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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 27 May 2022 at 01:33 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-05-26

Huang F, Noël R, Berg P, et al (2022)

Simulation of the FDA nozzle benchmark: A lattice Boltzmann study.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 221:106863 pii:S0169-2607(22)00245-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Contrary to flows in small intracranial vessels, many blood flow configurations such as those found in aortic vessels and aneurysms involve larger Reynolds numbers and, therefore, transitional or turbulent conditions. Dealing with such systems require both robust and efficient numerical methods.

METHODS: We assess here the performance of a lattice Boltzmann solver with full Hermite expansion of the equilibrium and central Hermite moments collision operator at higher Reynolds numbers, especially for under-resolved simulations. To that end the food and drug administration's benchmark nozzle is considered at three different Reynolds numbers covering all regimes: (1) laminar at a Reynolds number of 500, (2) transitional at a Reynolds number of 3500, and (3) low-level turbulence at a Reynolds number of 6500.

RESULTS: The lattice Boltzmann results are compared with previously published inter-laboratory experimental data obtained by particle image velocimetry. Our results show good agreement with the experimental measurements throughout the nozzle, demonstrating the good performance of the solver even in under-resolved simulations.

CONCLUSION: In this manner, fast but sufficiently accurate numerical predictions can be achieved for flow configurations of practical interest regarding medical applications.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Mao C, Kong M, Yang Q, et al (2016)

Vorticity Deformation in Polymeric Emulsions Induced by Anisotropic Ellipsoids.

ACS macro letters, 5(8):900-903.

We study the influence of particle shape on shear-induced droplet deformation in polymeric emulsions. During shearing, droplets become elongated and rotate periodically about their major axes while aligning along the vorticity direction in ellipsoid-filled emulsions, while similar behavior is not observed in the pristine, microsphere-filled or ellipsoid-filled inverse systems. Based on the Jeffery orbit theory, the formation of anisotropic droplets with extremely small Reynolds number due to arrested coalescence in Newtonian matrix and strong confinement effect are suggested to be responsible for the vorticity alignment of droplets during slow shearing.

RevDate: 2022-05-22

Sharma S, Jain S, Saha A, et al (2022)

Evaporation dynamics of a surrogate respiratory droplet in a vortical environment.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 623:541-551 pii:S0021-9797(22)00845-1 [Epub ahead of print].

HYPOTHESIS: Vortex droplet interaction is crucial for understanding the route of disease transmission through expiratory jet where several such embedded droplets continuously interact with vortical structures of different strengths and sizes.

EXPERIMENTS: A train of vortex rings with different vortex strength, quantified with vortex Reynolds number (Re'=0,53,221,297) are made to interact with an isolated levitated droplet, and the evolution dynamics is captured using shadowgraphy, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and backlight imaging technique. NaCl-DI water solution of 0, 1, 10 and 20 wt% concentrations are used as test fluids for the droplet.

FINDINGS: The results show the dependence of evaporation characteristics on vortex strength, while the crystallization dynamics was found to be independent of it. A reduction of 12.23% and 14.6% in evaporation time was seen in case of de-ionized (DI) water and 1% wt NaCl solution respectively in presence of vortex ring train at Re'=221. In contrast to this, a minimal reduction in evaporation time (0.6% and 0.9% for DI water and 1% wt NaCl solution, respectively) is observed when Re' is increased from 221 to 297. The mechanisms for evaporation time reduction due to enhancement of convective heat and mass transfer from the droplet and shearing away of vapor layer by vortex ring interaction are discussed in this work.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Karmveer , Kumar Gupta N, Siddiqui MIH, et al (2022)

The Effect of Roughness in Absorbing Materials on Solar Air Heater Performance.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 15(9): pii:ma15093088.

Artificial roughness on the absorber of the solar air heater (SAH) is considered to be the best passive technology for performance improvement. The roughened SAHs perform better in comparison to conventional SAHs under the same operational conditions, with some penalty of higher pumping power requirements. Thermo-hydraulic performance, based on effective efficiency, is much more appropriate to design roughened SAH, as it considers both the requirement of pumping power and useful heat gain. The shape, size, and arrangement of artificial roughness are the most important factors for the performance optimization of SAHs. The parameters of artificial roughness and operating parameters, such as the Reynolds number (Re), temperature rise parameter (ΔT/I) and insolation (I) show a combined effect on the performance of SAH. In this case study, various performance parameters of SAH have been evaluated to show the effect of distinct artificial roughness, investigated previously. Therefore, thermal efficiency, thermal efficiency improvement factor (TEIF) and the effective efficiency of various roughened absorbers of SAH have been predicted. As a result, thermal and effective efficiencies strongly depend on the roughness parameter, Re and ΔT/I. Staggered, broken arc hybrid-rib roughness shows a higher value of TEIF, thermal and effective efficiencies consistently among all other distinct roughness geometries for the ascending values of ΔT/I. This roughness shows the maximum value of effective efficiency equals 74.63% at a ΔT/I = 0.01 K·m2/W. The unique combination of parameters p/e = 10, e/Dh = 0.043 and α = 60° are observed for best performance at a ΔT/I higher than 0.00789 K·m2/W.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Salem S, K Fraňa (2022)

A Wind Tunnel Study of the Flow-Induced Vibrations of a Cylindrical Piezoelectric Transducer.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 22(9): pii:s22093463.

Piezoelectric transducers are used as a sensing device to study the fluids' motion. Moreover, they are used as a harvester of energy of Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV). The current FIV harvesters in the literature rely on piezoelectric cantilevers coupled with a bluff body that creates flow instabilities. This paper studies the use of piezoelectric cylinders as a novel transducer in the field of fluid mechanics, where the transducer makes use of its bluff geometry to create instability. The study was based on wind tunnel measurements performed on four piezoelectric cylinders of different sizes over a speed range of 1-7 m/s. The paper looks at the variation of the generated voltage across the Reynolds number. It also compares the spectra of the generated open-circuit voltage to the turbulence spectra features known from the literature.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Funatani S, Tsukamoto Y, K Toriyama (2022)

Temperature Measurement of Hot Airflow Using Ultra-Fine Thermo-Sensitive Fluorescent Wires.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 22(9): pii:s22093175.

In this paper, we propose a temperature measurement method that uses ultrafine fluorescent wires to reduce the wire diameter to a much lesser extent than a thermocouple. This is possible because its structure is simple and any material can be used for the wire. Hence, ultrafine wires with a Reynolds number of less than 1.0 can be selected. Ultra-fine wires less than 50 µm in diameter were set in the test volume. The wire surfaces were coated with fluorescent paint. The test volume was illuminated using an ultraviolet light-emitting diode. The paint emits very tiny, orange-colored fluorescent light with an intensity that changes with the temperature of the atmosphere. The experimental results showed that the heating/cooling layers were well visualized and the temperature field was well analyzed.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Wang G, Fei L, KH Luo (2022)

Unified lattice Boltzmann method with improved schemes for multiphase flow simulation: Application to droplet dynamics under realistic conditions.

Physical review. E, 105(4-2):045314.

As a powerful mesoscale approach, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used for the numerical study of complex multiphase flows. Recently, Luo et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 379, 20200397 (2021)10.1098/rsta.2020.0397] proposed a unified lattice Boltzmann method (ULBM) to integrate the widely used lattice Boltzmann collision operators into a unified framework. In this study, we incorporate additional features into this ULBM in order to simulate multiphase flow under realistic conditions. A nonorthogonal moment set [Fei et al., Phys. Rev. E 97, 053309 (2018)10.1103/PhysRevE.97.053309] and the entropic-multi-relaxation-time (KBC) lattice Boltzmann model are used to construct the collision operator. An extended combined pseudopotential model is proposed to realize multiphase flow simulation at high-density ratio with tunable surface tension over a wide range. The numerical results indicate that the improved ULBM can significantly decrease the spurious velocities and adjust the surface tension without appreciably changing the density ratio. The ULBM is validated through reproducing various droplet dynamics experiments, such as binary droplet collision and droplet impingement on superhydrophobic surfaces. Finally, the extended ULBM is applied to complex droplet dynamics, including droplet pancake bouncing and droplet splashing. The maximum Weber number and Reynolds number in the simulation reach 800 and 7200, respectively, at a density ratio of 1000. The study demonstrates the generality and versatility of ULBM for incorporating schemes to tackle challenging multiphase problems.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Verma S, A Hemmati (2022)

Route to transition in propulsive performance of oscillating foil.

Physical review. E, 105(4-2):045102.

Transition in the propulsive performance and vortex synchronization of an oscillating foil in a combined heaving and pitching motion is numerically investigated at a range of reduced frequencies (0.16 ≤f^{*}≤ 0.64), phase offsets (0^{∘} ≤ϕ≤ 315^{∘}), and Reynolds number (1000≤Re≤16000). Focusing on the common case of Re=1000, the drag to thrust transition is identified on a ϕ-f^{*} phase map. Here, the range of 90^{∘} ≤ϕ≤ 225^{∘} depicted a drag-dominated regime for increasing reduced frequency. However, thrust-dominated regimes were observed for ϕ< 90^{∘} and ϕ> 225^{∘}, where increasing the reduced frequency led to an increased thrust production. The isoline-depicting drag-thrust boundary was further observed to coincide with transitions in the characteristic near-wake modes with increasing reduced frequency, which ranged from 2P+2S to 2P and reverse von Kármán modes. However, evaluation of the wake with changing phase offsets at individual reduced frequencies only depicted effects on the spatial configuration of the vortex structures, while the number of vortices shed in one oscillation period was unchanged. The existence of similar wake modes with significantly different propulsive performance clearly suggests that transitions of the wake topology may not always be a reliable tool for understanding propulsive mechanisms of fish swimming or development of underwater propulsion systems. We further assessed a possible route to drag production via investigation into the mean velocity fields at increasing phase offset and at intermediate reduced frequencies ranging from 0.24 to 0.40. This revealed bifurcation of a velocity jet behind the foil on account of the wake topology and dynamics of shed vortex structures. The changes posed by increasing ϕ on wake structure interactions further hints at potential mechanisms that limit the achievement of optimum efficiency in underwater locomotion.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Ge M, Sun C, Zhang G, et al (2022)

Combined suppression effects on hydrodynamic cavitation performance in Venturi-type reactor for process intensification.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 86:106035 pii:S1350-4177(22)00128-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Hydrodynamic cavitation is an emerging intensification technology in water treatment or chemical processing, and Venturi-type cavitation reactors exhibit advantages for industrial-scale production. The effects of temperature on hydrodynamic cavitating flows are investigated to find the optimum reaction conditions enhancing cavitating treatment intensity. Results show that the cavitation performance, including the cavitation intensity and cavitation unsteady behavior, is influenced by (1) cavitation number σ (the pressure difference affecting the vaporization process), (2) Reynolds number Re (the inertial/viscous ratio affecting the bubble size and liquid-vapor interface area), and (3) thermodynamic parameter Σ (the thermal effect affecting the temperature drop). With increasing temperature, the cavitation length first increases and then decreases, with a cavitation intensity peak at the transition temperature of 58 °C. With the growth of cavitation extent, the cavity-shedding regimes tend to transition from the attached sheet cavity to the periodic cloud cavity, and the vapor volume fluctuating frequency decreases accordingly. A combined suppression parameter (CSP) is provided to predict that, with increasing CSP value, the cavitation intensity can be decreased. Recommendations are given that working under the low-CSP range (55-60 °C) could enhance the intensification of the cavitation process.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Cherkaoui I, Bettaibi S, Barkaoui A, et al (2022)

Magnetohydrodynamic blood flow study in stenotic coronary artery using lattice Boltzmann method.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 221:106850 pii:S0169-2607(22)00232-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis are the first engender of death in the world. The malfunctioning of cardiovascular system is attributed mainly to hemodynamics. However, blood magnetic properties are of major haemodynamic interest, with significant clinical applications. The aim of this work is to study numerically the effect of high magnetic field on blood flow in stenotic artery.

METHODS: In this paper, a double population D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model is proposed. Velocity and magnetic field are both solved using Lattice Boltzmann method with single relaxation time. Blood is considered homogeneous and Newtonian bio-magnetic fluid. The results of the proposed model are compared and validated by recent numerical and experimental studies in the literature and show good agreement. In this study, simulations are carried out for both hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics. For the magneto-hydrodynamic case, five values of Hartmann number of 10, 30, 50, 75 and 100 at Reynolds number of 400, 600 and 800 are investigated Results: The results show that velocity and recirculation zone increase with the increase of the degree of stenosis and Reynolds number. In addition, a considerable decrease in velocity, recirculation zones and pressure drop across the stenotic artery is noticed with the increase of Hartmann number.

CONCLUSION: The suggested model is found to be effective and accurate in the treatment of magneto-hydrodynamic blood flow in stenotic artery. The found results can be used by clinicians in the treatment of certain cardiovascular disorders and in regulating blood flow movement, especially during surgical procedures.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Chew SH, Hoi SM, Tran MV, et al (2022)

Partially-covered fractal induced turbulence on fins thermal dissipation.

Scientific reports, 12(1):7861.

The impacts of partially-covered fractal grids induced turbulence on the forced convective heat transfer across plate-fin heat sink at Reynolds number ReDh = 22.0 × 103 were numerically and experimentally investigated. Results showed that partially covered grids rendered a higher thermal dissipation performance, with partially-covered square fractal grid (PCSFG) registering an outstanding increase of 43% in Nusselt number relative to the no grid configuration. The analyzation via an in-house developed single particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV) system displayed the findings of unique "Turbulence Annulus" formation, which provided a small degree of predictivity in the periodic annulus oscillations. Further assessments on PCSFG revealed the preferred inter-fin flow dynamics of (i) high flow velocity, (ii) strong turbulence intensity, (iii) vigorous flow fluctuations, (iv) small turbulence length scale, and (v) heightened decelerated flow events. These features stemmed from the coupling effects of multilength-scale fractal bar thicknesses in generating a veracity of eddy sizes, and a vertical segmentation producing heightened mass flow rate while inducing favourable wake-flow structures to penetrate inter-fin regions. Teeming effects of such energetic eddies within plate-fin array unveiled a powerful vortex shedding effect, with PCSFG achieving fluctuation frequency f = 18.5 Hz close to an optimal magnitude. The coaction of such traits limits the growth of fin boundary layers, providing superior thermal transfer capabilities which benefits the community in developing for higher efficiency heat transfer systems.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Qiao Y, Luo K, J Fan (2022)

Computational Prediction of Thrombosis in Food and Drug Administration's Benchmark Nozzle.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:867613.

Thrombosis seriously threatens human cardiovascular health and the safe operation of medical devices. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) benchmark nozzle model was designed to include the typical structure of medical devices. However, the thrombosis in the FDA nozzle has yet not been investigated. The objective of this study is to predict the thrombus formation process in the idealized medical device by coupling computational fluid dynamics and a macroscopic hemodynamic-based thrombus model. We developed the hemodynamic-based thrombus model by considering the effect of platelet consumption. The thrombus model was quantitatively validated by referring to the latest thrombosis experiment, which was performed in a backward-facing step with human blood flow. The same setup was applied in the FDA nozzle to simulate the thrombus formation process. The thrombus shaped like a ring was firstly observed in the FDA benchmark nozzle. Subsequently, the accuracy of the shear-stress transport turbulence model was confirmed in different turbulent flow conditions. Five scenarios with different Reynolds numbers were carried out. We found that turbulence could change the shape of centrosymmetric thrombus to axisymmetric and high Reynolds number blood flow would delay or even prevent thrombosis. Overall, the present study reports the thrombosis process in the FDA benchmark nozzle using the numerical simulation method, and the primary findings may shed light on the effect of turbulence on thrombosis.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Gil A, Navarro R, Quintero P, et al (2022)

CFD analysis of the HVAD's hemodynamic performance and blood damage with insight into gap clearance.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Mechanical circulatory support using ventricular assist devices has become commonplace in the treatment of patients suffering from advanced stages of heart failure. While blood damage generated by these devices has been evaluated in depth, their hemodynamic performance has been investigated much less. This work presents the analysis of the complete operating map of a left ventricular assist device, in terms of pressure head, power and efficiency. Further investigation into its hemocompatibility is included as well. To achieve these objectives, computational fluid dynamics simulations of a centrifugal blood pump with a wide-blade impeller were performed. Several conditions were considered by varying the rotational speed and volumetric flow rate. Regarding the device's hemocompatibility, blood damage was evaluated by means of the hemolysis index. By relating the hemocompatibility of the device to its hemodynamic performance, the results have demonstrated that the highest hemolysis occurs at low flow rates, corresponding to operating conditions of low efficiency. Both performance and hemocompatibility are affected by the gap clearance. An innovative investigation into the influence of this design parameter has yielded decreased efficiencies and increased hemolysis as the gap clearance is reduced. As a further novelty, pump operating maps were non-dimensionalized to highlight the influence of Reynolds number, which allows their application to any working condition. The pump's operating range places it in the transitional regime between laminar and turbulent, leading to enhanced efficiency for the highest Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Sander A, Petračić A, Zokić I, et al (2022)

Scaling up extractive deacidification of waste cooking oil.

Journal of environmental management, 316:115222 pii:S0301-4797(22)00795-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Biodiesel produced from waste feedstocks can play a significant role in fighting climate change, improperly disposed waste and growing energy demand. Waste feedstocks such as used cooking oil have a great potential for energy production. However, they often have to be purified from free fatty acids prior to biodiesel production. Extractive deacidification with deep eutectic solvents is a promising alternative to conventional purification methods. To evaluate the process of extractive deacidification of waste cooking oil, a full set of physical, hydrodynamic and kinetic data were experimentally determined on a laboratory scale. Hydrodynamic and kinetic experiments were performed in three geometrically similar jacketed agitated vessels. Vessels were equipped with axial flow impeller (four pitched blade impeller). Physical properties (density, viscosity and surface tension) were experimentally determined. Preliminary hydrodynamic experiments involved several model systems without mass transfer. As a result, correlation between power number and Reynolds number as well as scale-up criterion was developed. Obtained dependencies were correlated with the physical properties. Mixing intensity for achieving complete dispersion was determined. Second stage of investigation involved two sets of experiments, hydrodynamic and kinetic, with interphase mass transfer (the extraction of free fatty acids from waste cooking oil with deep eutectic solvent, potassium carbonate:ethylene glycol, 1:10). Obtained results enabled understanding interphase mass transfer and prediction of mass transfer coefficient from the derived dimensionless correlations. The values of volumetric mass transfer coefficients were smaller for the dispersed phase, indicating that the prevailing mass transfer resistance was within the droplets. The working hypothesis was that the same process result should be achieved at the same dispersion rate, and that hypothesis was confirmed - at all scales extraction efficiency was 97.9 ± 0.1%.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Callaham JL, Rigas G, Loiseau JC, et al (2022)

An empirical mean-field model of symmetry-breaking in a turbulent wake.

Science advances, 8(19):eabm4786.

Improved turbulence modeling remains a major open problem in mathematical physics. Turbulence is notoriously challenging, in part due to its multiscale nature and the fact that large-scale coherent structures cannot be disentangled from small-scale fluctuations. This closure problem is emblematic of a greater challenge in complex systems, where coarse-graining and statistical mechanics descriptions break down. This work demonstrates an alternative data-driven modeling approach to learn nonlinear models of the coherent structures, approximating turbulent fluctuations as state-dependent stochastic forcing. We demonstrate this approach on a high-Reynolds number turbulent wake experiment, showing that our model reproduces empirical power spectra and probability distributions. The model is interpretable, providing insights into the physical mechanisms underlying the symmetry-breaking behavior in the wake. This work suggests a path toward low-dimensional models of globally unstable turbulent flows from experimental measurements, with broad implications for other multiscale systems.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Zhang R, Toonder JD, PR Onck (2022)

Metachronal patterns by magnetically-programmable artificial cilia surfaces for low Reynolds number fluid transport and mixing.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

Motile cilia can produce net fluid flows at low Reynolds number because of their asymmetric motion and metachrony of collective beating. Mimicking this with artificial cilia can find application in microfluidic devices for fluid transport and mixing. Here, we study the metachronal beating of nonidentical, magnetically-programmed artificial cilia whose individual non-reciprocal motion and collective metachronal beating pattern can be independently controlled. We use a finite element method that accounts for magnetic forces, cilia deformation and fluid flow in a fully coupled manner. Mimicking biological cilia, we study magnetic cilia subject to a full range of metachronal driving patterns, including antiplectic, symplectic, laeoplectic and diaplectic waves. We analyse the induced primary flow, secondary flow and mixing rate as a function of the phase lag between cilia and explore the underlying physical mechanism. Our results show that shielding effects between neighboring cilia lead to a primary flow that is larger for antiplectic than for symplectic metachronal waves. The secondary flow can be fully explained by the propagation direction of the metachronal wave. Finally, we show that the mixing rate can be strongly enhanced by laeoplectic and diaplectic metachrony resulting in large velocity gradients and vortex-like flow patterns.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Chong B, Ozkan-Aydin Y, Rieser J, et al (2022)

A general locomotion control framework for multi-legged locomotors.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Serially connected robots are promising candidates for performing tasks in confined spaces such as search and rescue in large-scale disasters. Such robots are typically limbless, and we hypothesize that the addition of limbs could improve mobility. However, a challenge in designing and controlling such devices lies in the coordination of high-dimensional redundant modules in a way that improves mobility. Here we develop a general framework to discover templates to control serially connected multi-legged robots. Specifically, we combine two approaches to build a general shape control scheme which can provide baseline patterns of self-deformation (``gaits'') for effective locomotion in diverse robot morphologies. First, we take inspiration from a dimensionality reduction and a biological gait classification scheme to generate cyclic patterns of body deformation and foot lifting/lowering, which facilitate generation of arbitrary substrate contact patterns. Second, we extend geometric mechanics, which was originally introduced to study swimming in low Reynolds number, to frictional environments, allowing identification of optimal body-leg coordination in this common terradynamic regime. Our scheme allows the development of effective gaits on flat terrain with diverse number of limbs (4, 6, 16, and even 0 limbs) and backbone actuation. By properly coordinating the body undulation and leg placement, our framework combines the advantages of both limbless robots (modularity and narrow profile) and legged robots (mobility). Our framework can provide general control schemes for the rapid deployment of general multi-legged robots, paving the way toward machines that can traverse complex environments. In addition, we show that our framework can also offer insights into body-leg coordination in living systems, such as salamanders and centipedes, from a biomechanical perspective.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Gomé S, Tuckerman LS, D Barkley (2022)

Extreme events in transitional turbulence.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 380(2226):20210036.

Transitional localized turbulence in shear flows is known to either decay to an absorbing laminar state or to proliferate via splitting. The average passage times from one state to the other depend super-exponentially on the Reynolds number and lead to a crossing Reynolds number above which proliferation is more likely than decay. In this paper, we apply a rare-event algorithm, Adaptative Multilevel Splitting, to the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations to study transition paths and estimate large passage times in channel flow more efficiently than direct simulations. We establish a connection with extreme value distributions and show that transition between states is mediated by a regime that is self-similar with the Reynolds number. The super-exponential variation of the passage times is linked to the Reynolds number dependence of the parameters of the extreme value distribution. Finally, motivated by instantons from Large Deviation theory, we show that decay or splitting events approach a most-probable pathway. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mathematical problems in physical fluid dynamics (part 2)'.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Drivas TD (2022)

Self-regularization in turbulence from the Kolmogorov 4/5-law and alignment.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 380(2226):20210033.

A defining feature of three-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence is that the rate of energy dissipation is bounded away from zero as viscosity is decreased (Reynolds number increased). This phenomenon-anomalous dissipation-is sometimes called the 'zeroth law of turbulence' as it underpins many celebrated theoretical predictions. Another robust feature observed in turbulence is that velocity structure functions [Formula: see text] exhibit persistent power-law scaling in the inertial range, namely [Formula: see text] for exponents [Formula: see text] over an ever increasing (with Reynolds) range of scales. This behaviour indicates that the velocity field retains some fractional differentiability uniformly in the Reynolds number. The Kolmogorov 1941 theory of turbulence predicts that [Formula: see text] for all [Formula: see text] and Onsager's 1949 theory establishes the requirement that [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] for consistency with the zeroth law. Empirically, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], suggesting that turbulent Navier-Stokes solutions approximate dissipative weak solutions of the Euler equations possessing (nearly) the minimal degree of singularity required to sustain anomalous dissipation. In this note, we adopt an experimentally supported hypothesis on the anti-alignment of velocity increments with their separation vectors and demonstrate that the inertial dissipation provides a regularization mechanism via the Kolmogorov 4/5-law. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mathematical problems in physical fluid dynamics (part 2)'.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Parente E, Farano M, Robinet JC, et al (2022)

Continuing invariant solutions towards the turbulent flow.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 380(2226):20210031.

A new mathematical framework is proposed for characterizing the coherent motion of fluctuations around a mean turbulent channel flow. We search for statistically invariant coherent solutions of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations written in a perturbative form with respect to the turbulent mean flow, using a suitable approximation of the Reynolds stress tensor. This is achieved by setting up a continuation procedure of known solutions of the perturbative Navier-Stokes equations, based on the continuous increase of the turbulent eddy viscosity towards its turbulent value. The recovered solutions, being sustained only in the presence of the Reynolds stress tensor, are representative of the statistically coherent motion of turbulent flows. For small friction Reynolds number and/or domain size, the statistically invariant motion is almost identical to the corresponding invariant solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Whereas, for sufficiently large friction number and/or domain size, it considerably departs from the starting invariant solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, presenting spatial structures, main wavelengths and scaling very close to those characterizing both large- and small-scale motion of turbulent channel flows. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mathematical problems in physical fluid dynamics (part 2)'.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Tretola G, K Vogiatzaki (2022)

Unveiling the dynamics of ultra high velocity droplet impact on solid surfaces.

Scientific reports, 12(1):7416.

The impact of a liquid droplet onto a solid surface is a phenomenon present in a wide range of natural processes and technological applications. In this study, we focus on impact conditions characterised by ultra high velocities (up to 500 m/s), to investigate-for the first time-how the impact dynamics change when the compressibility of the liquid in the droplet is no longer negligible. A water droplet impacting a dry substrate at four different velocities, from 50 to 500 m/s, is simulated. Such conditions are particularly relevant to aviation as well as industrial gas turbine engine risk management. Thus, numerical investigations as the one we present here provide a powerful tool to analyse the process. We find that increasing the impact velocity changes the flow field within and outside the droplet the moment that the compressibility can no longer be neglected, with the rise of pressure fronts in both regions. Increasing the impact velocity, the compressibility affects also the lamella formed and changes its ejection velocity observed over time (and thus the wetting behaviour) when the region shift from incompressible to compressible. Moreover, it is found that the maximum pressure observed at the wall during the impact is located at the corner of the impact, where the lamella is ejected, not in the centre, and it is influenced by the initial velocity. To predict the maximum pressure experienced by the surface during the high velocity impact, we propose a correlation based on the initial Weber and Reynolds number of the droplet. The complexity and the scales of the dynamics involved in the ultra-high velocity impact is limiting the experimental and analytical studies. To the best of our knowledge there are no experimental data currently available at such conditions. In this study, through numerical simulations, new insights about the impact dynamics at such conditions are provided.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

D'Adamo J, Collaud M, Sosa R, et al (2022)

Wake and aeroelasticity of a flexible pitching foil.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

A flexible foil undergoing pitching oscillations is studied experimentally in a wind tunnel with different imposed free stream velocities. The chord-based Reynolds number is in the range 1600- 4000, such that the dynamics of the system is governed by inertial forces and the wake behind the foil exhibits the reverse Bénard-von Kármán vortex street characteristic of flapping-based propulsion. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed to examine the flow around the foil, whilst the deformation of the foil is also tracked. The first natural frequency of vibration of the foil is within the range of flapping frequencies explored, determining a strongly-coupled dynamics between the elastic foil deformation and the vortex shedding. Cluster-based reduced order modelling is applied on the PIV data in order to identify the coherent flow structures. Analysing the foil kinematics and using a control-volume calculation of the average drag forces from the corresponding velocity fields, we determine the optimal flapping configurations for thrust generation. We show that propulsive force peaks occur at dimensionless frequencies shifted with respect to the elastic resonances that are marked by maximum trailing edge oscillation amplitudes. The thrust peaks are better explained by a wake resonance, which we examine using the tools of classic hydrodynamic stability on the mean propulsive jet profiles.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Schindler F, Eckert S, Zürner T, et al (2022)

Collapse of Coherent Large Scale Flow in Strongly Turbulent Liquid Metal Convection.

Physical review letters, 128(16):164501.

The large-scale flow structure and the turbulent transfer of heat and momentum are directly measured in highly turbulent liquid metal convection experiments for Rayleigh numbers varied between 4×10^{5} and ≤5×10^{9} and Prandtl numbers of 0.025≤Pr≤0.033. Our measurements are performed in two cylindrical samples of aspect ratios Γ=diameter/height=0.5 and 1 filled with the eutectic alloy GaInSn. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional flow pattern by 17 ultrasound Doppler velocimetry sensors detecting the velocity profiles along their beam lines in different planes reveals a clear breakdown of coherence of the large-scale circulation for Γ=0.5. As a consequence, the scaling laws for heat and momentum transfer inherit a dependence on the aspect ratio. We show that this breakdown of coherence is accompanied with a reduction of the Reynolds number Re. The scaling exponent β of the power law Nu∝Ra^{β} crosses eventually over from β=0.221 to 0.124 when the liquid metal flow at Γ=0.5 reaches Ra≳2×10^{8} and the coherent large-scale flow is completely collapsed.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Fei L, Qin F, Zhao J, et al (2022)

Pore-Scale Study on Convective Drying of Porous Media.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 38(19):6023-6035.

In this work, a numerical model for isothermal liquid-vapor phase change (evaporation) of the two-component air-water system is proposed based on the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method. Through the Chapman-Enskog multiscale analysis, we show that the model can correctly recover the macroscopic governing equations of the multicomponent multiphase system with a built-in binary diffusion mechanism. The model is verified based on the two-component Stefan problem where the measured binary diffusivity is consistent with theoretical analysis. The model is then applied to convective drying of a dual-porosity porous medium at the pore scale. The simulation captures a classical transition in the drying process of porous media, from the constant rate period (CRP, first phase) showing significant capillary pumping from large to small pores, to the falling rate period (FRP, second phase) with the liquid front receding in small pores. It is found that, in the CRP, the evaporation rate increases with the inflow Reynolds number (Re), while in the FRP, the evaporation curves almost collapse at different Res. The underlying mechanism is elucidated by introducing an effective Péclet number (Pe). It is shown that convection is dominant in the CRP and diffusion in the FRP, as evidenced by Pe > 1 and Pe < 1, respectively. We also find a log-law dependence of the average evaporation rate on the inflow Re in the CRP regime. The present work provides new insights into the drying physics of porous media and its direct modeling at the pore scale.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Salari A, Appak-Baskoy S, Coe IR, et al (2021)

An ultrafast enzyme-free acoustic technique for detaching adhered cells in microchannels.

RSC advances, 11(52):32824-32829.

Adherent cultured cells are widely used biological tools for a variety of biochemical and biotechnology applications, including drug screening and gene expression analysis. One critical step in culturing adherent cells is the dissociation of cell monolayers into single-cell suspensions. Different enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods have been proposed for this purpose. Trypsinization, the most common enzymatic method for dislodging adhered cells, can be detrimental to cells, as it can damage cell membranes and ultimately cause cell death. Additionally, all available techniques require a prolonged treatment duration, typically on the order of minutes (5-10 min). Dissociation of cells becomes even more challenging in microfluidic devices, where, due to the nature of low Reynolds number flow and reduced mixing efficiency, multiple washing steps and prolonged trypsinization may be necessary to treat all cells. Here, we report a novel acoustofluidic method for the detachment of cells adhered onto a microchannel surface without exposing the cells to any enzymatic or non-enzymatic chemicals. This method enables a rapid (i.e., on the order of seconds), cost-effective, and easy-to-operate cell detachment strategy, yielding a detachment efficiency of ∼99% and cellular viability similar to that of the conventional trypsinization method. Also, as opposed to biochemical-based techniques (e.g., enzymatic), in our approach, cells are exposed to the dissociating agent (i.e., substrate-mediated acoustic excitation and microstreaming flow) only for as long as they remain attached to the substrate. After dissociation, the effect of acoustic excitation is reduced to microstreaming flow, therefore, minimizing unwanted effects of the dissociating agent on the cell phenotype. Additionally, our results suggest that cell excitation at acoustic powers lower than that required for complete cell detachment can potentially be employed for probing the adhesion strength of cell-substrate attachment. This novel approach can, therefore, be used for a wide range of lab-on-a-chip applications.

RevDate: 2022-05-03
CmpDate: 2022-05-03

Das A, Styslinger M, Harris DM, et al (2022)

Force and torque-free helical tail robot to study low Reynolds number micro-organism swimming.

The Review of scientific instruments, 93(4):044103.

Helical propulsion is used by many micro-organisms to swim in viscous-dominated environments. Their swimming dynamics are relatively well understood, but a detailed study of the flow fields is still needed to understand wall effects and hydrodynamic interactions among swimmers. In this letter, we describe the development of an autonomous swimming robot with a helical tail that operates in the Stokes regime. The device uses a battery-based power system with a miniature motor that imposes a rotational speed on a helical tail. The speed, direction, and activation are controlled electronically using an infrared remote control. Since the robot is about 5 cm long, we use highly viscous fluids to match the Reynolds number, Re, to be less than 0.1. Measurements of swimming speeds are conducted for a range of helical wavelengths, λ, head geometries, and rotation rates, ω. We provide comparisons of the experimental measurements with analytical predictions derived from resistive force theory. This force and torque-free neutrally buoyant swimmer mimics the swimming strategy of bacteria more closely than previously used designs and offers a lot of potential for future applications.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Prasad V, Kulkarni SS, A Sharma (2022)

Chaotic advection in a recirculating flow: Effect of a fluid-flexible-solid interaction.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 32(4):043122.

The present work is on laminar recirculating flow-induced deformation as well as motion of a neutrally buoyant flexible elliptical solid, resulting in Lagrangian chaos in a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity flow. Using a fully Eulerian and monolithic approach-based single-solver for the fluid flow and flexible-solid deformation, a chaotic advection study is presented for various aspect ratios β (=0.5-1.0) and a constant volume fraction Φ=10% of an elliptical solid at a constant Ericksen number Er=0.05 and Reynolds number Re=100. Our initial analysis reveals maximum chaotic advection at β=0.5 for which a comprehensive nonlinear dynamical analysis is presented. The Poincaré map revealed elliptic islands and chaotic sea in the fluid flow. Three large elliptic islands, apart from certain smaller islands, were identified near the solid. Periodic point analysis revealed the lowest order hyperbolic/elliptic periodic points to be three. Adaptive material tracking gave a physical picture of a deforming material blob revealing its exponential stretch along with steep folds and demonstrated unstable/stable manifolds corresponding to lowest order hyperbolic points. Furthermore, adaptive material tracking demonstrates heteroclinic connections and tangles in the system that confirm the existence of chaos. For the transient as compared to the periodic flow, adaptive material tracking demonstrates a larger exponential increase of the blob's interfacial area. The finite-time Lyapunov exponent field revealed attracting/repelling Lagrangian coherent structures and entrapped fluid zones. Our work demonstrates an immersed deformable solid-based onset of chaotic advection, for the first time in the literature, which is relevant to a wide range of applications.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Akanyeti O, Di Santo V, Goerig E, et al (2022)

Fish-inspired segment models for undulatory steady swimming.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Many aquatic animals swim by undulatory body movements and understanding the diversity of these movements could unlock the potential for designing better underwater robots. Here, we analyzed the steady swimming kinematics of a diverse group of fish species to investigate whether their undulatory movements can be represented using a series of interconnected multi-segment models, and if so, to identify the key factors driving the segment configuration of the models. Our results show that the steady swimming kinematics of fishes can be described successfully using parsimonious models, 83% of which had fewer than five segments. In these models, the anterior segments were significantly longer than the posterior segments, and there was a direct link between segment configuration and swimming kinematics, body shape, and Reynolds number. The models representing eel-like fishes with elongated bodies and fishes swimming at high Reynolds numbers had more segments and less segment length variability along the body than the models representing other fishes. These fishes recruited their anterior bodies to a greater extent, initiating the undulatory wave more anteriorly. Two shape parameters, related to axial and overall body thickness, predicted segment configuration with moderate to high success rate. We found that head morphology was a good predictor of its segment length. While there was a large variation in head segments, the length of tail segments was similar across all models. Given that fishes exhibited variable caudal fin shapes, the consistency of tail segments could be a result of an evolutionary constraint tuned for high propulsive efficiency. The bio-inspired multi-segment models presented in this study highlight the key bending points along the body and can be used to decide on the placement of actuators in fish-inspired robots, to model hydrodynamic forces in theoretical and computational studies, or for predicting muscle activation patterns during swimming. .

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Hu S, Zhang J, MJ Shelley (2022)

Enhanced clamshell swimming with asymmetric beating at low Reynolds number.

Soft matter, 18(18):3605-3612.

A single flexible filament can be actuated to escape from the scallop theorem and generate net propulsion at low Reynolds number. In this work, we study the dynamics of a simple boundary-driven multi-filament swimmer, a two-arm clamshell actuated at the hinged point, using a nonlocal slender body approximation with hydrodynamic interactions. We first consider an elastic clamshell consisted of flexible filaments with intrinsic curvature, and then build segmental models consisted of rigid segments connected by different mechanical joints with different forms of response torques. The simplicity of the system allows us to fully explore the effect of various parameters on the swimming performance. Optimal included angles and elastoviscous numbers are identified. The segmental models capture the characteristic dynamics of the elastic clamshell. We further demonstrate how the swimming performance can be significantly enhanced by the asymmetric beating patterns induced by biased torques.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Kotnurkar A, N Kallolikar (2022)

Effect of Joule heating and entropy generation on multi-slip condition of peristaltic flow of Casson nanofluid in an asymmetric channel.

Journal of biological physics [Epub ahead of print].

In the present investigation, the effect of multi-slip condition on peristaltic flow through asymmetric channel with Joule heating effect is considered. We also considered the incompressible non-Newtonian Casson nanofluid model for blood, which is electrically conducting. Second law of thermodynamics is used to examine the entropy generation. Multi-slip condition is used at the boundary of the wall and the analysis is also restricted under the low Reynolds number and long wavelength assumption. The governing equations were transformed into a non-dimensional form by using suitable terms. The reduced non-dimensional highly nonlinear partial differential equations are solved by using the Homotopy Perturbation Sumudu transformation method (HPSTM). The influence of different physical parameters on dimensionless velocity, pressure gradient, temperature, concentration and nanoparticle is graphically presented. From the results, one can understand that the Joule heating effect controls the heat transfer in the system and as the magnetic parameter is increased, there will be decay in the velocity of fluid. The outcomes of the present investigation can be applicable in examining the chyme motion in the gastrointestinal tract and controlling the blood flow during surgery. Present study shows an excellent agreement with the previously available studies in the limiting case.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Liu J, Yang Z, Li M, et al (2022)

Evaluating the concrete grade-control structures built by modified fish-nest bricks in the river restoration: A lab-based case study.

Journal of environmental management, 314:115056.

Concrete grade-control structures (CGCSs) have broad application prospects in the restoration of large rivers. But there is a lack of indicators to evaluate CGCSs at laboratory study. In this study, we proposed two evaluation indicators from the perspective of the impact of CGCSs on geomorphology change and fish habitat, namely the spatial-averaged occurrence probability of sweep events near the bed and flow diversity. To verify the reasonableness of these indicators, flume experiments were conducted with CGCSs built by modified fish-nest bricks in different Reynolds number and layout condition. Data of the flow field around structures in streamwise, transverse and vertical direction was obtained and analyzed. Results of mean flow field show that large recirculation zones are found in the cavity and behind the element. The mechanism of suspended sediment deposition around CGCSs in the flow can be further clarified by combining sweep and ejection according to quadrant analysis. In the vertical direction, the ratio of sweep to total events near bed after spatial-averaged processing is found to be higher for the staggered array. According to the Shannon's entropy, water flow diversity was calculated to quantify the fish habitat. The water flow diversity index around the CGCSs is higher for the staggered. It can be concluded that the elements of CGCSs in staggered manners have a better protection for riverbed and can provide a more stable fish habitat suitability. The results anticipated by the spatial-averaged occurrence probability of sweep events near bed and flow diversity in the experiment are consistent with the result of previous research on landform change and fish habitat. The research could provide a theoretical basis for the application of CGCSs for river restoration.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Martin E, Valeije A, Sastre F, et al (2022)

Impact of Channels Aspect Ratio on the Heat Transfer in Finned Heat Sinks with Tip Clearance.

Micromachines, 13(4):.

A 3D numerical study is used to analyze the flow topology and performance, in terms of heat transfer efficiency and required pumping power, of heat sink devices with different channel aspect-ratio in the presence of tip-clearance. Seven different channel aspect ratios AR, from 0.25 to 1.75, were analyzed. The flow Reynolds numbers Re, based on the average velocity evaluated in the device channels region, were in the range of 200 to 1000. Two different behaviors of the global Nusselt were obtained depending on the flow Reynolds number: for Re<600, the heat transfer increased with the channels aspect ratio, e.g., for Re=400, the global Nusselt number increased by 14% for configuration AR=1.75 when compared to configuration AR=0.25. For Re>600, the maximum Nusselt is obtained for the squared-channel configuration, and, for some configurations, flow destabilization to a unsteady regime appeared. For Re=700, Nusselt number reduced when compared with the squared-channel device, 11% and 2% for configurations with AR=0.25 and 1.75, respectively. Dimensionless pressure drop decreased with the aspect ratio for all cases. In the context of micro-devices, where the Reynolds number is small, these results indicate that the use of channels with high aspect-ratios is more beneficial, both in terms of thermal and dynamic efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Ayub R, Ahmad S, Ahmad S, et al (2022)

Numerical Assessment of Dipole Interaction with the Single-Phase Nanofluid Flow in an Enclosure: A Pseudo-Transient Approach.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 15(8):.

Nanofluids substantially enhance the physical and thermal characteristics of the base or conducting fluids specifically when interacting with the magnetic field. Several engineering processes like geothermal energy extraction, metal casting, nuclear reactor coolers, nuclear fusion, magnetohydrodynamics flow meters, petrochemicals, and pumps incorporate magnetic field interaction with the nanofluids. On the other hand, an enhancement in heat transfer due to nanofluids is essentially required in various thermal systems. The goal of this study is to figure out that how much a magnetic field affects nanofluid flow in an enclosure because of a dipole. The nanofluid is characterized using a single-phase model, and the governing partial differential equations are computed numerically. A Pseudo time based numerical algorithm is developed to numerically solve the problem. It can be deduced that the Reynolds number and the magnetic parameter have a low effect on the Nusselt number and skin friction. The Nusselt number rises near the dipole location because of an increase in the magnetic parameter Mn and the Reynolds number Re. The imposed magnetic field alters the region of high temperature nearby the dipole, while newly generated vortices rotate in alternate directions. Furthermore, nanoparticle volume fraction causes a slight change in the skin friction while it marginally reduces the Nusselt number.

RevDate: 2022-04-24

Chandrasekaran AS, Fix AJ, DM Warsinger (2022)

Combined Membrane Dehumidification with Heat Exchangers Optimized Using CFD for High Efficiency HVAC Systems.

Membranes, 12(4):.

Traditional air conditioning systems use a significant amount of energy on dehumidification by condensing water vapor out from the air. Membrane-based air conditioning systems help overcome this problem by avoiding condensation and treating the sensible and latent loads separately, using membranes that allow water vapor transport, but not air (nitrogen and oxygen). In this work, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to predict the heat and mass transfer and concentration polarization performance of a novel active membrane-based energy exchanger (AMX). The novel design is the first of its kind to integrate both vapor removal via membranes and air cooling into one device. The heat transfer results from the CFD simulations are compared with common empirical correlations for similar geometries. The performance of the AMX is studied over a broad range of operating conditions using the compared CFD model. The results show that strong tradeoffs result in optimal values for the channel length (0.6-0.8 m) and the ratio of coil diameter to channel height (~0.5). Water vapor transport is best if the flow is just past the turbulence transition around 3000-5000 Reynolds number. These trends hold over a range of conditions and dimensions.

RevDate: 2022-04-21

Torres-Saucedo OL, Morales-Cruzado B, FG Pérez-Guitérrez (2022)

Experimental determination of shear stresses on an artificial transcoelomic metastasis model using optical tweezers: A comparison with numerical simulation.

Lasers in surgery and medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: One of the reported pathways of cancer spread is the transcoelomic pathway, which is understood as the spread of cancer cells in the abdominal and thoracic cavities through interstitial fluid. It has been proven that the shear stresses caused by microfluidic currents on cancer tumors in the abdominal and thoracic cavities cause the detachment of cancer cells triggering transcoelomic metastasis; however, the magnitude of shear stresses has not yet been measured experimentally.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to develop an experimental methodology using optical tweezers to approximate the shear stresses suffered by a nonporous, rigid artificial cancerous nodule model.

METHODS: Artificial cancerous nodule model was made by the agglomeration of 2 μm diameter polystyrene particles in a microfluidic platform. Optical tweezers were used as a velocimetry tool and shear stresses on the surface of the nodule model were approximated with the viscous shear stress equation. The results were verified with a numerical simulation performed in Ansys Fluent.

RESULTS: Shear stress originated by microflow over artificial cancerous nodule model were quantified both experimentally and numerically, showing good agreement between both methods. Such stress on the nodules' surface was much greater than that suffered by the wall on which the nodule model was located and dependent of the nodule model geometry. Although the experiment and simulation of this study were performed using a rigid and nonporous nodule model, the conclusion obtained about the increase of shear stresses applies to permeable, porous, and soft nodules as well, because the shear stresses are associated to the acceleration of the fluid originated by the reduction of the cross-sectional area.

CONCLUSIONS: Shear stress over artificial nodule model were successfully quantified using optical tweezer-based velocimetry technique and verified through numerical calculation. Advantages of experimental technique are: (1) it allows to control the position in a three-dimensional plane, allowing measurements in the vicinity of the analyzed surfaces, and (2) it is applicable for very low Reynolds number (Re « 1). On the other hand, as disadvantages: (1) it tends to be complicated to perform velocity measurements over obstacles and (2) it is limited in trapping distance.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Ibrahim MG (2022)

Numerical simulation to the activation energy study on blood flow of seminal nanofluid with mixed convection effects.

Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

This study sheds light on the influences of Arrhenius activation energy and variable velocity slip on MHD blood motion of Seminal nanofluid in a vertical symmetric channel. In addition, mixed convection, hall current and thermal jump are taken into consideration. The governing system of differential equations with highly nonlinear terms is simplified with facts of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Pade' approximant and differential transform techniques are combined mathematically to obtain the semi-numerical solutions for the governing system of PDEs. The results are computed and verified graphically with aid of Mathematica 12.3. Physical parameters considered are studied in detail sketchily for the proposed model. Verification/signification of results is approved semi-numerically by comparing the prior results by the newest existing published results by Ahmad et al 2021. Results show that, Velocity of seminal fluid is diminishes with a rise in viscosity-dependent parameter that is a significant feature which can be utilized in controlling the transport of spermatozoa into the cervical canal.

RevDate: 2022-04-21
CmpDate: 2022-04-19

Koo D, H So (2022)

Facile microfabrication of three dimensional-patterned micromixers using additive manufacturing technology.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6346.

This study investigates the manufacturing method of oblique patterns in microchannels and the effect of these patterns on mixing performance in microchannels. To fabricate three-dimensional (3D) and oblique patterns in microchannels, 3D printing and replica methods were utilized to mold patterns and microchannels, respectively. The angle and size of the patterns were controlled by the printing angle and resolution, respectively. The mixing efficiency was experimentally characterized, and the mixing principle was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics simulation. The analysis showed that the mixing channel cast from the mold printed with a printing angle of 30° and resolution of 300 μm exhibited the best mixing efficiency with a segregation index of approximately 0.05 at a Reynolds number of 5.4. This was because, as the patterns inside the microchannel were more oblique, "split" and "recombine" behaviors between two fluids were enhanced owing to the geometrical effect. This study supports the use of the 3D printing method to create unique patterns inside microchannels and improve the mixing performance of two laminar flows for various applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, lab-on-a-chip, and chemical synthesis.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Ilg P (2022)

Multiparticle collision dynamics for ferrofluids.

The Journal of chemical physics, 156(14):144905.

Detailed studies of the intriguing field-dependent dynamics and transport properties of confined flowing ferrofluids require efficient mesoscopic simulation methods that account for fluctuating ferrohydrodynamics. Here, we propose such a new mesoscopic model for the dynamics and flow of ferrofluids, where we couple the multi-particle collision dynamics method as a solver for the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations to the stochastic magnetization dynamics of suspended magnetic nanoparticles. This hybrid model is validated by reproducing the magnetoviscous effect in Poiseuille flow, obtaining the rotational viscosity in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions. We also illustrate the new method for the benchmark problem of flow around a square cylinder. Interestingly, we observe that the length of the recirculation region is increased, whereas the drag coefficient is decreased in ferrofluids when an external magnetic field is applied compared with the field-free case at the same effective Reynolds number. The presence of thermal fluctuations and the flexibility of this particle-based mesoscopic method provide a promising tool to investigate a broad range of flow phenomena of magnetic fluids, and the method could also serve as an efficient way to simulate solvent effects when colloidal particles are immersed in ferrofluids.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Nagy PT (2022)

Enstrophy change of the Reynolds-Orr solution in channel flow.

Physical review. E, 105(3-2):035108.

The plane Poiseuille flow is one of the elementary flow configurations. Although its laminar-turbulent transition mechanism has been investigated intensively in the last century, the significant difference in the critical Reynolds number between the experiments and the theory lacks a clear explanation. In this paper, an attempt is made to reduce this gap by analyzing the solution of the Reynolds-Orr equation. Recent published results have shown that the usage of enstrophy (the volume integral of the squared vorticity) instead of the kinetic energy as the norm of perturbations predicts higher Reynolds numbers in the two-dimensional case. In addition, other research show has shown an improvement of the original Reynolds-Orr energy equation using the weighted norm in a tilted coordinate system. In this paper the enstrophy is used in three dimensions combined with the tilted coordinate system approach. The zero-enstrophy-growth constraint is applied to the classical Reynolds-Orr equation, and then the solution is further refined in the tilted coordinate system. The results are compared to direct numerical simulations published previously.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Steiros K (2022)

Balanced nonstationary turbulence.

Physical review. E, 105(3-2):035109.

Kolmogorov's 1941 (K41) framework remains central to the understanding of turbulent flows. However, in unsteady turbulence, K41's critical equilibrium assumption is expected to hold in an asymptotic manner, as the Reynolds number and wave numbers tend to infinity, rendering K41 not strictly valid at finite wave numbers. This work proposes a generalization of K41 for out-of-equilibrium effects and cascades far from initial conditions. The main result is a correction to the -5/3 law for out-of-equilibrium eddies, unrelated to intermittency effects. Experimental and numerical evidence is provided in support of the theoretical results.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Rana N, P Perlekar (2022)

Phase ordering, topological defects, and turbulence in the three-dimensional incompressible Toner-Tu equation.

Physical review. E, 105(3):L032603.

We investigate the phase-ordering dynamics of the incompressible Toner-Tu equation in three dimensions. We show that the phase ordering proceeds via defect merger events and the dynamics is controlled by the Reynolds number Re. At low Re, the dynamics is similar to that of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. At high Re, turbulence controls phase ordering. In particular, we observe a forward energy cascade from the coarsening length scale to the dissipation scale, clustering of defects, and multiscaling in velocity correlations.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Thurgood P, Chheang C, Needham S, et al (2022)

Generation of dynamic vortices in a microfluidic system incorporating stenosis barrier by tube oscillation.

Lab on a chip, 22(10):1917-1928.

Microfluidic systems incorporating sudden expansions are widely used for generation of vortex flow patterns. However, the formation of vortices requires high flow rates to induce inertial effects. Here, we introduce a new method for generating dynamic vortices in microfluidics at low static flow rates. Human blood is driven through a microfluidic channel incorporating a semi-circular stenosis barrier. The inlet tube of the channel is axially oscillated using a computer-controlled audio-speaker. The tube oscillation induces high transient flow rates in the channel, which generates dynamic vortices across the stenosis barrier. The size of the vortices can be modulated by varying the frequency and amplitude of tube oscillation. Various vortex flow patterns can be generated by varying the flow rate. The formation and size of the vortices can be predicted using the Reynolds number of the oscillating tube. We demonstrate the potential application of the system for investigating the adhesion and phagocytosis of circulating immune cells under pathologically high shear rates induced at the stenosis. This approach facilitates the development of versatile and controllable inertial microfluidic systems for performing various cellular assays while operating at low static flow rates and low sample volumes.

RevDate: 2022-04-19

Behura AK, Mohanty CP, Singh MR, et al (2022)

Performance Analysis of Three Side Roughened Solar Air Heater: A Preliminary Investigation.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 15(7):.

In recent years, sunlight has been used in several fields such as photovoltaic cells, flat plate collectors, solar cookers, green buildings, and agricultural applications. Improved thermal performance has been seen which comes of three sides absorber plate with glass cover compared to the traditional one. This paper presents the Nusselt (Nu) number, collector efficiency factor (CEF), and collector heat removal factor (CHRF) for the optimal solution of three sides artificially roughened solar air heater. Five input variables such as Reynolds (Re) number, relative roughness pitch, relative roughness height, mass flow rate, and air temperature of the duct are taken into account for improved efficiency optimization of collector, collector heat removal factor, and Nu number. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) technique is used to identify the best alternative amongst a number of performance measures by converting them into an equivalent single variable. Moreover, the results revealed the high accuracy of the CEF, CHRF, and Nu number of 75-80%, 74-78%, and 63-71%, respectively. Meanwhile, it has been also observed that roughness Re number varies between 12,500 and 13,500, and height of relative roughness is 0.0245, including pitch of relative roughness 10 along with the rate of mass flow is 0.041 kg/s.

RevDate: 2022-04-23

Bhatti MM, Bég OA, SI Abdelsalam (2022)

Computational Framework of Magnetized MgO-Ni/Water-Based Stagnation Nanoflow Past an Elastic Stretching Surface: Application in Solar Energy Coatings.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(7):.

In this article, motivated by novel nanofluid solar energy coating systems, a mathematical model of hybrid magnesium oxide (MgO) and nickel (Ni) nanofluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow impinging on a porous elastic stretching surface in a porous medium is developed. The hybrid nanofluid is electrically conducted, and a magnetic Reynolds number is sufficiently large enough to invoke an induced magnetic field. A Darcy model is adopted for the isotropic, homogenous porous medium. The boundary conditions account for the impacts of the velocity slip and thermal slip. Heat generation (source)/absorption (sink) and also viscous dissipation effects are included. The mathematical formulation has been performed with the help of similarity variables, and the resulting coupled nonlinear dimensionless ordinary differential equations have been solved numerically with the help of the shooting method. In order to test the validity of the current results and the convergence of the solutions, a numerical comparison with previously published results is included. Numerical results are plotted for the effect of emerging parameters on velocity, temperature, magnetic induction, skin friction, and Nusselt number. With an increment in nanoparticle volume fraction of both MgO and Ni nanoparticles, the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness of the nanofluid are elevated. An increase in the porous medium parameter (Darcy number), velocity slip, and thermal Grashof number all enhance the induced magnetic field. Initial increments in the nanoparticle volume fraction for both MgO and Ni suppress the magnetic induction near the wall, although, subsequently, when further from the wall, this effect is reversed. Temperature is enhanced with heat generation, whereas it is depleted with heat absorption and thermal slip effects. Overall, excellent thermal enhancement is achieved by the hybrid nanofluid.

RevDate: 2022-04-13

Fang L, Li H, B Li (2022)

Dynamic Analysis of Deep Water Highway Tunnel under Ocean Current.

Computational intelligence and neuroscience, 2022:9551792.

Comprehensively comparing the merits and demerits of the existing means of transportation across the water, a new underwater transportation structure for crossing the wide water area, named as "deep water highway tunnel" (hereinafter called "DWHT"), is proposed. The characteristics of flow field around the typical section of DWHT at different flow velocities are investigated, which can provide reference for the values of hydrodynamic coefficient at high Reynolds number. The vibration modes and natural by the sound-solid coupling method. In addition, considering the factors of fluid-structure coupling, the dynamic response of displacement and internal force is analyzed based on CFD for the weak parts of the structure. The results show that the deepening of water and the increase of flow will significantly increase the flow field pressure and structure stress, and when the span (or width-span ratio) of the tunnel body extends beyond a certain range, the dynamic characteristics and dynamic response rules of the structure will change.

RevDate: 2022-04-13

Ghorbani N, Targhi MZ, Heyhat MM, et al (2022)

Investigation of wavy microchannel ability on electronic devices cooling with the case study of choosing the most efficient microchannel pattern.

Scientific reports, 12(1):5882.

A numerical study was conducted to investigate the ability of wavy microchannels to damp the temperature fluctuations generates in electronic devices. Five wavy patterns are considered with the amplitude and wavelength in the ranges of 62.5 to 250 μm and 1250 to 5000 μm, respectively to study the effect of governing phenomena of flow within wavy patterns on thermal-hydraulic performance. The flow regime is laminar and the Reynolds number is in the range of 300 to 900, and a relatively high heat flux of 80 W/cm2 is applied to the microchannels substrate. Also, variable flux condition is studied for heat fluxes of 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240 W/cm2 and for the most efficient wavy and straight microchannels. Results showed that the geometries with larger amplitude to wavelength ratio have a lower radius of curvature and larger Dean number, and as a result of transverse flow (secondary flow) amplification, they have enhanced heat transfer. Also, by comparing the ratio of the transverse velocity components to the axial component, it was found that by decreasing the radius of curvature and increasing the Dean number, transverse velocity increases, which intensifies the heat transfer between the wall and the fluid. The appraisement of the performance evaluation criterion (PEC) illustrates that the wavy case with an amplitude of 250 μm and wavelength of 2500 μm is the best geometry from the thermal-hydraulic point of view in the studied range. Finally, with variable flux condition, the wavy microchannel has responded well to the temperature increase and has created a much more uniform surface temperature compared to straight pattern. The proposed wavy pattern ensures that there are no hotspots which could damage the electronic chip. Presented wavy patterns can be used in heat sinks heat transfer enhancement to allow the chip to run in higher heat fluxes.

RevDate: 2022-04-14
CmpDate: 2022-04-14

Almerol JLO, MP Liponhay (2022)

Clustering of fast gyrotactic particles in low-Reynolds-number flow.

PloS one, 17(4):e0266611.

Systems of particles in turbulent flows exhibit clustering where particles form patches in certain regions of space. Previous studies have shown that motile particles accumulate inside the vortices and in downwelling regions, while light and heavy non-motile particles accumulate inside and outside the vortices, respectively. While strong clustering is generated in regions of high vorticity, clustering of motile particles is still observed in fluid flows where vortices are short-lived. In this study, we investigate the clustering of fast swimming particles in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent flow and characterize the probability distributions of particle speed and acceleration and their influence on particle clustering. We simulate gyrotactic swimming particles in a cubic system with homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow. Here, the swimming velocity explored is relatively faster than what has been explored in other reports. The fluid flow is produced by conducting a direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast with the previous results, our results show that swimming particles can accumulate outside the vortices, and clustering is dictated by the swimming number and is invariant with the stability number. We have also found that highly clustered particles are sufficiently characterized by their acceleration, where the increase in the acceleration frequency distribution of the most clustered particles suggests a direct influence of acceleration on clustering. Furthermore, the acceleration of the most clustered particles resides in acceleration values where a cross-over in the acceleration PDFs are observed, an indicator that particle acceleration generates clustering. Our findings on motile particles clustering can be applied to understanding the behavior of faster natural or artificial swimmers.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Letendre F, CB Cameron (2022)

The capture of crude oil droplets by filter feeders at high and low Reynolds numbers.

The Journal of experimental biology, 225(8):.

Crustacean filter feeders capture oil droplets with the use of their ramified appendages. These appendages behave as paddles or sieves, based on the system's Reynolds number. Here, we used high-speed videography, scanning electron microscopy and fluid mechanics to study the capturing mechanisms of crude oil droplets and the filtering appendage's wettability by two species of barnacles (Balanus glandula and Balanus crenatus) and of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. Our results show that barnacle appendages behave as paddles and capture droplets in their boundary layers at low Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, droplets are most likely to be captured via direct interception. There is an intermediate range of Reynolds number where droplets can be captured by both mechanisms at the same time. Daphnia magna captures droplets in the boundary layers of the third and fourth pair of thoracic legs with a metachronal motion of the appendages. All studied surfaces were revealed to be highly lipophobic, demonstrating captured oil droplets with high contact angles. We also discuss implications of such capture mechanisms and wettability on potential ingestion of crude oil by filter feeders. These results further our understanding of the capture of crude oil by filter feeders, shedding light on the main entry point of oil in marine food webs.

RevDate: 2022-04-06

Wang J, Dong Y, Ma P, et al (2022)

Intelligent Micro/nanorobot for Cancer Theragnostic.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Cancer is one of the most intractable diseases owing to its high mortality rate and lack of effective diagnostic and treatment tools. Advancements in micro/nanorobot (MNR)-assisted sensing, imaging, and therapeutics offer unprecedented opportunities to develop MNR-based cancer theragnostic platforms. Unlike ordinary nanoparticles which exhibit Brownian motion in biofluids, MNRs overcome viscous resistance in an ultralow Reynolds number (Re<<1) environment by effective self-propulsion. This unique locomotion property has motivated the advanced design and functionalization of MNRs as a basis for next-generation cancer therapy platforms, which offer the potential for precise distribution and improved permeation of therapeutic agents. Enhanced barrier penetration, imaging-guided operation, and biosensing have additionally been studied to enable the promising cancer-related applications of MNRs. This review comprehensively addresses recent advances in MNR-based cancer therapy, including in actuation engines, diagnostics, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery; we highlight promising research opportunities that could have a profound impact on cancer therapy over the next decade. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-04-05

Saeed Khan MW, Ali N, OA Bég (2022)

Thermal entrance problem for blood flow inside an axisymmetric tube: The classical Graetz problem extended for Quemada's bio-rheological fluid with axial conduction.

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The heat-conducting nature of blood is critical in the human circulatory system and features also in important thermal regulation and blood processing systems in biomedicine. Motivated by these applications, in the present investigation, the classical Graetz problem in heat transfer is extended to the case of a bio-rheological fluid model. The Quemada bio-rheological fluid model is selected since it has been shown to be accurate in mimicking physiological flows (blood) at different shear rates and hematocrits. The steady two-dimensional energy equation without viscous dissipation in stationary regime is tackled via a separation of variables approach for the isothermal wall temperature case. Following the introduction of transformation variables, the ensuing dimensionless boundary value problem is solved numerically via MATLAB based algorithm known as bvp5c (a finite difference code that implements the four-stage Lobatto IIIa collocation formula). Numerical validation is also presented against two analytical approaches namely, series solutions and Kummer function techniques. Axial conduction in terms of Péclet number is also considered. Typical values of Reynolds number and Prandtl number are used to categorize the vascular regions. The graphical representation of mean temperature, temperature gradient, and Nusselt numbers along with detail discussions are presented for the effects of Quemada non-Newtonian parameters and Péclet number. The current analysis may also have potential applications for the development of microfluidic and biofluidic devices particularly which are used in the diagnosis of diseases in addition to blood oxygenation technologies.

RevDate: 2022-04-04

Tan S, R Ni (2022)

Universality and Intermittency of Pair Dispersion in Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 128(11):114502.

Turbulence can disperse a concentrated parcel of pollutants at a rate over nine orders of magnitude higher than its purely diffusive counterpart. One intriguing signature of turbulent dispersion is its superdiffusive scaling. However, the universality of this scaling law is still in question. By leveraging a new laboratory facility, particle pairs with small initial separations can be tracked over four decades of separation in time and five decades of separation in squared displacement, thereby observing the full range of dispersion scaling laws. The results show that the classical Richardson cubic scaling will be reached not for an initial separation asymptotically close to zero but at a critical value, and this value does not appear to depend on the Reynolds number, providing an effective way to study universal dispersion dynamics. Additionally, the results agree well with the prediction based on the multifractal model and may help reconcile different reported scaling laws from laboratory experiments and field studies.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Kamdar S, Shin S, Leishangthem P, et al (2022)

The colloidal nature of complex fluids enhances bacterial motility.

Nature, 603(7903):819-823.

The natural habitats of microorganisms in the human microbiome, ocean and soil ecosystems are full of colloids and macromolecules. Such environments exhibit non-Newtonian flow properties, drastically affecting the locomotion of microorganisms1-5. Although the low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics of swimming flagellated bacteria in simple Newtonian fluids has been well developed6-9, our understanding of bacterial motility in complex non-Newtonian fluids is less mature10,11. Even after six decades of research, fundamental questions about the nature and origin of bacterial motility enhancement in polymer solutions are still under debate12-23. Here we show that flagellated bacteria in dilute colloidal suspensions display quantitatively similar motile behaviours to those in dilute polymer solutions, in particular a universal particle-size-dependent motility enhancement up to 80% accompanied by a strong suppression of bacterial wobbling18,24. By virtue of the hard-sphere nature of colloids, whose size and volume fraction we vary across experiments, our results shed light on the long-standing controversy over bacterial motility enhancement in complex fluids and suggest that polymer dynamics may not be essential for capturing the phenomenon12-23. A physical model that incorporates the colloidal nature of complex fluids quantitatively explains bacterial wobbling dynamics and mobility enhancement in both colloidal and polymeric fluids. Our findings contribute to the understanding of motile behaviours of bacteria in complex fluids, which are relevant for a wide range of microbiological processes25 and for engineering bacterial swimming in complex environments26,27.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Mezali F, Benmamar S, Naima K, et al (2022)

Evaluation of stent effect and thrombosis generation with different blood rheology on an intracranial aneurysm by the Lattice Boltzmann method.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 219:106757.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents prevents rupture by reducing blood flow and creating thrombosis within the aneurysm. This paper aims to assess the hemodynamic effect of placing stents with different struts (0, 3, 5, 7 struts) on intracranial aneurysms and to propose a simple prediction model of thrombosis zone without any further computational cost.

METHOD: Lattice Boltzmann method with different rheological models (Newtonian, Carreau-Yasuda, KL) of blood are used to study the hemodynamic effect of flow-diverting stents in the aneurysm. Pulsatile flow boundary conditions were applied in the inlet of the artery. The average Reynolds number was resulting Re = 111. The Lagrangian tracking of the particle was developed to assess the intra-aneurysmal blood stagnation. To predict the probable thrombose zone induced by flow-diverting stents, the shear rate threshold is utilized to determine the nodes of fluid to clot.

RESULTS: The results show that the flow patterns into the aneurysmal sac develop a vortex, decreasing after stent placement until disappearance for the stent with seven struts (porosity 71.4%). Velocity, shear rate, shear stress, trajectory, path length, and occlusion rate are compared before and after stent placement. These parameters decrease inversely with the porosity of the stent. The three models yield a closes result of the (velocity, shear rate, occlusion rate). Tracking the fluid-particle trajectory shows that the length of the particle paths decreases with the number of struts causing fluid to slow down and increase, consequently, the residence time into the sac.

CONCLUSION: The flow-diverting stents placement cause the reduction of dynamic flow within aneurysm. The reduction effect is almost the same below five struts (80% of porosity). The results show that, if our objective is restricted to estimating the hemodynamic effect, measured by (velocity, shear rate, occlusion rate), the differences between rheological behavior models are, practically, not significant, and the models can be used indifferently.

RevDate: 2022-03-29

Nuwairan MA, B Souayeh (2022)

Simulation of Gold Nanoparticle Transport during MHD Electroosmotic Flow in a Peristaltic Micro-Channel for Biomedical Treatment.

Micromachines, 13(3):.

The study of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the blood flow has emerged as an area of interest for numerous researchers, due to its many biomedical applications, such as cancer radiotherapy, DNA and antigens, drug and gene delivery, in vitro evaluation, optical bioimaging, radio sensitization and laser phototherapy of cancer cells and tumors. Gold nanoparticles can be amalgamated in various shapes and sizes. Due to this reason, gold nanoparticles can be diffused efficiently, target the diseased cells and destroy them. The current work studies the effect of gold nanoparticles of different shapes on the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic (EMHD) peristaltic propulsion of blood in a micro-channel under various effects, such as activation energy, bioconvection, radiation and gyrotactic microorganisms. Four kinds of nanoparticle shapes, namely bricks, cylinders and platelets, are considered. The governing equations are simplified under the approximations of low Reynolds number (LRN), long wavelength (LWL) and Debye-Hückel linearization (DHL). The numerical solutions for the non-dimensional equations are solved using the computational software MATLAB with the help of the bvp4c function. The influences of different physical parameters on the flow and thermal characteristics are computed through pictorial interpretations.

RevDate: 2022-03-28

Sawka A (2022)

Chemical Vapour Deposition of Scandia-Stabilised Zirconia Layers on Tubular Substrates at Low Temperatures.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 15(6):.

The paper presents results of investigation on synthesis of non-porous ZrO2-Sc2O2 layers on tubular substrates by MOCVD (metalorganic chemical vapor deposition) method using Sc(tmhd)3 (Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)scandium(III), 99%) and Zr(tmhd)4 (Tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zirconium)(IV), 99.9+%) as basic reactants. The molar content of Sc(tmhd)3 in the gas mixture was as follows: 14, 28%. The synthesis temperature was in the range of 600-700 °C. The value of extended Grx/Rex2 expression (Gr-Grashof number, Re-Reynolds number and x-the distance from the gas inflow point) was less than 0.01. The layers were deposited under reduced pressure or close to atmospheric pressure. The layers obtained were tested using scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) microanalyzer, X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The layers deposited were non-porous, amorphous or nanocrystalline with controlled chemical composition. The layers synthesized at 700 °C were nanocrystalline. ZrO2-Sc2O3 layers with 14 mol.% Sc2O3 content had a rhombohedral structure.

RevDate: 2022-03-29

Lin W, Shi R, J Lin (2022)

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Nanofluid with Rod-like Particles in Turbulent Flows through a Curved Pipe.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 24(3):.

Pressure drop, heat transfer, and energy performance of ZnO/water nanofluid with rodlike particles flowing through a curved pipe are studied in the range of Reynolds number 5000 ≤ Re ≤ 30,000, particle volume concentration 0.1% ≤ Φ ≤ 5%, Schmidt number 104 ≤ Sc ≤ 3 × 105, particle aspect ratio 2 ≤ λ ≤ 14, and Dean number 5 × 103 ≤ De ≤ 1.5 × 104. The momentum and energy equations of nanofluid, together with the equation of particle number density for particles, are solved numerically. Some results are validated by comparing with the experimental results. The effect of Re, Φ, Sc, λ, and De on the friction factor f and Nusselt number Nu is analyzed. The results showed that the values of f are increased with increases in Φ, Sc, and De, and with decreases in Re and λ. The heat transfer performance is enhanced with increases in Re, Φ, λ, and De, and with decreases in Sc. The ratio of energy PEC for nanofluid to base fluid is increased with increases in Re, Φ, λ, and De, and with decreases in Sc. Finally, the formula of ratio of energy PEC for nanofluid to base fluid as a function of Re, Φ, Sc, λ, and De is derived based on the numerical data.

RevDate: 2022-03-28

Dou HS (2022)

No Existence and Smoothness of Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equation.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 24(3): pii:e24030339.

The Navier-Stokes equation can be written in a form of Poisson equation. For laminar flow in a channel (plane Poiseuille flow), the Navier-Stokes equation has a non-zero source term (∇2u(x, y, z) = Fx (x, y, z, t) and a non-zero solution within the domain. For transitional flow, the velocity profile is distorted, and an inflection point or kink appears on the velocity profile, at a sufficiently high Reynolds number and large disturbance. In the vicinity of the inflection point or kink on the distorted velocity profile, we can always find a point where ∇2u(x, y, z) = 0. At this point, the Poisson equation is singular, due to the zero source term, and has no solution at this point due to singularity. It is concluded that there exists no smooth orphysically reasonable solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for transitional flow and turbulence in the global domain due to singularity.

RevDate: 2022-04-23

Marchello R, Morandotti M, Shum H, et al (2022)

The N -Link Swimmer in Three Dimensions: Controllability and Optimality Results.

Acta applicandae mathematicae, 178(1):6.

The controllability of a fully three-dimensional N -link swimmer is studied. After deriving the equations of motion in a low Reynolds number fluid by means of Resistive Force Theory, the controllability of the minimal 2-link swimmer is tackled using techniques from Geometric Control Theory. The shape of the 2-link swimmer is described by two angle parameters. It is shown that the associated vector fields that govern the dynamics generate, via taking their Lie brackets, all eight linearly independent directions in the combined configuration and shape space, leading to controllability; the swimmer can move from any starting configuration and shape to any target configuration and shape by operating on the two shape variables. The result is subsequently extended to the N -link swimmer. Finally, the minimal time optimal control problem and the minimization of the power expended are addressed and a qualitative description of the optimal strategies is provided.

RevDate: 2022-03-18

Wang Y, Zhao W, Wang B, et al (2022)

Prediction model of combustion characteristics of methane-air using hyperspectral imaging.

Applied optics, 61(7):D75-D84.

Hyperspectral imaging can obtain considerable flame information, which can improve the prediction accuracy of combustion characteristics. This paper studies the hyperspectral characteristics of methane flames and proposes several prediction models. The experimental results show that the radiation intensity and radiation types of free radicals are related to the equivalent ratio, and the radiation region of free radicals becomes larger with the increase of the Reynolds number. The polynomial regression prediction models include the linear model and quadratic model. It takes C2∗/CH∗ as input parameters, and results can be available immediately. The three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) prediction model takes all spectral and spatial information in the flame hyperspectral image as input parameters. By improving the structural parameters of the convolution network, the final prediction errors of the equivalent ratio and Reynolds number are 2.84% and 3.11%, respectively. The method of combining the 3D-CNN model with hyperspectral imaging significantly improves the prediction accuracy, and it can be used to predict other combustion characteristics such as pollutant emissions and combustion efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-03-16

Ma X, Gong X, Tang Z, et al (2022)

Control of leading-edge separation on bioinspired airfoil with fluttering coverts.

Physical review. E, 105(2-2):025107.

In this work, the aerodynamic role of the artificial covert feathers (i.e., coverts) on an airfoil is experimentally studied in a wind tunnel to investigate the flow control effect on the leading-edge separation. We apply flexible featherlike devices on a high-angle-of-attack airfoil. We use a hot-wire anemometer to measure the velocity profiles and turbulent fluctuations in the downstream wake flow. As a baseline of flow separation, a two-dimensional NACA 0018 airfoil model is set at the angle of attack of 15 ° at the chord-based Reynolds number of 1.0×10^{5}, causing strong leading-edge and trailing-edge shear layers and a low-speed wake flow area in between as large as 0.35 chord length. When deployed on the upper wing surface, the flexible coverts adaptively flutter under the influence of the local unsteady airflow. Hot-wire measurement results show that the leading-edge coverts effectively suppress the flow separation and reduce the size of the wake flow area. The change of power spectral density shows that the predominant peaks as the fundamental and harmonic frequencies are both attenuated due to the suppression of unsteady motions of the shear layers. On the other hand, the fluttering coverts at the trailing edge modify the trailing-edge shear layer by redistributing the turbulent kinetic energy to the high-frequency components. By simultaneous double-point measurement, we find that the leading-edge and trailing-edge shear layers are drawn closer to each other, and the two shear layers show an increased peak in the coherence spectrum. Further multiscale wavelet analysis shows that the perturbations at the 60% chord length increase the large-scale amplitude modulation of small-scale turbulence and therefore they stabilize the leading-edge and trailing-edge shear layers. Meanwhile, the flow intermittency outside of the wake flow area is attenuated as well. The effective flow control effects in the present work are in good agreement with the previous direct observations of bird flight in literature that the coverts on the upper wing surface play an important role in flow separation control during high-angle-of-attack flight. These findings advance the understanding of aerodynamic contribution of the covers on bird wings and reveal the engineering potential of bioinspired coverts for flow separation control of aircrafts and unmanned air vehicles.

RevDate: 2022-03-16
CmpDate: 2022-03-15

Ovando-Chacon GE, Rodríguez-León A, Ovando-Chacon SL, et al (2022)

Computational Study of Thermal Comfort and Reduction of CO2 Levels inside a Classroom.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(5):.

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, guaranteeing thermal comfort and low CO2 levels in classrooms through efficient ventilation has become vitally important. This study presents three-dimensional simulations based on computational fluid dynamics of airflow inside an air-conditioned classroom located in Veracruz, Mexico. The analysis included various positions of an air extractor, Reynolds numbers up to 3.5 × 104, four different concentrations of pollutant sources, and three different times of the day. The simulations produced velocity, air temperature, and CO2 concentrations fields, and we calculated average air temperatures, average CO2 concentrations, and overall ventilation effectiveness. Our results revealed an optimal extractor position and Reynolds number conducive to thermal comfort and low CO2 levels due to an adequate ventilation configuration. At high pollutant concentrations, it is necessary to reduce the number of students in the classroom to achieve safe CO2 levels.

RevDate: 2022-03-16

Memon AA, Memon MA, Bhatti K, et al (2022)

Thermal decomposition of propylene oxide with different activation energy and Reynolds number in a multicomponent tubular reactor containing a cooling jacket.

Scientific reports, 12(1):4169.

In this article, we are focusing on heat and mass transfer through a Multicomponent tubular reactor containing a cooling jacket by thermal decomposition of propylene oxide in water. The chemical reaction is an irreversible, 1st order reaction and an exothermic reaction that yields propylene glycol with enthalpy = -84,666 J/mol. The constant rate of the reaction is followed by the Arrhenius equation in which the activation energy is taken on a trial basis in the range from 75,000 to 80,000 J/mol with a fixed frequency factor. For the fluid to flow, the Reynolds number is kept in the range from 100 to 1000. The three partial differential equations of mass, momentum, and energy are coupled to study heat and mass transfer in a tubular reactor by using the chemistry interface in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. The initial concentration of propylene oxide is tested in the range from 2 to 3% and the thermal conductivity of the mixture is tested in the range 0.599-0.799. It was found that the amount deactivated of the compound decreases with an increase in Reynolds number. Propylene oxide is decomposed at about 99.8% at Re = 100 at lower activation energy and gives the total maximum enthalpy change in the tubular reactor. Observing the relationship between Sherwood numbers to Nusselt numbers, it was deducted that the convective heat transfer is opposite to convective mass transfer for high Reynolds numbers.

RevDate: 2022-03-06

Khan Z, Ul Haq S, Ali F, et al (2022)

Free convection flow of second grade dusty fluid between two parallel plates using Fick's and Fourier's laws: a fractional model.

Scientific reports, 12(1):3448.

The paper aims to investigate the channel flow of second grade visco-elastic fluid generated due to an oscillating wall. The effect of heat and mass transfer has been taken into account. The phenomenon has been modelled in terms of PDEs. The constitutive equations are fractionalized by using the definition of the Caputo fractional operator with Fick's and Fourier's Laws. The system of fractional PDEs is non-dimensionalized by using appropriate dimensionless variables. The closed-form solutions of thermal and concentration boundary layers are obtained by using the Laplace and finite Fourier-Sine transforms, while the momentum equation is solved by a numerical approach by Zakian using [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, the parametric influence of various embedded physical parameters on momentum, temperature, and concentration distributions is depicted through various graphs. It is observed that the fractional approach is more convenient and realistic as compared to the classical approach. It is worth noting that the increasing values of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] retard the boundary layer profile. For instance, this behaviour of [Formula: see text] is significant where boundary control is necessary. That is, in the case of resonance, the physical solution may be obtained by adding the effect of MHD. The Reynolds number is useful in characterising the transport properties of a fluid or a particle travelling through a fluid. The Reynolds number is one of the main controlling parameters in all viscous flow. It determines whether the fluid flow is laminar or turbulent. The evolution of the rate of heat, mass transfer, and skin friction on the left plate with various physical parameters are presented in tables. These quantities are of high interest for engineers. Keeping in mind the effect of various parameters on these engineering quantities, they make their feasibility reports.

RevDate: 2022-04-18

Cai C, Wen C, Guan L, et al (2022)

Influence of sodium hypochlorite concentration on cavitation effect and fluid dynamics induced by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS): A visualization study.

Lasers in medical science [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to visualize and compare the cavitation effect and fluid dynamics induced by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with different concentrations as irrigant.

METHODS: Forty artificial root canals were prepared using MTWO Niti file up to size #25/.06. The canals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10/group). High-speed camera was used to visualize and compare the cavitation effect induced by PIPS in the artificial root canals containing saline or NaOCl. Fluid velocity and Reynolds number of saline, 1%-, 2.5%- and 5.25% NaOCl irrigants induced by PIPS in the apical region were calculated using TEMA 2D software while the fluid motions were recorded.

RESULTS: Visualization profile revealed that NaOCl presented a stronger cavitation effect and fluid dynamics than saline during PIPS activation. In the apical region, 1% NaOCl group presented the highest average velocity of 3.868 m/s, followed by 2.5% NaOCl group (3.685 m/s), 5.25% NaOCl group (2.353 m/s) and saline group (1.268 m/s), corresponding to Reynolds number of 1653.173, 1572.196, 995.503 and 477.692. Statistically higher fluid velocity was calculated in 1% and 2.5% NaOCl groups compared to saline group, respectively (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The application of NaOCl and its concentration significantly influence the cavitation effect and fluid dynamics during PIPS activation. 1% and 2.5% NaOCl groups presented a more violent fluid motion in the apical region when activated by PIPS.

RevDate: 2022-03-05

Abd-Alla AM, Thabet EN, FS Bayones (2022)

Numerical solution for MHD peristaltic transport in an inclined nanofluid symmetric channel with porous medium.

Scientific reports, 12(1):3348.

The significance of the study is to determine of transferred heat and mass impact on the magneto-hydrodynamic peristalsis of Jeffery nanofluid through porous media with inclined symmetric channels whose walls are induced by peristaltic motion within porous media. The aim of this investagtion is to study the influence of various types of parameters such as Brownian motion, thermophoresis, buoyancy forces, and magnetic fields are studies on concentration, temperature, and axial velocity. The numerical solution has been achieved according to the long-wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation utilizing the MATLAB bvp4c function. The resultant dimensions of nonlinear governing equations were approached numerically through the Runge-Kutta- Fehlberg integration scheme, a MATLAB program. The influence of different factors such as the ratio of relaxation to retardation times, nanoparticle Grashof number, and magnetic field was discussed on concentration, temperature, and velocity profiles. tables and graphs were used to demonstrate the numerically computed numerical results. Plotting graphs were utilized for evaluating the pertinent parameters impacts on the aforementioned quantities based on computational results. According to the findings, the effect of the parameters are significant.

RevDate: 2022-03-01

Khan NA, Sulaiman M, Tavera Romero CA, et al (2022)

Analysis of Nanofluid Particles in a Duct with Thermal Radiation by Using an Efficient Metaheuristic-Driven Approach.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(4):.

This study investigated the steady two-phase flow of a nanofluid in a permeable duct with thermal radiation, a magnetic field, and external forces. The basic continuity and momentum equations were considered along with the Buongiorno model to formulate the governing mathematical model of the problem. Furthermore, the intelligent computational strength of artificial neural networks (ANNs) was utilized to construct the approximate solution for the problem. The unsupervised objective functions of the governing equations in terms of mean square error were optimized by hybridizing the global search ability of an arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA) with the local search capability of an interior point algorithm (IPA). The proposed ANN-AOA-IPA technique was implemented to study the effect of variations in the thermophoretic parameter (Nt), Hartmann number (Ha), Brownian (Nb) and radiation (Rd) motion parameters, Eckert number (Ec), Reynolds number (Re) and Schmidt number (Sc) on the velocity profile, thermal profile, Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient of the nanofluid. The results obtained by the designed metaheuristic algorithm were compared with the numerical solutions obtained by the Runge-Kutta method of order 4 (RK-4) and machine learning algorithms based on a nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) and backpropagated Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The mean percentage errors in approximate solutions obtained by ANN-AOA-IPA are around 10-6 to 10-7. The graphical analysis illustrates that the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles of the nanofluid increase with an increase in the suction parameter, Eckert number and Schmidt number, respectively. Solutions and the results of performance indicators such as mean absolute deviation, Theil's inequality coefficient and error in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency further validate the proposed algorithm's utility and efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-03-01

Apmann K, Fulmer R, Scherer B, et al (2022)

Nanofluid Heat Transfer: Enhancement of the Heat Transfer Coefficient inside Microchannels.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(4):.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of a connector between two microchannels, for the first time. A brief literature review is provided to offer a better understanding on the impacts of concentration and the characteristics of nanoparticles on thermal conductivity, viscosity, and, consequently, the heat transfer coefficient inside the microchannels. The given literature review aims to help engineer nanofluids to enhance the heat transfer coefficient inside the microchannels. In this research, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were introduced into the base liquid to enhance the heat transfer coefficient inside the microchannels and to provide a better understanding of the impact of the connector between two microchannels. It was observed that the connector has a significant impact on enhancing the heat transfer coefficient inside the second microchannel, by increasing the level of randomness of molecules and particles prior to entering the second channel. The connector would act to refresh the memory of the fluid before entering the second channel, and as a result, the heat transfer coefficient in the second channel would start at a maximum value. Therefore, the overall heat transfer coefficient in both microchannels would increase for given conditions. The impacts of the Reynolds number and introducing nanoparticles in the base liquid on effects induced by the connector were investigated, suggesting that both factors play a significant role on the connector's impact on the heat transfer coefficient.

RevDate: 2022-03-02
CmpDate: 2022-03-02

Kim GB, Park KH, SJ Kim (2022)

Hemodynamics and Wall Shear Stress of Blood Vessels in Aortic Coarctation with Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(4):.

The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of blood flow in aortic coarctation based on stenotic shape structure, stenosis rate, and the distribution of the wall load delivered into the blood vessels and to predict the impact on aneurysm formation and rupture of blood vessels by using a computational fluid dynamics modeling method. It was applied on the blood flow in abdominal aortic blood vessels in which stenosis occurred by using the commercial finite element software ADINA on fluid-solid interactions. The results of modeling, with an increasing stenosis rate and Reynolds number, showed the pressure drop was increased and the velocity was greatly changed. When the stenosis rate was the same, the pressure drop and the velocity change were larger in the stenosis with a symmetric structure than in the stenosis with an asymmetric one. Maximal changes in wall shear stress were observed in the area before stenosis and minimal changes were shown in stenosis areas. The minimal shear stress occurred at different locations depending on the stenosis shape models. With an increasing stenosis rate and Reynolds number, the maximal wall shear stress was increased and the minimal wall shear stress was decreased. Through such studies, it is thought that the characteristics of blood flow in the abdominal aorta where a stenosis is formed will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of growth of atherosclerosis and the occurrence and rupture of the abdominal aortic flow.

RevDate: 2022-02-28

Antognoli M, Tomasi Masoni S, Mariotti A, et al (2022)

Mixing Improvement in a T-Shaped Micro-Junction through Small Rectangular Cavities.

Micromachines, 13(2):.

The T-shaped micro-junction is among the most used geometry in microfluidic applications, and many design modifications of the channel walls have been proposed to enhance mixing. In this work, we investigate through numerical simulations the introduction of one pair of small rectangular cavities in the lateral walls of the mixing channel just downstream of the confluence region. The aim is to preserve the simple geometry that has contributed to spread the practical use of the T-shaped micro-junction while suggesting a modification that should, in principle, work jointly with the vortical structures present in the mixing channel, further enhancing their efficiency in mixing without significant additional pressure drops. The performance is analyzed in the different flow regimes occurring by increasing the Reynolds number. The cavities are effective in the two highly-mixed flow regimes, viz., the steady engulfment and the periodic asymmetric regimes. This presence does not interfere with the formation of the vortical structures that promote mixing by convection in these two regimes, but it further enhances the mixing of the inlet streams in the near-wall region of the mixing channel without any additional cost, leading to better performance than the classical configuration.

RevDate: 2022-03-01

Nichka V, Mareev S, Pismenskaya N, et al (2022)

Mathematical Modeling of the Effect of Pulsed Electric Field Mode and Solution Flow Rate on Protein Fouling during Bipolar Membrane Electroacidificaiton of Caseinate Solution.

Membranes, 12(2):.

A one-dimensional non-stationary model was developed for a better understanding of the protein fouling formation mechanism during electroacidification of caseinate solution using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) in pulsed electric field (PEF) mode. Four different PEF modes were investigated with pulse-pause durations of 10-10 s, 10-20 s, 10-33 s, 10-50 s. For each current mode 3 different flow rates were considered, corresponding to Reynolds numbers, Re, equal to 187, 374 and 560. The processes are considered in the diffusion boundary layer between the surface of the cation-exchange layer of bipolar membrane and bulk solution of the desalination compartment. The Nernst-Planck and material balance equation systems describe the ion transport. The electroneutrality condition and equilibrium chemical reactions are taken into account. The calculation results using the developed model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data obtained during the previous experimental part of the study. It is confirmed that both the electrical PEF mode and the flow rate have a significant effect on the thickness (and mass) of the protein fouling during EDBM. Moreover, the choice of the electric current mode has the main impact on the fouling formation rate; an increase in the PEF pause duration leads to a decrease in the amount of fouling. It was shown that an increase in the PEF pause duration from 10 s to 50 s, in combination with an increase in Reynolds number (the flow rate) from 187 to 560, makes it possible to reduce synergistically the mass of protein deposits from 6 to 1.3 mg/cm2, which corresponds to a 78% decrease.

RevDate: 2022-02-28

Yang X, L Yang (2022)

Numerical Study of Entropy Generation in Fully Developed Turbulent Circular Tube Flow Using an Elliptic Blending Turbulence Model.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 24(2): pii:e24020295.

As computational fluid dynamics (CFD) advances, entropy generation minimization based on CFD becomes attractive for optimizing complex heat-transfer systems. This optimization depends on the accuracy of CFD results, such that accurate turbulence models, such as elliptic relaxation or elliptic blending turbulence models, become important. The performance of a previously developed elliptic blending turbulence model (the SST&nbsp;k-ω-φ-α model) to predict the rate of entropy generation in the fully developed turbulent circular tube flow with constant heat flux was studied to provide some guidelines for using this class of turbulence model to calculate entropy generation in complex systems. The flow and temperature fields were simulated by using a CFD package, and then the rate of entropy generation was calculated in post-processing. The analytical correlations and results of two popular turbulence models (the realizable k-ε and the shear stress transport (SST) k-ω models) were used as references to demonstrate the accuracy of the SST&nbsp;k-ω-φ-α model. The findings indicate that the turbulent Prandtl number (Prt) influences the entropy generation rate due to heat-transfer irreversibility. Prt = 0.85 produces the best results for the SST&nbsp;k-ω-φ-α model. For the realizable k-ε and SST k-ω models, Prt = 0.85 and Prt = 0.92 produce the best results, respectively. For the realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω models, the two methods used to predict the rate of entropy generation due to friction irreversibility produce the same results. However, for the SST&nbsp;k-ω-φ-α model, the rates of entropy generation due to friction irreversibility predicted by the two methods are different. The difference at a Reynolds number of 100,000 is about 14%. The method that incorporates the effective turbulent viscosity should be used to predict the rate of entropy generation due to friction irreversibility for the SST&nbsp;k-ω-φ-α model. Furthermore, when the temperature in the flow field changes dramatically, the temperature-dependent fluid properties must be considered.

RevDate: 2022-04-28
CmpDate: 2022-04-28

Xia N, Jin B, Jin D, et al (2022)

Decoupling and Reprogramming the Wiggling Motion of Midge Larvae Using a Soft Robotic Platform.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), 34(17):e2109126.

The efficient motility of invertebrates helps them survive under evolutionary pressures. Reconstructing the locomotion of invertebrates and decoupling the influence of individual basic motion are crucial for understanding their underlying mechanisms, which, however, generally remain a challenge due to the complexity of locomotion gaits. Herein, a magnetic soft robot to reproduce midge larva's key natural swimming gaits is developed, and the coupling effect between body curling and rotation on motility is investigated. Through the authors' systematically decoupling studies using programmed magnetic field inputs, the soft robot (named LarvaBot) experiences various coupled gaits, including biomimetic side-to-side flexures, and unveils that the optimal rotation amplitude and the synchronization of curling and rotation greatly enhance its motility. The LarvaBot achieves fast locomotion and upstream capability at the moderate Reynolds number regime. The soft robotics-based platform provides new insight to decouple complex biological locomotion, and design programmed swimming gaits for the fast locomotion of soft-bodied swimmers.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Czelusniak LE, Mapelli VP, Wagner AJ, et al (2022)

Shaping the equation of state to improve numerical accuracy and stability of the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method.

Physical review. E, 105(1-2):015303.

It has recently been shown that altering the shape of the metastable and unstable branches of an equation of state (EOS) can substantially improve the numerical accuracy of liquid and vapor densities in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method [Peng et al., Phys. Rev. E 101, 063309 (2020)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.101.063309]. We found that this approach reduces stability of the method in nonequilibrium conditions and is unstable for bubbles at low reduced temperatures. Here we present an improved method for altering the shape of the metastable and unstable branches of the EOS which remains stable for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium situations and has no issues with bubbles. We also performed a detailed study of the stability of the methods for a droplet impact on a liquid film for reduced temperatures down to 0.35 with Reynolds number of 300. Our approach remained stable for a density ratio of up to 3.38×10^{4}.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Richter SK, AM Menzel (2022)

Mediated interactions between rigid inclusions in two-dimensional elastic or fluid films.

Physical review. E, 105(1-1):014609.

Interactions between rigid inclusions in continuous three-dimensional linearly elastic solids and low-Reynolds-number viscous fluids have largely been quantified in the past. Prime example systems are given by functionalized elastic composite materials or fluid colloidal suspensions. Here, we address the significantly less frequently studied situation of rigid inclusions in two-dimensional elastic or low-Reynolds-number fluid films. We concentrate on the situation in which disklike inclusions remain well separated from each other and do not get into contact. Specifically, we demonstrate and explain that the logarithmic divergence of the associated Green's function is removed in the absence of net external forces on the inclusions, in line with physical intuition. For instance, this situation applies when only pairwise mutual interactions between the inclusions prevail. Our results will support, for example, investigations on membranes functionalized by appropriate inclusions, both of technical or biological origin, or the dynamics of active microswimmers in appropriately prepared thin films.

RevDate: 2022-02-25

Hamzah HK, Ali FH, M Hatami (2022)

MHD mixed convection and entropy generation of CNT-water nanofluid in a wavy lid-driven porous enclosure at different boundary conditions.

Scientific reports, 12(1):2881.

In this study, Galerkin Finite Element Method or GFEM is used for the modeling of mixed convection with the entropy generation in wavy lid-driven porous enclosure filled by the CNT-water nanofluid under the magnetic field. Two different cases of boundary conditions for hot and cold walls are considered to study the fluid flow (streamlines) and heat transfer (local and average Nusselt numbers) as well as the entropy generation parameters. Richardson (Ri), Darcy (Da), Hartmann angle (γ), Amplitude (A), Number of peaks (N), Volume fraction (φ), Heat generation factor (λ), Hartmann number (Ha) and Reynolds number (Re) are studied parameters in this study which results indicated that at low Richardson numbers (< 1) increasing the inclined angle of magnetic field, decreases the Nu numbers, but at larger Richardson numbers (> 1) it improves the Nu numbers.

RevDate: 2022-03-22

Bakos V, Gyarmati B, Csizmadia P, et al (2022)

Viscous and filamentous bulking in activated sludge: Rheological and hydrodynamic modelling based on experimental data.

Water research, 214:118155 pii:S0043-1354(22)00118-X [Epub ahead of print].

Although achieving good activated sludge settleability is a key requirement for meeting effluent quality criteria, wastewater treatment plants often face undesired floc structure changes. Filamentous bulking has widely been studied, however, viscous sludge formation much less investigated so far. Our main goal was to find relationship between sludge floc structure and related rheological properties, moreover, to estimate pressure loss in pipe networks through hydrodynamic modelling of the non-Newtonian flows in case of well settling (ideal-like), viscous and filamentous sludge. Severe viscous and filamentous kinds of bulking were generated separately in continuous-flow lab-scale systems initially seeded with the same reference (ideal-like) biomass and the entire evolution of viscous and filamentous bulking was monitored. The results suggested correlation between the rheological properties and the floc structure transformations, and showed the most appropriate fit for the Herschel-Bulkley model (vs. Power-law and Bingham). Validated computational fluid dynamics studies estimated the pipe pressure loss in a wide Reynolds number range for the initial well settling (reference) and the final viscous and filamentous sludge as well. A practical standard modelling protocol was developed for improving energy efficiency of sludge pumping in different floc structure scenarios.

RevDate: 2022-03-14
CmpDate: 2022-03-14

Yu Z, Yang G, W Zhang (2022)

A new model for the terminal settling velocity of microplastics.

Marine pollution bulletin, 176:113449.

Microplastic (MP) settling process is important for the transport of microplastic particles (MPs, <5 mm) in water bodies. However, for the control parameter of the drag coefficient (Cd), no generalized formula has been proposed for MPs of different shapes and materials. In this study, a total of 1343 MP settling data were collected from the literature. It was found that the drag law for perfect spheres cannot reasonably predict Cd for MPs with particle Reynolds number of 1-103. A new formula for Cd was developed by introducing the dimensionless particle diameter (d⁎) and two shape descriptors. The absolute error of the new formula is 15.2%, smaller than those (42.5-72.8%) of other existing formulas. Moreover, an explicit model was developed for MP settling velocity by correlating Cd, d⁎, and shape descriptors, with lower absolute error (8.8%) than those (15.4-77.2%) of existing models.

RevDate: 2022-02-19

Faroughi SA, Roriz AI, C Fernandes (2022)

A Meta-Model to Predict the Drag Coefficient of a Particle Translating in Viscoelastic Fluids: A Machine Learning Approach.

Polymers, 14(3):.

This study presents a framework based on Machine Learning (ML) models to predict the drag coefficient of a spherical particle translating in viscoelastic fluids. For the purpose of training and testing the ML models, two datasets were generated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) for the viscoelastic unbounded flow of Oldroyd-B (OB-set containing 12,120 data points) and Giesekus (GI-set containing 4950 data points) fluids past a spherical particle. The kinematic input features were selected to be Reynolds number, 0

RevDate: 2022-02-19

Ba TL, Gróf G, Odhiambo VO, et al (2022)

A CFD Study on Heat Transfer Performance of SiO2-TiO2 Nanofluids under Turbulent Flow.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3):.

A CFD model was performed with commercial software through the adoption of the finite volume method and a SIMPLE algorithm. SiO2-P25 particles were added to water/ethylene glycol as a base fluid. The result is considered a new hybrid nanofluid (HN) for investigating heat transfer (HT). The volume concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%. The Reynolds number was in the range of 5000-17,000. The heat flux (HF) was 7955 W/m2, and the wall temperature was 340.15 K. The numerical experiments were performed strictly following the rules that one should follow in HT experiments. This is important because many studies related to nanofluid HT overlook these details. The empirical correlations that contain the friction factor perform better with higher Reynolds numbers than the correlations based only on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. When temperature differences are moderate, researchers may consider using constant properties to lower computational costs, as they may give results that are similar to temperature-dependent ones. Compared with previous research, our simulation results are in agreement with the experiments in real time.

RevDate: 2022-02-15

Ali SZ, Dey S, RK Mahato (2021)

Mega riverbed-patterns: linear and weakly nonlinear perspectives.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 477(2252):20210331.

In this paper, we explore the mega riverbed-patterns, whose longitudinal and vertical length dimensions scale with a few channel widths and the flow depth, respectively. We perform the stability analyses from both linear and weakly nonlinear perspectives by considering a steady-uniform flow in an erodible straight channel comprising a uniform sediment size. The mathematical framework stands on the dynamic coupling between the depth-averaged flow model and the particle transport model including both bedload and suspended load via the Exner equation, which drives the pattern formation. From the linear perspective, we employ the standard linearization technique by superimposing the periodic perturbations on the undisturbed system to find the dispersion relationship. From the weakly nonlinear perspective, we apply the centre-manifold-projection technique, where the fast dynamics of stable modes is projected on the slow dynamics of weakly unstable modes to obtain the Stuart-Landau equation for the amplitude dynamics. We examine the marginal stability, growth rate and amplitude of patterns for a given quintet formed by the channel aspect ratio, wavenumber of patterns, shear Reynolds number, Shields number and relative roughness number. This study highlights the sensitivity of pattern formation to the key parameters and shows how the classical results can be reconstructed on the parameter space.

RevDate: 2022-02-15

Kingora K, Burks WL, H Sadat (2022)

Flow and mass transfer characteristics for interacting side-by-side cylinders.

Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994), 34(2):023602.

This study investigates the local and global flow structures and mass transfer characteristics for a group of interacting side-by-side cylinders in unbounded flow. Configurations with 2, 3, 4, and 5 members are considered for a range of pitch-ratios (1.05 ≤ S / D ≤ 4) at the Reynolds number Re = 90. The focus is laid on the time-averaged and instantaneous local flow features including wake field, jet flow, vortical structures, λ 2, pressure coefficient, and mass transfer coefficient as well as integral variables including hydrodynamic forces. Four flow regimes are identified based on the vortical structures and average stream-wise velocity field. At low pitch-ratio, the whole structure behaves like a single bluff body, while each member in the configuration behaves like an independent isolated bluff body when the pitch-ratio is large. Between these two regimes, asymmetrically and symmetrically deflected wake regimes are observed. Flow regimes dictate hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics such that a jump in the hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer coefficient is observed as the flow regime evolves from a single body to a deflected wake. The configuration's size and the position of member cylinders in the structure have more profound effects on hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer characteristics at small pitch-ratio. For all configurations, drag increases as one progresses deeper into the structure, while lift forces are always repulsive between any two neighboring cylinders. Member cylinders have comparable mass transfer coefficients at intermediate and high pitch-ratios, while exterior cylinders exhibit a higher mass transfer coefficient at low pitch-ratio. Overall, the structure's size has a more profound effect on the values of scalars at low pitch-ratios.

RevDate: 2022-02-16

Yang L, Baghaei S, Suksatan W, et al (2022)

Numerical assessment of the influence of helical baffle on the hydrothermal aspects of nanofluid turbulent forced convection inside a heat exchanger.

Scientific reports, 12(1):2245.

This study is devoted to the numerical assessment of the influence of helical baffle on the hydrothermal aspects and irreversibility behavior of the turbulent forced convection flow of water-CuO nanofluid (NF) inside a hairpin heat exchanger with 100 mm length, 10 mm inner tube internal diameter, and 15 mm outer diameter internal diameter. The variations of the first-law and second-law performance metrics are investigated in terms of Reynolds number (Re = 5000-10,000), volume concentration of NF ([Formula: see text]) and baffle pitch (B = 25-100 mm). The results show that the NF Nusselt number grows with the rise of both the Re and [Formula: see text] whereas it declines with the rise of B. In addition, the outcomes depicted that the rise of both Re and [Formula: see text] results in the rise of pressure drop, while it declines with the increase of B. Moreover, it was found that the best thermal performance of NF is equal to 1.067, which belongs to the case B = 33.3 mm, [Formula: see text]=2%, and Re = 10,000. Furthermore, it was shown that irreversibilities due to fluid friction and heat transfer augment with the rise of Re while the rise of B results in the decrease of frictional irreversibilities. Finally, the outcomes revealed that with the rise of B, the heat transfer irreversibilities first intensify and then diminish.

RevDate: 2022-02-11

Masroor E, Yang W, MA Stremler (2022)

Flow visualization data from experiments with an oscillating circular cylinder in a gravity-driven soap film.

Data in brief, 41:107819.

This article contains flow visualization data from experiments conducted in an inclined gravity-driven soap film intersected by a circular cylinder undergoing controlled transverse oscillations at a Reynolds number of Re ≈ 235 . The dimensionless frequency and amplitude of cylinder oscillation were varied systematically over the ranges 0.2 < f * < 1.8 and 0.1 < A * < 1.3 . A high-speed camera was used to capture the interference fringe patterns reflected from the soap film. These videos show the structure of the wake behind the cylinder, including the initial formation of vortices and the extended 'vortex street'. Several wake patterns were identified, including the classic 2S, P+S, 2P, and 2T patterns, which are discussed in detail in the accompanying research article titled "The wake of a transversely oscillating circular cylinder in a flowing soap film at low Reynolds number" [1]. The videos presented in this article can be accessed through the Virginia Tech University Libraries' Repository at[2].

RevDate: 2022-02-16

Gallo-Méndez I, PS Moya (2022)

Langevin based turbulence model and its relationship with Kappa distributions.

Scientific reports, 12(1):2136.

Kappa distributions (or [Formula: see text]-like distributions) represent a robust framework to characterize and understand complex phenomena with high degrees of freedom, as turbulent systems, using non-extensive statistical mechanics. Here we consider a coupled map lattice Langevin based model to analyze the relation of a turbulent flow, with its spatial scale dynamic, and [Formula: see text]-like distributions. We generate the steady-state velocity distribution of the fluid at each scale, and show that the generated distributions are well fitted by [Formula: see text]-like distributions. We observe a robust relation between the [Formula: see text] parameter, the scale, and the Reynolds number of the system, Re. In particular, our results show that there is a closed scaling relation between the level of turbulence and the [Formula: see text] parameter; namely [Formula: see text]. We expect these results to be useful to characterize turbulence in different contexts, and our numerical predictions to be tested by observations and experimental setups.

RevDate: 2022-02-22
CmpDate: 2022-02-22

Zhang X, Gomez-Paz J, Chen X, et al (2022)

Volumetric lattice Boltzmann method for wall stresses of image-based pulsatile flows.

Scientific reports, 12(1):1697.

Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become a new capability for determining wall stresses of pulsatile flows. However, a computational platform that directly connects image information to pulsatile wall stresses is lacking. Prevailing methods rely on manual crafting of a hodgepodge of multidisciplinary software packages, which is usually laborious and error-prone. We present a new computational platform, to compute wall stresses in image-based pulsatile flows using the volumetric lattice Boltzmann method (VLBM). The novelty includes: (1) a unique image processing to extract flow domain and local wall normality, (2) a seamless connection between image extraction and VLBM, (3) an en-route calculation of strain-rate tensor, and (4) GPU acceleration (not included here). We first generalize the streaming operation in the VLBM and then conduct application studies to demonstrate its reliability and applicability. A benchmark study is for laminar and turbulent pulsatile flows in an image-based pipe (Reynolds number: 10 to 5000). The computed pulsatile velocity and shear stress are in good agreements with Womersley's analytical solutions for laminar pulsatile flows and concurrent laboratory measurements for turbulent pulsatile flows. An application study is to quantify the pulsatile hemodynamics in image-based human vertebral and carotid arteries including velocity vector, pressure, and wall-shear stress. The computed velocity vector fields are in reasonably well agreement with MRA (magnetic resonance angiography) measured ones. This computational platform is good for image-based CFD with medical applications and pore-scale porous media flows in various natural and engineering systems.

RevDate: 2022-02-16

Ranftl S, Müller TS, Windberger U, et al (2022)

A Bayesian approach to blood rheological uncertainties in aortic hemodynamics.

International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Computational hemodynamics has received increasing attention recently. Patient-specific simulations require questionable model assumptions, for example, for geometry, boundary conditions, and material parameters. Consequently, the credibility of these simulations is much doubted, and rightly so. Yet, the matter may be addressed by a rigorous uncertainty quantification. In this contribution, we investigated the impact of blood rheological models on wall shear stress uncertainties in aortic hemodynamics obtained in numerical simulations. Based on shear-rheometric experiments, we compare the non-Newtonian Carreau model to a simple Newtonian model and a Reynolds number-equivalent Newtonian model. Bayesian Probability Theory treats uncertainties consistently and allows to include elusive assumptions such as the comparability of flow regimes. We overcome the prohibitively high computational cost for the simulation with a surrogate model, and account for the uncertainties of the surrogate model itself, too. We have two main findings: (1) The Newtonian models mostly underestimate the uncertainties as compared to the non-Newtonian model. (2) The wall shear stresses of specific persons cannot be distinguished due to largely overlapping uncertainty bands, implying that a more precise determination of person-specific blood rheological properties is necessary for person-specific simulations. While we refrain from a general recommendation for one rheological model, we have quantified the error of the uncertainty quantification associated with these modeling choices.

RevDate: 2022-01-31

Cartes C, Tirapegui E, Pandit R, et al (2022)

The Galerkin-truncated Burgers equation: crossover from inviscid-thermalized to Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 380(2219):20210090.

The one-dimensional Galerkin-truncated Burgers equation, with both dissipation and noise terms included, is studied using spectral methods. When the truncation-scale Reynolds number [Formula: see text] is varied, from very small values to order 1 values, the scale-dependent correlation time [Formula: see text] is shown to follow the expected crossover from the short-distance [Formula: see text] Edwards-Wilkinson scaling to the universal long-distance Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling [Formula: see text]. In the inviscid limit, [Formula: see text], we show that the system displays another crossover to the Galerkin-truncated inviscid-Burgers regime that admits thermalized solutions with [Formula: see text]. The scaling forms of the time-correlation functions are shown to follow the known analytical laws and the skewness and excess kurtosis of the interface increments distributions are characterized. This article is part of the theme issue 'Scaling the turbulence edifice (part 2)'.

RevDate: 2022-01-31

Alexakis A, L Biferale (2022)

λ-Navier-Stokes turbulence.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 380(2219):20210243.

We investigate numerically the model proposed in Sahoo et al. (2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 164501) where a parameter λ is introduced in the Navier-Stokes equations such that the weight of homochiral to heterochiral interactions is varied while preserving all original scaling symmetries and inviscid invariants. Decreasing the value of λ leads to a change in the direction of the energy cascade at a critical value [Formula: see text]. In this work, we perform numerical simulations at varying λ in the forward energy cascade range and at changing the Reynolds number [Formula: see text]. We show that for a fixed injection rate, as [Formula: see text], the kinetic energy diverges with a scaling law [Formula: see text]. The energy spectrum is shown to display a larger bottleneck as λ is decreased. The forward heterochiral flux and the inverse homochiral flux both increase in amplitude as [Formula: see text] is approached while keeping their difference fixed and equal to the injection rate. As a result, very close to [Formula: see text] a stationary state is reached where the two opposite fluxes are of much higher amplitude than the mean flux and large fluctuations are observed. Furthermore, we show that intermittency as [Formula: see text] is approached is reduced. The possibility of obtaining a statistical description of regular Navier-Stokes turbulence as an expansion around this newly found critical point is discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Scaling the turbulence edifice (part 2)'.

RevDate: 2022-01-31

Wagner CG, Norton MM, Park JS, et al (2022)

Exact Coherent Structures and Phase Space Geometry of Preturbulent 2D Active Nematic Channel Flow.

Physical review letters, 128(2):028003.

Confined active nematics exhibit rich dynamical behavior, including spontaneous flows, periodic defect dynamics, and chaotic "active turbulence." Here, we study these phenomena using the framework of exact coherent structures, which has been successful in characterizing the routes to high Reynolds number turbulence of passive fluids. Exact coherent structures are stationary, periodic, quasiperiodic, or traveling wave solutions of the hydrodynamic equations that, together with their invariant manifolds, serve as an organizing template of the dynamics. We compute the dominant exact coherent structures and connecting orbits in a preturbulent active nematic channel flow, which enables a fully nonlinear but highly reduced-order description in terms of a directed graph. Using this reduced representation, we compute instantaneous perturbations that switch the system between disparate spatiotemporal states occupying distant regions of the infinite-dimensional phase space. Our results lay the groundwork for a systematic means of understanding and controlling active nematic flows in the moderate- to high-activity regime.

RevDate: 2022-01-31

Oberlack M, Hoyas S, Kraheberger SV, et al (2022)

Turbulence Statistics of Arbitrary Moments of Wall-Bounded Shear Flows: A Symmetry Approach.

Physical review letters, 128(2):024502.

The calculation of turbulence statistics is considered the key unsolved problem of fluid mechanics, i.e., precisely the computation of arbitrary statistical velocity moments from first principles alone. Using symmetry theory, we derive turbulent scaling laws for moments of arbitrary order in two regions of a turbulent channel flow. Besides the classical scaling symmetries of space and time, the key symmetries for the present work reflect the two well-known characteristics of turbulent flows: non-Gaussianity and intermittency. To validate the new scaling laws we made a new simulation at an unprecedented friction Reynolds number of 10 000, large enough to test the new scaling laws. Two key results appear as an application of symmetry theory, which allowed us to generate symmetry invariant solutions for arbitrary orders of moments for the underlying infinite set of moment equations. First, we show that in the sense of the generalization of the deficit law all moments of the streamwise velocity in the channel center follow a power-law scaling, with exponents depending on the first and second moments alone. Second, we show that the logarithmic law of the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded flows is indeed a valid solution of the moment equations, and further, all higher moments in this region follow a power law, where the scaling exponent of the second moment determines all higher moments. With this we give a first complete mathematical framework for all moments in the log region, which was first discovered about 100 years ago.

RevDate: 2022-01-29

Fujimori T, Yamashita D, Kishibe Y, et al (2022)

One step fabrication of aligned carbon nanotubes using gas rectifier.

Scientific reports, 12(1):1285.

We report the one-step fabrication of aligned and high-quality carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using floating-catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) with controlled fluidic properties assisted by a gas rectifier. The gas rectifier consists of one-dimensional straight channels for regulating the Reynolds number of the reaction gas. Our computational fluid dynamics simulation reveals that the narrow channels of the gas rectifier provide steady and accelerated laminar flow of the reaction gas. In addition, strong shear stress is induced near the side wall of the channels, resulting in the spontaneous formation of macroscopic CNT bundles aligned along the direction of the gas flow. After a wet-process using chlorosulfonic acid, the inter-tube voids inherently observed in as-grown CNT bundles are reduced from 16 to 0.3%. The resulting CNT fiber exhibits a tensile strength of 2.1 ± 0.1 N tex-1 with a Young's modulus of 39 ± 4 N tex-1 and an elongation of 6.3 ± 0.6%. FCCVD coupled with the strong shear stress of the reaction gas is an important pre-processing route for the fabrication of high-performance CNT fibers.

RevDate: 2022-02-04
CmpDate: 2022-02-02

Hamann L, A Blanke (2022)

Suspension feeders: diversity, principles of particle separation and biomimetic potential.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 19(186):20210741.

Suspension feeders (SFs) evolved a high diversity of mechanisms, sometimes with remarkably convergent morphologies, to retain plankton, detritus and man-made particles with particle sizes ranging from less than 1 µm to several centimetres. Based on an extensive literature review, also including the physical and technical principles of solid-liquid separation, we developed a set of 18 ecological and technical parameters to review 35 taxa of suspension-feeding Metazoa covering the diversity of morphological and functional principles. This includes passive SFs, such as gorgonians or crinoids that use the ambient flow to encounter particles, and sponges, bivalves or baleen whales, which actively create a feeding current. Separation media can be flat or funnel-shaped, built externally such as the filter houses in larvaceans, or internally, like the pleated gills in bivalves. Most SFs feed in the intermediate flow region of Reynolds number 1-50 and have cleaning mechanisms that allow for continuous feeding. Comparison of structure-function patterns in SFs to current filtration technologies highlights potential solutions to common technical design challenges, such as mucus nets which increase particle adhesion in ascidians, vanes which reduce pressure losses in whale sharks and changing mesh sizes in the flamingo beak which allow quick adaptation to particle sizes.

RevDate: 2022-05-05
CmpDate: 2022-05-05

Liu S, Dong F, Zhang D, et al (2022)

Effect of microfluidic channel geometry on Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation.

Biomedical microdevices, 24(1):11.

Biofilms are microbial colonies encased in an extracellular polymer matrix self-secreted through bacterial proliferation and differentiation. Biofilms exist almost everywhere such as sewers, rivers and oceans. In the fluid environment, the formation of biofilms is closely related to the relevant parameters of the flow field, such as the shear stress, the secondary flow, and the Reynolds number. In this paper, we use microfluidic channels made of polydimethylsiloxane to study the channel-geometry effect on Bacillus subtilis biofilms formation, such as the biofilm adhesion and structure. Our study shows that both the shear stress and the secondary flow play roles in the biofilm adhesion at the initial stage, the shear stress decides whether the biofilm adheres, if yes, then the secondary flow determines the adhesion rate. Our study further shows that after the biofilm forms, its structure evolves from loose to dense, with a concomitant 20-times rise in adhesion. Our study provides new insights into the adhesion of biofilms in natural and industrial fluid environments and helps understand the growth of biofilms.

RevDate: 2022-02-11
CmpDate: 2022-02-11

Pajic-Lijakovic I, M Milivojevic (2022)

Mechanical waves caused by collective cell migration: generation.

European biophysics journal : EBJ, 51(1):1-13.

Long-timescale viscoelasticity caused by collective cell migration (CCM) significantly influences cell rearrangement and induces generation of mechanical waves. The phenomenon represents a product of the active turbulence occurring at low Reynolds number. The generation of mechanical waves has been a subject of intensive research primarily in 2D multicellular systems, while 3D systems have not been considered in this context. The aim of this contribution is to discuss the generation of mechanical waves during 3D CCM in two model systems: (1) the fusion of two-cell aggregates and (2) cell aggregate rounding after uni-axial compression, pointing out that mechanical waves represent a characteristic of CCM in general. Such perturbations are also involved in various biological processes, such as embryogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion. The inter-relation between the viscoelasticity and the appearance of active turbulence remains poorly understood even in 2D. The phenomenon represents a consequence of the competition between the viscoelastic force and the surface tension force which induces successive stiffening and softening of parts of multicellular systems. The viscoelastic force is a product of the residual cell stress accumulation and its inhomogeneous distribution caused by CCM. This modeling consideration represents a powerful tool to address the generation of mechanical waves in CCM towards an understanding of this important but still controversial topic.

RevDate: 2022-01-28

Lee TW, JE Park (2021)

Entropy and Turbulence Structure.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 24(1):.

Some new perspectives are offered on the spectral and spatial structure of turbulent flows, in the context of conservation principles and entropy. In recent works, we have shown that the turbulence energy spectra are derivable from the maximum entropy principle, with good agreement with experimental data across the entire wavenumber range. Dissipation can also be attributed to the Reynolds number effect in wall-bounded turbulent flows. Within the global energy and dissipation constraints, the gradients (d/dy+ or d2/dy+2) of the Reynolds stress components neatly fold onto respective curves, so that function prescriptions (dissipation structure functions) can serve as a template to expand to other Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds stresses are fairly well prescribed by the current scaling and dynamical formalism so that the origins of the turbulence structure can be understood and quantified from the entropy perspective.

RevDate: 2022-02-05

Eyink GL, Kumar S, H Quan (2022)

The Onsager theory of wall-bounded turbulence and Taylor's momentum anomaly.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 380(2218):20210079.

We discuss the Onsager theory of wall-bounded turbulence, analysing the momentum dissipation anomaly hypothesized by Taylor. Turbulent drag laws observed with both smooth and rough walls imply ultraviolet divergences of velocity gradients. These are eliminated by a coarse-graining operation, filtering out small-scale eddies and windowing out near-wall eddies, thus introducing two arbitrary regularization length-scales. The regularized equations for resolved eddies correspond to the weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation and contain, in addition to the usual turbulent stress, also an inertial drag force modelling momentum exchange with unresolved near-wall eddies. Using an Onsager-type argument based on the principle of renormalization group invariance, we derive an upper bound on wall friction by a function of Reynolds number determined by the modulus of continuity of the velocity at the wall. Our main result is a deterministic version of Prandtl's relation between the Blasius [Formula: see text] drag law and the 1/7 power-law profile of the mean streamwise velocity. At higher Reynolds, the von Kármán-Prandtl drag law requires instead a slow logarithmic approach of velocity to zero at the wall. We discuss briefly also the large-eddy simulation of wall-bounded flows and use of iterative renormalization group methods to establish universal statistics in the inertial sublayer. This article is part of the theme issue 'Scaling the turbulence edifice (part 1)'.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Buaria D, Pumir A, E Bodenschatz (2022)

Generation of intense dissipation in high Reynolds number turbulence.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 380(2218):20210088.

Intense fluctuations of energy dissipation rate in turbulent flows result from the self-amplification of strain rate via a quadratic nonlinearity, with contributions from vorticity (via the vortex stretching mechanism) and pressure-Hessian-which are analysed here using direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence on up to [Formula: see text] grid points, and Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers in the range 140-1300. We extract the statistics involved in amplification of strain and condition them on the magnitude of strain. We find that strain is self-amplified by the quadratic nonlinearity, and depleted via vortex stretching, whereas pressure-Hessian acts to redistribute strain fluctuations towards the mean-field and hence depletes intense strain. Analysing the intense fluctuations of strain in terms of its eigenvalues reveals that the net amplification is solely produced by the third eigenvalue, resulting in strong compressive action. By contrast, the self-amplification acts to deplete the other two eigenvalues, whereas vortex stretching acts to amplify them, with both effects cancelling each other almost perfectly. The effect of the pressure-Hessian for each eigenvalue is qualitatively similar to that of vortex stretching, but significantly weaker in magnitude. Our results conform with the familiar notion that intense strain is organized in sheet-like structures, which are in the vicinity of, but never overlap with tube-like regions of intense vorticity due to fundamental differences in their amplifying mechanisms. This article is part of the theme issue 'Scaling the turbulence edifice (part 1)'.

RevDate: 2022-01-28
CmpDate: 2022-01-27

Chakraborty R, Maiti A, Sharma N, et al (2022)

Active matter dynamics in confined microfluidic environments.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 186(1):245-265.

The field of active matter is a nascent area of research in soft condensed matter physics, which is drawing on the expertise of researchers from diverse disciplines. Small scale active particles-both inorganic and biological-display non-trivial emergent dynamics and interactions that could help us understand complex biological processes and phenomena. Recently, using microfluidic technologies, several research groups have performed important experimental and theoretical studies to understand the behavior of self-propelled particles and molecular active matter within confined environments-to glean a fundamental understanding of the cellular processes occurring under ultra-low Reynolds number conditions. In this chapter, we would like to review applications of microfluidics in active matter research, highlighting a few important theoretical and experimental investigations. We will conclude the discussion with a note on the future of this field mentioning a few open questions that are at the forefront of our minds.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Koch CM, M Wilczek (2021)

Role of Advective Inertia in Active Nematic Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 127(26):268005.

Suspensions of active agents with nematic interactions exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics such as mesoscale turbulence. Since the Reynolds number of microscopic flows is very small on the scale of individual agents, inertial effects are typically excluded in continuum theories of active nematic turbulence. Whether active stresses can collectively excite inertial flows is currently unclear. To address this question, we investigate a two-dimensional continuum theory for active nematic turbulence. In particular, we compare mesoscale turbulence with and without the effects of advective inertia. We find that inertial effects can influence the flow already close to the onset of the turbulent state and, moreover, give rise to large-scale fluid motion for strong active driving. A detailed analysis of the kinetic energy budget reveals an energy transfer to large scales mediated by inertial advection. While this transfer is small in comparison to energy injection and dissipation, its effects accumulate over time. The inclusion of friction, which is typically present in experiments, can compensate for this effect. The findings suggest that the inclusion of inertia and friction may be necessary for dynamically consistent theories of active nematic turbulence.

RevDate: 2022-05-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-16

Olsson KH, Gurka R, R Holzman (2022)

Trophic guilds of suction-feeding fishes are distinguished by their characteristic hydrodynamics of swimming and feeding.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1966):20211968.

Suction-feeding in fishes is a ubiquitous form of prey capture whose outcome depends both on the movements of the predator and the prey, and on the dynamics of the surrounding fluid, which exerts forces on the two organisms. The inherent complexity of suction-feeding has challenged previous efforts to understand how the feeding strikes are modified when species evolve to feed on different prey types. Here, we use the concept of dynamic similarity, commonly applied to understanding the mechanisms of swimming, flying, walking and aquatic feeding. We characterize the hydrodynamic regimes pertaining to (i) the forward movement of the fish (ram), and (ii) the suction flows for feeding strikes of 71 species of acanthomorph fishes. A discriminant function analysis revealed that feeding strikes of zooplanktivores, generalists and piscivores could be distinguished based on their hydrodynamic regimes. Furthermore, a phylogenetic comparative analysis revealed that there are distinctive hydrodynamic adaptive peaks associated with zooplanktivores, generalists and piscivores. The scaling of dynamic similarity across species, body sizes and feeding guilds in fishes indicates that elementary hydrodynamic principles govern the trophic evolution of suction-feeding in fishes.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )