020)

Bacterial surface motility is modulated by colony-scale flow and granular jamming.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 17(167):20200147.

Microbes routinely face the challenge of acquiring territory and resources on wet surfaces. Cells move in large groups inside thin, surface-bound water layers, often achieving speeds of 30 µm s-1 within this environment, where viscous forces dominate over inertial forces (low Reynolds number). The canonical Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a model organism for the study of collective migration over surfaces with groups exhibiting motility on length-scales three orders of magnitude larger than themselves within a few doubling times. Genetic and chemical studies clearly show that the secretion of endogenous surfactants and availability of free surface water are required for this fast group motility. Here, we show that: (i) water availability is a sensitive control parameter modulating an abiotic jamming-like transition that determines whether the group remains fluidized and therefore collectively motile, (ii) groups self-organize into discrete layers as they travel, (iii) group motility does not require proliferation, rather groups are pulled from the front, and (iv) flow within expanding groups is capable of moving material from the parent colony into the expanding tip of a cellular dendrite with implications for expansion into regions of varying nutrient content. Together, these findings illuminate the physical structure of surface-motile groups and demonstrate that physical properties, like cellular packing fraction and flow, regulate motion from the scale of individual cells up to length scales of centimetres.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Coreixas C, Wissocq G, Chopard B, et al (2020)

Impact of collision models on the physical properties and the stability of lattice Boltzmann methods.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 378(2175):20190397.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is known to suffer from stability issues when the collision model relies on the BGK approximation, especially in the zero viscosity limit and for non-vanishing Mach numbers. To tackle this problem, two kinds of solutions were proposed in the literature. They consist in changing either the numerical discretization (finite-volume, finite-difference, spectral-element, etc.) of the discrete velocity Boltzmann equation (DVBE), or the collision model. In this work, the latter solution is investigated in detail. More precisely, we propose a comprehensive comparison of (static relaxation time based) collision models, in terms of stability, and with preliminary results on their accuracy, for the simulation of isothermal high-Reynolds number flows in the (weakly) compressible regime. It starts by investigating the possible impact of collision models on the macroscopic behaviour of stream-and-collide based D2Q9-LBMs, which clarifies the exact physical properties of collision models on LBMs. It is followed by extensive linear and numerical stability analyses, supplemented with an accuracy study based on the transport of vortical structures over long distances. In order to draw conclusions as generally as possible, the most common moment spaces (raw, central, Hermite, central Hermite and cumulant), as well as regularized approaches, are considered for the comparative studies. LBMs based on dynamic collision mechanisms (entropic collision, subgrid-scale models, explicit filtering, etc.) are also briefly discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Fluid dynamics, soft matter and complex systems: recent results and new methods'.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Sonwani RK, Giri BS, Jaiswal RP, et al (2020)

Performance evaluation of a continuous packed bed bioreactor: Bio-kinetics and external mass transfer study.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 201:110860 pii:S0147-6513(20)30699-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The biodegradation of naphthalene using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) immobilized Exiguobacterium sp. RKS3 (MG696729) in a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) was studied. The performance of a continuous PBBR was evaluated at different inlet flow rates (IFRs) (20-100 mL/h) under 64 days of operation. The maximum naphthalene removal efficiency (RE) was found at low IFR, and it further decreased with increasing IFRs. In a continuous PBBR, the external mass transfer (EMT) aspect was analysed at various IFRs, and experimental data were interrelated between Colburn factor (JD) and Reynolds number (NRe) as [Formula: see text] . A new correlation [Formula: see text] was obtained to predict the EMT aspect of naphthalene biodegradation. Andrew-Haldane model was used to evaluate the bio-kinetic parameters of naphthalene degradation, and kinetic constant νmax, Js, and Ji were found as 0.386 per day, 13.6 mg/L, and 20.54 mg/L, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Dial TR, GV Lauder (2020)

Longer development provides first-feeding fish time to escape hydrodynamic constraints.

Journal of morphology [Epub ahead of print].

What is the functional effect of prolonged development? By controlling for size, we quantify first-feeding performance and hydrodynamics of zebrafish and guppy offspring (5 ± 0.5 mm in length), which differ fivefold in developmental time and twofold in ontogenetic state. By manipulating water viscosity, we control the hydrodynamic regime, measured as Reynolds number. We predicted that if feeding performance were strictly the result of hydrodynamics, and not development, feeding performance would scale with Reynolds number. We find that guppy offspring successfully feed at much greater distances to prey (1.0 vs. 0.2 mm) and with higher capture success (90 vs. 20%) compared with zebrafish larvae, and that feeding performance was not a result of Reynolds number alone. Flow visualization shows that zebrafish larvae produce a bow wave ~0.2 mm in length, and that the flow field produced during suction does not extend beyond this bow wave. Due to well-developed oral jaw protrusion, the similar-sized suction field generated by guppy offspring extends beyond the horizon of their bow wave, leading to successful prey capture from greater distances. These findings suggest that prolonged development and increased ontogenetic state provides first-feeding fish time to escape the pervasive hydrodynamic constraints (bow wave) of being small.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Gangfu L, Haiwang L, Ruquan Y, et al (2020)

Experimental Investigation on Velocity and Temperature Field in a Rotating Non-isothermal Turbulent Boundary Layer using Hot-wire.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9892 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66853-6.

This experiment measured the instantaneous temperature and velocity field synchronously in non-isothermal turbulent boundary layer in a rotating straight channel with a parallel-array hot-wire probe. The Reynolds number based on the bulk mean velocity (U) and hydraulic diameter (D) is 19000, and the rotation numbers are 0, 0.07, 0.14, 0.21 and 0.28. The mean velocity u and mean temperature T as well as their fluctuating quantity u' and T' were measured at three streamwise locations (x/D = 4.06, 5.31, 6.56). A method for temperature-changing calibration with constant temperature hot-wire anemometers was proposed. It achieved the calibration in operational temperature range (15.5 °C-50 °C) of the hot-wire via a home-made heating section. The measurement system can obtain the velocity and temperature in a non-isothermal turbulent boundary layer at rotating conditions. The result analysis mainly contains the dimensionless mean temperature, temperature fluctuation as well as its skewness and flatness and streamwise turbulent heat flux. For the trailing side, the rotation effect is more obvious, and makes the dimensionless temperature profiles lower than that under static conditions. The dimensionless streamwise heat flux shows a linear decrease trend in the boundary layer. It is hoped that this research can improve our understanding of the flow and heat transfer mechanism in the internal cooling passages of turbine rotor blades.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Gepner SW, JM Floryan (2020)

Use of Surface Corrugations for Energy-Efficient Chaotic Stirring in Low Reynolds Number Flows.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9865 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66800-5.

We demonstrate that an intensive stirring can be achieved in laminar channel flows in a passive manner by utilizing the recently discovered instability waves which lead to chaotic particle movements. The stirring is suitable for mixtures made of delicate constituents prone to mechanical damage, such as bacteria and DNA samples, as collisions between the stream and both the bounding walls as well as mechanical mixing devices are avoided. Debris accumulation is prevented as no stagnant fluid zones are formed. Groove symmetries can be used to limit stirring to selected parts of the flow domain. The energy cost of flows with such stirring is either smaller or marginally larger than the energy cost of flows through smooth channels.

RevDate: 2020-06-16

Xu K, Wang M, Tang W, et al (2020)

Flash nanoprecipitation with Gd(III)-based metallosurfactants to fabricate polylactic acid nanoparticles as highly efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

Chemistry, an Asian journal [Epub ahead of print].

Polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles coated with Gd(III)-based metallosurfactants (MS) are prepared using a simple and rapid one-step method, flash nanoprecipitation (FNP), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. By co-assembling the Gd(III)-based MS and an amphiphilic polymer, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL), PLA cores were rapidly encapsulated to form biocompatible T1 contrast agents with tunable particle size and narrow size distribution. The hydrophobic property of Gd(III)-based MS were finely tuned to achieve their high loading efficiency. The size of the nanoparticles was easily controlled by tuning the stream velocity, Reynolds number and the amount of the amphiphilic block copolymer during the FNP process. Under the optimized condition, the relaxivity of the nanoparticles was achieved up to 35.39 mM-1 s-1 (at 1.5 T), which is over 8 times of clinically used MRI contrast agents, demonstrating the potential application for MR imaging.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Zhao M, Yang XN, Chen PY, et al (2020)

[Effects of shrub patch pattern on runoff and sediment yield].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 31(3):735-743.

Understanding the changes of runoff, sediment transport, and hydrodynamic parameters of slopes under the influence of landscape patch coverage and connectivity is of great significance for revealing the hydrodynamic mechanism and hydrological connectivity of slope soil erosion process. In this study, the changes of runoff, sediment transport and hydrodynamic parameters of downhill surface in different coverage levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 90%) and different connectivity modes (vertical path, horizonal path, S-shaped path, random patches) of shrublands were analyzed by field artificial simulated rainfall test. The results showed that, with the increases of shrub cove-rage, runoff yield and sediment yield decreased exponentially. When the coverage increased to more than 60%, the capacity of shrubs to reduce runoff and sediment became stable. With the increases of shrub coverage, flow velocity, flow depth, Reynolds number, Froude number, stream power, and flow shear resistance significantly decreased, while Manning's roughness coefficient and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient increased significantly. When shrub coverage increased to more than 60%, there was no significant difference in the eigenvalues of hydraulic parameters. The runoff rate under the four connectivity modes followed the order of vertical path > S-shaped path > horizonal path > random patches. The sediment rate was the largest in the vertical path, followed by the S-shaped path, and the horizonal path was not significantly different from the random patches. The path with poor connectivity (horizonal path, random patches) exhibited stronger resistance of hydraulic transmission and poor hydraulic sedimentation capacity than the well-connected path (vertical path, S-shaped path). Our results could provide important theoretical basis for soil erosion control on the Loess Plateau and high-quality development of the Yellow River basin.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Lequette K, Ait-Mouheb N, N Wéry (2020)

Hydrodynamic effect on biofouling of milli-labyrinth channel and bacterial communities in drip irrigation systems fed with reclaimed wastewater.

The Science of the total environment, 738:139778 pii:S0048-9697(20)33298-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The clogging of drippers due to the development of biofilms reduces the benefits and is an obstacle to the implementation of drip irrigation technology in a reclaimed water context. The narrow section and labyrinth geometry of the dripper channel results the development of a heterogeneous flow behaviours with the vortex zones which it enhance the fouling mechanisms. The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the three dripper types, defined by their geometric and hydraulic parameters, fed with reclaimed wastewater, on the biofouling kinetics and the bacterial communities. Using optical coherence tomography, we demonstrated that the inlet of the drippers (mainly the first baffle) and vortex zones are the most sensitive area for biofouling. Drippers with the lowest Reynolds number and average cross-section velocity v (1 l·h-1) were the most sensible to biofouling, even if detachment events seemed more frequent in this dripper type. Therefore, dripper flow path with larger v should be consider to improve the anti-clogging performance. In addition, the dripper type and the geometry of the flow path influenced the structure of the bacterial communities from dripper biofilms. Relative abundancy of filamentous bacteria belonging to Chloroflexi phylum was higher in 1 l·h-1 drippers, which presented a higher level of biofouling. However, further research on the role of this phylum in dripper biofouling is required.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Gamble LL, Harvey C, DJ Inman (2020)

Load alleviation of feather-inspired compliant airfoils for instantaneous flow control.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Birds morph their wing shape to adjust to changing environments through muscle-activated morphing of the skeletal structure and passive morphing of the flexible skin and feathers. The role of feather morphing has not been well studied and its impact on aerodynamics is largely unknown. Here we investigate the aero-structural response of a flexible airfoil, designed with biologically accurate structural and material data from feathers, and compared the results to an equivalent rigid airfoil. Two coupled aero-structural models are developed and validated to simulate the response of a bioinspired flexible airfoil across a range of aerodynamic flight conditions. We found that the bioinspired flexible airfoil maintained lift at Reynolds numbers below 1.5x105, within the avian flight regime, performing similarly to its rigid counterpart. At greater Reynolds numbers, the flexible airfoil alleviated the lift force and experienced trailing edge tip displacement. Principal component analysis identified that the Reynolds number dominated this passive shape change which induced a decambering effect, although the angle of attack was found to effect the location of maximum camber. These results imply that birds or aircraft that have tailored chordwise flexible wings will respond like rigid wings while operating at low speeds, but will passively unload large lift forces while operating at high speeds.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Wierzchowski K, Grabowska I, M Pilarek (2020)

Efficient propagation of suspended HL-60 cells in a disposable bioreactor supporting wave-induced agitation at various Reynolds number.

Bioprocess and biosystems engineering pii:10.1007/s00449-020-02386-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Growth of human nonadherent HL-60 cell cultures performed in disposable bioreactor under various hydrodynamic conditions of 2-D wave-assisted agitation has been compared and discussed. Influence of Reynolds number for liquid (ReL) and the kLa coefficient, as key parameters characterized the bioprocessing of HL-60 cells in ReadyToProcess WAVETM 25 system, on reached values of the apparent maximal specific growth rate (μmax) and the specific yield of biomass (Y*X/S) has been identified. The values of ReL (i.e., 510-10,208), as well as kLa coefficient (i.e., 2.83-13.55 h-1), have been estimated for the cultures subjected to wave-induced mixing, based on simplified dimensionless correlation for various presents of WAVE 25 system. The highest values of apparent μmax = 0.038 h-1 and Y*X/S = 25.64 × 108 cells gglc-1 have been noted for cultures independently performed at wave-induced agitation characterized by ReL equaled to 5104 and 510, respectively. The presented results have high applicability potential in scale-up of bioprocesses focused on nonadherent animal cells, or in the case of any application of disposable bioreactors presenting similitude.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Waini I, Ishak A, I Pop (2020)

Hybrid nanofluid flow towards a stagnation point on a stretching/shrinking cylinder.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9296 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66126-2.

This paper examines the stagnation point flow towards a stretching/shrinking cylinder in a hybrid nanofluid. Here, copper (Cu) and alumina (Al2O3) are considered as the hybrid nanoparticles while water as the base fluid. The governing equations are reduced to the similarity equations using a similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using the boundary value problem solver, bvp4c, available in the Matlab software. It is found that the heat transfer rate is greater for the hybrid nanofluid compared to the regular nanofluid as well as the regular fluid. Besides, the non-uniqueness of the solutions is observed for certain physical parameters. It is also noticed that the bifurcation of the solutions occurs in the shrinking regions. In addition, the heat transfer rate and the skin friction coefficients increase in the presence of nanoparticles and for larger Reynolds number. It is found that between the two solutions, only one of them is stable as time evolves.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Cho M, IS Koref (2020)

The Importance of a Filament-like Structure in Aerial Dispersal and the Rarefaction Effect of Air Molecules on a Nanoscale Fiber: Detailed Physics in Spiders' Ballooning.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:5855136 [Epub ahead of print].

Many flying insects utilize a membranous structure for flight, which is known as a "wing." However, some spiders use silk fibers for their aerial dispersal. It is well known that spiders can disperse over hundreds of kilometers and rise several kilometers above the ground in this way. However, little is known about the ballooning mechanisms of spiders, owing to the lack of quantitative data. Recently, Cho et al. discovered previously unknown information on the types and physical properties of spiders' ballooning silks. According to the data, a crab spider weighing 20 mg spins 50-60 ballooning silks simultaneously, which are about 200 nm thick and 3.22 m long for their flight. Based on these physical dimensions of ballooning silks, the significance of these filament-like structures is explained by a theoretical analysis reviewing the fluid-dynamics of an anisotropic particle (like a filament or a high-slender body). (i) The filament-like structure is materially efficient geometry to produce (or harvest, in the case of passive flight) fluid-dynamic force in a low Reynolds number flow regime. (ii) Multiple nanoscale fibers are the result of the physical characteristics of a thin fiber, the drag of which is proportional to its length but not to its diameter. Because of this nonlinear characteristic of a fiber, spinning multiple thin ballooning fibers is, for spiders, a better way to produce drag forces than spinning a single thick spider silk, because spiders can maximize their drag on the ballooning fibers using the same amount of silk dope. (iii) The mean thickness of fibers, 200 nm, is constrained by the mechanical strength of the ballooning fibers and the rarefaction effect of air molecules on a nanoscale fiber, because the slip condition on a fiber could predominate if the thickness of the fiber becomes thinner than 100 nm.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

van Hooft JA (2020)

A Note on Scalar-Gradient Sharpening in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer.

Boundary-layer meteorology, 176(1):149-156.

The scalar front generated by the horizontal self advection of a dipolar vortex through a modest scalar gradient is investigated. This physical scenario is an idealization of the emergence of strong temperature ramps in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. The proposed mechanism is discussed and a two-dimensional analogy is studied in depth using direct numerical simulation. More specifically, the scalar-gradient sharpening is investigated as a function of the Reynolds number. It appears that the process of gradient sharpening at large-eddy scales may be challenging for turbulence-resolving methods applied to the stable-boundary-layer regime.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Jain K (2020)

Efficacy of the FDA nozzle benchmark and the lattice Boltzmann method for the analysis of biomedical flows in transitional regime.

Medical & biological engineering & computing pii:10.1007/s11517-020-02188-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Flows through medical devices as well as in anatomical vessels despite being at moderate Reynolds number may exhibit transitional or even turbulent character. In order to validate numerical methods and codes used for biomedical flow computations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established an experimental benchmark, which was a pipe with gradual contraction and sudden expansion representing a nozzle. The experimental results for various Reynolds numbers ranging from 500 to 6500 were publicly released. Previous and recent computational investigations of flow in the FDA nozzle found limitations in various CFD approaches and some even questioned the adequacy of the benchmark itself. This communication reports the results of a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) - based direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach applied to the FDA nozzle benchmark for transitional cases of Reynolds numbers 2000 and 3500. The goal is to evaluate if a simple off the shelf LBM would predict the experimental results without the use of complex models or synthetic turbulence at the inflow. LBM computations with various spatial and temporal resolutions are performed-in the extremities of 45 million to 2.88 billion lattice cells-executed respectively on 32 CPU cores of a desktop to more than 300,000 cores of a modern supercomputer to explore and characterize miniscule flow details and quantify Kolmogorov scales. The LBM simulations transition to turbulence at a Reynolds number 2000 like the FDA's experiments and acceptable agreement in jet breakdown locations, average velocity, shear stress, and pressure is found for both the Reynolds numbers. Graphical Abstract A bisecting plane showing the FDA nozzle and vorticity magnitude at t = 10 s for throat Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3500.

RevDate: 2020-06-07

Cui X, Wu W, H Ge (2020)

Investigation of airflow field in the upper airway under unsteady respiration pattern using large eddy simulation method.

Respiratory physiology & neurobiology pii:S1569-9048(20)30126-9 [Epub ahead of print].

In this paper, the airflow field in the upper airway under unsteady respiration process is predicted using large eddy simulation. The geometrical model is created by combining a popular cast-based mouth-throat model with tracheo-bronchial airways modeled with a trumpet-shaped conduit. The respiration process is simulated by sinusoidal displacing the bottom surface of the geometrical model. Large eddy simulation with dynamic sub-grid scale model is adopted for modeling the turbulent flow via a commercial CFD software, Converge. This study has found that (1) the secondary vortices in the mouth cavity are much more complex considering the lung expansion than setting the quasi-steady inspiration flow at the mouth-inlet; (2) the properties of secondary vortices in the trachea are not evidently different at the same Reynolds number at the accelerating and decelerating inspiration phases; (3) the reversed pharynx jet as well as recirculation zone is much unsteadier at the accelerating expiration phase than decelerating expiration phase for the same Reynolds number. We conclude that the properties of airflow structures are highly impacted by the respiration pattern and more investigations should be conducted, particularly, on the airflow structures during expiration phase for further understanding the properties of flow field.

RevDate: 2020-06-07

Howard MP, Statt A, Stone HA, et al (2020)

Stability of force-driven shear flows in nonequilibrium molecular simulations with periodic boundaries.

The Journal of chemical physics, 152(21):214113.

We analyze the hydrodynamic stability of force-driven parallel shear flows in nonequilibrium molecular simulations with three-dimensional periodic boundary conditions. We show that flows simulated in this way can be linearly unstable, and we derive an expression for the critical Reynolds number as a function of the geometric aspect ratio of the simulation domain. Approximate periodic extensions of Couette and Poiseuille flows are unstable at Reynolds numbers two orders of magnitude smaller than their aperiodic equivalents because the periodic boundaries impose fundamentally different constraints on the flow. This instability has important implications for simulating shear rheology and for designing nonequilibrium simulation methods that are compatible with periodic boundary conditions.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Meloni S, Di Marco A, Mancinelli M, et al (2020)

Experimental investigation of jet-induced wall pressure fluctuations over a tangential flat plate at two Reynolds numbers.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9140 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66037-2.

The wall pressure fluctuations induced by a subsonic circular jet on a rigid flat plate have been investigated considering two jets with different exit section diameters at the same Mach number. The analysis is aimed at completing the series of papers presented by the authors on the interaction between a subsonic jet and infinite tangential flat plate where the exit Mach number was the only parameter of the jet flow that was varied. In order to analyse other effects out of the Mach number, two configurations with different nozzle exhaust diameters were explored with the objective of isolating the Reynolds number effect keeping fixed the exit Mach number. The nozzle exhaust diameters are 12 mm and 25.4 mm and the instrumented flat plate, installed parallel to the jet flow, is moved at different radial distances from the jet axis. The pressure footprint on the plate has been measured in the stream-wise direction by means of a pair of flush-mounted pressure transducers, providing point-wise pressure signals. Wall pressure fluctuations have been characterised in terms of spectral and statistical quantities. The effect of Reynolds is evidenced and possible scaling relationships that account for the Reynolds dependence are proposed. Implications for modeling the spectral coherence have been considered by the application of the Corcos' model and the effect of the jet Reynolds number on the model coefficients is analyzed.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Benedict F, Kumar A, Kadirgama K, et al (2020)

Thermal Performance of Hybrid-Inspired Coolant for Radiator Application.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(6): pii:nano10061100.

Due to the increasing demand in industrial application, nanofluids have attracted the considerable attention of researchers in recent decades. The addition of nanocellulose (CNC) with water (W) and ethylene glycol (EG) to a coolant for a radiator application exhibits beneficial properties to improve the efficiency of the radiator. The focus of the present work was to investigate the performance of mono or hybrid metal oxide such as Al2O3 and TiO2 with or without plant base-extracted CNC with varying concentrations as a better heat transfer nanofluid in comparison to distilled water as a radiator coolant. The CNC is dispersed in the base fluid of EG and W with a 60:40 ratio. The highest absorption peak was noticed at 0.9% volume concentration of TiO2, Al2O3, CNC, Al2O3/TiO2, and Al2O3/CNC nanofluids which indicates a better stability of the nanofluids' suspension. Better thermal conductivity improvement was observed for the Al2O3 nanofluids in all mono nanofluids followed by the CNC and TiO2 nanofluids, respectively. The thermal conductivity of the Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluids with 0.9% volume concentration was found to be superior than that of the Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid nanofluids. Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluid dominates over other mono and hybrid nanofluids in terms of viscosity at all volume concentrations. CNC nanofluids (all volume concentrations) exhibited the highest specific heat capacity than other mono nanofluids. Additionally, in both hybrid nanofluids, Al2O3/CNC showed the lowest specific heat capacity. The optimized volume concentration from the statistical analytical tool was found to be 0.5%. The experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient, convective heat transfer, Reynolds number and the Nusselt number have a proportional relationship with the volumetric flow rate. Hybrid nanofluids exhibit better thermal conductivity than mono nanofluids. For instance, a better thermal conductivity improvement was shown by the mono Al2O3 nanofluids than the CNC and TiO2 nanofluids. On the other hand, superior thermal conductivity was observed for the Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluids compared to the other mono and hybrid ones (Al2O3/TiO2).

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ahasan K, Landry CM, Chen X, et al (2020)

Effect of angle-of-attacks on deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) with symmetric airfoil pillars.

Biomedical microdevices, 22(2):42 pii:10.1007/s10544-020-00496-2.

Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a microfluidic technique for size fractionation of particles/cells in continuous flow with a great potential for biological and clinical applications. Growing interest of DLD devices in enabling high-throughput operation for practical applications, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) separation, necessitates employing higher flow rates, leading to operation at moderate to high Reynolds number (Re) regimes. Recently, it has been shown that symmetric airfoil shaped pillars with neutral angle-of-attack (AoA) can be used for high-throughput design of DLD devices due to their mitigation of vortex effects and preservation of flow symmetry under high Re conditions. While high-Re operation with symmetric airfoil shaped pillars has been established, the effect of AoAs on the DLD performance has not been investigated. In this paper, we have characterized the airfoil DLD device with various AoAs. The transport behavior of microparticles has been observed and analyzed with various AoAs in realistic high-Re. Furthermore, we have modeled the flow fields and anisotropy in a representative airfoil pillar array, for both positive and negative AoA configurations. Unlike the conventional DLD device, lateral displacement has been suppressed with +5° and + 15° AoA configurations regardless of particle sizes. On the other hand, stronger lateral displacement has been seen with -5° and - 15° AoAs. This can be attributed to growing flow anisotropy as Re climbs, and significant expansion or compression of streamlines between airfoils with AoAs. The findings in this study can be utilized for the design and optimization of airfoil DLD microfluidic devices with various AoAs.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Li X, Gao J, Guo Z, et al (2020)

A Study of Rainfall-Runoff Movement Process on High and Steep Slopes Affected by Double Turbulence Sources.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9001 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66060-3.

To increase the available land area, a large-scale land remediation campaign was carried out in the loess hilly and gully area. A large number of high and steep slopes have been produced in the construction of road engineering and water conservancy engineering, and these slopes will cause serious soil erosion under rainfall conditions. Because rainfall runoff is simultaneously affected by slope, bed surface and rainfall, the runoff movement characteristics are complex. It is difficult to consider all influencing factors in the existing models, especially for steep slopes. In this study, artificial rainfall experiments were conducted to study the rainfall-runoff hydraulic processes under different rainfall intensities and slope gradients, and a modified method was proposed to model the key hydraulic parameters (i.e., equilibrium time, water surface line, and runoff processes) on steep slopes. The results showed that (1) For steep slopes (a 70° slope compared to a 5° slope), the runoff generation time, confluence time and equilibrium time of the slope decreased significantly. At the same time, the single width runoff of the steep slope had a power function relationship with the rainfall intensity and gradient. (2) The runoff patterns of steep slopes were different from those on gentle slopes and runoff patterns were more likely to change. The Reynolds number and Froude number for slope flow changed slowly when the slope was less than the critical gradient and increased significantly when the slope exceeded the critical gradient. (3) Based on the analysis of the "double turbulent model theory of thin-layer flow on a high-steep slope", combined with the dispersed motion wave model, a modified method for calculating the hydrodynamic factors of rainfall runoff was proposed. Then, this method was verified with indoor and outdoor experiments. The research results not only have theoretical significance, but also provide a more accurate calculation method for the design of high and steep slopes involved in land treatment engineering, road engineering and water conservancy engineering.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Robles-Romero JM, Romero-Martín M, Conde-Guillén G, et al (2020)

The Physics of Fluid Dynamics Applied to Vascular Ulcers and Its Impact on Nursing Care.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 8(2): pii:healthcare8020147.

The high incidence of vascular ulcers and the difficulties encountered in their healing process require the understanding of their multiple etiologies to develop effective strategies focused on providing different treatment options. This work provides a description of the principles of the physics of fluid dynamics related to vascular ulcers. The morphological characteristics of the cardiovascular system promote blood flow. The contraction force of the left ventricle is enhanced by its ability to reduce its radius of curvature and by increasing the thickness of the ventricular wall (Laplace's Law). Arterial flow must overcome vascular resistance (Ohm's equation). The elastic nature of the artery and the ability to reduce its diameter as flow rate progresses facilitate blood conduction at high speed up to arteriolar level, and this can be determined by the second equation of continuity. As it is a viscous fluid, we must discuss laminar flow, calculated by the Reynolds number, which favors proper conduction while aiming at the correct net filtration pressure. Any endothelial harmful process that affects the muscle wall of the vessel increases the flow speed, causing a decrease in capillary hydrostatic pressure, thus reducing the exchange of nutrients at the interstitial level. With regard to the return system, the flow direction is anti-gravity and requires endogenous aid to establish the Starling's equilibrium. Knowledge on the physics of vascular fluid dynamics makes it easier to understand the processes of formation of these ulcers so as to choosing the optimal healing and prevention techniques for these chronic wounds.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Charlton AJ, Lian B, Blandin G, et al (2020)

Impact of FO Operating Pressure and Membrane Tensile Strength on Draw-Channel Geometry and Resulting Hydrodynamics.

Membranes, 10(5): pii:membranes10050111.

In an effort to improve performances of forward osmosis (FO) systems, several innovative draw spacers have been proposed. However, the small pressure generally applied on the feed side of the process is expected to result in the membrane bending towards the draw side, and in the gradual occlusion of the channel. This phenomenon potentially presents detrimental effects on process performance, including pressure drop and external concentration polarization (ECP) in the draw channel. A flat sheet FO system with a dot-spacer draw channel geometry was characterized to determine the degree of draw channel occlusion resulting from feed pressurization, and the resulting implications on flow performance. First, tensile testing was performed on the FO membrane to derive a Young's modulus, used to assess the membrane stretching, and the resulting draw channel characteristics under a range of moderate feed pressures. Membrane apex reached up to 67% of the membrane channel height when transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 1.4 bar was applied. The new FO channels considerations were then processed by computational fluid dynamics model (computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by ANSYS Fluent v19.1) and validated against previously obtained experimental data. Further simulations were conducted to better assess velocity profiles, Reynolds number and shear rate. Reynolds number on the membrane surface (draw side) increased by 20% and shear rate increased by 90% when occlusion changed from 0 to 70%, impacting concentration polarisation (CP) on the membrane surface and therefore FO performance. This paper shows that FO draw channel occlusion is expected to have a significant impact on fluid hydrodynamics when the membrane is not appropriately supported in the draw side.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Asghar Z, Ali N, Waqas M, et al (2020)

Locomotion of an efficient biomechanical sperm through viscoelastic medium.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology pii:10.1007/s10237-020-01338-z [Epub ahead of print].

Every group of microorganism utilizes a diverse mechanical strategy to propel through complex environments. These swimming problems deal with the fluid-organism interaction at micro-scales in which Reynolds number is of the order of 10-3. By adopting the same propulsion mechanism of so-called Taylor's sheet, here we address the biomechanical principle of swimming via different wavy surfaces. The passage (containing micro-swimmers) is considered to be passive two-dimensional channel filled with viscoelastic liquid, i.e., Oldroyd-4 constant fluid. For some initial value of unknowns, i.e., cell speed and flow rate of surrounding liquid, the resulting boundary value problem is solved by robust finite difference scheme. This convergent solution is further employed in the equilibrium conditions which will obviously not be satisfied for such crude values of unknowns. These unknowns are further refined (to satisfy the equilibrium conditions) by modified Newton-Raphson algorithm. These computed pairs are also utilized to compute the energy losses. The speed of swimming sheet its power delivered and flow rate of Oldroyd-4 constant fluid are compared for different kinds of wavy sheets. These results are also useful in the manufacturing of artificial (soft) microbots and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Cassineri S, Cioncolini A, Smith L, et al (2020)

Experiments on Liquid Flow through Non-Circular Micro-Orifices.

Micromachines, 11(5): pii:mi11050510.

Microfluidics is an active research area in modern fluid mechanics, with several applications in science and engineering. Despite their importance in microfluidic systems, micro-orifices with non-circular cross-sections have not been extensively investigated. In this study, micro-orifice discharge with single-phase liquid flow was experimentally investigated for seven square and rectangular cross-section micro-orifices with a hydraulic diameter in the range of 326-510 µm. The discharge measurements were carried out in pressurized water (12 MPa) at ambient temperature (298 K) and high temperature (503 K). During the tests, the Reynolds number varied between 5883 and 212,030, significantly extending the range in which data are currently available in the literature on non-circular micro-orifices. The results indicate that the cross-sectional shape of the micro-orifice has little, if any, effect on the hydrodynamic behavior. Thus, existing methods for the prediction of turbulent flow behavior in circular micro-orifices can be used to predict the flow behavior in non-circular micro-orifices, provided that the flow geometry of the non-circular micro-orifice is described using a hydraulic diameter.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Moriconi L (2020)

Magnetic dissipation of near-wall turbulent coherent structures in magnetohydrodynamic pipe flows.

Physical review. E, 101(4-1):043111.

Relaminarization of wall-bounded turbulent flows by means of external static magnetic fields is a long-known phenomenon in the physics of electrically conducting fluids at low magnetic Reynolds numbers. Despite the large literature on the subject, it is not yet completely clear what combination of the Hartmann (M) and the Reynolds number has to be used to predict the laminar-turbulent transition in channel or pipe flows fed by upstream turbulent flows free of magnetic perturbations. Relying upon standard phenomenological approaches related to mixing length and structural concepts, we put forward that M/R_{τ}, where R_{τ} is the friction Reynolds number, is the appropriate controlling parameter for relaminarization, a proposal which finds good support from available experimental data.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Ekanem EM, Berg S, De S, et al (2020)

Signature of elastic turbulence of viscoelastic fluid flow in a single pore throat.

Physical review. E, 101(4-1):042605.

When a viscoelastic fluid, such as an aqueous polymer solution, flows through a porous medium, the fluid undergoes a repetitive expansion and contraction as it passes from one pore to the next. Above a critical flow rate, the interaction between the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and the pore configuration results in spatial and temporal flow instabilities reminiscent of turbulentlike behavior, even though the Reynolds number Re≪1. To investigate whether this is caused by many repeated pore body-pore throat sequences, or simply a consequence of the converging (diverging) nature present in a single pore throat, we performed experiments using anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in a microfluidic flow geometry representing a single pore throat. This allows the viscoelastic fluid to be characterized at increasing flow rates using microparticle image velocimetry in combination with pressure drop measurements. The key finding is that the effect, popularly known as "elastic turbulence," occurs already in a single pore throat geometry. The critical Deborah number at which the transition in rheological flow behavior from pseudoplastic (shear thinning) to dilatant (shear thickening) strongly depends on the ionic strength, the type of cation in the anionic HPAM solution, and the nature of pore configuration. The transition towards the elastic turbulence regime was found to directly correlate with an increase in normal stresses. The topology parameter, Q_{f}, computed from the velocity distribution, suggests that the "shear thickening" regime, where much of the elastic turbulence occurs in a single pore throat, is a consequence of viscoelastic normal stresses that cause a complex flow field. This flow field consists of extensional, shear, and rotational features around the constriction, as well as upstream and downstream of the constriction. Furthermore, this elastic turbulence regime, has high-pressure fluctuations, with a power-law decay exponent of up to |-2.1| which is higher than the Kolmogorov value for turbulence of |-5/3|.

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Jain SK, Banerjee U, AK Sen (2020)

Trapping and coalescence of diamagnetic aqueous droplets using negative magnetophoresis.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Manipulation of aqueous droplets has profound significance in biochemical assays. Magnetic field-driven droplet manipulation, offering unique advantages, is consequently gaining attention. However, the phenomenon relating to diamagnetic droplets is not well understood. Here, we report understanding of trapping and coalescence of flowing diamagnetic aqueous droplets in a paramagnetic (oil-based ferrofluid) medium using negative magnetophoresis. Our study revealed that the trapping phenomenon is underpinned by the interplay of magnetic energy (E_m) and frictional (viscous) energy (E_f), in terms of magnetophoretic stability number, S_m=(E_m⁄E_f). The trapping and non-trapping regimes are characterized based on the peak value of magnetophoretic stability number, S_mp and droplet size, D^*. Study of coalescence of a trapped droplet with a follower droplet (and a train of droplets) revealed that the film-drainage Reynolds number (Re_fd) representing the coalescence time depends on the magnetic Bond number, Bo_m. The coalesced droplet continues to remain trapped or gets self-released obeying the S_mp and D^*criterion. Our study offers an understanding of the magnetic manipulation of diamagnetic aqueous droplets that can potentially be used for biochemical assays in microfluidics.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Chen H, M Yao (2018)

A high-flow portable biological aerosol trap (HighBioTrap) for rapid microbial detection.

Journal of aerosol science, 117:212-223.

Bioaerosols exposure can lead to many adverse health effects and even result in death if highly infectious agents involved. Apparently, there is a great need for rapid detection of bioaerosols, for which air sampling often is the first critical step. However, currently available samplers often either require an external power and/or with low sampling flow rate, thus falling short of providing a practical solution when response time is of great concern. Here, we have designed and evaluated a new portable high volume bioaerosol sampler named as HighBioTrap through optimizing its operating parameters. The sampler was operated at a sampling flow rate of 1200 L/min, with an impaction velocity of about 10.2 m/s (S/W = 1.5, T/W = 1), while the weight of the sampler is about 1.9 kg. The performances of the HighBioTrap sampler were tested both in lab controlled and natural environments (outdoor and indoor environments in a university building) along with the reference sampler-the BioStage impactor using aerosolized Polystyrene (PS) uniform microspheres of various sizes, aerosolized bacteria and also ambient air particles. The microbial community structures of collected culturable bacterial aerosol particles both by the HighBioTrap and the BioStage impactor in the natural environments were analyzed using gene sequence method. Experimental results with PS particles showed the HighBioTrap has a cutoff size of ~ 2 µm. The widely used impactor design equation was found to be not applicable for predicting the performance of the HighBioTrap due to its large Reynolds number. When sampling aerosolized individual Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis bacterial particles, the HighBioTrap had physical collection efficiencies of 10% and 20%, respectively. Despite the higher desiccation effects introduced by higher flow rate, the HighBioTrap was shown to obtain a higher microbial diversity than the BioStage impactor for both in outdoor and indoor environments given the same sampling time (p < 0.01). Our data also showed that most of the desiccation effects might have occurred between 3 and 5 min of the sampling and an impaction velocity of around 10 m/s might be a close-to-optimal impaction velocity for collecting most environmental bacterial aerosols while maximally preserving their culturability. This work contributes to our understanding of microbial sampling stress (impaction velocity and sampling time), while developing a portable high volume sampler. The HighBioTrap sampler could find its great efficiencies in qualitative microbial aerosol detection and analysis, such as investigation of microbial aerosol diversity for a particular environment, or when the low level of pathogens is present and detection time is of great concern.

RevDate: 2020-05-02

Garcia F, Seilmayer M, Giesecke A, et al (2020)

Chaotic wave dynamics in weakly magnetized spherical Couette flows.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 30(4):043116.

Direct numerical simulations of a liquid metal filling the gap between two concentric spheres are presented. The flow is governed by the interplay between the rotation of the inner sphere (measured by the Reynolds number Re) and a weak externally applied axial magnetic field (measured by the Hartmann number Ha). By varying the latter, a rich variety of flow features, both in terms of spatial symmetry and temporal dependence, is obtained. Flows with two or three independent frequencies describing their time evolution are found as a result of Hopf bifurcations. They are stable on a sufficiently large interval of Hartmann numbers where regions of multistability of two, three, and even four types of these different flows are detected. The temporal character of the solutions is analyzed by means of an accurate frequency analysis and Poincaré sections. An unstable branch of flows undergoing a period doubling cascade and frequency locking of three-frequency solutions is described as well.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Kang S, R Kwak (2020)

Pattern Formation of Three-Dimensional Electroconvection on a Charge Selective Surface.

Physical review letters, 124(15):154502.

When a charge selective surface consumes or transports only cations or anions in the electrolyte, biased ion rejection initiates hydrodynamic instability, resulting in vortical fluid motions called electroconvection. In this Letter, we describe the first laboratory observation of three-dimensional electroconvection on a charge selective surface. Combining experiment and scaling analysis, we successfully categorized three distinct patterns of 3D electroconvection according to [(Ra_{E})/(Re^{2}Sc)] [electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E}), Reynolds number (Re), Schmidt number (Sc)] as (i) polygonal, (ii) transverse, or (iii) longitudinal rolls. If Re increases or Ra_{E} decreases, pure longitudinal rolls are presented. On the other hand, transverse rolls are formed between longitudinal rolls, and two rolls are transformed as polygonal one at higher Ra_{E} or lower Re. In this pattern selection scenario, Sc determines the critical electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E}^{*}) for the onset of each roll, resulting in Ra_{E}^{*}∼Re^{2}Sc. We also verify that convective ion flux by electroconvection (represented by an electric Nusselt number Nu_{E}) is fitted to a power law, Nu_{E}∼[(Ra_{E}-Ra_{E}^{*})/(Re^{2}Sc)]^{α_{1}}Re^{α_{2}}Pe^{α_{3}} [Péclet number (Pe)], where each term represents the characteristics of electroconvection, shear flow, and ion transport.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Raza W, Hossain S, KY Kim (2020)

A Review of Passive Micromixers with a Comparative Analysis.

Micromachines, 11(5): pii:mi11050455.

A wide range of existing passive micromixers are reviewed, and quantitative analyses of ten typical passive micromixers were performed to compare their mixing indices, pressure drops, and mixing costs under the same axial length and flow conditions across a wide Reynolds number range of 0.01-120. The tested micromixers were selected from five types of micromixer designs. The analyses of flow and mixing were performed using continuity, Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations. The results of the comparative analysis were presented for three different Reynolds number ranges: low-Re (Re ≤ 1), intermediate-Re (1 < Re ≤ 40), and high-Re (Re > 40) ranges, where the mixing mechanisms are different. The results show a two-dimensional micromixer of Tesla structure is recommended in the intermediate- and high-Re ranges, while two three-dimensional micromixers with two layers are recommended in the low-Re range due to their excellent mixing performance.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Storm TJ, Nolan KE, Roberts EM, et al (2020)

Oropharyngeal morphology related to filtration mechanisms in suspension-feeding American shad (Clupeidae).

Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology [Epub ahead of print].

To assess potential filtration mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy was used in a comprehensive quantification and analysis of the morphology and surface ultrastructure for all five branchial arches in the ram suspension-feeding fish, American shad (Alosa sapidissima, Clupeidae). The orientation of the branchial arches and the location of mucus cells on the gill rakers were more consistent with mechanisms of crossflow filtration and cross-step filtration rather than conventional dead-end sieving. The long, thin gill rakers could lead to a large area for the exit of water from the oropharyngeal cavity during suspension feeding (high fluid exit ratio). The substantial elongation of gill rakers along the dorsal-ventral axis formed d-type ribs with a groove aspect ratio of 0.5 and a Reynolds number of approximately 500, consistent with the potential operation of cross-step filtration. Mucus cell abundance differed significantly along the length of the raker and the height of the raker. The mucus cell abundance data and the observed sloughing of denticles along the gill raker margins closest to the interior of the oropharyngeal cavity suggest that gill raker growth may occur primarily at the raker tips, the denticle bases, and the internal raker margins along the length of the raker. These findings will be applied in ongoing experiments with 3D-printed physical models of fish oral cavities in flow tanks, and in future ecological studies on the diet and nutrition of suspension-feeding fishes.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Singh AV, Ansari MHD, Mahajan M, et al (2020)

Sperm Cell Driven Microrobots-Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Biologically Inspired Robotic Design.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040448.

With the advent of small-scale robotics, several exciting new applications like Targeted Drug Delivery, single cell manipulation and so forth, are being discussed. However, some challenges remain to be overcome before any such technology becomes medically usable; among which propulsion and biocompatibility are the main challenges. Propulsion at micro-scale where the Reynolds number is very low is difficult. To overcome this, nature has developed flagella which have evolved over millions of years to work as a micromotor. Among the microscopic cells that exhibit this mode of propulsion, sperm cells are considered to be fast paced. Here, we give a brief review of the state-of-the-art of Spermbots - a new class of microrobots created by coupling sperm cells to mechanical loads. Spermbots utilize the flagellar movement of the sperm cells for propulsion and as such do not require any toxic fuel in their environment. They are also naturally biocompatible and show considerable speed of motion thereby giving us an option to overcome the two challenges of propulsion and biocompatibility. The coupling mechanisms of physical load to the sperm cells are discussed along with the advantages and challenges associated with the spermbot. A few most promising applications of spermbots are also discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the future outlook of this extremely promising category of microrobots is given at the end.

RevDate: 2020-04-23

Zhou Q, Fidalgo J, Calvi L, et al (2020)

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dilute Red Blood Cell Suspensions in Low-Inertia Microchannel Flow.

Biophysical journal pii:S0006-3495(20)30269-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Microfluidic technologies are commonly used for the manipulation of red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and analyses of flow-mediated biomechanics. To enhance the performance of microfluidic devices, understanding the dynamics of the suspensions processed within is crucial. We report novel, to our knowledge, aspects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of RBC suspensions flowing through a typical microchannel at low Reynolds number. Through experiments with dilute RBC suspensions, we find an off-center two-peak (OCTP) profile of cells contrary to the centralized distribution commonly reported for low-inertia flows. This is reminiscent of the well-known "tubular pinch effect," which arises from inertial effects. However, given the conditions of negligible inertia in our experiments, an alternative explanation is needed for this OCTP profile. Our massively parallel simulations of RBC flow in real-size microfluidic dimensions using the immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method confirm the experimental findings and elucidate the underlying mechanism for the counterintuitive RBC pattern. By analyzing the RBC migration and cell-free layer development within a high-aspect-ratio channel, we show that such a distribution is co-determined by the spatial decay of hydrodynamic lift and the global deficiency of cell dispersion in dilute suspensions. We find a cell-free layer development length greater than 46 and 28 hydraulic diameters in the experiment and simulation, respectively, exceeding typical lengths of microfluidic designs. Our work highlights the key role of transient cell distribution in dilute suspensions, which may negatively affect the reliability of experimental results if not taken into account.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Navah F, de la Llave Plata M, V Couaillier (2020)

A High-Order Multiscale Approach to Turbulence for Compact Nodal Schemes.

Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 363:.

This article presents a formulation that extends the multiscale modelling for compressible large-eddy simulation to a vast family of compact nodal numerical methods represented by the high-order flux reconstruction scheme. The theoretical aspects of the proposed formulation are laid down via mathematical derivations which clearly expose the underlying assumptions and approximations and provide sufficient details for accurate reproduction of the methodology. The final form is assessed on a Taylor-Green vortex benchmark with Reynolds number of 5000 and compared to filtered direct numerical simulation data. These numerical experiments exhibit the important role of sufficient de-aliasing, appropriate amount of upwinding from Roe's numerical flux and large/small scale partition, in achieving better agreement with reference data, especially on coarse grids, when compared to the baseline implicit large-eddy simulation.

RevDate: 2020-04-21

Banerjee A, Sharma T, Nautiyal AK, et al (2020)

Scale-up strategy for yeast single cell oil production for Rhodotorula mucilagenosa IIPL32 from corn cob derived pentosan.

Bioresource technology, 309:123329 pii:S0960-8524(20)30601-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This work was aimed to strategically scale-up the yeast lipid production process using Reynolds number as a standard rheological parameter from 50 mL to 50 L scale. Oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 was cultivated in xylose rich corncob hydrolysate. The fermentation process for growth and maturation was operated in fed-batch with two different C/N ratios of 40 and 60. The hydrodynamic parameters were used to standardize and represent the effect of rheology on the fermentation process. The growth pattern of the yeast was found similar in both shake flask and fermenter with the maximum growth observed at 48 h. The lipid yield increased from 0.4 g/L and 0.5 g/L to 1.3 g/L and 1.83 g/L for 50 mL to 50 L for C/N ratio 40 and 60 respectively. The increase in productivity during the growth phase and lipid accumulation during the maturation phase showed that the scale-up strategy was successful.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Erdem K, Ahmadi VE, Kosar A, et al (2020)

Differential Sorting of Microparticles Using Spiral Microchannels with Elliptic Configurations.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040412.

Label-free, size-dependent cell-sorting applications based on inertial focusing phenomena have attracted much interest during the last decade. The separation capability heavily depends on the precision of microparticle focusing. In this study, five-loop spiral microchannels with a height of 90 µm and a width of 500 µm are introduced. Unlike their original spiral counterparts, these channels have elliptic configurations of varying initial aspect ratios, namely major axis to minor axis ratios of 3:2, 11:9, 9:11, and 2:3. Accordingly, the curvature of these configurations increases in a curvilinear manner through the channel. The effects of the alternating curvature and channel Reynolds number on the focusing of fluorescent microparticles with sizes of 10 and 20 µm in the prepared suspensions were investigated. At volumetric flow rates between 0.5 and 3.5 mL/min (allowing separation), each channel was tested to collect samples at the designated outlets. Then, these samples were analyzed by counting the particles. These curved channels were capable of separating 20 and 10 µm particles with total yields up to approximately 95% and 90%, respectively. The results exhibited that the level of enrichment and the focusing behavior of the proposed configurations are promising compared to the existing microfluidic channel configurations.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Sun HCM, Liao P, Wei T, et al (2020)

Magnetically Powered Biodegradable Microswimmers.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040404.

The propulsive efficiency and biodegradability of wireless microrobots play a significant role in facilitating promising biomedical applications. Mimicking biological matters is a promising way to improve the performance of microrobots. Among diverse locomotion strategies, undulatory propulsion shows remarkable efficiency and agility. This work proposes a novel magnetically powered and hydrogel-based biodegradable microswimmer. The microswimmer is fabricated integrally by 3D laser lithography based on two-photon polymerization from a biodegradable material and has a total length of 200 μm and a diameter of 8 μm. The designed microswimmer incorporates a novel design utilizing four rigid segments, each of which is connected to the succeeding segment by spring to achieve undulation, improving structural integrity as well as simplifying the fabrication process. Under an external oscillating magnetic field, the microswimmer with multiple rigid segments connected by flexible spring can achieve undulatory locomotion and move forward along with the directions guided by the external magnetic field in the low Reynolds number (Re) regime. In addition, experiments demonstrated that the microswimmer can be degraded successfully, which allows it to be safely applied in real-time in vivo environments. This design has great potential in future in vivo applications such as precision medicine, drug delivery, and diagnosis.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Huang B, Li H, T Xu (2020)

Experimental Investigation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Reentrant Cavities.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040403.

The application of microchannel heat exchangers is of great significance in industrial fields due to their advantages of miniaturized scale, large surface-area-to-volume ratio, and high heat transfer rate. In this study, microchannel heat exchangers with and without fan-shaped reentrant cavities were designed and manufactured, and experiments were conducted to investigate the flow and heat-transfer characteristics. The impact rising from the radius of reentrant cavities, as well as the Reynolds number on the heat transfer and the pressure drop, is also analyzed. The results indicate that, compared with straight microchannels, microchannels with reentrant cavities could enhance the heat transfer and, more importantly, reduce the pressure drop at the same time. For the ranges of parameters studied, increasing the radius of reentrant cavities could augment the effect of pressure-drop reduction, while the corresponding variation of heat transfer is complicated. It is considered that adding reentrant cavities in microchannel heat exchangers is an ideal approach to improve performance.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Alboussière T, Drif K, F Plunian (2020)

Dynamo action in sliding plates of anisotropic electrical conductivity.

Physical review. E, 101(3-1):033107.

With materials of anisotropic electrical conductivity, it is possible to generate a dynamo with a simple velocity field, of the type precluded by Cowling's theorems with isotropic materials. Following a previous study by Ruderman and Ruzmaikin [M. S. Ruderman and A. A. Ruzmaikin, Magnetic field generation in an anisotropically conducting fluid, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 28, 77 (1984)GAFDD30309-192910.1080/03091928408210135], who considered the dynamo effect induced by a uniform shear flow, we determine the conditions for the dynamo threshold when a solid plate is sliding over another one, both with anisotropic electrical conductivity. We obtain numerical solutions for a general class of anisotropy and obtain the conditions for the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, using a collocation Chebyshev method. In a particular geometry of anisotropy and wave number, we also derive an analytical solution, where the eigenvectors are just combinations of four exponential functions. An explicit analytical expression is obtained for the critical magnetic Reynolds number. Above the critical magnetic Reynolds number, we have also derived an analytical expression for the growth rate showing that this is a "very fast" dynamo, extrapolating on the "slow" and "fast" terminology introduced by Vainshtein and Zeldovich [S. I. Vainshtein and Y. B. Zeldovich, Reviews of topical problems: Origin of magnetic fields in astrophysics (turbulent "dynamo" mechanisms), Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 159 (1972)SOPUAP0038-567010.1070/PU1972v015n02ABEH004960].

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Reyes F, Torrejón V, C Falcón (2020)

Wave damping of a sloshing wave by an interacting turbulent vortex flow.

Physical review. E, 101(3-1):033106.

We report on the enhancement of the hydrodynamic damping of gravity waves at the surface of a fluid layer as they interact with a turbulent vortex flow in a sloshing experiment. Gravity surface waves are excited by oscillating horizontally a square container holding our working fluid (water). At the bottom of the container, four impellers in a quadrupole configuration generate a vortex array at moderate to high Reynolds number, which interact with the wave. We measure the surface fluctuations using different optical nonintrusive methods and the local velocity of the flow. In our experimental range, we show that as we increase the angular velocity of the impellers, the gravity wave amplitude decreases without changing the oscillation frequency or generating transverse modes. This wave dissipation enhancement is contrasted with the increase of the turbulent velocity fluctuations from particle image velocimetry measurements via a turbulent viscosity. To rationalize the damping enhancement a periodically forced shallow water model including viscous terms is presented, which is used to calculate the sloshing wave resonance curve. The enhanced viscous dissipation coefficient is found to scale linearly with the measured turbulent viscosity. Hence, the proposed scheme is a good candidate as an active surface gravity wave dampener via vortex flow reconfiguration.

RevDate: 2020-04-14

Spandan V, Putt D, Ostilla-Mónico R, et al (2020)

Fluctuation-induced force in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

Science advances, 6(14):eaba0461 pii:aba0461.

Understanding force generation in nonequilibrium systems is a notable challenge in statistical physics. We uncover a fluctuation-induced force between two plates immersed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence using direct numerical simulations. The force is a nonmonotonic function of plate separation. The mechanism of force generation reveals an intriguing analogy with fluctuation-induced forces: In a fluid, energy and vorticity are localized in regions of defined length scales. When varying the distance between the plates, we exclude energy structures modifying the overall pressure on the plates. At intermediate plate distances, the intense vorticity structures (worms) are forced to interact in close vicinity between the plates. This interaction affects the pressure in the slit and the force between the plates. The combination of these two effects causes a nonmonotonic attractive force with a complex Reynolds number dependence. Our study sheds light on how length scale-dependent distributions of energy and high-intensity vortex structures determine Casimir forces.

RevDate: 2020-04-08

Asakawa J, Nishii K, Nakagawa Y, et al (2020)

Direct measurement of 1-mN-class thrust and 100-s-class specific impulse for a CubeSat propulsion system.

The Review of scientific instruments, 91(3):035116.

This paper presents the development of a thrust stand to enable direct measurement of thrust and specific impulse for a CubeSat propulsion system during firing. The thrust stand is an inverted pendulum and incorporates a mass balance for direct in situ mass measurement. The proposed calibration procedure allows precise performance characterization and achieves a resolution of 80 μN thrust and 0.01 g mass loss, by taking into account the drift of the thrust-stand zero caused by propellant consumption. The performance of a water micro-resistojet propulsion system for CubeSats was directly characterized as a proof of concept of the thrust stand. Continuous profiles of thrust, specific impulse, and mass consumption were acquired under various conditions in a single firing test. A thrust from 1 mN to 10 mN and a specific impulse from 45 s to 100 s with a maximum measurement uncertainty of ±15.3% were measured for the throat Reynolds number in the range 100-400.

RevDate: 2020-04-04

Joseph J, Rehman D, Delanaye M, et al (2020)

Numerical and Experimental Study of Microchannel Performance on Flow Maldistribution.

Micromachines, 11(3): pii:mi11030323.

Miniaturized heat exchangers are well known for their superior heat transfer capabilities in comparison to macro-scale devices. While in standard microchannel systems the improved performance is provided by miniaturized distances and very small hydraulic diameters, another approach can also be followed, namely, the generation of local turbulences. Localized turbulence enhances the heat exchanger performance in any channel or tube, but also includes an increased pressure loss. Shifting the critical Reynolds number to a lower value by introducing perturbators controls pressure losses and improves thermal efficiency to a considerable extent. The objective of this paper is to investigate in detail collector performance based on reduced-order modelling and validate the numerical model based on experimental observations of flow maldistribution and pressure losses. Two different types of perturbators, Wire-net and S-shape, were analyzed. For the former, a metallic wire mesh was inserted in the flow passages (hot and cold gas flow) to ensure stiffness and enhance microchannel efficiency. The wire-net perturbators were replaced using an S-shaped perturbator model for a comparative study in the second case mentioned above. An optimum mass flow rate could be found when the thermal efficiency reaches a maximum. Investigation of collectors with different microchannel configurations (s-shaped, wire-net and plane channels) showed that mass flow rate deviation decreases with an increase in microchannel resistance. The recirculation zones in the cylindrical collectors also changed the maldistribution pattern. From experiments, it could be observed that microchannels with S-shaped perturbators shifted the onset of turbulent transition to lower Reynolds number values. Experimental studies on pressure losses showed that the pressure losses obtained from numerical studies were in good agreement with the experiments (<4%).

RevDate: 2020-03-20

Sherlin GC (1960)

Behavior of Isolated Disturbances Superimposed on Laminar Flow in a Rectangular Pipe.

Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards. Section A, Physics and chemistry, 64A(4):281-289.

An investigation was conducted in a horizontal transparent rectangular pipe to study the behavior, in laminar flow, of an isolated turbulent-like disturbance produced by injecting a quantity of dye into the pipe 39 feet from the entrance. As the resulting mass of colored water moved downstream, time-distance measurements were made for the front of the dye mass and for the rear of the disturbance. The experimental setup, which is described in some detail, permitted reasonable control over the mean flow rate from which Reynolds number was calculated. The utilization of the data unfolded a functional relationship among three quantities: The ratio of the velocity of the rear of the disturbance to the velocity of the front of the dye UR/UF ; the distance from the origin, XF ; and the Reynolds number R. The similarity of this work to that being done by Lindgren in Stockholm is mentioned.

RevDate: 2020-03-14

Thirani S, Gupta P, C Scalo (2020)

Knudsen number effects on the nonlinear acoustic spectral energy cascade.

Physical review. E, 101(2-1):023101.

We present a numerical investigation of the effects of gas rarefaction on the energy dynamics of resonating planar nonlinear acoustic waves. The problem setup is a gas-filled, adiabatic tube, excited from one end by a piston oscillating at the fundamental resonant frequency of the tube and closed at the other end; nonlinear wave steepening occurs until a limit cycle is reached, resulting in shock formation for sufficiently high densities. The Knudsen number, defined here as the ratio of the characteristic molecular collision timescale to the resonance period, is varied in the range Kn=10^{-1}-10^{-5}, from rarefied to dense regime, by changing the base density of the gas. The working fluid is Argon. A numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation, closed with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model, is used to simulate cases for Kn≥0.01. The fully compressible one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are used for Kn<0.01 with adaptive mesh refinement to resolve the resonating weak shocks, reaching wave Mach numbers up to 1.01. Nonlinear wave steepening and shock formation are associated with spectral broadening of the acoustic energy in the wavenumber-frequency domain; the latter is defined based on the exact energy corollary for second-order nonlinear acoustics derived by Gupta and Scalo [Phys. Rev. E 98, 033117 (2018)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.98.033117], representing the Lyapunov function of the system. At the limit cycle, the acoustic energy spectra exhibit an equilibrium energy cascade with a -2 slope in the inertial range, also observed in freely decaying nonlinear acoustic waves by the same authors. In the present system, energy is introduced externally via a piston at low wavenumbers or frequencies and balanced by thermoviscous dissipation at high wavenumbers or frequencies, responsible for the base temperature increase in the system. The thermoviscous dissipation rate is shown to scale as Kn^{2} for fixed Reynolds number based on the maximum velocity amplitude, i.e., increasing with the degree of flow rarefaction; consistently, the smallest length scale of the steepened waves at the limit cycle, corresponding to the thickness of the shock (when present) also increases with Kn. For a given fixed piston velocity amplitude, the bandwidth of the inertial range of the spectral energy cascade decreases with increasing Knudsen numbers, resulting in a reduced resonant response of the system. By exploiting dimensionless scaling laws borrowed by Kolmogorov's theory of hydrodynamic turbulence, it is shown that an inertial range for spectral energy transfer can be expected for acoustic Reynolds numbers Re_{U_{max}}>100, based on the maximum acoustic velocity amplitude in the domain.

RevDate: 2020-03-10

Krieg M, K Mohseni (2020)

Transient Pressure Modeling in Jetting Animals.

Journal of theoretical biology pii:S0022-5193(20)30092-8 [Epub ahead of print].

There are many marine animals that employ a form of jet propulsion to move through the water, often creating the jets by expanding and collapsing internal fluid cavities. Due to the unsteady nature of this form of locomotion and complex body/nozzle geometries, standard modeling techniques prove insufficient at capturing internal pressure dynamics, and hence swimming forces. This issue has been resolved with a novel technique for predicting the pressure inside deformable jet producing cavities (M. Krieg and K. Mohseni, J. Fluid Mech., 769, 2015), which is derived from evolution of the surrounding fluid circulation. However, this model was only validated for an engineered jet thruster with simple geometry and relatively high Reynolds number (Re) jets. The purpose of this manuscript is twofold: (i) to demonstrate how the circulation based pressure model can be used to analyze different animal body motions as they relate to propulsive output, for multiple species of jetting animals, (ii) and to quantitatively validate the pressure modeling for biological jetting organisms (typically characterized by complicated cavity geometry and low/intermediate Re flows). Using jellyfish (Sarsia tubulosa) as an example, we show that the pressure model is insensitive to complex cavity geometry, and can be applied to lower Re swimming. By breaking down the swimming behavior of the jellyfish, as well as that of squid and dragonfly larvae, according to circulation generating mechanisms, we demonstrate that the body motions of Sarsia tubulosa are optimized for acceleration at the beginning of pulsation as a survival response. Whereas towards the end of jetting, the velar morphology is adjusted to decrease the energetic cost. Similarly, we show that mantle collapse rates in squid maximize propulsive efficiency. Finally, we observe that the hindgut geometry of dragonfly larvae minimizes the work required to refill the cavity. Date Received: 10-18-2019, Date Accepted: 99-99-9999 *kriegmw@hawaii.edu, UHM Ocean and Res Eng, 2540 Dole St, Honolulu, HI 96822.

RevDate: 2020-03-03

Fang WZ, Ham S, Qiao R, et al (2020)

Magnetic Actuation of Surface Walkers: The Effects of Confinement and Inertia.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Driven by a magnetic field, the rotation of a particle near a wall can be rectified into a net translation. The particles thus actuated, or surface walkers, are a kind of active colloids that find applications in biology and microfluidics. Here, we investigate the motion of spherical surface walkers confined between two walls using simulations based on the immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann method. The degree of confinement and the nature of the confining walls (slip vs. no-slip) significantly affect a particle's translation speed and can even reverse its translation direction. When the rotational Reynolds number Reω is larger than 1, inertia effects reduce the critical frequency of the applied magnetic fields, beyond which the sphere can no longer follow the applied fields. The reduction of the critical frequency is especially pronounced when the sphere is confined near a no-slip wall. As Reω increases beyond 1, even when a sphere still rotates synchronously with the applied field, its translational Reynolds number no longer increases linearly with Reω and even decreases when Reω exceeds ~10.

RevDate: 2020-03-02

Mensch AE, TG Cleary (2019)

Measurements and predictions of thermophoretic soot deposition.

International journal of heat and mass transfer, 143:.

A thin laminar flow channel with a transverse temperature gradient was used to examine thermophoretic deposition of soot aerosol particles in experiments and modeled in Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) simulations. Conditions investigated included three flowrates, with nominal Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter of 55, 115 and 230, and two applied temperature gradients, nominally 10 °C/mm and 20 °C/mm, with repeats. Soot was generated from a propene diffusion flame. The burner exhaust was mixed with dilution air, and most large agglomerates greater than 1 μm aerodynamic diameter were removed prior to the channel inlet. The expected thermophoretic velocity of the aerosol was calculated from the applied temperature gradient. A calculated deposition velocity was determined from the mass of deposition, the channel inlet soot concentration, and the exposure time. Uniform soot deposition allowed targets to be used to measure the mass of deposition on the cold side of the channel. The mass of deposition was also determined by subtracting the mass of soot exiting the channel from the mass of soot entering the channel during the exposure time. The deposition velocities from these two methods generally agreed with the thermophoretic velocity and with each other. The deposition mass predicted by the FDS model also compared well with the experiments in most cases. The disagreements for the lowest flow rate cases are attributed to buoyant flow effects adding uncertainty to the actual temperature gradients present in the channel. (The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this paper are the authors' and do not represent the views or policies of NIST or the United States Government.).

RevDate: 2020-02-26

Stixrude L, Scipioni R, MP Desjarlais (2020)

A silicate dynamo in the early Earth.

Nature communications, 11(1):935 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-14773-4.

The Earth's magnetic field has operated for at least 3.4 billion years, yet how the ancient field was produced is still unknown. The core in the early Earth was surrounded by a molten silicate layer, a basal magma ocean that may have survived for more than one billion years. Here we use density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations to predict the electrical conductivity of silicate liquid at the conditions of the basal magma ocean: 100-140 GPa, and 4000-6000 K. We find that the electrical conductivity exceeds 10,000 S/m, more than 100 times that measured in silicate liquids at low pressure and temperature. The magnetic Reynolds number computed from our results exceeds the threshold for dynamo activity and the magnetic field strength is similar to that observed in the Archean paleomagnetic record. We therefore conclude that the Archean field was produced by the basal magma ocean.

RevDate: 2020-02-25

Rehman D, Joseph J, Morini GL, et al (2020)

A Hybrid Numerical Methodology Based on CFD and Porous Medium for Thermal Performance Evaluation of Gas to Gas Micro Heat Exchanger.

Micromachines, 11(2): pii:mi11020218.

In micro heat exchangers, due to the presence of distributing and collecting manifolds as well as hundreds of parallel microchannels, a complete conjugate heat transfer analysis requires a large amount of computational power. Therefore in this study, a novel methodology is developed to model the microchannels as a porous medium where a compressible gas is used as a working fluid. With the help of such a reduced model, a detailed flow analysis through individual microchannels can be avoided by studying the device as a whole at a considerably less computational cost. A micro heat exchanger with 133 parallel microchannels (average hydraulic diameter of 200 μ m) in both cocurrent and counterflow configurations is investigated in the current study. Hot and cold streams are separated by a stainless-steel partition foil having a thickness of 100 μ m. Microchannels have a rectangular cross section of 200 μ m × 200 μ m with a wall thickness of 100 μ m in between. As a first step, a numerical study for conjugate heat transfer analysis of microchannels only, without distributing and collecting manifolds is performed. Mass flow inside hot and cold fluid domains is increased such that inlet Reynolds number for both domains remains within the laminar regime. Inertial and viscous coefficients extracted from this study are then utilized to model pressure and temperature trends within the porous medium model. To cater for the density dependence of inertial and viscous coefficients due to the compressible nature of gas flow in microchannels, a modified formulation of Darcy-Forschheimer law is adopted. A complete model of a double layer micro heat exchanger with collecting and distributing manifolds where microchannels are modeled as the porous medium is finally developed and used to estimate the overall heat exchanger effectiveness of the investigated micro heat exchanger. A comparison of computational results using proposed hybrid methodology with previously published experimental results of the same micro heat exchanger showed that adopted methodology can predict the heat exchanger effectiveness within the experimental uncertainty for both cocurrent and counterflow configurations.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Luo J, Chen L, Li K, et al (2020)

Optimal kinematic dynamos in a sphere.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 476(2233):20190675.

A variational optimization approach is used to optimize kinematic dynamos in a unit sphere and locate the enstrophy-based critical magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action. The magnetic boundary condition is chosen to be either pseudo-vacuum or perfectly conducting. Spectra of the optimal flows corresponding to these two magnetic boundary conditions are identical since theory shows that they are relatable by reversing the flow field (Favier & Proctor 2013 Phys. Rev. E88, 031001 (doi:10.1103/physreve.88.031001)). A no-slip boundary for the flow field gives a critical magnetic Reynolds number of 62.06, while a free-slip boundary reduces this number to 57.07. Optimal solutions are found to possess certain rotation symmetries (or anti-symmetries) and optimal flows share certain common features. The flows localize in a small region near the sphere's centre and spiral upwards with very large velocity and vorticity, so that they are locally nearly Beltrami. We also derive a new lower bound on the magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action, which, for the case of enstrophy normalization, is five times larger than the previous best bound.

RevDate: 2020-02-21

Jose S, R Govindarajan (2020)

Non-normal origin of modal instabilities in rotating plane shear flows.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 476(2233):20190550.

Small variations introduced in shear flows are known to affect stability dramatically. Rotation of the flow system is one example, where the critical Reynolds number for exponential instabilities falls steeply with a small increase in rotation rate. We ask whether there is a fundamental reason for this sensitivity to rotation. We answer in the affirmative, showing that it is the non-normality of the stability operator in the absence of rotation which triggers this sensitivity. We treat the flow in the presence of rotation as a perturbation on the non-rotating case, and show that the rotating case is a special element of the pseudospectrum of the non-rotating case. Thus, while the non-rotating flow is always modally stable to streamwise-independent perturbations, rotating flows with the smallest rotation are unstable at zero streamwise wavenumber, with the spanwise wavenumbers close to that of disturbances with the highest transient growth in the non-rotating case. The instability critical rotation number scales inversely as the square of the Reynolds number, which we demonstrate is the same as the scaling obeyed by the minimum perturbation amplitude in non-rotating shear flow needed for the pseudospectrum to cross the neutral line. Plane Poiseuille flow and plane Couette flow are shown to behave similarly in this context.

RevDate: 2020-02-18

Razavi Bazaz S, Mashhadian A, Ehsani A, et al (2020)

Computational inertial microfluidics: a review.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

Since the discovery of inertial focusing in 1961, numerous theories have been put forward to explain the migration of particles in inertial flows, but a complete understanding is still lacking. Recently, computational approaches have been utilized to obtain better insights into the underlying physics. In particular, fundamental aspects of particle focusing inside straight and curved microchannels have been explored in detail to determine the dependence of focusing behavior on particle size, channel shape, and flow Reynolds number. In this review, we differentiate between the models developed for inertial particle motion on the basis of whether they are semi-analytical, Navier-Stokes-based, or built on the lattice Boltzmann method. This review provides a blueprint for the consideration of numerical solutions for modeling of inertial particle motion, whether deformable or rigid, spherical or non-spherical, and whether suspended in Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluids. In each section, we provide the general equations used to solve particle motion, followed by a tutorial appendix and specified sections to engage the reader with details of the numerical studies. Finally, we address the challenges ahead in the modeling of inertial particle microfluidics for future investigators.

RevDate: 2020-02-17

Tanveer A, Salahuddin T, Khan M, et al (2019)

Theoretical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow in a microchannel.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 191:105280 pii:S0169-2607(19)31978-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In this work the theoretical analysis is presented for a electroosmotic flow of Bingham nanofluid induced by applied electrostatic potential. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is considered in the presence of Electric double layer (EDL). A Bingham fluid model is employed to describe the rheological behavior of the non-Newtonian fluid. Mathematical formulation is presented under the assumption of long wavelength and small Reynolds number. Flow characteristics are investigated by employing Debye-Huckel linearization principle. Such preferences have not been reported previously for non-Newtonian Bingham nanofluid to the best of author's knowledge.

METHOD: The transformed equations for electroosmotic flow are solved to seek values for the nanofluid velocity, concentration and temperature along the channel length.

RESULTS: The effects of key parameters like Brinkmann number, Prandtl number, Debey Huckel parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter are plotted on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Graphical results for the flow phenomenon are discussed briefly.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-uniformity in channel as well as yield stress τ0 cause velocity declaration for both positive and negative values of U. Nanofluid temperature is found an increasing function of electro osmotic parameter κ if U is positive while it is a decreasing function if U is negative. A completely reverse response is seen in case of concentration profile. The thermophoresis parameter Nt, the Brow nian motion parameter Nb and Brinkman number Br cause an enhancement in temperature. The results are new in case of U.

RevDate: 2020-02-18

Yan SR, Sedeh S, Toghraie D, et al (2020)

Analysis and manegement of laminar blood flow inside a cerebral blood vessel using a finite volume software program for biomedical engineering.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 190:105384 pii:S0169-2607(19)32471-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hemodynamic blood flow analysis in the cerebrovascular is has become one of the important research topics in the bio-mechanic in recent decades. The primary duty of the cerebral blood vessel is supplying Glucose and oxygen for the brain.

METHODS: In this investigation, the non-Newtonian blood flow in the cerebral blood vessels studied. For modeling the geometry of this problem, we used Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) approach to take Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images and using an open-source software package to construct the geometry, which is a complicated one. The power-law indexes, heat flux, and Reynolds number range in the investigation are 0.6 ≤ n ≤ 0.8, 5 ≤ q ≤ 15Wm-2 and 160≤Re≤310. Effects of Reynolds number, power-law indexes and heat fluxes are investigated.

RESULTS: We found that the pressure drop increase with increasing the Reynolds number and power-law index. The maximum Nusselt number in the cerebral blood vessels accrued in the running position of the body in n = 0.8. Also, the highest average wall shear stress occurs in maximum power-law indexes and Reynolds number.

CONCLUSION: By increasing the power-law index and Reynolds number, the wall shear stress increases.

RevDate: 2020-02-13

Waheed S, Noreen S, Tripathi D, et al (2020)

Electrothermal transport of third-order fluids regulated by peristaltic pumping.

Journal of biological physics pii:10.1007/s10867-020-09540-x [Epub ahead of print].

The study of heat and electroosmotic characteristics in the flow of a third-order fluid regulated by peristaltic pumping is examined by using governing equations, i.e., the continuity equation, momentum equation, energy equation, and concentration equation. The wavelength is considered long compared to its height and a low Reynolds number is assumed. The velocity slip condition is employed. Analytical solutions are performed through the perturbation technique. The expressions for the dimensionless velocity components, temperature, concentration, and heat transfer rate are obtained. Pumping features were computed numerically for discussion of results. Trapping and heat transfer coefficient distributions were also studied graphically. The findings of the present study can be applied to design biomicrofluidic devices like tumor-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Cerbus RT, Liu CC, Gioia G, et al (2020)

Small-scale universality in the spectral structure of transitional pipe flows.

Science advances, 6(4):eaaw6256 pii:aaw6256.

Turbulent flows are not only everywhere, but every turbulent flow is the same at small scales. The extraordinary simplification engendered by this "small-scale universality" is a hallmark of turbulence theory. However, on the basis of the restrictive assumptions invoked by A. N. Kolmogorov to demonstrate this universality, it is widely thought that only idealized turbulent flows conform to this framework. Using experiments and simulations that span a wide range of Reynolds number, we show that small-scale universality governs the spectral structure of a class of flows with no apparent ties to the idealized flows: transitional pipe flows. Our results not only extend the universality of Kolmogorov's framework beyond expectation but also establish an unexpected link between transitional pipe flows and Kolmogorovian turbulence.

RevDate: 2020-02-11

Usherwood JR, Cheney JA, Song J, et al (2020)

High aerodynamic lift from the tail reduces drag in gliding raptors.

The Journal of experimental biology, 223(Pt 3): pii:223/3/jeb214809.

Many functions have been postulated for the aerodynamic role of the avian tail during steady-state flight. By analogy with conventional aircraft, the tail might provide passive pitch stability if it produced very low or negative lift. Alternatively, aeronautical principles might suggest strategies that allow the tail to reduce inviscid, induced drag: if the wings and tail act in different horizontal planes, they might benefit from biplane-like aerodynamics; if they act in the same plane, lift from the tail might compensate for lift lost over the fuselage (body), reducing induced drag with a more even downwash profile. However, textbook aeronautical principles should be applied with caution because birds have highly capable sensing and active control, presumably reducing the demand for passive aerodynamic stability, and, because of their small size and low flight speeds, operate at Reynolds numbers two orders of magnitude below those of light aircraft. Here, by tracking up to 20,000, 0.3 mm neutrally buoyant soap bubbles behind a gliding barn owl, tawny owl and goshawk, we found that downwash velocity due to the body/tail consistently exceeds that due to the wings. The downwash measured behind the centreline is quantitatively consistent with an alternative hypothesis: that of constant lift production per planform area, a requirement for minimizing viscous, profile drag. Gliding raptors use lift distributions that compromise both inviscid induced drag minimization and static pitch stability, instead adopting a strategy that reduces the viscous drag, which is of proportionately greater importance to lower Reynolds number fliers.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Wu Z, Zaki TA, C Meneveau (2020)

High-Reynolds-number fractal signature of nascent turbulence during transition.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1916636117 [Epub ahead of print].

Transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurring over a smooth surface is a particularly important route to chaos in fluid dynamics. It often occurs via sporadic inception of spatially localized patches (spots) of turbulence that grow and merge downstream to become the fully turbulent boundary layer. A long-standing question has been whether these incipient spots already contain properties of high-Reynolds-number, developed turbulence. In this study, the question is posed for geometric scaling properties of the interface separating turbulence within the spots from the outer flow. For high-Reynolds-number turbulence, such interfaces are known to display fractal scaling laws with a dimension [Formula: see text], where the 1/3 excess exponent above 2 (smooth surfaces) follows from Kolmogorov scaling of velocity fluctuations. The data used in this study are from a direct numerical simulation, and the spot boundaries (interfaces) are determined by using an unsupervised machine-learning method that can identify such interfaces without setting arbitrary thresholds. Wide separation between small and large scales during transition is provided by the large range of spot volumes, enabling accurate measurements of the volume-area fractal scaling exponent. Measurements show a dimension of [Formula: see text] over almost 5 decades of spot volume, i.e., trends fully consistent with high-Reynolds-number turbulence. Additional observations pertaining to the dependence on height above the surface are also presented. Results provide evidence that turbulent spots exhibit high-Reynolds-number fractal-scaling properties already during early transitional and nonisotropic stages of the flow evolution.

RevDate: 2020-02-06

Xu Z, Qin H, Li P, et al (2020)

Computational fluid dynamics approaches to drag and wake of a long-line mussel dropper under tidal current.

Science progress, 103(1):36850419901235.

Hydrodynamic effects of mussel farms have attracted increased research attentions in recent years. The understanding of the hydrodynamic impacts is essential for predicting the sustainability of mussel farms. A large mussel farm includes thousands of mussel droppers, and the combined drag on the mussel droppers is sufficient to possibly affect the longevity of the entire long-lines. This article intends to study the drag and wake of an individual long-line mussel dropper using computational fluid dynamics approaches. Two equivalent rough cylinders, namely, Curved-Model and Sharp-Model, have been utilized to simulate the mussel dropper, and each rough cylinder is assigned with surface roughness. The porosity is not considered in this article due to its complexity from inhalant and exhalant of mussels. Two-dimensional laminar simulations are conducted at Reynolds number from 10 to 200, and three-dimensional large eddy simulations are conducted at subcritical Reynolds number ranging from 3900 to 10 5 . The results show that larger drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers are attributed to surface roughness and sharp crowns on the rough cylinder. The obtained drag coefficient ranges from 1.1 to 1.2 with respect to the diameter of the mussel dropper and the peak value of the tidal velocities. Wakes behind rough cylinders fluctuate more actively compared to those of smooth cylinders. This research work provides new insight for further investigations on hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and mussel droppers.

RevDate: 2020-02-02

Ganta N, Mahato B, YG Bhumkar (2020)

Prediction of the aerodynamic sound generated due to flow over a cylinder performing combined steady rotation and rotary oscillations.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147(1):325.

Analysis of sound generated due to a laminar flow past a circular cylinder subjected to the mean rotation along with the rotary oscillating motion has been performed for the Reynolds number Re = 150 and the Mach number M = 0.2. The direct numerical simulation approach has been used to study modifications in the generated sound field over a range of forcing parameters using disturbance pressure field information. Flow and sound fields are accurately resolved over a nondimensional radial distance r≤100 from the center of the cylinder. Frequencies, as well as wavelengths of generated sound waves, have been effectively altered by varying the forcing frequency-ratio, whereas the directivity nature of the radiated sound field has been modified by varying the forcing amplitude-ratio. Doak's decomposition technique has been used to understand the reasons behind changes in the radiated sound fields as the forcing parameters are varied.

RevDate: 2020-02-01

Alouges F, G Di Fratta (2020)

Parking 3-sphere swimmer: II. The long-arm asymptotic regime.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 43(2):6 pii:10.1140/epje/i2020-11932-5.

The paper carries on our previous investigations on the complementary version of Purcell's rotator (sPr3): a low-Reynolds-number swimmer composed of three balls of equal radii. In the asymptotic regime of very long arms, the Stokes-induced governing dynamics is derived, and then experimented in the context of energy-minimizing self-propulsion characterized in the first part of the paper.

RevDate: 2020-01-30

Liu P, Liu H, Yang Y, et al (2020)

Comparison of design methods for negative pressure gradient rotary bodies: A CFD study.

PloS one, 15(1):e0228186 pii:PONE-D-19-20026.

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to test two body design methods which use negative pressure gradient to suppress laminar flow separation and drag reduction. The steady-state model of the Transition SST model is used to calculate the pressure distribution, wall shear stress, and drag coefficient under zero angle of attack at different velocities. Four bodies designed by two different methods are considered. Our results show the first method is superior to the body of Hansen in drag reduction and the body designed by the first method is more likely to obtain the characteristics of suppressing or eliminating separation, which can effectively improve laminar flow coverage to achieve drag reduction under higher Reynolds number conditions. The results show that the negative pressure gradient method can suppress separation and drag reduction better than the second method. This successful design method is expected to open a promising prospect for its application in the design of small drag, small noise subsonic hydrodynamic hull and underwater weapons.

RevDate: 2020-01-28

Nguyen KH, Gemmell BJ, JR Rohr (2020)

Effects of temperature and viscosity on miracidial and cercarial movement of Schistosoma mansoni: ramifications for disease transmission.

International journal for parasitology pii:S0020-7519(20)30009-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Parasites with complex life cycles can be susceptible to temperature shifts associated with seasonal changes, especially as free-living larvae that depend on a fixed energy reserve to survive outside the host. The life cycle of Schistosoma, a trematode genus containing some species that cause human schistosomiasis, has free-living, aquatic miracidial and cercarial larval stages that swim using cilia or a forked tail, respectively. The small size of these swimmers (150-350 µm) dictates that their propulsion is dominated by viscous forces. Given that viscosity inhibits the swimming ability of small organisms and is inversely correlated with temperature, changes in temperature should affect the ability of free-living larval stages to swim and locate a host. By recording miracidial and cercarial movement of Schistosoma mansoni using a high-speed camera and manipulating temperature and viscosity independently, we assessed the role each factor plays in the swimming mechanics of the parasite. We found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of viscosity on miracidial and cercarial speed. Reynolds numbers, which describe the ratio of inertial to viscous forces exerted on an aquatic organism, were <1 across treatments. Q10 values were <2 when comparing viscosity treatments at 20°C and 30°C, further supporting the influence of viscosity on miracidial and cercarial speed. Given that both larval stages have limited energy reserves and infection takes considerable energy, successful transmission depends on both speed and lifespan. We coupled our speed data with mortality measurements across temperatures and discovered that the theoretical maximum distance travelled increased with temperature and decreased with viscosity for both larval stages. Thus, our results suggest that S. mansoni transmission is high during warm times of the year, partly due to improved swimming performance of the free-living larval stages, and that increases in temperature variation associated with climate change might further increase transmission.

RevDate: 2020-01-28

Fauzi FB, Ismail E, Syed Abu Bakar SN, et al (2020)

The role of gas-phase dynamics in interfacial phenomena during few-layer graphene growth through atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition.

Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP [Epub ahead of print].

The complicated chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is currently the most viable method of producing graphene. Most studies have extensively focused on chemical aspects either through experiments or computational studies. However, gas-phase dynamics in CVD reportedly plays an important role in improving graphene quality. Given that mass transport is the rate-limiting step for graphene deposition in atmospheric-pressure CVD (APCVD), the interfacial phenomena at the gas-solid interface (i.e., the boundary layer) are a crucial controlling factor. Accordingly, only by understanding and controlling the boundary-layer thickness can uniform full-coverage graphene deposition be achieved. In this study, a simplified computational fluid dynamics analysis of APCVD was performed to investigate gas-phase dynamics during deposition. Boundary-layer thickness was also estimated through the development of a customised homogeneous gas model. Interfacial phenomena, particularly the boundary layer and mass transport within it, were studied. The effects of Reynolds number on these factors were explored and compared with experimentally obtained results of the characterised graphene deposit. We then discussed and elucidated the important relation of fluid dynamics to graphene growth through APCVD.

RevDate: 2020-01-26

Asghar Z, Ali N, Javid K, et al (2020)

Bio-inspired propulsion of micro-swimmers within a passive cervix filled with couple stress mucus.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 189:105313 pii:S0169-2607(19)31516-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The swimming mechanism of self-propelling organisms has been imitated by biomedical engineers to design the mechanical micro bots. The interaction of these swimmers with surrounding environment is another important aspect. The present swimming problem integrates Taylor sheet model with couple stress fluid model. The thin passage containing micro-swimmers and mucus is approximated as a rigid (passive) two-dimensional channel. The spermatozoa forms a pack quite similar as a complex wavy sheet.

METHODS: Swimming problem with couple stress cervical liquid (at low Reynolds number) leads to a linear sixth order differential equation. The boundary value problem (BVP) is solved analytically with two unknowns i.e. speed of complex wavy sheet and flow rate of couple stress mucus. After utilizing this solution into equilibrium conditions these unknowns can be computed via Newton-Raphson algorithm. Furthermore, the pairs of numerically calculated organism speed and flow rate are utilized in the expression of power dissipation.

RESULTS: This work describes that the speed of micro-swimmers can be enhanced by suitable rheology of the surrounding liquid. The usage of couple stress fluid as compared to Newtonian fluid enhances the energy dissipation and reduces the flow rate. On the other hand complex wavy surface also aids the organisms to swim faster.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Zhu Y, Yang G, Zhuang C, et al (2020)

Oral cavity flow distribution and pressure drop in balaenid whales feeding: A theoretical analysis.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Balaenid whales, as continuous ram filter feeders, can efficiently separate prey from water by baleen. The feeding process of balaenid whales is extremely complex, in which the flow distribution and pressure drop in the oral cavity play a significant role. In this paper, a theoretical model coupled with oral cavity velocity and pressure in balaenid whales is established based on mass conservation, momentum conservation and pressure drop equations, considering both the inertial and the friction terms. A discrete method with section-by-section calculation is adopted to solve the theoretical model. The effects of four crucial parameters, i.e., the ratio of filtration area to inlet area (S), the Reynolds number of entrance (Rein), the ratio of thickness to permeability of the porous media formed by the fringe layer (φ) and the width ratio of the anteroposterior canal within the mouth along the tongue (APT channel) to that along the lip (APL channel) (H) are discussed. The results show that, for a give case, the flow distribution and the pressure drop both show increasing trends with the flow direction. For different cases, whenSis small,Reinis small andφis large, a good flow pattern emerges with a smoother flow speed near the oropharynx, better drainage, better shunting and filtration, and higher energy efficiency. However, for smaller values ofH, some energy efficiency is sacrificed to achieve additional average transverse flow in order to produce better shunting and filtration. The research in this paper provides a reference for the design of high-efficiency bionic filters.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Afrouzi HH, Ahmadian M, Hosseini M, et al (2020)

Simulation of blood flow in arteries with aneurysm: Lattice Boltzmann Approach (LBM).

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 187:105312 pii:S0169-2607(19)31835-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In most countries, the higher death rates are due to cardiovascular disease and stroke. These problems often derive from irregular blood flow and the circulatory system disorder.

METHODS: In this paper, the blood flow is simulated in a created aneurysm in the artery upon using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Blood is selected as a non-Newtonian fluid which was simulated with power-law model. The lattice Boltzmann results for non-Newtonian fluid flow with power-law model and the curved boundary are compared and validated with previous studies which show a good agreement. In this study, simulations are carried out for two types of aneurysms. For the first aneurysm, three power-law exponents of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 at Reynolds number of 100 for three different cases are investigated.

RESULTS: The results show that the wall shear stress increases with increasing the power-law exponent. In addition, in the main duct of artery where the velocity is larger, shear stress is lower due to the smaller velocity gradient. For the second Aneurysm, the simulations are done for three Reynolds numbers of 100, 150 and 200, and three Womersley numbers of 4, 12 and 20. The blood flow is pulsating at the inlet such as the real pulsating wave in the blood. Results show that with increasing the Womersley number, the velocity profiles in the middle of the aneurysm are closer at a constant Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: With increasing the Reynolds number, the range of vortices and values of velocity and tension grow in the aneurysm.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Porté-Agel F, Bastankhah M, S Shamsoddin (2020)

Wind-Turbine and Wind-Farm Flows: A Review.

Boundary-layer meteorology, 174(1):1-59.

Wind energy, together with other renewable energy sources, are expected to grow substantially in the coming decades and play a key role in mitigating climate change and achieving energy sustainability. One of the main challenges in optimizing the design, operation, control, and grid integration of wind farms is the prediction of their performance, owing to the complex multiscale two-way interactions between wind farms and the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). From a fluid mechanical perspective, these interactions are complicated by the high Reynolds number of the ABL flow, its inherent unsteadiness due to the diurnal cycle and synoptic-forcing variability, the ubiquitous nature of thermal effects, and the heterogeneity of the terrain. Particularly important is the effect of ABL turbulence on wind-turbine wake flows and their superposition, as they are responsible for considerable turbine power losses and fatigue loads in wind farms. These flow interactions affect, in turn, the structure of the ABL and the turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalars. This review summarizes recent experimental, computational, and theoretical research efforts that have contributed to improving our understanding and ability to predict the interactions of ABL flow with wind turbines and wind farms.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Kaminsky J, Klewicki J, B Birnir (2019)

Application of the stochastic closure theory to the Townsend-Perry constants.

Physical review. E, 100(6-1):061101.

We compare the stochastic closure theory (SCT) to the Townsend-Perry constants as estimated from measurements in the Flow Physic Facility (FPF) at the University of New Hampshire. First, we explain the derivation of the Townsend-Perry constants, which were originally formulated by Meneveau and Marusic, in analogy with a Gaussian distribution. However, this was not supported by the data. Instead, the data show a sub-Gaussian relation that was explained by Birnir and Chen. We show herein how the SCT can be used to compute the constants, which explains their sub-Gaussian relations. We then compare the SCT theory predictions, including Reynolds-number-dependent corrections, with the data, showing good agreement.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Jin Y, Cheng S, LP Chamorro (2019)

Active pitching of short splitters past a cylinder: Drag increase and wake.

Physical review. E, 100(6-1):063106.

The flow and drag induced by active pitching of plates in the wake of a cylinder of diameter d were experimentally studied for various plate lengths L as well as pitching frequencies f_{p} and amplitudes A_{0} at Reynolds number Re=1.6×10^{4}. Planar particle image velocimetry and a load cell were used to characterize the flow statistics and mean drag of a variety of cylinder-splitter assemblies. Results show the distinctive effect of active pitching on these quantities. In particular, flow recovery was significantly modulated by L, f_{p}, or A_{0}. Specific pitching settings resulted in a wake with dominant meandering patterns and faster flow recovery. We defined a modified version of the amplitude-based Strouhal number of the system St_{A} to account for the effect of the cylinder in active pitching. It characterizes the drag coefficient C_{d} across all the cases studied, and reveals two regions intersecting at a critical value of St_{A}≈0.035. Below this value, the C_{d} remained nearly constant; however, it exhibited a linear increase with increasing St_{A} past this critical point. Inspection of the integral momentum equation showed the dominant role of velocity fluctuations in modulating C_{d} past the critical St_{A}.

RevDate: 2020-01-19

Rajwa-Kuligiewicz A, Radecki-Pawlik A, Skalski T, et al (2020)

Hydromorphologically-driven variability of thermal and oxygen conditions at the block ramp hydraulic structure: The Porębianka River, Polish Carpathians.

The Science of the total environment, 713:136661 pii:S0048-9697(20)30171-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Growing anthropopressure in mountain streams aimed at limiting erosion and flood protection often caused adverse effects on the natural environment. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the restoration and conservation of natural habitats in mountain streams using environmentally friendly solutions such as the Block Ramp (BR) Hydraulic Structures. In this study we investigated the factors responsible for spatial variability in thermal and oxygen conditions at the single BR structure in the growing season, and the relation between water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. This has been done by measurements of hydraulic characteristics along with physicochemical properties of water, such as water temperature and DO concentration, at two different discharges. The redundancy analysis has been applied in order to describe the relationships among hydraulic parameters and physicochemical variables, and extract potential sources of water temperature and DO variability within the BR hydraulic structure. Results have shown that DO and water temperature distributions within the BR hydraulic structure depend on discharge conditions and are associated with the submergence of the block ramp. The highest heterogeneity in hydraulic, DO and water temperature conditions occurs at low flow and is associated with the presence of crevices between protruding cobbles at the block ramp. The lowest variability, in turn, occurs at high discharge, when the block ramp is completely submerged. The results indicated that thermal and oxygen conditions within the BR hydraulic structure are independent of hydraulic parameters at low flow. Moreover, the relation between DO concentration and water temperature is positive at low flow indicating potential impact of biological processes. On the contrary, at high discharge both, the DO concentrations and water temperature within the BR structure, depend on bed shear velocity and maximum Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Haghighinia A, S Movahedirad (2020)

Mass transfer in a novel passive micro-mixer: Flow tortuosity effects.

Analytica chimica acta, 1098:75-85.

Hydroynamic fluid tortuosity is a parameter to describe the fluid streamlines average elongation. The motivation of the present study is introducing a new concept for theoretical predictions of dynamic tortuosity effects on mass transfer in a novel three-dimensional passive T-shape micro-mixer both experimentally and by numerical simulation. In the numerical analysis, continuity, motion, and diffusion-convection equations were solved, and the amount of mass transfer and the fluid tortuosity was calculated for different rectangular winglet angles. The Reynolds number is considered in the range of 0.1-93. The results show that when the angle of winglet tends to 22.5°, the fluid tortuosity, lateral velocity, and fluid mass transfer tend to maximum values. Furthermore, the effect of fluid tortuosity on the fluid stretching as a theory of chaotic mixing is investigated.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Rhoades T, Kothapalli CR, PS Fodor (2020)

Mixing Optimization in Grooved Serpentine Microchannels.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010061.

Computational fluid dynamics modeling at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10 to 100 was used to characterize the performance of a new type of micromixer employing a serpentine channel with a grooved surface. The new topology exploits the overlap between the typical Dean flows present in curved channels due to the centrifugal forces experienced by the fluids, and the helical flows induced by slanted groove-ridge patterns with respect to the direction of the flow. The resulting flows are complex, with multiple vortices and saddle points, leading to enhanced mixing across the section of the channel. The optimization of the mixers with respect to the inner radius of curvature (Rin) of the serpentine channel identifies the designs in which the mixing index quality is both high (M > 0.95) and independent of the Reynolds number across all the values investigated.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Oktamuliani S, Hasegawa K, Y Saijo (2019)

Left Ventricular Vortices in Myocardial Infarction Observed with Echodynamography.

Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference, 2019:5816-5819.

Echodynamography (EDG) is a computational method to deduce two-dimensional (2D) blood flow vector from conventional color Doppler ultrasound image by considering that the blood flow is divided into vortex and base flow components. Left ventricular (LV) vortices indicate cardiac flow status influenced by LV wall motion. Thus, quantitative assessment of LV vortices may become new and sensitive parameters for cardiac function. In the present study, quantitative parameters of LV vortices such as vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were calculated and relation between each parameter was assessed. Six healthy volunteers and three patients with myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent color Doppler echocardiography (CDE) were involved in the study. Serial CDE images in apical three-chamber view were recorded and 2D blood flow vector was superimposed on the CDE image. Vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were compared between the normal volunteers and the MI patients. The results showed that vortex index (3.09±2.06 vs. 3.34±2.33, p<; 0.05), vortex size (1.76 0.69 vs. 2.01 ±0.68, p<; 0.05), Reynolds number (1020±603 vs.±1312 1046, p<; ±0.05) were significantly greater in the MI patients than in the healthy volunteers. Vortex equivalent diameter in LV showed significant positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.799, y = 0.001x + 0.7098, p <; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.6404, y = 0.0005x+1.3185, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. Vortex index showed positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.9351, y = 0.002x+0.1397, p<; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.758, y = 0.0019x+0.7957, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. In conclusion, EDG provides information on LV hemodynamics by quantitative LV vortices parameters both in healthy volunteers and MI patients.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Hamad EM, Sawalmeh B, Mhawsh AA, et al (2019)

Investigation of Bifurcation Effect on Various Microfluidic Designs for Blood Separation.

Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference, 2019:1097-1100.

In this project, a microfluidic device for blood separation will be designed and tested in order to separate plasma from whole blood for diagnostic purposes. The design will be based on previously implemented designs that will be further discussed in the next sections. When designing microfluidic devices, it is essential to consider the different physical phenomena that arise from switching from the macro scale to the micro scale. Parameters such as the Reynolds number and the forces affecting the fluid must be studied in order to produce a suitable and effective design. Finite element methods have been implemented prior to the production of the microfluidic devices. Various geometries/designs have been tested using Fluent ANSYS software. Later on, the successful design was fabricated using micromachining on an acrylic substrate and was tested using simulated blood through of a syringe pump.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Martínez-Merino P, Midgley S, Martín EI, et al (2020)

Novel WS2-based nanofluids for concentrating solar power: performance characterization and molecular-level insights.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Nano-colloidal suspensions of nanomaterials in a fluid, nanofluids, are appealing because of their interesting properties related to heat transfer processes. Whilst nanomaterials based on transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have been widely studied in catalysis, sensing, and energy storage applications, there are few studies of nanofluids based on TMCs for heat transfer applications. In this study, the preparation and analysis of nanofluids based on 2D-WS2 in a typical heat transfer fluid (HTF) used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is reported. Nanofluids prepared using a exfoliation process exhibited well-defined nanosheets and were highly stable. The nanofluids were characterized in terms of properties related to their application in CSP. The presence of WS2 nanosheets did not modify significantly the surface tension, the viscosity, or the isobaric specific heat, but the thermal conductivity was improved by up to 30%. The Ur factor, which characterizes the thermal efficiency of the fluid in the solar collector, shows an enhancement of up to 22% in the nanofluid, demonstrating great promise for CSP applications. The Reynolds number and friction factor of the fluid were not significantly modified by the addition of the nanomaterial to the HTF, which is also positive for practical applications in CSP plants. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the nanoparticle/fluid interface showed an irreversible dissociative adsorption of diphenyl oxide molecules on the WS2 edge, with very low kinetic barrier. The resulting 'decoration' of the WS2 edge dramatically affects the nature of the interface interactions and is therefore expected to affect significantly the rheological and transport properties of the nanofluids.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Zhang T, Moreau D, Geyer T, et al (2020)

Dataset on tip vortex formation noise produced by wall-mounted finite airfoils with flat and rounded tip geometries.

Data in brief, 28:105058 pii:105058.

The vortex generated at the tip of an airfoil such as an aircraft wing, wind turbine blade, submarine fin or propeller blade can dominate its wake and be a significant source of unwanted noise. The data collection presented in this paper consists of measurements of tip vortex formation noise produced by finite length airfoils with flat and rounded tips. These data were obtained using the specialist aeroacoustic test facilities at the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) in Cottbus, Germany and a 47-channel planar microphone array. Over 1200 unique test cases with variations in airfoil profile shape, tip geometry, angle of attack and Reynolds number were measured during the experimental campaign. The dataset contains one-third-octave band tip noise spectra that have been processed using Acoular, a Python module for acoustic beamforming.

RevDate: 2020-01-14

Salazar-Magallón JA, A Huerta de la Peña (2020)

Production of antifungal saponins in an airlift bioreactor with a cell line transformed from Solanum chrysotrichum and its activity against strawberry phytopathogens.

Preparative biochemistry & biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Biotechnology through plant cell cultures in bioreactors is a tool that allows increasing the production of secondary metabolites of commercial interest. The hydrodynamic characterization, in addition to the transfer (OTR) and uptake (OUR) of oxygen through the dynamic method with different aeration rate, were used to see their influence on the production of biomass and saponins. The culture poisoning technique was used to determine the antifungal activity of the SC-2 and SC-3 saponins in vitro. Likewise, the shear or hydrodynamic stress of 273.6 mN/m2 were calculated based on the Reynolds Number. The oxygen supply (OTR) was always greater than the demand (OUR) for all the aeration rate evaluated. Dry weight values of 8.6 gDW/L and a concentration of 2.7 mg/L and 187.3 mg/L of the saponins SC-2 and SC-3 respectively were obtained with an air flow of 0.1 vvm. In addition, it was possible to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro by up to 93%, while in vivo it was possible to reduce the infections of strawberry seeds inoculated with phytopathogens, obtaining up to 94% of germinated seeds. This information will facilitate the rational operation of the bioreactor culture system that produces secondary metabolites.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Hu X, Lin J, Chen D, et al (2020)

Influence of non-Newtonian power law rheology on inertial migration of particles in channel flow.

Biomicrofluidics, 14(1):014105.

In this paper, the inertial migration of particles in the channel flow of power-law fluid is numerically investigated. The effects of the power-law index (n), Reynolds number (Re), blockage ratio (k), and channel aspect ratio (AR) on the inertial migration of particles and equilibrium position are explored. The results show that there exist two stages of particle migration and four stable equilibrium positions for particles in the cross section of a square channel. The particle equilibrium positions in a rectangular channel are much different from those in a square channel. In shear-thinning fluids, the long channel face equilibrium position and two kinds of particle trajectories are found at low Re. With increasing Re, the short channel face equilibrium position turns to be stable, multiequilibrium positions, and three kinds of particle trajectories along the long wall start to form. Only two stable equilibrium positions exist in shear-thickening fluids. The equilibrium positions are getting closer to the channel centerline with increasing n and k and with decreasing Re. The inertial focusing length L2 in the second stage of particle migration is much longer than inertial focusing length L1 in the first stage. In the square channel, L2 is decreased with increasing Re and k and with decreasing n. In the rectangular channel, L2 is the shortest in the shear-thinning fluid.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Feng Y, Wang Q, Duan JL, et al (2020)

Attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket.

Water research, 171:115458 pii:S0043-1354(19)31235-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The performance of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) is significantly governed by the hydrodynamics of the reactor. Though the influence of hydrodynamics on mass transfer, granular size distribution, and biogas production was well studied, the interaction between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) is poorly understood. This study used the impinging-jet technique and bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles (CH4 and CO2) and AGS. The fluxes of normalized CH4 or CO2 bubble-attachment on two kinds of AGS were directly affected by gas velocity and decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number ranged from 40 to 140. The bubble-attachment had a positive linear relationship with the contact angles, ratio of exopolymeric protein and polysaccharide, and hydrophilic functional groups of AGS. A bubble probe AFM was used to explore the adhesion force between a single bubble and AGS. The results indicated that the adhesion force between the bubbles and the two kinds of AGS also decreased with increasing approach velocity. Overall, these results contribute to a new insight into the understanding of interaction between biogas bubbles and AGS in UASB reactors.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Muhammad R, Khan MI, Jameel M, et al (2019)

Fully developed Darcy-Forchheimer mixed convective flow over a curved surface with activation energy and entropy generation.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 188:105298 pii:S0169-2607(19)31617-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mixed convection (forced+natural convection) is frequently observed in exceptionally high output devices where the forced convection isn't sufficient to dissipate all of the heat essential. At this point, consolidating natural convection with forced convection will frequently convey the ideal outcomes. Nuclear reactor technology and a few features of electronic cooling are the examples of these processes. Mixed convection problems are categorized by Richardson number (Ri), which is the ratio of Grashof number (for natural convection) and Reynolds number (for forced convection). For buoyancy or mixed convection the relative effect can be addressed by Richardson number. Typically, the natural convection is negligible when Richardson number is less than 0.1 (Ri < 0.1), forced convection is negligible when Richardson number is greater than 10 (Ri > 10) and neither is negligible when (0.1 < Ri < 10). It might be noticed that generally the forced convection is large comparative with natural convection except in case of remarkably low forced flow velocities. The current work gives significant insights regarding dissipative mixed convective Darcy-Forchheimer flow with entropy generation over a stretched curved surface. The energy equation is developed with respect to nonlinear radiation, dissipation and Ohmic heating (Joule heating). Binary reaction via activation energy is accounted.

METHOD: Curvilinear transformations are utilized to change the nonlinear PDE's into ordinary ones. Computational outcomes are obtained via NDSolve MATHEMATICA. The results are computed and discussed graphically.

RESULTS: Velocity decays for Forchheimer number. Entropy generation enhances for diffusion parameter and chemical reaction parameter. Concentration profile reduces chemical reaction parameter and enhances for activation parameter.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Rane YS, JO Marston (2020)

Computational study of fluid flow in tapered orifices for needle-free injectors.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 319:382-396 pii:S0168-3659(20)30019-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Transdermal drug delivery using spring-powered jet injection has been studied for several decades and continues to be highly sought after due to the advent of targeted needle-free techniques, especially for viscous and complex fluids. As such, this paper reports results from numerical simulations to study the role of fluid rheology and cartridge geometry on characteristics such as jet exit velocity, total pressure drop and boundary layer thickness, since these all factor in to jet stability and collimation. The numerical approach involves incompressible steady flow with turbulence modelling based on the system Reynolds number at the orifice (Re = ρdovj/μ). The results are experimentally validated for a given geometry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (101 < Re < 104), and our results indicate a sharp decrease in dimensionless pressure drop (Eu = 2∆P/ρvj2) for Re < 102) and gradually approaching the inviscid limit at Re ≥ 104. By extending the study to non-Newtonian fluids, whose rheological profile is approximated by the Carreau model, we also elucidated the effect of different rheological parameters. Lastly by studying a range of nozzle geometries such as conical, sigmoid taper and multi-tier tapers, we observe that fluid acceleration suppresses the boundary layer growth, which indicates there may be optimal geometries for creating jets to target specific tissue depths.

RevDate: 2020-01-07

Pan X, Tang L, Feng J, et al (2020)

Experimental Research on the Degradation Coefficient of Ammonia Nitrogen Under Different Hydrodynamic Conditions.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology pii:10.1007/s00128-019-02781-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Degradation coefficients for pollutants in water are important parameters that are significantly influenced by environmental conditions. In controlled experiments, the processes and trends of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) degradation in raw waters were studied under different flow conditions using a laboratory annular flume. Analysis of the observed change in NH3-N concentration with time under various flow conditions allowed calculation of a degradation efficiency (concentration change amount/initial concentration) which for NH3-N increased as the flow velocity increased. According to a first-order kinetic equation to fit the experimental data, the range of variation of the degradation coefficient of NH3-N at different flowrates was between 0.047 per day (0.01 m/s) and 0.203 per day (0.30 m/s). Dimensional analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the degradation coefficient and flow velocity (v), water depth (H), Froude number (Fr), and Reynolds number (Re), which was verified through field data collected in the Chishui River.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Sobecki C, Zhang J, C Wang (2019)

Numerical Study of Paramagnetic Elliptical Microparticles in Curved Channels and Uniform Magnetic Fields.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010037.

We numerically investigated the dynamics of a paramagnetic elliptical particle immersed in a low Reynolds number Poiseuille flow in a curved channel and under a uniform magnetic field by direct numerical simulation. A finite element method, based on an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, analyzed how the channel geometry, the strength and direction of the magnetic field, and the particle shape affected the rotation and radial migration of the particle. The net radial migration of the particle was analyzed after executing a π rotation and at the exit of the curved channel with and without a magnetic field. In the absence of a magnetic field, the rotation is symmetric, but the particle-wall distance remains the same. When a magnetic field is applied, the rotation of symmetry is broken, and the particle-wall distance increases as the magnetic field strength increases. The causation of the radial migration is due to the magnetic angular velocity caused by the magnetic torque that constantly changes directions during particle transportation. This research provides a method of magnetically manipulating non-spherical particles on lab-on-a-chip devices for industrial and biological applications.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2020-01-06

Bahrami A, Hoseinzadeh S, Heyns PS, et al (2019)

Experimental investigation of co-flow jet's airfoil flow control by hot wire anemometer.

The Review of scientific instruments, 90(12):125107.

An experimental flow control technique is given in this paper to study the jet effect on the coflow jet's airfoil with injection and suction and compared with the jet-off condition. The airfoil is CFJ0025-065-196, and the Reynolds number based on the airfoil's chord length is 105. To measure the turbulence components of flow, a hot wire anemometry apparatus in a wind tunnel has been used. In this paper, the effect of the average velocity and boundary layer thickness on the coflow jet's airfoil is analyzed. The test is done for two different coflow velocities and for different angles of attack. It is also shown that, by increasing the velocity difference between the jet and the main flow, separation is delayed, and this delay can be preserved by raising coflow velocity at higher angles of attack. So, this flow control method has a good efficiency, and it is possible to reach higher numbers of lift and lower numbers of drag coefficients.

RevDate: 2020-01-02

Pendse V, Mazumdar B, H Kumar (2020)

Formulation of experimental data based model for solid-liquid mass transfer enhancement in three phase fluidized bed using nanofluid.

Data in brief, 28:104990.

This experimental data based model in three phase fluidized bed was designed to enhance the solid-liquid mass transfer. This data focuses on mass transfer enhancement using nanomaterial. In present investigation benzoic acid-water-air system was used as three phases ie solid, liquid and gas respectively with Arachitol nano as nanomaterial in different volume percent in three phase fluidized bed. Data from experiment were collected by varying gas velocity, bed height, nanomaterial percentage and time. After a convenient selection various correlation have been derived. The data presented here is the full set of experimental value and coefficients and exponents in correlation were estimated from nonlinear optimization technique in MATLAB.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Krishnan SR, Bal J, SA Putnam (2019)

A simple analytic model for predicting the wicking velocity in micropillar arrays.

Scientific reports, 9(1):20074.

Hemiwicking is the phenomena where a liquid wets a textured surface beyond its intrinsic wetting length due to capillary action and imbibition. In this work, we derive a simple analytical model for hemiwicking in micropillar arrays. The model is based on the combined effects of capillary action dictated by interfacial and intermolecular pressures gradients within the curved liquid meniscus and fluid drag from the pillars at ultra-low Reynolds numbers [Formula: see text]. Fluid drag is conceptualized via a critical Reynolds number: [Formula: see text], where v0 corresponds to the maximum wetting speed on a flat, dry surface and x0 is the extension length of the liquid meniscus that drives the bulk fluid toward the adsorbed thin-film region. The model is validated with wicking experiments on different hemiwicking surfaces in conjunction with v0 and x0 measurements using Water [Formula: see text], viscous FC-70 [Formula: see text] and lower viscosity Ethanol [Formula: see text].

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Li H, Li Y, Huang B, et al (2019)

Flow Characteristics of the Entrance Region with Roughness Effect within Rectangular Microchannels.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010030.

We conducted systematic numerical investigations of the flow characteristics within the entrance region of rectangular microchannels. The effects of the geometrical aspect ratio and roughness on entrance lengths were analyzed. The incompressible laminar Navier-Stokes equations were solved using finite volume method (FVM). In the simulation, hydraulic diameters (Dh) ranging from 50 to 200 µm were studied, and aspect ratios of 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 were considered as well. The working fluid was set as water, and the Reynolds number ranged from 0.5 to 100. The results showed a good agreement with the conducted experiment. Correlations are proposed to predict the entrance lengths of microchannels with respect to different aspect ratios. Compared with other correlations, these new correlations are more reliable because a more practical inlet condition was considered in our investigations. Instead of considering the influence of the width and height of the microchannels, in our investigation we proved that the critical role is played by the aspect ratio, representing the combination of the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the existence of rough elements obviously shortens the entrance region, and this effect became more pronounced with increasing relative roughness and Reynolds number. A similar effect could be seen by shortening the roughness spacing. An asymmetric distribution of rough elements decreased the entrance length compared with a symmetric distribution, which can be extrapolated to other irregularly distributed forms.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Kang DJ (2019)

Effects of Channel Wall Twisting on the Mixing in a T-Shaped Micro-Channel.

Micromachines, 11(1): pii:mi11010026.

A new design scheme is proposed for twisting the walls of a microchannel, and its performance is demonstrated numerically. The numerical study was carried out for a T-shaped microchannel with twist angles in the range of 0 to 34π. The Reynolds number range was 0.15 to 6. The T-shaped microchannel consists of two inlet branches and an outlet branch. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the twisting scheme is an effective way to enhance the mixing in a T-shaped microchannel. The mixing enhancement is realized by the swirling of two fluids in the cross section and is more prominent as the Reynolds number decreases. The twist angle was optimized to maximize the degree of mixing (DOM), which increases with the length of the outlet branch. The twist angle was also optimized in terms of the relative mixing cost (MC). The two optimum twisting angles are generally not coincident. The optimum twist angle shows a dependence on the length of the outlet branch but it is not affected much by the Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2019-12-26

Zhang L, Zhou J, Zhang B, et al (2019)

Numerical investigation on the solid particle erosion in elbow with water-hydrate-solid flow.

Science progress [Epub ahead of print].

Erosion in pipeline caused by solid particles, which may lead to premature failure of the pipe system, is regarded as one of the most important concerns in the field of oil and gas. Therefore, the Euler-Lagrange, erosion model, and discrete phase model are applied for the purpose of simulating the erosion of water-hydrate-solid flow in submarine hydrate transportation pipeline. In this article, the flow and erosion characteristics are well verified on the basis of experiments. Moreover, analysis is conducted to have a good understanding of the effects of hydrate volume, mean curvature radius/pipe diameter (R/D) rate, flow velocity, and particle diameter on elbow erosion. It is finally obtained that the hydrate volume directly affects the Reynolds number through viscosity and the trend of the Reynolds number is consistent with the trend of erosion rate. Taking into account different R/D rates, the same Stokes number reflects different dynamic transforms of the maximum erosion zone. However, the outmost wall (zone D) will be the final erosion zone when the value of the Stokes number increases to a certain degree. In addition, the erosion rate increases sharply along with the increase of flow velocity and particle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the erosion zone can be ignored in comparison with the particle diameter. Moreover, it is observed that flow velocity is deemed as the most sensitive factor on erosion rate among these factors employed in the orthogonal experiment.

LOAD NEXT 100 CITATIONS

ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )