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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Sep 2020 at 01:32 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

Created with PubMed® Query: "reynolds number" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-09-14

Beratlis N, Capuano F, Krishnan K, et al (2020)

Direct numerical simulations of a great horn owl in flapping flight.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:5905490 [Epub ahead of print].

The fluid dynamics of owls in flapping flight is studied by coordinated experiments and computations. The great horned owl was selected, which is nocturnal, stealthy, and relatively large sized raptor. On the experimental side, perch-to-perch flight was considered in an open wind tunnel. The owl kinematics were captured with multiple cameras from different view angles. The kinematic extraction was central in driving the computations, which were designed to resolve all significant spatio-temporal scales in the flow with an unprecedented level of resolution. The wing geometry was extracted from the planform image of the owl wing and a three-dimensional model, the reference configuration, was reconstructed. This configuration was then deformed in time to best match the kinematics recorded during flights utilizing an image-registration technique based on the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping framework. All simulations were conducted using an eddy-resolving, high-fidelity, solver, where the large displacements/deformations of the flapping owl model were introduced with an immersed boundary formulation. We report detailed information on the spatio-temporal flow dynamics in the near wake including variables that are challenging to measure with sufficient accuracy, such as aerodynamic forces. At the same time our results indicate that high-fidelity computations over smooth wings may have limitations in capturing the full range of flow phenomena in owl flight. The growth and subsequent separation of the laminar boundary layers developing over the wings in this Reynolds number regime is sensitive to the surface micro-features that are unique to each specie.

RevDate: 2020-09-13

Sprenger AR, Shaik VA, Ardekani AM, et al (2020)

Towards an analytical description of active microswimmers in clean and in surfactant-covered drops.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 43(9):58 pii:10.1140/epje/i2020-11980-9.

Geometric confinements are frequently encountered in the biological world and strongly affect the stability, topology, and transport properties of active suspensions in viscous flow. Based on a far-field analytical model, the low-Reynolds-number locomotion of a self-propelled microswimmer moving inside a clean viscous drop or a drop covered with a homogeneously distributed surfactant, is theoretically examined. The interfacial viscous stresses induced by the surfactant are described by the well-established Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive rheological model. Moreover, the active agent is represented by a force dipole and the resulting fluid-mediated hydrodynamic couplings between the swimmer and the confining drop are investigated. We find that the presence of the surfactant significantly alters the dynamics of the encapsulated swimmer by enhancing its reorientation. Exact solutions for the velocity images for the Stokeslet and dipolar flow singularities inside the drop are introduced and expressed in terms of infinite series of harmonic components. Our results offer useful insights into guiding principles for the control of confined active matter systems and support the objective of utilizing synthetic microswimmers to drive drops for targeted drug delivery applications.

RevDate: 2020-09-12

Khan MZU, Uddin E, Akbar B, et al (2020)

Investigation of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microchannel Heat Sink Using Al2O3 and ZrO2 Nanofluids.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9): pii:nano10091796.

A new micro heat exchanger was analyzed using numerical formulation of conjugate heat transfer for single-phase fluid flow across copper microchannels. The flow across bent channels harnesses asymmetric laminar flow and dean vortices phenomena for heat transfer enhancement. The single-channel analysis was performed to select the bent channel aspect ratio by varying width and height between 35-300 μm for Reynolds number and base temperature magnitude range of 100-1000 and 320-370 K, respectively. The bent channel results demonstrate dean vortices phenomenon at the bend for Reynolds number of 500 and above. Thermal performance factor analysis shows an increase of 18% in comparison to straight channels of 200 μm width and height. Alumina nanoparticles at 1% and 3% concentration enhance the Nusselt number by an average of 10.4% and 23.7%, respectively, whereas zirconia enhances Nusselt number by 16% and 33.9% for same concentrations. On the other hand, thermal performance factor analysis shows a significant increase in pressure drop at high Reynolds number with 3% particle concentration. Using zirconia for nanofluid, Nusselt number of the bent multi-channel model is improved by an average of 18% for a 3% particle concentration as compared to bent channel with deionized water.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Tang W, Zhu S, Jiang D, et al (2020)

Channel innovations for inertial microfluidics.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

Inertial microfluidics has gained significant attention since first being proposed in 2007 owing to the advantages of simplicity, high throughput, precise manipulation, and freedom from an external field. Superior performance in particle focusing, filtering, concentrating, and separating has been demonstrated. As a passive technology, inertial microfluidics technology relies on the unconventional use of fluid inertia in an intermediate Reynolds number range to induce inertial migration and secondary flow, which depend directly on the channel structure, leading to particle migration to the lateral equilibrium position or trapping in a specific cavity. With the advances in micromachining technology, many channel structures have been designed and fabricated in the past decade to explore the fundamentals and applications of inertial microfluidics. However, the channel innovations for inertial microfluidics have not been discussed comprehensively. In this review, the inertial particle manipulations and underlying physics in conventional channels, including straight, spiral, sinusoidal, and expansion-contraction channels, are briefly described. Then, recent innovations in channel structure for inertial microfluidics, especially channel pattern modification and unconventional cross-sectional shape, are reviewed. Finally, the prospects for future channel innovations in inertial microfluidic chips are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide guidance for the continued study of innovative channel designs to improve further the accuracy and throughput of inertial microfluidics.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

O'Neill G, NS Tolley (2020)

Modelling nasal airflow coefficients: an insight into the nature of airflow.

Rhinology pii:2650 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There has been considerable discussion and conflicting views regarding the presence of laminar or turbulent flow within the nose. The aim of this study was to investigate how the modelling of variable flow coefficients can assist in the evalua- tion of the characteristics of flow in the resistive segments of the nose.

METHODOLOGY: A comparison was made between the flow coefficient for the nasal valve, obtained from a mathematical model, and resistive flow components such as a Venturi meter and orifice tube. Also, a variable loss coefficient was formulated for the whole (unilateral) nose which, by utilising the intersection of the laminar and turbulent asymptotes, provided an estimation for the critical Reynolds number (Rcrit).

RESULTS: The results show that the flow resistance of the nasal valve is considerably greater than that for both a Venturi meter and an orifice tube implying turbulent or turbulent-like flow for much of nasal inspiration. Regarding the loss coefficient for the whole (unilateral) nose, normal respiration flowrates are displaced well away from the laminar asymptote. The critical Reynolds number was estimated to be 450.

CONCLUSIONS: A novel method of determining the flow characteristics of the nose, particularly the critical Reynolds number, is presented. The analysis indicates a higher degree of turbulence than is assumed from a simple traditional calculation using a hy- draulic diameter and flow through straight tubes. There are implications for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling where either the entire nasal airflow is assumed to be laminar or a low turbulence model implemented.

RevDate: 2020-09-08

Tegze G, Podmaniczky F, Somfai E, et al (2020)

Orientational order in dense suspensions of elliptical particles in the non-Stokesian regime.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

Suspensions of neutrally buoyant elliptic particles are modeled in 2D using fully resolved simulations that provide two-way interaction between the particle and the fluid medium. Forces due to particle collisions are represented by a diffuse interface approach that allows the investigation of dense suspensions (up to 47% packing fraction). We focus on the role inertial forces play at low and high particle Reynolds numbers termed low Reynolds number and inertial regimes, respectively. The suspensions are characterized by the orientation distribution function (ODF) that reflects shear induced rotation of the particles at low Reynolds numbers, and nearly stationary (swaying) particles at high Reynolds numbers. In both cases, orientational ordering differs qualitatively from the behavior observed in the Stokesian-regime. The ODF becomes flatter with increasing packing fraction, as opposed to the sharpening previous work predicted in the Stokesian regime. The ODF at low particle concentrations differs significantly for the low Reynolds number and inertial regimes, whereas with increasing packing fraction convergence is observed. For dense suspensions, the particle-particle interactions dominate the particle motion.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Cui G, I Jacobi (2020)

Magnetic Control of Ferrofluid Droplet Adhesion in Shear Flow and on Inclined Surfaces.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

The manipulation of ferrofluidic droplets by magnetic fields is a popular technique for controlling fluid transport in open microfluidic systems. We examine the effect of gravity and shear flow external forces on the adhesion properties of sessile ferrofluidic droplets in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field was found to enhance the critical Bond number at which sliding begins on a tilting substrate but suppress the critical Weber number at which sliding begins in a moderate Reynolds number channel flow. The divergent adhesion trends are explained in terms of the shape deformation induced in the ferrofluidic droplet, the substrate wettability, and the apparent contact angle variation induced by the droplet deformation.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Xu H, Baroli D, A Veneziani (2020)

Global Sensitivity Analysis for Patient-Specific Aortic Simulations: the Role of Geometry, Boundary Condition and LES Modeling Parameters.

Journal of biomechanical engineering pii:1086637 [Epub ahead of print].

Uncertainties affect the reliability of the numerical simulation of hemodynamics in patient-specific settings and rigorous Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is in order. This work presents a UQ study on the aorta flow, for assessing the sensitivity of the clinical relevant quantities to the morphology and imprecise knowledge of the inflow boundary condition using the Polynomial Chaos Expansion based Sobol' indices. The geometrical uncertainty is modeled based on a set of longitudinal imaging data of a patient with the abdominal aortic aneurysm. The images of the patient's aorta at different stages of the disease are used to create a map that drives the realistic variation of the reconstructed morphology. The aorta is a peculiar site for hemodynamics, since the flow is highly disturbed due to the high Reynolds number during systole, and the modeling of turbulence helps to avoid the high computational costs. The deconvolution-based Leray model was considered in the past for these simulations. The LES model features problem-dependent numerical parameters to tune. We borrow the same UQ tools used for physical uncertain quantities to assess the sensitivity of the simulations to one of these numerical parameters, the filter radius. The sensitivity of the total kinetic energy, the time average wall shear stress, and the oscillatory shear index are analyzed. The results show that the geometry has the most dominant contribution to the uncertainty of all the quantities of interest. The sensitivity analysis provides confidence intervals for the simulations that quantify the reliability of the numerical predictions.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Battista F, Mollicone JP, Gualtieri P, et al (2019)

Exact regularized point particle (ERPP) method for particle-laden wall-bounded flows in the two-way coupling regime.

Journal of fluid mechanics, 878:420-444.

The Exact Regularized Point Particle (ERPP) method is extended to treat the interphase momentum coupling between particles and fluid in the presence of walls by accounting for the vorticity generation due to the particles close to solid boundaries. The ERPP method overcomes the limitations of other methods by allowing the simulation of an extensive parameter space (Stokes number, mass loading, particle-to-fluid density ratio and Reynolds number) and of particle spatial distributions that are uneven (few particles per computational cell). The enhanced ERPP method is explained in detail and validated by considering the global impulse balance. In conditions when particles are located close to the wall, a common scenario in wall-bounded turbulent flows, the main contribution to the total impulse arises from the particle-induced vorticity at the solid boundary. The method is applied to direct numerical simulations of particle-laden turbulent pipe flow in the two-way coupling regime to address the turbulence modulation. The effects of the mass loading, the Stokes number and the particle-to-fluid density ratio are investigated. The drag is either unaltered or increased by the particles with respect to the uncoupled case. No drag reduction is found in the parameter space considered. The momentum stress budget, which includes an extra stress contribution by the particles, provides the rationale behind the drag behaviour. The extra stress produces a momentum flux towards the wall that strongly modifies the viscous stress, the culprit of drag at solid boundaries.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Mottaghi S, Nazari M, Fattahi SM, et al (2020)

Droplet size prediction in a microfluidic flow focusing device using an adaptive network based fuzzy inference system.

Biomedical microdevices, 22(3):61 pii:10.1007/s10544-020-00513-4.

Microfluidics has wide applications in different technologies such as biomedical engineering, chemistry engineering, and medicine. Generating droplets with desired size for special applications needs costly and time-consuming iterations due to the nonlinear behavior of multiphase flow in a microfluidic device and the effect of several parameters on it. Hence, designing a flexible way to predict the droplet size is necessary. In this paper, we use the Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), by mixing the artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy inference system (FIS), to study the parameters which have effects on droplet size. The four main dimensionless parameters, i.e. the Capillary number, the Reynolds number, the flow ratio and the viscosity ratio are regarded as the inputs and the droplet diameter as the output of the ANFIS. Using dimensionless groups cause to extract more comprehensive results and avoiding more experimental tests. With the ANFIS, droplet sizes could be predicted with the coefficient of determination of 0.92.

RevDate: 2020-09-02

McGurk KA, Owen B, Watson WD, et al (2020)

Heritability of haemodynamics in the ascending aorta.

Scientific reports, 10(1):14356 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-71354-7.

Blood flow in the vasculature can be characterised by dimensionless numbers commonly used to define the level of instabilities in the flow, for example the Reynolds number, Re. Haemodynamics play a key role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. Genetic studies have identified mechanosensitive genes with causal roles in CVD. Given that CVD is highly heritable and abnormal blood flow may increase risk, we investigated the heritability of fluid metrics in the ascending aorta calculated using patient-specific data from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. 341 participants from 108 British Caucasian families were phenotyped by CMR and genotyped for 557,124 SNPs. Flow metrics were derived from the CMR images to provide some local information about blood flow in the ascending aorta, based on maximum values at systole at a single location, denoted max, and a 'peak mean' value averaged over the area of the cross section, denoted pm. Heritability was estimated using pedigree-based (QTDT) and SNP-based (GCTA-GREML) methods. Estimates of Reynolds number based on spatially averaged local flow during systole showed substantial heritability ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), while the estimated heritability for Reynolds number calculated using the absolute local maximum velocity was not statistically significant (12-13%; [Formula: see text]). Heritability estimates of the geometric quantities alone; e.g. aortic diameter ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), were also substantially heritable, as described previously. These findings indicate the potential for the discovery of genetic factors influencing haemodynamic traits in large-scale genotyped and phenotyped cohorts where local spatial averaging is used, rather than instantaneous values. Future Mendelian randomisation studies of aortic haemodynamic estimates, which are swift to derive in a clinical setting, will allow for the investigation of causality of abnormal blood flow in CVD.

RevDate: 2020-08-29

Nichka VS, Geoffroy TR, Nikonenko V, et al (2020)

Impacts of Flow Rate and Pulsed Electric Field Current Mode on Protein Fouling Formation during Bipolar Membrane Electroacidification of Skim Milk.

Membranes, 10(9): pii:membranes10090200.

Fouling is one of the major problems in electrodialysis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of five different solution flow rates (corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 162, 242, 323, 404 and 485) combined with the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) current mode on protein fouling of bipolar membrane (BPM) during electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) of skim milk. The application of PEF prevented the fouling formation by proteins on the cationic interface of the BPM almost completely, regardless of the flow rate or Reynolds number. Indeed, under PEF mode of current the weight of protein fouling was negligible in comparison with CC current mode (0.07 ± 0.08 mg/cm2 versus 5.56 ± 2.40 mg/cm2). When a continuous current (CC) mode was applied, Reynolds number equals or higher than 323 corresponded to a minimal value of protein fouling of BPM. This positive effect of both increasing the flow rate and using PEF is due to the facts that during pauses, the solution flow flushes the accumulated protein from the membrane while in the same time there is a decrease in concentration polarization (CP) and consequently decrease in H+ generation at the cationic interface of the BPM, minimizing fouling formation and accumulation.

RevDate: 2020-08-28

Tripathi D, Prakash J, Tiwari AK, et al (2020)

Thermal, microrotation, electromagnetic field and nanoparticle shape effects on Cu-CuO/ blood flow in microvascular vessels.

Microvascular research pii:S0026-2862(20)30125-4 [Epub ahead of print].

A thermal analysis of Cu-CuO blood nanofluids flow in asymmetric microchannel propagating with wave velocity is presented in this study. For the blood, a micropolar fluid model is considered to investigate the microrotation effects of blood flow. Thermal radiation effects and the influence of nanoparticle shape, electric double layer thickness, and electromagnetic fields on the flow are studied. Three types of nanoparticles shapes namely cylinder, bricks and platelets are taken into account. Governing equations are solved under the approximations of long wavelength, low Reynolds number, and Debye-Hückel linearization. Numerical computations are performed for the axial pressure gradient, axial velocity, spin velocity and temperature distribution. The effects of various physical parameters on flow and thermal characteristics are computed and their physical interpretation is also discussed. The outcomes indicate that the axial velocity of Cu-CuO/blood nanoparticles strongly depends on applied electromagnetic field and microrotation. The model's finding will be applicable in designing the smart electromagnetic micro pumps for the hemodialysis and lungs-on-chip devices for the pumping of the blood.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Zhu L, Xu B, Wu X, et al (2020)

Analysis of volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in small- (250 mL) to large-scale (2500 L) orbitally shaken bioreactors.

3 Biotech, 10(9):397.

In this study, the combination of dimensional analysis (DA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to predict the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) values under different operating conditions for orbitally shaken bioreactors (OSRs) with different filling volumes. It was found that Reynolds number and the interaction between Froude number and geometric number have the largest impact on kLa with impact indexes of 7.41 and 7.50, respectively. Moreover, the volume number has the largest negative impact on kLa, with an impact index of - 5.34. Thus, an effective way to increase the oxygen supply is by increasing the shaking speed and shaking diameter or decreasing the vessel diameter. However, cell cultivation with a higher filling volume will have an increased risk of oxygen scarcity. Therefore, with the help of the kLa prediction model, a suitable operating condition can be determined effectively and easily.

RevDate: 2020-08-27

Ghalambaz M, Arasteh H, Mashayekhi R, et al (2020)

Investigation of Overlapped Twisted Tapes Inserted in a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Two-Phase Nanofluid.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9): pii:nano10091656.

This study investigated the laminar convective heat transfer and fluid flow of Al2O3 nanofluid in a counter flow double-pipe heat exchanger equipped with overlapped twisted tape inserts in both inner and outer tubes. Two models of the same (co-swirling twisted tapes) and opposite (counter-swirling twisted tapes) angular directions for the stationary twisted tapes were considered. The computational fluid dynamic simulations were conducted through varying the design parameters, including the angular direction of twisted tape inserts, nanofluid volume concentration, and Reynolds number. It was found that inserting the overlapped twisted tapes in the heat exchanger significantly increases the thermal performance as well as the friction factor compared with the plain heat exchanger. The results indicate that models of co-swirling twisted tapes and counter-swirling twisted tapes increase the average Nusselt number by almost 35.2-66.2% and 42.1-68.7% over the Reynolds number ranging 250-1000, respectively. To assess the interplay between heat transfer enhancement and pressure loss penalty, the dimensionless number of performance evaluation criterion was calculated for all the captured configurations. Ultimately, the highest value of performance evaluation criterion is equal to 1.40 and 1.26 at inner and outer tubes at the Reynolds number of 1000 and the volume fraction of 3% in the case of counter-swirling twisted tapes model.

RevDate: 2020-08-26

Zhang S, Cui Z, Wang Y, et al (2020)

Metachronal actuation of microscopic magnetic artificial cilia generates strong microfluidic pumping.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

Biological cilia that generate fluid flow or propulsion are often found to exhibit a collective wavelike metachronal motion, i.e. neighboring cilia beat slightly out-of-phase rather than synchronously. Inspired by this observation, this article experimentally demonstrates that microscopic magnetic artificial cilia (μMAC) performing a metachronal motion can generate strong microfluidic flows, though, interestingly, the mechanism is different from that in biological cilia, as is found through a systematic experimental study. The μMAC are actuated by a facile magnetic setup, consisting of an array of rod-shaped magnets. This arrangement imposes a time-dependent non-uniform magnetic field on the μMAC array, resulting in a phase difference between the beatings of adjacent μMAC, while each cilium exhibits a two-dimensional whip-like motion. By performing the metachronal 2D motion, the μMAC are able to generate a strong flow in a microfluidic chip, with velocities of up to 3000 μm s-1 in water, which, different from biological cilia, is found to be a result of combined metachronal and inertial effects, in addition to the effect of asymmetric beating. The pumping performance of the metachronal μMAC outperforms all previously reported microscopic artificial cilia, and is competitive with that of most of the existing microfluidic pumping methods, while the proposed platform requires no physical connection to peripheral equipment, reduces the usage of reagents by minimizing "dead volumes", avoids undesirable electrical effects, and accommodates a wide range of different fluids. The 2D metachronal motion can also generate a flow with velocities up to 60 μm s-1 in pure glycerol, where Reynolds number is less than 0.05 and the flow is primarily caused by the metachronal motion of the μMAC. These findings offer a novel solution to not only create on-chip integrated micropumps, but also design swimming and walking microrobots, as well as self-cleaning and antifouling surfaces.

RevDate: 2020-08-24

Latt J, Coreixas C, Beny J, et al (2020)

Efficient supersonic flow simulations using lattice Boltzmann methods based on numerical equilibria.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 378(2175):20190559.

A double-distribution-function based lattice Boltzmann method (DDF-LBM) is proposed for the simulation of polyatomic gases in the supersonic regime. The model relies on a numerical equilibrium that has been extensively used by discrete velocity methods since the late 1990s. Here, it is extended to reproduce an arbitrary number of moments of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. These extensions to the standard 5-constraint (mass, momentum and energy) approach lead to the correct simulation of thermal, compressible flows with only 39 discrete velocities in 3D. The stability of this BGK-LBM is reinforced by relying on Knudsen-number-dependent relaxation times that are computed analytically. Hence, high Reynolds-number, supersonic flows can be simulated in an efficient and elegant manner. While the 1D Riemann problem shows the ability of the proposed approach to handle discontinuities in the zero-viscosity limit, the simulation of the supersonic flow past a NACA0012 aerofoil confirms the excellent behaviour of this model in a low-viscosity and supersonic regime. The flow past a sphere is further simulated to investigate the 3D behaviour of our model in the low-viscosity supersonic regime. The proposed model is shown to be substantially more efficient than the previous 5-moment D3Q343 DDF-LBM for both CPU and GPU architectures. It then opens up a whole new world of compressible flow applications that can be realistically tackled with a purely LB approach. This article is part of the theme issue 'Fluid dynamics, soft matter and complex systems: recent results and new methods'.

RevDate: 2020-08-23

Akram J, Akbar NS, D Tripathi (2020)

Blood-based graphene oxide nanofluid flow through capillary in the presence of electromagnetic fields: A Sutterby fluid model.

Microvascular research pii:S0026-2862(20)30122-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Pumping devices with the electrokinetics phenomena are important in many microscale transport phenomena in physiology. This study presents a theoretical and numerical investigation on the peristaltic pumping of non-Newtonian Sutterby nanofluid through capillary in presence of electromagnetohydrodynamics. Here blood (Sutterby fluid) is taken as a base fluid and nanofluid is prepared by the suspension of graphene oxide nanoparticle in blood. Graphene oxide is extremely useful in the medical domain for drug delivery and cancer treatment. The modified Buongiorno model for nanofluids and Poisson-Boltzmann ionic distribution is adopted for the formulation of the present problem. Constitutive flow equations are linearized by the implementation of approximations low Reynolds number, large wavelength, and the Debye-Hückel linearization. The numerical solution of reduced coupled and nonlinear set of equations is computed through Mathematica and graphical illustration is presented. Further, the impacts of buoyancy forces, thermal radiation, and mixed convection are also studied. It is revealed in this investigation that the inclusion of a large number of nanoparticles alters the flow characteristics significantly and boosts the heat transfer mechanism. Moreover, the pumping power of the peristaltic pump can be enhanced by the reduction in the width of the electric double layer which can be done by altering the electrolyte concentration.

RevDate: 2020-08-18

Moruzzi RB, Campos LC, Sharifi S, et al (2020)

Nonintrusive investigation of large Al-kaolin fractal aggregates with slow settling velocities.

Water research, 185:116287 pii:S0043-1354(20)30823-X [Epub ahead of print].

Although a combination of aggregate characteristics dictate particle settling, it is commonly assumed that large particles have higher terminal velocities. This simplifying assumption often leads to overprediction of large aggregate settling velocities which in turn negatively impacts on estimates of sedimentation clarification efficiency. Despite its importance, little attention has been given to large aggregates with slow-settling velocities. This paper addresses this gap by investigating slow-settling velocities of large, heterodisperse and multi-shape Al-kaolin aggregates using non-intrusive methods. A particle image velocimetry technique (PIV) was applied to track aggregate velocity and a non-intrusive image technique was used to determine aggregate characteristics, including size (df), three-dimensional fractal dimension (Df), density (ρf), aggregate velocity (Vexp) and Reynolds number (Re). Results showed no strict dependence of settling velocity on large aggregate size, shape and density, as Al-kaolin aggregates with the same size exhibited different settling velocities. A comparison of the results with the well-known Stokes' law for velocity modified by a shape factor showed that the settling velocities measured here can vary from 2 to 14 fold lower than the predicted values for perfect sphere-shape aggregates with the same density and size. Furthermore, results have also shown large Al-kaolin aggregate's drag coefficient (Cd) to be around 56/Re, for average fractal aggregate sphericity of around 0.58.

RevDate: 2020-08-18

Cui J, Liu Y, Xiao L, et al (2020)

Numerical study on the adhesion of a circulating tumor cell in a curved microvessel.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology pii:10.1007/s10237-020-01380-x [Epub ahead of print].

The adhesion of a circulating tumor cell (CTC) in a three-dimensional curved microvessel was numerically investigated. Simulations were first performed to characterize the differences in the dynamics and adhesion of a CTC in the straight and curved vessels. After that, a parametric study was performed to investigate the effects of the applied driven force density f (or the flow Reynolds number Re) and the CTC membrane bending modulus Kb on the CTC adhesion. Our simulation results show that the CTC prefers to adhere to the curved vessel as more bonds are formed around the transition region of the curved part due to the increased cell-wall contact by the centrifugal force. The parametric study also indicates that when the flow driven force f (or Re) increases or when the CTC becomes softer (Kb decreases), the bond formation probability increases and the bonds will be formed at more sites of a curved vessel. The increased f (or Re) brings a larger centrifugal force, while the decreased Kb generates more contact areas at the cell-wall interface, both of which are beneficial to the bond formation. In the curved vessel, it is found that the site where bonds are formed the most (hotspot) varies with the applied f and the Kb. For our vessel geometry, when f is small, the hotspot tends to be within the first bend of the vessel, while as f increases or Kb decreases, the hotspot may shift to the second bend of the vessel.

RevDate: 2020-08-19

Yu T, Qiu H, Yang J, et al (2016)

Mixing at double-Tee junctions with unequal pipe sizes in water distribution systems.

Water science & technology, water supply, 16(6):1595-1602.

Pipe flow mixing with various solute concentrations and flow rates at pipe junctions is investigated. The degree of mixing affects contaminant spread in a water distribution system, and many studies have focused on mixing at the cross junctions; however, only a few have focused on double-Tee junctions of unequal pipe diameters. To investigate the solute mixing at such junctions, a series of experiments was conducted in a turbulent regime (Re = 12,500-50,000) with different Reynolds number ratios and connecting pipe lengths. Dimensionless outlet concentrations were found to depend on mixing mechanism at the impinging interface of junctions, where junctions with a larger pipe diameter ratio were associated with more complete mixing. Further, the inlet Reynolds number ratio affected mixing more strongly than the outlet Reynolds number ratio. Finally, the dimensionless connecting pipe length in a double-Tee played an important and complicated role in the flow mixing. The results were used to develop two-dimensional isopleth maps for the calculation of normalized north outlet concentrations.

RevDate: 2020-08-17

Rao C, H Liu (2020)

Effects of Reynolds number and distribution on passive flow control in owl-inspired leading-edge serrations.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:5893479 [Epub ahead of print].

As a sophisticated micro device for noise reduction, the owl-inspired leading-edge (LE) serrations have been confirmed capable of achieving passive control of laminar-turbulent transition while normally paying a cost of lowering the aerodynamic performance in low Reynolds number (Re∼O(103)) regime. In order to explore potential applications of the owl-inspired serrated airfoils or blades in developing low noise wind turbines or multi-copters normally operating at higher Res, we conducted a large-eddy simulation (LES)-based study of Re effects on the aerodynamic performance of 2D clean and serrated models. Our results show that the LE serrations keep working effectively in mitigating turbulent fluctuations over a broad range of Re (O(103) ∼ O(105)), capable of achieving marked improvement in lift-to-drag ratio with increasing Res. As the aeroacoustic fields are in close association with the propagation of the turbulence sources, it is observed that the tradeoff between passive mitigation of turbulent fluctuations (hence aeroacoustic noise suppression) and aerodynamic performance can be noticeably mitigated at large angles of attack (AoA) and at high Res. This indicates that the LE serrations present an alternative passive flow control mechanism at high Res through a straightforward local excitation of the flow transition while capable of mitigating the turbulent intensity passively. We further developed a 3D LES model of clean and partially serrated rectangular wings to investigate the effects of the LE serrations' distribution on aerodynamic features, on the basis of the observation that longer serrations are often distributed intensively in the mid-span of real owl's feathers. We find that the mid-span distributed LE serrations can facilitate the break-up of leading-edge vortices and the turbulent transition passively and effectively while achieving a low level of turbulence kinetic energy over the upper suction surface of the wing.

RevDate: 2020-08-17

Ardeshiri H, Cassiani M, Park SY, et al (2020)

On the Convergence and Capability of the Large-Eddy Simulation of Concentration Fluctuations in Passive Plumes for a Neutral Boundary Layer at Infinite Reynolds Number.

Boundary-layer meteorology, 176(3):291-327.

Large-eddy simulation (LES) experiments have been performed using the Parallelized LES Model (PALM). A methodology for validating and understanding LES results for plume dispersion and concentration fluctuations in an atmospheric-like flow is presented. A wide range of grid resolutions is shown to be necessary for investigating the convergence of statistical characteristics of velocity and scalar fields. For the scalar, the statistical moments up to the fourth order and the shape of the concentration probability density function (p.d.f.) are examined. The mean concentration is influenced by grid resolution, with the highest resolution simulation showing a lower mean concentration, linked to larger turbulent structures. However, a clear tendency to convergence of the concentration variance is observed at the two higher resolutions. This behaviour is explained by showing that the mechanisms driving the mean and the variance are differently influenced by the grid resolution. The analysis of skewness and kurtosis allows also the obtaining of general results on plume concentration fluctuations. Irrespective of grid resolution, a family of Gamma p.d.f.s well represents the shape of the concentration p.d.f. but only beyond the peak of the concentration fluctuation intensity. In the early plume dispersion phases, the moments of the p.d.f. are in good agreement with those generated by a fluctuating plume model. To the best of our knowledge, our study demonstrates for the first time that, if resolution and averaging time are adequate, atmospheric LES provides a trustworthy representation of the high order moments of the concentration field, up to the fourth order, for a dispersing plume.

RevDate: 2020-08-15

Ryan DP, Chen Y, Nguyen P, et al (2020)

3D particle transport in multichannel microfluidic networks with rough surfaces.

Scientific reports, 10(1):13848 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-70728-1.

The transport of particles and fluids through multichannel microfluidic networks is influenced by details of the channels. Because channels have micro-scale textures and macro-scale geometries, this transport can differ from the case of ideally smooth channels. Surfaces of real channels have irregular boundary conditions to which streamlines adapt and with which particle interact. In low-Reynolds number flows, particles may experience inertial forces that result in trans-streamline movement and the reorganization of particle distributions. Such transport is intrinsically 3D and an accurate measurement must capture movement in all directions. To measure the effects of non-ideal surface textures on particle transport through complex networks, we developed an extended field-of-view 3D macroscope for high-resolution tracking across large volumes ([Formula: see text]) and investigated a model multichannel microfluidic network. A topographical profile of the microfluidic surfaces provided lattice Boltzmann simulations with a detailed feature map to precisely reconstruct the experimental environment. Particle distributions from simulations closely reproduced those observed experimentally and both measurements were sensitive to the effects of surface roughness. Under the conditions studied, inertial focusing organized large particles into an annular distribution that limited their transport throughout the network while small particles were transported uniformly to all regions.

RevDate: 2020-08-13

Deng D, Pan Y, Liu G, et al (2020)

Seeking the hotspots of nitrogen removal: A comparison of sediment denitrification rate and denitrifier abundance among wetland types with different hydrological conditions.

The Science of the total environment, 737:140253.

Wetlands play a vital role in removing nitrogen (N) from aquatic environments via the denitrification process, which is regulated by multiple environmental and biological factors. Until now, the mechanisms by which environmental factors and microbial abundance regulate denitrification rates in wetlands under different hydrological conditions remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated sediment potential denitrification rate (PDR) and unamended denitrification rate (UDR), and quantified denitrifier abundance (nirS, nirK, and nosZ genes) in 36 stream, river, pond, and ditch wetland sites along the Dan River, a nitrogen-rich river in central China. The result indicated that ditches had the highest denitrification rates and denitrifier abundance. Both PDR and UDR showed strong seasonality, and were observed to be negatively correlated with water velocity in streams and rivers. Moreover, denitrification rates were significantly related to denitrifier abundance and many water quality parameters and sediment properties. Interestingly, PDR and UDR were generally positively associated with N and carbon (C) availability in streams and rivers, but such correlations were not found in ponds and ditches. Using a scaling analysis, we found that environmental parameters, including Reynolds number, sediment total C ratio, and interstitial space, coupled with relative nirS gene abundance could predict the hotspots of denitrification rates in wetlands with varying hydrologic regimes. Our findings highlight that hydrological conditions, especially water velocity and hydrologic pulsing, play a nonnegligible role in determining N biogeochemical processes in wetlands.

RevDate: 2020-08-09

Patterson LHC, Walker JL, Naivar MA, et al (2020)

Inertial flow focusing: a case study in optimizing cellular trajectory through a microfluidic MEMS device for timing-critical applications.

Biomedical microdevices, 22(3):52 pii:10.1007/s10544-020-00508-1.

Although microfluidic micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are well suited to investigate the effects of mechanical force on large populations of cells, their high-throughput capabilities cannot be fully leveraged without optimizing the experimental conditions of the fluid and particles flowing through them. Parameters such as flow velocity and particle size are known to affect the trajectories of particles in microfluidic systems and have been studied extensively, but the effects of temperature and buffer viscosity are not as well understood. In this paper, we explored the effects of these parameters on the timing of our own cell-impact device, the μHammer, by first tracking the velocity of polystyrene beads through the device and then visualizing the impact of these beads. Through these assays, we find that the timing of our device is sensitive to changes in the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces that particles experience while traveling through the device. This sensitivity provides a set of parameters that can serve as a robust framework for optimizing device performance under various experimental conditions, without requiring extensive geometric redesigns. Using these tools, we were able to achieve an effective throughput over 360 beads/s with our device, demonstrating the potential of this framework to improve the consistency of microfluidic systems that rely on precise particle trajectories and timing.

RevDate: 2020-08-08

Waldrop LD, He Y, Hedrick TL, et al (2020)

Functional morphology of gliding flight I. Modeling reveals distinct performance landscapes based on soaring strategies.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:5885086 [Epub ahead of print].

The physics of flight influences the morphology of bird wings through natural selection on flight performance. The connection between wing morphology and performance is unclear due to the complex relationships between various parameters of flight. In order to better understand this connection, we present a holistic analysis of gliding flight that preserves complex relationships between parameters. We use a computational model of gliding flight, along with analysis by uncertainty quantification, to 1) create performance landscapes of gliding based on output metrics (maximum lift-to-drag ratio, minimum gliding angle, minimum sinking speed, lift coefficient at minimum sinking speed); and 2) predict what parameters of flight (chordwise camber, wing aspect ratio, Reynolds number) would differ between gliding and non-gliding species of birds. We also examine performance based on soaring strategy for possible differences in morphology within gliding birds. Gliding birds likely have greater aspect ratios than non-gliding birds, due the high sensitivity of aspect ratio on most metrics of gliding performance. Furthermore, gliding birds can use two distinct soaring strategies based on performance landscapes. First, maximizing distance traveled (maximizing lift-to-drag ratio and minimizing gliding angle) should result in wings with high aspect ratios and middling-to-low wing chordwise camber. Second, maximizing lift extracted from updrafts should result in wings with middling aspect ratios and high wing chordwise camber. Following studies can test these hypotheses using morphological measurements.

RevDate: 2020-08-08

Arrieta J, Cartwright JHE, Gouillart E, et al (2020)

Geometric mixing.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 378(2179):20200168.

Mixing fluids often involves a periodic action, like stirring one's tea. But reciprocating motions in fluids at low Reynolds number, in Stokes flows where inertia is negligible, lead to periodic cycles of mixing and unmixing, because the physics, molecular diffusion excepted, is time reversible. So how can fluid be mixed in such circumstances? The answer involves a geometric phase. Geometric phases are found everywhere in physics as anholonomies, where after a closed circuit in the parameters, some system variables do not return to their original values. We discuss the geometric phase in fluid mixing: geometric mixing. This article is part of the theme issue 'Stokes at 200 (part 2)'.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Seyler SL, S Pressé (2020)

Surmounting potential barriers: Hydrodynamic memory hedges against thermal fluctuations in particle transport.

The Journal of chemical physics, 153(4):041102.

Recently, trapped-particle experiments have probed the instantaneous velocity of Brownian motion revealing that, at early times, hydrodynamic history forces dominate Stokes damping. In these experiments, nonuniform particle motion is well described by the Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (BBO) equation, which captures the unsteady Basset history force at a low Reynolds number. Building off of these results, earlier we showed that, at low temperature, BBO particles could exploit fluid inertia in order to overcome potential barriers (generically modeled as a tilted washboard), while its Langevin counter-part could not. Here, we explore the behavior of neutrally buoyant BBO particles at finite temperature for moderate Stokes damping. Remarkably, we find that the transport of particles injected into a bumpy potential with sufficiently high barriers can be completely quenched at intermediate temperatures, whereas itinerancy may be possible above and below that temperature window. This effect is present for both Langevin and BBO dynamics, though these occur over drastically different temperature ranges. Furthermore, hydrodynamic memory mitigates these effects by sustaining initial particle momentum, even in the difficult intermediate temperature regime.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Romanò F, Türkbay T, HC Kuhlmann (2020)

Lagrangian chaos in steady three-dimensional lid-driven cavity flow.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 30(7):073121.

Steady three-dimensional flows in lid-driven cavities are investigated numerically using a high-order spectral-element solver for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The focus is placed on critical points in the flow field, critical limit cycles, their heteroclinic connections, and on the existence, shape, and dependence on the Reynolds number of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) tori. In finite-length cuboidal cavities at small Reynolds numbers, a thin layer of chaotic streamlines covers all walls. As the Reynolds number is increased, the chaotic layer widens and the complementary KAM tori shrink, eventually undergoing resonances, until they vanish. Accurate data for the location of closed streamlines and of KAM tori are provided, both of which reach very close to the moving lid. For steady periodic Taylor-Görtler vortices in spanwise infinitely extended cavities with a square cross section, chaotic streamlines occupy a large part of the flow domain immediately after the onset of Taylor-Görtler vortices. As the Reynolds number increases, the remaining KAM tori vanish from the Taylor-Görtler vortices, while KAM tori grow in the central region further away from the solid walls.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Chatterjee S, MK Verma (2020)

Kolmogorov flow: Linear stability and energy transfers in a minimal low-dimensional model.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 30(7):073110.

In this paper, we derive a four-mode model for the Kolmogorov flow by employing Galerkin truncation and the Craya-Herring basis for the decomposition of velocity field. After this, we perform a bifurcation analysis of the model. Though our low-dimensional model has fewer modes than past models, it captures the essential features of the primary bifurcation of the Kolmogorov flow. For example, it reproduces the critical Reynolds number for the supercritical pitchfork bifurcation and the flow structures of past works. We also demonstrate energy transfers from intermediate scales to large scales. We perform direct numerical simulations of the Kolmogorov flow and show that our model predictions match the numerical simulations very well.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Josserand C, Le Berre M, Y Pomeau (2020)

Scaling laws in turbulence.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 30(7):073137.

Following the idea that dissipation in turbulence at high Reynolds number is dominated by singular events in space-time and described by solutions of the inviscid Euler equations, we draw the conclusion that in such flows, scaling laws should depend only on quantities appearing in the Euler equations. This excludes viscosity or a turbulent length as scaling parameters and constrains drastically possible analytical pictures of this limit. We focus on the drag law deduced by Newton for a projectile moving quickly in a fluid at rest. Inspired by this Newton's drag force law (proportional to the square of the speed of the moving object in the limit of large Reynolds numbers), which is well verified in experiments when the location of the detachment of the boundary layer is defined, we propose an explicit relationship between the Reynolds stress in the turbulent wake and quantities depending on the velocity field (averaged in time but depending on space). This model takes the form of an integrodifferential equation for the velocity which is eventually solved for a Poiseuille flow in a circular pipe.

RevDate: 2020-08-05

Voglhuber-Brunnmaier T, B Jakoby (2020)

Higher-Order Models for Resonant Viscosity and Mass-Density Sensors.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 20(15): pii:s20154279.

Advanced fluid models relating viscosity and density to resonance frequency and quality factor of vibrating structures immersed in fluids are presented. The numerous established models which are ultimately all based on the same approximation are refined, such that the measurement range for viscosity can be extended. Based on the simple case of a vibrating cylinder and dimensional analysis, general models for arbitrary order of approximation are derived. Furthermore, methods for model parameter calibration and the inversion of the models to determine viscosity and/or density from measured resonance parameters are shown. One of the two presented fluid models is a viscosity-only model, where the parameters of it can be calibrated without knowledge of the fluid density. The models are demonstrated for a tuning fork-based commercial instrument, where maximum deviations between measured and reference viscosities of approximately ±0.5% in the viscosity range from 1.3 to 243 mPas could be achieved. It is demonstrated that these results show a clear improvement over the existing models.

RevDate: 2020-08-01

Manchester EL, XY Xu (2020)

The effect of turbulence on transitional flow in the FDA's benchmark nozzle model using large-eddy simulation.

International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) benchmark nozzle model has been studied extensively both experimentally and computationally. Although considerable efforts have been made on validations of a variety of numerical models against available experimental data, the transitional flow cases are still not fully resolved, especially with regards to detailed comparison of predicted turbulence quantities with experimental measurements. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting largeeddy simulations (LES) of flowthrough the FDA's benchmark model, at a transitional Reynolds number of 2000. Numerical results are compared to previous interlaboratory experimental results, with an emphasis on turbulence characteristics. Our results show that the LES methodology can accurately capture laminar quantities throughout the model. In the pre-jet breakdown region, predicted turbulence quantities are generally larger than high resolution experimental data acquired with laser Doppler velocimetry. In the jet breakdown regions, where maximum Reynolds stresses occur, Reynolds shear stresses show excellent agreement. Differences of up to 4% and 20% are observed near the jet core in the axial and radial normal Reynolds stresses, respectively. Comparisons between viscous and Reynolds shear stresses show that peak viscous shear stresses occur in the nozzle throat reaching a value of 18 Pa in the boundary layer, whilst peak Reynolds shear stresses occur in the jet breakdown region reaching a maximum value of 87 Pa. Our results highlight the importance in considering both laminar and turbulent contributions towards shear stresses and that neglecting the turbulence effect can significantly underestimate the total shear force exerted on the fluid. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-07-30

Ahmed R, Ali N, Al-Khaled K, et al (2020)

Finite difference simulations for non-isothermal hydromagnetic peristaltic flow of a bio-fluid in a curved channel: Applications to physiological systems.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 195:105672 pii:S0169-2607(20)31505-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Owing to the fundamental significances of peristalsis phenomenon in various biological systems like circulation of blood in vessels, lungs devices, pumping of blood in heart and movement of chyme in the gastrointestinal tract, variety of research by scientist on this topic has been presented in recently years. The peristaltic pumping plays a novel role in various industrial processes like transfer of sanitary materials, the pumping equipment design of roller pumps and many more. The present article investigates numerically the theoretical aspects of heat and mass transportation in peristaltic pattern of Carreau fluid through a curved channel. The computations for axial velocity, pressure rise, temperature field, mass concentration, and stream function are carried out under low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximation in the wave frame of reference by utilizing appropriate numerical implicit finite difference technique (FDM). The implementation of numerical procedure and graphical representation of the computations are accomplished using MATLAB language. The impacts of rheological parameters of Carreau fluid, Brinkmann number, curvature parameter and Hartmann number are shown and discussed briefly. The study shows that for shear thinning of bio-materials, the velocity exhibits the boundary layer character near the boundary walls for greater Hartmann number. The interesting observations based on numerical simulations are graphically elaborated. The results show that the curvature of channel with larger value allows more heat transportation within the flow domain. On the contrary, inside the channel wall, the solutal mass concentration follows an increasing trend with decreasing the channel curvature. The temperature profile enhanced with increment of power-law index and curvature parameter. Moreover, the concentration profile increases with Brinkmann number and Hartmann number.

RevDate: 2020-07-30

Boukharfane R, Parsani M, J Bodart (2020)

Characterization of pressure fluctuations within a controlled-diffusion blade boundary layer using the equilibrium wall-modelled LES.

Scientific reports, 10(1):12735 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-69671-y.

In this study, the generation of airfoil trailing edge broadband noise that arises from the interaction of turbulent boundary layer with the airfoil trailing edge is investigated. The primary objectives of this work are: (i) to apply a wall-modelled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) approach to predict the flow of air passing a controlled-diffusion blade, and (ii) to study the blade broadband noise that is generated from the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with a lifting surface trailing edge. This study is carried out for two values of the Mach number, [Formula: see text] and 0.5, two values of the chord Reynolds number, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and two angles of attack, AoA [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. To examine the influence of the grid resolution on aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, we compare our results with experimental data available in the literature. We also compare our results with two in-house numerical solutions generated from two wall-resolved LES (WRLES) calculations, one of which has a DNS-like resolution. We show that WMLES accurately predicts the mean pressure coefficient distribution, velocity statistics (including the mean velocity), and the traces of Reynolds tensor components. Furthermore, we observe that the instantaneous flow structures computed by the WMLES resemble those found in the reference WMLES database, except near the leading edge region. Some of the differences observed in these structures are associated with tripping and the transition to a turbulence mechanism near the leading edge, which are significantly affected by the grid resolution. The aeroacoustic noise calculations indicate that the power spectral density profiles obtained using the WMLES compare well with the experimental data.

RevDate: 2020-07-27

Wang Y, Zhang Y, Qiao Z, et al (2020)

A 3D Printed Jet Mixer for Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms.

Micromachines, 11(7): pii:mi11070695.

Homogeneous mixing of microscopic volume fluids at low Reynolds number is of great significance for a wide range of chemical, biological, and medical applications. An efficient jet mixer with arrays of micronozzles was designed and fabricated using additive manufacturing (three-dimensional (3D) printing) technology for applications in centrifugal microfluidic platforms. The contact surface of miscible liquids was enhanced significantly by impinging plumes from two opposite arrays of micronozzles to improve mixing performance. The mixing efficiency was evaluated and compared with the commonly used Y-shaped micromixer. Effective mixing in the jet mixer was achieved within a very short timescale (3s). This 3D printed jet mixer has great potential to be implemented in applications by being incorporated into multifarious 3D printing devices in microfluidic platforms.

RevDate: 2020-07-23

Saeed Emami M, Haghshenasfard M, Zarghami R, et al (2020)

Experimental Study on the Reduction of Loratadine Particle Size through Confined Liquid Impinging Jets.

International journal of pharmaceutics pii:S0378-5173(20)30652-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The confined liquid impinging jets (CLIJ) technique was applied as a simple and effective approach to reducing the particle size of loratadine to enhance its solubility. The effect of anti-solvent (AS) to solution (S) flow rate ratio, organic phase concentration, Reynolds number (Re), and stabilizer concentration was investigated in this reduction process. After the synthesis, the chemical and physical properties of loratadine nanoparticles were determined through different characterization and analytical techniques. The results indicated that the particle size of loratadine decreases from 320 nm to 80 nm by increasing the AS/S ratio from 1 to 25. It was found that the particle size of loratadine was unchanged at the higher AS/S ratios. The loratadine nanoparticle size was optimized by changing the solution concentration, Re, and Tween 80 as a stabilizer. The finest loratadine nanoparticle size of about 53 nm was obtained with a narrow size distribution, which corresponds to solution concentration of 35 mg/mL, Re of 5687, and 0.1 % (w/v) stabilizer concentration. It was revealed that the optimized loratadine nanoparticles completely dissolved after 11 min, indicating the loratadine nanoparticle dissolution rate 50 times faster than raw loratadine.

RevDate: 2020-07-21

Fouxon I, C Lee (2020)

Large deviations, singularity, and lognormality of energy dissipation in turbulence.

Physical review. E, 101(6-1):061101.

We study implications of the assumption of power-law dependence of moments of energy dissipation in turbulence on the Reynolds number Re, holding due to intermittency. We demonstrate that at Re→∞ the dissipation's logarithm divided by lnRe converges with probability one to a negative constant. This implies that the dissipation is singular in the limit, as is known phenomenologically. The proof uses a large deviations function, whose existence is implied by the power-law assumption, and which provides the general asymptotic form of the dissipation's distribution. A similar function exists for vorticity and for velocity differences where it proves the moments representation of the multifractal model (MF). Then we observe that derivative of the scaling exponents of the dissipation, considered as a function of the order of the moment, is small at the origin. Thus the variation with the order is slow and can be described by a quadratic function. Indeed, the quadratic function, which corresponds to log-normal statistics, fits the data. Moreover, combining the lognormal scaling with the MF we derive a formula for the anomalous scaling exponents of turbulence which also fits the data. Thus lognormality, not to be confused with the Kolmogorov (1962) assumption of lognormal dissipation in the inertial range, when used in conjunction with the MF provides a concise way to get all scaling exponents of turbulence available at present.

RevDate: 2020-07-21

Morita T, Omori T, Nakayama Y, et al (2020)

Harnessing random low Reynolds number flow for net migration.

Physical review. E, 101(6-1):063101.

Random noise in low Reynolds number flow has rarely been used to obtain net migration of microscale objects. In this study, we numerically show that net migration of a microscale object can be extracted from random directional fluid forces in Stokes flow, by introducing deformability and inhomogeneous density into the object. We also developed a mathematical framework to describe the deformation-induced migration caused by noise. These results provide a basis for understanding the noise-induced migration of a microswimmer and are useful for harnessing energy from low Reynolds number flow.

RevDate: 2020-07-20

Askar AH, Kadham SA, SH Mshehid (2020)

The surfactants effect on the heat transfer enhancement and stability of nanofluid at constant wall temperature.

Heliyon, 6(7):e04419 pii:e04419.

Surfactants role in the enhancement of the heat transfer and stability of alumina oxide - distilled water nanofluid was introduced in this research, where there are limited studies that conjugate between the stability improvement and its effect on the heat transfer coefficients. Four weight concentrations for the experiment were used (0.1, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%) with 20 nm particle size under a constant wall temperature. The selection of appropriate surfactants weight was tested too by implementing three weight concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 %) related to each nanofluid concentration via measuring their effect on the zeta potential value. The heat transfer augmentation was tested through a double horizontal pipe under a constant wall temperature at entrance region with Reynolds number range (4000-11800). The results manifested the use of nanofluid worked on enhancement the heat transfer performance better than water, and the stable nanofluid elucidated better results.

RevDate: 2020-07-18

Yang T, Sprinkle B, Guo Y, et al (2020)

Reconfigurable microbots folded from simple colloidal chains.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:2007255117 [Epub ahead of print].

To overcome the reversible nature of low-Reynolds-number flow, a variety of biomimetic microrobotic propulsion schemes and devices capable of rapid transport have been developed. However, these approaches have been typically optimized for a specific function or environment and do not have the flexibility that many real organisms exhibit to thrive in complex microenvironments. Here, inspired by adaptable microbes and using a combination of experiment and simulation, we demonstrate that one-dimensional colloidal chains can fold into geometrically complex morphologies, including helices, plectonemes, lassos, and coils, and translate via multiple mechanisms that can be varied with applied magnetic field. With chains of multiblock asymmetry, the propulsion mode can be switched from bulk to surface-enabled, mimicking the swimming of microorganisms such as flagella-rotating bacteria and tail-whipping sperm and the surface-enabled motion of arching and stretching inchworms and sidewinding snakes. We also demonstrate that reconfigurability enables navigation through three-dimensional and narrow channels simulating capillary blood vessels. Our results show that flexible microdevices based on simple chains can transform both shape and motility under varying magnetic fields, a capability we expect will be particularly beneficial in complex in vivo microenvironments.

RevDate: 2020-07-18

Ma Y, Zhang M, H Luo (2020)

Numerical and experimental studies of gas-liquid flow and pressure drop in multiphase pump valves.

Science progress, 103(3):36850420940885.

A numerical and experimental study was carried out to investigate the two-phase flow fields of the typical three valves used in the multiphase pumps. Under the gas volume fraction conditions in the range of 0%-100%, the three-dimensional steady and dynamic two-phase flow characteristics, pressure drops, and their multipliers of the ball valve, cone valve, and disk valve were studied, respectively, using Eulerian-Eulerian approach and dynamic grid technique in ANSYS FLUENT. In addition, a valve test system was built to verify the simulated results by the particle image velocimetry and pressure test. The flow coefficient CQ (about 0.989) of the disk valve is greater than those of the other valves (about 0.864) under the steady flow with a high Reynolds number. The two-phase pressure drops of the three valves fluctuate in different forms with the vibration of the cores during the dynamic opening. The two-phase multipliers of the fully opened ball valve are consistent with the predicted values of the Morris model, while those of the cone valve and disk valve had the smallest differences with the predicted values of the Chisholm model. Through the comprehensive analysis of the flow performance, pressure drop, and dynamic stability of the three pump valves, the disk valve is found to be more suitable for the multiphase pumps due to its smaller axial space, resistance loss, and better flow capacity.

RevDate: 2020-07-18

Juraeva M, DJ Kang (2020)

Mixing Performance of a Cross-Channel Split-and-Recombine Micro-Mixer Combined with Mixing Cell.

Micromachines, 11(7): pii:mi11070685.

A new cross-channel split-and-recombine (CC-SAR) micro-mixer was proposed, and its performance was demonstrated numerically. A numerical study was carried out over a wide range of volume flow rates from 3.1 μL/min to 826.8 μL/min. The corresponding Reynolds number ranges from 0.3 to 80. The present micro-mixer consists of four mixing units. Each mixing unit is constructed by combining one split-and-recombine (SAR) unit with a mixing cell. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the present micro-mixer performs better than other micro-mixers based on SARs over a wide range of volume flow rate. The mixing enhancement is realized by a particular motion of vortex flow: the Dean vortex in the circular sub-channel and another vortex inside the mixing cell. The two vortex flows are generated on the different planes perpendicular to each other. They cause the two fluids to change their relative position as the fluids flow into the circular sub-channel of the SAR, eventually promoting violent mixing. High vorticity in the mixing cell elongates the flow interface between two fluids, and promotes mixing in the flow regime of molecular diffusion dominance.

RevDate: 2020-07-17

Liu J, Yang W, Dong M, et al (2020)

The nested block preconditioning technique for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with emphasis on hemodynamic simulations.

Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 367:.

We develop a novel iterative solution method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with boundary conditions coupled with reduced models. The iterative algorithm is designed based on the variational multiscale formulation and the generalized-α scheme. The spatiotemporal discretization leads to a block structure of the resulting consistent tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson procedure. As a generalization of the conventional block preconditioners, a three-level nested block preconditioner is introduced to attain a better representation of the Schur complement, which plays a key role in the overall algorithm robustness and efficiency. This approach provides a flexible, algorithmic way to handle the Schur complement for problems involving multiscale and multiphysics coupling. The solution method is implemented and benchmarked against experimental data from the nozzle challenge problem issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. The robustness, efficiency, and parallel scalability of the proposed technique are then examined in several settings, including moderately high Reynolds number flows and physiological flows with strong resistance effect due to coupled downstream vasculature models. Two patient-specific hemodynamic simulations, covering systemic and pulmonary flows, are performed to further corroborate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Xue Y, Hellmuth R, DH Shin (2020)

Formation of Vortices in Idealised Branching Vessels: A CFD Benchmark Study.

Cardiovascular engineering and technology pii:10.1007/s13239-020-00477-9 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs near the junction of branching vessels, where blood recirculation tends to occur (Malek et al. in J Am Med Assoc 282(21):2035-2042, 1999, https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.21.2035). For decades, CFD has been used to predict flow patterns such as separation and recirculation zones in hemodynamic models, but those predictions have rarely been validated with experimental data. In the context of verification and validation (V&V), we first conduct a CFD benchmark calculation that reproduces the vortex detection experiments of Karino and Goldsmith (1980) with idealised branching blood vessels (Karino and Goldsmith in Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Internal Organs 26:500-506, 1980). The critical conditions for the formation of recirculation vortices, the so-called critical Reynolds numbers, are the main parameters for comparison with the experimental data to demonstrate the credibility of the CFD workflow. We then characterise the wall shear stresses and develop a surrogate model for the size of formed vortices.

METHODS: An automated parametric study generating more than 12,000 CFD simulations was performed, sweeping the geometries and flow conditions found in the experiments by Karino and Goldsmith. The flow conditions were restricted to steady-state laminar flow, with a range of inflow Reynolds numbers up to 350, with various flow ratios between the main branch outlet and side branch outlet. The side branch diameter was scaled relative to the main branch diameter, ranging from 1.05/3 to 3/3; and the branching angles ranged in size from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. Recirculation vortices were detected by the inversion of the velocity vector at certain locations, as well as by the inversion of the wall shear stress (WSS) vector.

RESULTS: The CFD simulations demonstrated good agreement with the experimental data on the critical Reynolds numbers. The spatial distributions of WSS on each branch were analysed to identify potential regions of disease. Once a vortex is formed, the size of the vortex increases by the square root of the Reynolds number. The CFD data was fitted to a surrogate model that accurately predicts the vortex size without the need to run computationally more expensive CFD simulations.

CONCLUSIONS: This benchmark study validates the CFD simulation of vortex detection in idealised branching vessels under comprehensive flow conditions. This work also proposes a surrogate model for the size of the vortex, which could reduce the computational requirements in the studies related to branching vessels and complex vascular systems.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Forte P, Morais JE, P Neiva H, et al (2020)

The Drag Crisis Phenomenon on an Elite Road Cyclist-A Preliminary Numerical Simulations Analysis in the Aero Position at Different Speeds.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(14): pii:ijerph17145003.

The drag crisis phenomenon is the drop of drag coefficient (Cd) with increasing Reynolds number (Re) or speed. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothetical drag crisis phenomenon in a sports setting, assessing it in a bicycle-cyclist system. A male elite-level cyclist was recruited for this research and his competition bicycle, helmet, suit, and shoes were used. A three-dimensional (3D) geometry was obtained with a 3D scan with the subject in a static aero position. A domain with 7 m of length, 2.5 m of width and 2.5 m of height was created around the cyclist. The domain was meshed with 42 million elements. Numerical simulations by computer fluid dynamics (CFD) fluent numerical code were conducted at speeds between 1 m/s and 22 m/s, with increments of 1 m/s. The drag coefficient ranged between 0.60 and 0.95 across different speeds and Re. The highest value was observed at 2 m/s (Cd = 0.95) and Re of 3.21 × 105, whereas the lower Cd was noted at 9 m/s (Cd = 0.60) and 9.63 × 105. A drag crisis was noted between 3 m/s and 9 m/s. Pressure Cd ranged from 0.35 to 0.52 and the lowest value was observed at 3 m/s and the highest at 2 m/s. The viscous drag coefficient ranged between 0.15 and 0.43 and presented a trend decreasing from 4 m/s to 22 m/s. Coaches, cyclists, researchers, and support staff must consider that Cd varies with speed and Re, and the bicycle-cyclist dimensions, shape, or form may affect drag and performance estimations. As a conclusion, this preliminary work noted a drag crisis between 3 m/s and 9 m/s in a cyclist in the aero position.

RevDate: 2020-07-14

Granados-Ortiz FJ, J Ortega-Casanova (2020)

Mechanical Characterisation and Analysis of a Passive Micro Heat Exchanger.

Micromachines, 11(7): pii:mi11070668.

Heat exchangers are widely used in many mechanical, electronic, and bioengineering applications at macro and microscale. Among these, the use of heat exchangers consisting of a single fluid passing through a set of geometries at different temperatures and two flows in T-shape channels have been extensively studied. However, the application of heat exchangers for thermal mixing over a geometry leading to vortex shedding has not been investigated. This numerical work aims to analyse and characterise a heat exchanger for microscale application, which consists of two laminar fluids at different temperature that impinge orthogonally onto a rectangular structure and generate vortex shedding mechanics that enhance thermal mixing. This work is novel in various aspects. This is the first work of its kind on heat transfer between two fluids (same fluid, different temperature) enhanced by vortex shedding mechanics. Additionally, this research fully characterise the underlying vortex mechanics by accounting all geometry and flow regime parameters (longitudinal aspect ratio, blockage ratio and Reynolds number), opposite to the existing works in the literature, which usually vary and analyse blockage ratio or longitudinal aspect ratio only. A relevant advantage of this heat exchanger is that represents a low-Reynolds passive device, not requiring additional energy nor moving elements to enhance thermal mixing. This allows its use especially at microscale, for instance in biomedical/biomechanical and microelectronic applications.

RevDate: 2020-07-13

Dai X, Liu C, Zhao J, et al (2020)

Optimization of Application Conditions of Drag Reduction Agent in Product Oil Pipelines.

ACS omega, 5(26):15931-15935.

Drag reduction performance was studied with a rotating disk instrument in the laboratory, and experiments show that there is an initial rapid growth stage and stability stage for drag reduction ratio change. The higher the rotational speed, the larger the initial drag reduction ratio is; the larger the concentration, the shorter the drag reduction stabilization time is. Under high concentration and high speed, the drag reduction onset time is short. Because of the shear degradation, the Reynolds number should be taken into account during use. Through a comparison of diesel properties after adding agents with national standard, it is confirmed that drag reduction agents could be used in this pipeline.

RevDate: 2020-07-10

Nisisako T, Okushima S, T Torii (2005)

Controlled formulation of monodisperse double emulsions in a multiple-phase microfluidic system.

Soft matter, 1(1):23-27.

This paper gives an overview of our recent work on the use of microfluidic devices to formulate double emulsions. Key issues in the controlled encapsulation of highly monodisperse drops include: (a) regular periodicity in the formation of micro droplets due to the interplay between viscous shearing and interfacial tension in low Reynolds number streams; (b) serially connected hydrophobic and hydrophilic microchannels to form aqueous and organic drops consecutively. Water-in-oil-in-water emulsions and oil-in-water-in-oil emulsions can both be produced by reversing the order of hydrophobic and hydrophilic junctions. Alternating formation of aqueous droplets at a cross junction has enabled the production of organic droplets that encase two aqueous droplets of differing compositions.

RevDate: 2020-07-08

Pusztai I, Juno J, Brandenburg A, et al (2020)

Dynamo in Weakly Collisional Nonmagnetized Plasmas Impeded by Landau Damping of Magnetic Fields.

Physical review letters, 124(25):255102.

We perform fully kinetic simulations of flows known to produce dynamo in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), considering scenarios with low Reynolds number and high magnetic Prandtl number, relevant for galaxy cluster scale fluctuation dynamos. We find that Landau damping on the electrons leads to a rapid decay of magnetic perturbations, impeding the dynamo. This collisionless damping process operates on spatial scales where electrons are nonmagnetized, reducing the range of scales where the magnetic field grows in high magnetic Prandtl number fluctuation dynamos. When electrons are not magnetized down to the resistive scale, the magnetic energy spectrum is expected to be limited by the scale corresponding to magnetic Landau damping or, if smaller, the electron gyroradius scale, instead of the resistive scale. In simulations we thus observe decaying magnetic fields where resistive MHD would predict a dynamo.

RevDate: 2020-07-07

Pérez-Hernández J, Nicasio-Torres MDP, Sarmiento-López LG, et al (2019)

Production of anti-inflammatory compounds in Sphaeralcea angustifolia cell suspension cultivated in stirred tank bioreactor.

Engineering in life sciences, 19(3):196-205.

Sphaeralcea angustifolia is a plant used for the treatment of inflammatory processes. Scopoletin, tomentin, and sphaeralcic acid were identified as the compounds with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Successful establishment of the cell culture in Erlenmeyer flasks has been reported previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of cells in suspension from S. angustifolia grown in a stirred tank bioreactor and demonstrate their capacity to produce bioactive compounds. Cells in suspension grown at 200 rpm reached a maximal cell biomass in dry weight at 19.11 g/L and produced 3.47 mg/g of sphaeralcic acid. The mixture of scopoletin and tomentin was only detected at the beginning of the culture (12.13 μg/g). Considering that the profile of dissolved oxygen during the cultures was lesser than 15%, it is possible that the low growth at 100 rpm could be due to oxygen limitations or to cell sedimentation. At 400 rpm, a negative effect on cell viability could be caused by the increase in the hydrodynamic stress, including the impeller tip, average shear rate, and Reynolds number. The sphaeralcic acid content in the cell suspension of S. angustifolia obtained in the bioreactor was two orders of magnitude greater than that reported for the culture grown in Erlenmeyer flasks.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Silverberg O, Demir E, Mishler G, et al (2020)

Realization of a Push-Me-Pull-You swimmer at low Reynolds numbers.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Locomotion at low Reynolds numbers encounters stringent physical constraints due to the dominance of viscous over inertial forces. A variety of swimming microorganisms has demonstrated diverse strategies to generate self-propulsion in the absence of inertia. In particular, ameboid and euglenoid movements exploit shape deformations of the cell body for locomotion. Inspired by these biological organisms, the "Push-Me-Pull-You" (PMPY) swimmer (Avron JE, Kenneth O, Oaknin DH 2005 New J. Phys., 7, 234) represents an elegant artificial swimmer that can escape from the constraints of the scallop theorem and generate self-propulsion in highly viscous fluid environments. In this work, we present the first experimental realization of the PMPY swimmer, which consists of a pair of expandable spheres connected by an extensible link. We designed and constructed robotic PMPY swimmers and characterized their propulsion performance in highly viscous silicone oil in dynamically similar, macroscopic experiments. The proof-of-concept demonstrates the feasibility and robustness of the PMPY mechanism as a viable locomotion strategy at low Reynolds numbers.

RevDate: 2020-07-03

Yu K, N Shinji (2020)

Hemodialysis efficiency management from the viewpoint of blood removal pressure.

Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Degradation of dialysis efficiency during hemodialysis, caused by incompatible indwelling needle size or increase in hematocrit, is a serious problem that can threaten a patient's life. This study aims to derive a quantitative index for determining the indwelling needle diameter that can maintain an appropriate blood flow rate, and presents an effective method to prevent a decrease in the actual blood flow rate. The relationships between the set flow rate and various parameters such as indwelling needle diameter, blood viscosity, and arterial line pressure are analyzed. A simple and reliable method for estimating the actual blood flow rate is derived from these relationships. A correlation between viscosity and actual blood flow rate is estimated adequately by regression analysis using a least-squares method. The relationship between Reynolds number and the flow rate reduction ratio is also evaluated. A new parameter (simple estimation method for actual blood flow) is derived by measuring the blood removal pressure. A pump control approach that uses blood removal pressure is suggested, which can be a future research direction in the field of hemodialysis.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Zhou T, Zhang X, S Zhong (2020)

An experimental study of trailing edge noise from a heaving airfoil.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147(6):4020.

In this study, the far-field noise and near-field flow properties from a heaving NACA 0012 airfoil at the Reynolds number of 6.6×104 were investigated experimentally in a 0.4 m2 anechoic wind tunnel. The airfoil had an incident angle of 0° and followed a sinusoidal heaving motion. The Strouhal number, controlled by changing the heaving frequency and amplitude, varied from 0.0024 to 0.008. The acoustic properties were measured by a free-field microphone placed at a distance of 1.2 m away from the tunnel central line, and the flow structures near the trailing edge were acquired using the particle image velocimetry. It was found that the heaving motion could reduce the sound pressure level (SPL) of the primary peak in the time-averaged spectra. The spectrograms obtained by the short-time Fourier transform revealed that the discrete tones were produced when the airfoil passed through the maximum heaving position. During the corresponding period, a sequence of large-scaled vortices convected on the airfoil surface was observed, and then was shed from the trailing edge to the wake region at the same frequency as the primary tone of the induced sound. With the increase of Strouhal number, the sound signals tended to be broadband, and the overall SPL was increased in the far field.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Xu W, Luo W, Wang Y, et al (2020)

Data-driven three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of a turbulent jet flame using a generative adversarial network.

Applied optics, 59(19):5729-5736.

Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) is becoming a well-established tool for turbulent combustion diagnostics. However, the 3D CT technique suffers from contradictory demands of spatial resolution and domain size. This work therefore reports a data-driven 3D super-resolution approach to enhance the spatial resolution by two times along each spatial direction. The approach, named 3D super-resolution generative adversarial network (3D-SR-GAN), builds a generator and a discriminator network to learn the topographic information and infer high-resolution 3D turbulent flame structure with a given low-resolution counterpart. This work uses numerically simulated 3D turbulent jet flame structures as training data to update model parameters of the GAN network. Extensive performance evaluations are then conducted to show the superiority of the proposed 3D-SR-GAN network, compared with other direct interpolation methods. The results show that a convincing super-resolution (SR) operation with the overall error of ∼4% and the peak signal-to-noise ratio of 37 dB can be reached with an upscaling factor of 2, representing an eight times enhancement of the total voxel number. Moreover, the trained network can predict the SR structure of the jet flame with a different Reynolds number without retraining the network parameters.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Moum JN (2020)

Variations in Ocean Mixing from Seconds to Years.

Annual review of marine science [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past several decades, there has developed a community-wide appreciation for the importance of mixing at the smallest scales to geophysical fluid dynamics on all scales. This appreciation has spawned greater participation in the investigation of ocean mixing and new ways to measure it. These are welcome developments given the tremendous separation in scales between the basins, 𝒪(107) m, and the turbulence, 𝒪 (10-2) m, and the fact that turbulence that leads to thermodynamically irreversible mixing in high-Reynolds-number geophysical flows varies by at least eight orders of magnitude in both space and time. In many cases, it is difficult to separate the dependencies because measurements are sparse, also in both space and time. Comprehensive shipboard turbulence profiling experiments supplemented by Doppler sonar current measurements provide detailed observations of the evolution of the vertical structure of upper-ocean turbulence on timescales of minutes to weeks. Recent technical developments now permit measurements of turbulence in the ocean, at least at a few locations, for extended periods. This review summarizes recent and classic results in the context of our expanding knowledge of the temporal variability of ocean mixing, beginning with a discussion of the timescales of the turbulence itself (seconds to minutes) and how turbulence-enhanced mixing varies over hours, days, tidal cycles, monsoons, seasons, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation timescales (years). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science, Volume 13 is January 3, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Campinho P, Vilfan A, J Vermot (2020)

Blood Flow Forces in Shaping the Vascular System: A Focus on Endothelial Cell Behavior.

Frontiers in physiology, 11:552.

The endothelium is the cell monolayer that lines the interior of the blood vessels separating the vessel lumen where blood circulates, from the surrounding tissues. During embryonic development, endothelial cells (ECs) must ensure that a tight barrier function is maintained whilst dynamically adapting to the growing vascular tree that is being formed and remodeled. Blood circulation generates mechanical forces, such as shear stress and circumferential stretch that are directly acting on the endothelium. ECs actively respond to flow-derived mechanical cues by becoming polarized, migrating and changing neighbors, undergoing shape changes, proliferating or even leaving the tissue and changing identity. It is now accepted that coordinated changes at the single cell level drive fundamental processes governing vascular network morphogenesis such as angiogenic sprouting, network pruning, lumen formation, regulation of vessel caliber and stability or cell fate transitions. Here we summarize the cell biology and mechanics of ECs in response to flow-derived forces, discuss the latest advances made at the single cell level with particular emphasis on in vivo studies and highlight potential implications for vascular pathologies.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Nichols A, Rubinato M, Cho YH, et al (2020)

Optimal Use of Titanium Dioxide Colourant to Enable Water Surfaces to Be Measured by Kinect Sensors.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 20(12): pii:s20123507.

Recent studies have sought to use Microsoft Kinect sensors to measure water surface shape in steady flows or transient flow processes. They have typically employed a white colourant, usually titanium dioxide (TiO2), in order to make the surface opaque and visible to the infrared-based sensors. However, the ability of Kinect Version 1 (KV1) and Kinect Version 2 (KV2) sensors to measure the deformation of ostensibly smooth reflective surfaces has never been compared, with most previous studies using a V1 sensor with no justification. Furthermore, the TiO2 has so far been used liberally and indeterminately, with no consideration as to the type of TiO2 to use, the optimal proportion to use or the effect it may have on the very fluid properties being measured. This paper examines the use of anatase TiO2 with two generations of the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Assessing their performance for an ideal flat surface, it is shown that surface data obtained using the V2 sensor is substantially more reliable. Further, the minimum quantity of colourant to enable reliable surface recognition is discovered (0.01% by mass). A stability test shows that the colourant has a strong tendency to settle over time, meaning the fluid must remain well mixed, having serious implications for studies with low Reynolds number or transient processes such as dam breaks. Furthermore, the effect of TiO2 concentration on fluid properties is examined. It is shown that previous studies using concentrations in excess of 1% may have significantly affected the viscosity and surface tension, and thus the surface behaviour being measured. It is therefore recommended that future studies employ the V2 sensor with an anatase TiO2 concentration of 0.01%, and that the effects of TiO2 on the fluid properties are properly quantified before any TiO2-Kinect-derived dataset can be of practical use, for example, in validation of numerical models or in physical models of hydrodynamic processes.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Rhodeland B, Hoeger K, T Ursell (2020)

Bacterial surface motility is modulated by colony-scale flow and granular jamming.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 17(167):20200147.

Microbes routinely face the challenge of acquiring territory and resources on wet surfaces. Cells move in large groups inside thin, surface-bound water layers, often achieving speeds of 30 µm s-1 within this environment, where viscous forces dominate over inertial forces (low Reynolds number). The canonical Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a model organism for the study of collective migration over surfaces with groups exhibiting motility on length-scales three orders of magnitude larger than themselves within a few doubling times. Genetic and chemical studies clearly show that the secretion of endogenous surfactants and availability of free surface water are required for this fast group motility. Here, we show that: (i) water availability is a sensitive control parameter modulating an abiotic jamming-like transition that determines whether the group remains fluidized and therefore collectively motile, (ii) groups self-organize into discrete layers as they travel, (iii) group motility does not require proliferation, rather groups are pulled from the front, and (iv) flow within expanding groups is capable of moving material from the parent colony into the expanding tip of a cellular dendrite with implications for expansion into regions of varying nutrient content. Together, these findings illuminate the physical structure of surface-motile groups and demonstrate that physical properties, like cellular packing fraction and flow, regulate motion from the scale of individual cells up to length scales of centimetres.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Coreixas C, Wissocq G, Chopard B, et al (2020)

Impact of collision models on the physical properties and the stability of lattice Boltzmann methods.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 378(2175):20190397.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is known to suffer from stability issues when the collision model relies on the BGK approximation, especially in the zero viscosity limit and for non-vanishing Mach numbers. To tackle this problem, two kinds of solutions were proposed in the literature. They consist in changing either the numerical discretization (finite-volume, finite-difference, spectral-element, etc.) of the discrete velocity Boltzmann equation (DVBE), or the collision model. In this work, the latter solution is investigated in detail. More precisely, we propose a comprehensive comparison of (static relaxation time based) collision models, in terms of stability, and with preliminary results on their accuracy, for the simulation of isothermal high-Reynolds number flows in the (weakly) compressible regime. It starts by investigating the possible impact of collision models on the macroscopic behaviour of stream-and-collide based D2Q9-LBMs, which clarifies the exact physical properties of collision models on LBMs. It is followed by extensive linear and numerical stability analyses, supplemented with an accuracy study based on the transport of vortical structures over long distances. In order to draw conclusions as generally as possible, the most common moment spaces (raw, central, Hermite, central Hermite and cumulant), as well as regularized approaches, are considered for the comparative studies. LBMs based on dynamic collision mechanisms (entropic collision, subgrid-scale models, explicit filtering, etc.) are also briefly discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Fluid dynamics, soft matter and complex systems: recent results and new methods'.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Sonwani RK, Giri BS, Jaiswal RP, et al (2020)

Performance evaluation of a continuous packed bed bioreactor: Bio-kinetics and external mass transfer study.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 201:110860 pii:S0147-6513(20)30699-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The biodegradation of naphthalene using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) immobilized Exiguobacterium sp. RKS3 (MG696729) in a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) was studied. The performance of a continuous PBBR was evaluated at different inlet flow rates (IFRs) (20-100 mL/h) under 64 days of operation. The maximum naphthalene removal efficiency (RE) was found at low IFR, and it further decreased with increasing IFRs. In a continuous PBBR, the external mass transfer (EMT) aspect was analysed at various IFRs, and experimental data were interrelated between Colburn factor (JD) and Reynolds number (NRe) as [Formula: see text] . A new correlation [Formula: see text] was obtained to predict the EMT aspect of naphthalene biodegradation. Andrew-Haldane model was used to evaluate the bio-kinetic parameters of naphthalene degradation, and kinetic constant νmax, Js, and Ji were found as 0.386 per day, 13.6 mg/L, and 20.54 mg/L, respectively.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Dial TR, GV Lauder (2020)

Longer development provides first-feeding fish time to escape hydrodynamic constraints.

Journal of morphology [Epub ahead of print].

What is the functional effect of prolonged development? By controlling for size, we quantify first-feeding performance and hydrodynamics of zebrafish and guppy offspring (5 ± 0.5 mm in length), which differ fivefold in developmental time and twofold in ontogenetic state. By manipulating water viscosity, we control the hydrodynamic regime, measured as Reynolds number. We predicted that if feeding performance were strictly the result of hydrodynamics, and not development, feeding performance would scale with Reynolds number. We find that guppy offspring successfully feed at much greater distances to prey (1.0 vs. 0.2 mm) and with higher capture success (90 vs. 20%) compared with zebrafish larvae, and that feeding performance was not a result of Reynolds number alone. Flow visualization shows that zebrafish larvae produce a bow wave ~0.2 mm in length, and that the flow field produced during suction does not extend beyond this bow wave. Due to well-developed oral jaw protrusion, the similar-sized suction field generated by guppy offspring extends beyond the horizon of their bow wave, leading to successful prey capture from greater distances. These findings suggest that prolonged development and increased ontogenetic state provides first-feeding fish time to escape the pervasive hydrodynamic constraints (bow wave) of being small.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Gangfu L, Haiwang L, Ruquan Y, et al (2020)

Experimental Investigation on Velocity and Temperature Field in a Rotating Non-isothermal Turbulent Boundary Layer using Hot-wire.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9892 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66853-6.

This experiment measured the instantaneous temperature and velocity field synchronously in non-isothermal turbulent boundary layer in a rotating straight channel with a parallel-array hot-wire probe. The Reynolds number based on the bulk mean velocity (U) and hydraulic diameter (D) is 19000, and the rotation numbers are 0, 0.07, 0.14, 0.21 and 0.28. The mean velocity u and mean temperature T as well as their fluctuating quantity u' and T' were measured at three streamwise locations (x/D = 4.06, 5.31, 6.56). A method for temperature-changing calibration with constant temperature hot-wire anemometers was proposed. It achieved the calibration in operational temperature range (15.5 °C-50 °C) of the hot-wire via a home-made heating section. The measurement system can obtain the velocity and temperature in a non-isothermal turbulent boundary layer at rotating conditions. The result analysis mainly contains the dimensionless mean temperature, temperature fluctuation as well as its skewness and flatness and streamwise turbulent heat flux. For the trailing side, the rotation effect is more obvious, and makes the dimensionless temperature profiles lower than that under static conditions. The dimensionless streamwise heat flux shows a linear decrease trend in the boundary layer. It is hoped that this research can improve our understanding of the flow and heat transfer mechanism in the internal cooling passages of turbine rotor blades.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Gepner SW, JM Floryan (2020)

Use of Surface Corrugations for Energy-Efficient Chaotic Stirring in Low Reynolds Number Flows.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9865 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66800-5.

We demonstrate that an intensive stirring can be achieved in laminar channel flows in a passive manner by utilizing the recently discovered instability waves which lead to chaotic particle movements. The stirring is suitable for mixtures made of delicate constituents prone to mechanical damage, such as bacteria and DNA samples, as collisions between the stream and both the bounding walls as well as mechanical mixing devices are avoided. Debris accumulation is prevented as no stagnant fluid zones are formed. Groove symmetries can be used to limit stirring to selected parts of the flow domain. The energy cost of flows with such stirring is either smaller or marginally larger than the energy cost of flows through smooth channels.

RevDate: 2020-06-16

Xu K, Wang M, Tang W, et al (2020)

Flash nanoprecipitation with Gd(III)-based metallosurfactants to fabricate polylactic acid nanoparticles as highly efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

Chemistry, an Asian journal [Epub ahead of print].

Polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles coated with Gd(III)-based metallosurfactants (MS) are prepared using a simple and rapid one-step method, flash nanoprecipitation (FNP), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. By co-assembling the Gd(III)-based MS and an amphiphilic polymer, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL), PLA cores were rapidly encapsulated to form biocompatible T1 contrast agents with tunable particle size and narrow size distribution. The hydrophobic property of Gd(III)-based MS were finely tuned to achieve their high loading efficiency. The size of the nanoparticles was easily controlled by tuning the stream velocity, Reynolds number and the amount of the amphiphilic block copolymer during the FNP process. Under the optimized condition, the relaxivity of the nanoparticles was achieved up to 35.39 mM-1 s-1 (at 1.5 T), which is over 8 times of clinically used MRI contrast agents, demonstrating the potential application for MR imaging.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Zhao M, Yang XN, Chen PY, et al (2020)

[Effects of shrub patch pattern on runoff and sediment yield].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 31(3):735-743.

Understanding the changes of runoff, sediment transport, and hydrodynamic parameters of slopes under the influence of landscape patch coverage and connectivity is of great significance for revealing the hydrodynamic mechanism and hydrological connectivity of slope soil erosion process. In this study, the changes of runoff, sediment transport and hydrodynamic parameters of downhill surface in different coverage levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 90%) and different connectivity modes (vertical path, horizonal path, S-shaped path, random patches) of shrublands were analyzed by field artificial simulated rainfall test. The results showed that, with the increases of shrub cove-rage, runoff yield and sediment yield decreased exponentially. When the coverage increased to more than 60%, the capacity of shrubs to reduce runoff and sediment became stable. With the increases of shrub coverage, flow velocity, flow depth, Reynolds number, Froude number, stream power, and flow shear resistance significantly decreased, while Manning's roughness coefficient and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient increased significantly. When shrub coverage increased to more than 60%, there was no significant difference in the eigenvalues of hydraulic parameters. The runoff rate under the four connectivity modes followed the order of vertical path > S-shaped path > horizonal path > random patches. The sediment rate was the largest in the vertical path, followed by the S-shaped path, and the horizonal path was not significantly different from the random patches. The path with poor connectivity (horizonal path, random patches) exhibited stronger resistance of hydraulic transmission and poor hydraulic sedimentation capacity than the well-connected path (vertical path, S-shaped path). Our results could provide important theoretical basis for soil erosion control on the Loess Plateau and high-quality development of the Yellow River basin.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Lequette K, Ait-Mouheb N, N Wéry (2020)

Hydrodynamic effect on biofouling of milli-labyrinth channel and bacterial communities in drip irrigation systems fed with reclaimed wastewater.

The Science of the total environment, 738:139778 pii:S0048-9697(20)33298-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The clogging of drippers due to the development of biofilms reduces the benefits and is an obstacle to the implementation of drip irrigation technology in a reclaimed water context. The narrow section and labyrinth geometry of the dripper channel results the development of a heterogeneous flow behaviours with the vortex zones which it enhance the fouling mechanisms. The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the three dripper types, defined by their geometric and hydraulic parameters, fed with reclaimed wastewater, on the biofouling kinetics and the bacterial communities. Using optical coherence tomography, we demonstrated that the inlet of the drippers (mainly the first baffle) and vortex zones are the most sensitive area for biofouling. Drippers with the lowest Reynolds number and average cross-section velocity v (1 l·h-1) were the most sensible to biofouling, even if detachment events seemed more frequent in this dripper type. Therefore, dripper flow path with larger v should be consider to improve the anti-clogging performance. In addition, the dripper type and the geometry of the flow path influenced the structure of the bacterial communities from dripper biofilms. Relative abundancy of filamentous bacteria belonging to Chloroflexi phylum was higher in 1 l·h-1 drippers, which presented a higher level of biofouling. However, further research on the role of this phylum in dripper biofouling is required.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Gamble LL, Harvey C, DJ Inman (2020)

Load alleviation of feather-inspired compliant airfoils for instantaneous flow control.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Birds morph their wing shape to adjust to changing environments through muscle-activated morphing of the skeletal structure and passive morphing of the flexible skin and feathers. The role of feather morphing has not been well studied and its impact on aerodynamics is largely unknown. Here we investigate the aero-structural response of a flexible airfoil, designed with biologically accurate structural and material data from feathers, and compared the results to an equivalent rigid airfoil. Two coupled aero-structural models are developed and validated to simulate the response of a bioinspired flexible airfoil across a range of aerodynamic flight conditions. We found that the bioinspired flexible airfoil maintained lift at Reynolds numbers below 1.5x105, within the avian flight regime, performing similarly to its rigid counterpart. At greater Reynolds numbers, the flexible airfoil alleviated the lift force and experienced trailing edge tip displacement. Principal component analysis identified that the Reynolds number dominated this passive shape change which induced a decambering effect, although the angle of attack was found to effect the location of maximum camber. These results imply that birds or aircraft that have tailored chordwise flexible wings will respond like rigid wings while operating at low speeds, but will passively unload large lift forces while operating at high speeds.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Wierzchowski K, Grabowska I, M Pilarek (2020)

Efficient propagation of suspended HL-60 cells in a disposable bioreactor supporting wave-induced agitation at various Reynolds number.

Bioprocess and biosystems engineering pii:10.1007/s00449-020-02386-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Growth of human nonadherent HL-60 cell cultures performed in disposable bioreactor under various hydrodynamic conditions of 2-D wave-assisted agitation has been compared and discussed. Influence of Reynolds number for liquid (ReL) and the kLa coefficient, as key parameters characterized the bioprocessing of HL-60 cells in ReadyToProcess WAVETM 25 system, on reached values of the apparent maximal specific growth rate (μmax) and the specific yield of biomass (Y*X/S) has been identified. The values of ReL (i.e., 510-10,208), as well as kLa coefficient (i.e., 2.83-13.55 h-1), have been estimated for the cultures subjected to wave-induced mixing, based on simplified dimensionless correlation for various presents of WAVE 25 system. The highest values of apparent μmax = 0.038 h-1 and Y*X/S = 25.64 × 108 cells gglc-1 have been noted for cultures independently performed at wave-induced agitation characterized by ReL equaled to 5104 and 510, respectively. The presented results have high applicability potential in scale-up of bioprocesses focused on nonadherent animal cells, or in the case of any application of disposable bioreactors presenting similitude.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Waini I, Ishak A, I Pop (2020)

Hybrid nanofluid flow towards a stagnation point on a stretching/shrinking cylinder.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9296 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66126-2.

This paper examines the stagnation point flow towards a stretching/shrinking cylinder in a hybrid nanofluid. Here, copper (Cu) and alumina (Al2O3) are considered as the hybrid nanoparticles while water as the base fluid. The governing equations are reduced to the similarity equations using a similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using the boundary value problem solver, bvp4c, available in the Matlab software. It is found that the heat transfer rate is greater for the hybrid nanofluid compared to the regular nanofluid as well as the regular fluid. Besides, the non-uniqueness of the solutions is observed for certain physical parameters. It is also noticed that the bifurcation of the solutions occurs in the shrinking regions. In addition, the heat transfer rate and the skin friction coefficients increase in the presence of nanoparticles and for larger Reynolds number. It is found that between the two solutions, only one of them is stable as time evolves.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Cho M, IS Koref (2020)

The Importance of a Filament-like Structure in Aerial Dispersal and the Rarefaction Effect of Air Molecules on a Nanoscale Fiber: Detailed Physics in Spiders' Ballooning.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:5855136 [Epub ahead of print].

Many flying insects utilize a membranous structure for flight, which is known as a "wing." However, some spiders use silk fibers for their aerial dispersal. It is well known that spiders can disperse over hundreds of kilometers and rise several kilometers above the ground in this way. However, little is known about the ballooning mechanisms of spiders, owing to the lack of quantitative data. Recently, Cho et al. discovered previously unknown information on the types and physical properties of spiders' ballooning silks. According to the data, a crab spider weighing 20 mg spins 50-60 ballooning silks simultaneously, which are about 200 nm thick and 3.22 m long for their flight. Based on these physical dimensions of ballooning silks, the significance of these filament-like structures is explained by a theoretical analysis reviewing the fluid-dynamics of an anisotropic particle (like a filament or a high-slender body). (i) The filament-like structure is materially efficient geometry to produce (or harvest, in the case of passive flight) fluid-dynamic force in a low Reynolds number flow regime. (ii) Multiple nanoscale fibers are the result of the physical characteristics of a thin fiber, the drag of which is proportional to its length but not to its diameter. Because of this nonlinear characteristic of a fiber, spinning multiple thin ballooning fibers is, for spiders, a better way to produce drag forces than spinning a single thick spider silk, because spiders can maximize their drag on the ballooning fibers using the same amount of silk dope. (iii) The mean thickness of fibers, 200 nm, is constrained by the mechanical strength of the ballooning fibers and the rarefaction effect of air molecules on a nanoscale fiber, because the slip condition on a fiber could predominate if the thickness of the fiber becomes thinner than 100 nm.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

van Hooft JA (2020)

A Note on Scalar-Gradient Sharpening in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer.

Boundary-layer meteorology, 176(1):149-156.

The scalar front generated by the horizontal self advection of a dipolar vortex through a modest scalar gradient is investigated. This physical scenario is an idealization of the emergence of strong temperature ramps in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. The proposed mechanism is discussed and a two-dimensional analogy is studied in depth using direct numerical simulation. More specifically, the scalar-gradient sharpening is investigated as a function of the Reynolds number. It appears that the process of gradient sharpening at large-eddy scales may be challenging for turbulence-resolving methods applied to the stable-boundary-layer regime.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Jain K (2020)

Efficacy of the FDA nozzle benchmark and the lattice Boltzmann method for the analysis of biomedical flows in transitional regime.

Medical & biological engineering & computing pii:10.1007/s11517-020-02188-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Flows through medical devices as well as in anatomical vessels despite being at moderate Reynolds number may exhibit transitional or even turbulent character. In order to validate numerical methods and codes used for biomedical flow computations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established an experimental benchmark, which was a pipe with gradual contraction and sudden expansion representing a nozzle. The experimental results for various Reynolds numbers ranging from 500 to 6500 were publicly released. Previous and recent computational investigations of flow in the FDA nozzle found limitations in various CFD approaches and some even questioned the adequacy of the benchmark itself. This communication reports the results of a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) - based direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach applied to the FDA nozzle benchmark for transitional cases of Reynolds numbers 2000 and 3500. The goal is to evaluate if a simple off the shelf LBM would predict the experimental results without the use of complex models or synthetic turbulence at the inflow. LBM computations with various spatial and temporal resolutions are performed-in the extremities of 45 million to 2.88 billion lattice cells-executed respectively on 32 CPU cores of a desktop to more than 300,000 cores of a modern supercomputer to explore and characterize miniscule flow details and quantify Kolmogorov scales. The LBM simulations transition to turbulence at a Reynolds number 2000 like the FDA's experiments and acceptable agreement in jet breakdown locations, average velocity, shear stress, and pressure is found for both the Reynolds numbers. Graphical Abstract A bisecting plane showing the FDA nozzle and vorticity magnitude at t = 10 s for throat Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 3500.

RevDate: 2020-06-07

Cui X, Wu W, H Ge (2020)

Investigation of airflow field in the upper airway under unsteady respiration pattern using large eddy simulation method.

Respiratory physiology & neurobiology pii:S1569-9048(20)30126-9 [Epub ahead of print].

In this paper, the airflow field in the upper airway under unsteady respiration process is predicted using large eddy simulation. The geometrical model is created by combining a popular cast-based mouth-throat model with tracheo-bronchial airways modeled with a trumpet-shaped conduit. The respiration process is simulated by sinusoidal displacing the bottom surface of the geometrical model. Large eddy simulation with dynamic sub-grid scale model is adopted for modeling the turbulent flow via a commercial CFD software, Converge. This study has found that (1) the secondary vortices in the mouth cavity are much more complex considering the lung expansion than setting the quasi-steady inspiration flow at the mouth-inlet; (2) the properties of secondary vortices in the trachea are not evidently different at the same Reynolds number at the accelerating and decelerating inspiration phases; (3) the reversed pharynx jet as well as recirculation zone is much unsteadier at the accelerating expiration phase than decelerating expiration phase for the same Reynolds number. We conclude that the properties of airflow structures are highly impacted by the respiration pattern and more investigations should be conducted, particularly, on the airflow structures during expiration phase for further understanding the properties of flow field.

RevDate: 2020-06-07

Howard MP, Statt A, Stone HA, et al (2020)

Stability of force-driven shear flows in nonequilibrium molecular simulations with periodic boundaries.

The Journal of chemical physics, 152(21):214113.

We analyze the hydrodynamic stability of force-driven parallel shear flows in nonequilibrium molecular simulations with three-dimensional periodic boundary conditions. We show that flows simulated in this way can be linearly unstable, and we derive an expression for the critical Reynolds number as a function of the geometric aspect ratio of the simulation domain. Approximate periodic extensions of Couette and Poiseuille flows are unstable at Reynolds numbers two orders of magnitude smaller than their aperiodic equivalents because the periodic boundaries impose fundamentally different constraints on the flow. This instability has important implications for simulating shear rheology and for designing nonequilibrium simulation methods that are compatible with periodic boundary conditions.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Meloni S, Di Marco A, Mancinelli M, et al (2020)

Experimental investigation of jet-induced wall pressure fluctuations over a tangential flat plate at two Reynolds numbers.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9140 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66037-2.

The wall pressure fluctuations induced by a subsonic circular jet on a rigid flat plate have been investigated considering two jets with different exit section diameters at the same Mach number. The analysis is aimed at completing the series of papers presented by the authors on the interaction between a subsonic jet and infinite tangential flat plate where the exit Mach number was the only parameter of the jet flow that was varied. In order to analyse other effects out of the Mach number, two configurations with different nozzle exhaust diameters were explored with the objective of isolating the Reynolds number effect keeping fixed the exit Mach number. The nozzle exhaust diameters are 12 mm and 25.4 mm and the instrumented flat plate, installed parallel to the jet flow, is moved at different radial distances from the jet axis. The pressure footprint on the plate has been measured in the stream-wise direction by means of a pair of flush-mounted pressure transducers, providing point-wise pressure signals. Wall pressure fluctuations have been characterised in terms of spectral and statistical quantities. The effect of Reynolds is evidenced and possible scaling relationships that account for the Reynolds dependence are proposed. Implications for modeling the spectral coherence have been considered by the application of the Corcos' model and the effect of the jet Reynolds number on the model coefficients is analyzed.

RevDate: 2020-06-05

Benedict F, Kumar A, Kadirgama K, et al (2020)

Thermal Performance of Hybrid-Inspired Coolant for Radiator Application.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(6): pii:nano10061100.

Due to the increasing demand in industrial application, nanofluids have attracted the considerable attention of researchers in recent decades. The addition of nanocellulose (CNC) with water (W) and ethylene glycol (EG) to a coolant for a radiator application exhibits beneficial properties to improve the efficiency of the radiator. The focus of the present work was to investigate the performance of mono or hybrid metal oxide such as Al2O3 and TiO2 with or without plant base-extracted CNC with varying concentrations as a better heat transfer nanofluid in comparison to distilled water as a radiator coolant. The CNC is dispersed in the base fluid of EG and W with a 60:40 ratio. The highest absorption peak was noticed at 0.9% volume concentration of TiO2, Al2O3, CNC, Al2O3/TiO2, and Al2O3/CNC nanofluids which indicates a better stability of the nanofluids' suspension. Better thermal conductivity improvement was observed for the Al2O3 nanofluids in all mono nanofluids followed by the CNC and TiO2 nanofluids, respectively. The thermal conductivity of the Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluids with 0.9% volume concentration was found to be superior than that of the Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid nanofluids. Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluid dominates over other mono and hybrid nanofluids in terms of viscosity at all volume concentrations. CNC nanofluids (all volume concentrations) exhibited the highest specific heat capacity than other mono nanofluids. Additionally, in both hybrid nanofluids, Al2O3/CNC showed the lowest specific heat capacity. The optimized volume concentration from the statistical analytical tool was found to be 0.5%. The experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient, convective heat transfer, Reynolds number and the Nusselt number have a proportional relationship with the volumetric flow rate. Hybrid nanofluids exhibit better thermal conductivity than mono nanofluids. For instance, a better thermal conductivity improvement was shown by the mono Al2O3 nanofluids than the CNC and TiO2 nanofluids. On the other hand, superior thermal conductivity was observed for the Al2O3/CNC hybrid nanofluids compared to the other mono and hybrid ones (Al2O3/TiO2).

RevDate: 2020-06-04

Ahasan K, Landry CM, Chen X, et al (2020)

Effect of angle-of-attacks on deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) with symmetric airfoil pillars.

Biomedical microdevices, 22(2):42 pii:10.1007/s10544-020-00496-2.

Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a microfluidic technique for size fractionation of particles/cells in continuous flow with a great potential for biological and clinical applications. Growing interest of DLD devices in enabling high-throughput operation for practical applications, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) separation, necessitates employing higher flow rates, leading to operation at moderate to high Reynolds number (Re) regimes. Recently, it has been shown that symmetric airfoil shaped pillars with neutral angle-of-attack (AoA) can be used for high-throughput design of DLD devices due to their mitigation of vortex effects and preservation of flow symmetry under high Re conditions. While high-Re operation with symmetric airfoil shaped pillars has been established, the effect of AoAs on the DLD performance has not been investigated. In this paper, we have characterized the airfoil DLD device with various AoAs. The transport behavior of microparticles has been observed and analyzed with various AoAs in realistic high-Re. Furthermore, we have modeled the flow fields and anisotropy in a representative airfoil pillar array, for both positive and negative AoA configurations. Unlike the conventional DLD device, lateral displacement has been suppressed with +5° and + 15° AoA configurations regardless of particle sizes. On the other hand, stronger lateral displacement has been seen with -5° and - 15° AoAs. This can be attributed to growing flow anisotropy as Re climbs, and significant expansion or compression of streamlines between airfoils with AoAs. The findings in this study can be utilized for the design and optimization of airfoil DLD microfluidic devices with various AoAs.

RevDate: 2020-06-03

Li X, Gao J, Guo Z, et al (2020)

A Study of Rainfall-Runoff Movement Process on High and Steep Slopes Affected by Double Turbulence Sources.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9001 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66060-3.

To increase the available land area, a large-scale land remediation campaign was carried out in the loess hilly and gully area. A large number of high and steep slopes have been produced in the construction of road engineering and water conservancy engineering, and these slopes will cause serious soil erosion under rainfall conditions. Because rainfall runoff is simultaneously affected by slope, bed surface and rainfall, the runoff movement characteristics are complex. It is difficult to consider all influencing factors in the existing models, especially for steep slopes. In this study, artificial rainfall experiments were conducted to study the rainfall-runoff hydraulic processes under different rainfall intensities and slope gradients, and a modified method was proposed to model the key hydraulic parameters (i.e., equilibrium time, water surface line, and runoff processes) on steep slopes. The results showed that (1) For steep slopes (a 70° slope compared to a 5° slope), the runoff generation time, confluence time and equilibrium time of the slope decreased significantly. At the same time, the single width runoff of the steep slope had a power function relationship with the rainfall intensity and gradient. (2) The runoff patterns of steep slopes were different from those on gentle slopes and runoff patterns were more likely to change. The Reynolds number and Froude number for slope flow changed slowly when the slope was less than the critical gradient and increased significantly when the slope exceeded the critical gradient. (3) Based on the analysis of the "double turbulent model theory of thin-layer flow on a high-steep slope", combined with the dispersed motion wave model, a modified method for calculating the hydrodynamic factors of rainfall runoff was proposed. Then, this method was verified with indoor and outdoor experiments. The research results not only have theoretical significance, but also provide a more accurate calculation method for the design of high and steep slopes involved in land treatment engineering, road engineering and water conservancy engineering.

RevDate: 2020-06-02

Robles-Romero JM, Romero-Martín M, Conde-Guillén G, et al (2020)

The Physics of Fluid Dynamics Applied to Vascular Ulcers and Its Impact on Nursing Care.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 8(2): pii:healthcare8020147.

The high incidence of vascular ulcers and the difficulties encountered in their healing process require the understanding of their multiple etiologies to develop effective strategies focused on providing different treatment options. This work provides a description of the principles of the physics of fluid dynamics related to vascular ulcers. The morphological characteristics of the cardiovascular system promote blood flow. The contraction force of the left ventricle is enhanced by its ability to reduce its radius of curvature and by increasing the thickness of the ventricular wall (Laplace's Law). Arterial flow must overcome vascular resistance (Ohm's equation). The elastic nature of the artery and the ability to reduce its diameter as flow rate progresses facilitate blood conduction at high speed up to arteriolar level, and this can be determined by the second equation of continuity. As it is a viscous fluid, we must discuss laminar flow, calculated by the Reynolds number, which favors proper conduction while aiming at the correct net filtration pressure. Any endothelial harmful process that affects the muscle wall of the vessel increases the flow speed, causing a decrease in capillary hydrostatic pressure, thus reducing the exchange of nutrients at the interstitial level. With regard to the return system, the flow direction is anti-gravity and requires endogenous aid to establish the Starling's equilibrium. Knowledge on the physics of vascular fluid dynamics makes it easier to understand the processes of formation of these ulcers so as to choosing the optimal healing and prevention techniques for these chronic wounds.

RevDate: 2020-05-29

Charlton AJ, Lian B, Blandin G, et al (2020)

Impact of FO Operating Pressure and Membrane Tensile Strength on Draw-Channel Geometry and Resulting Hydrodynamics.

Membranes, 10(5): pii:membranes10050111.

In an effort to improve performances of forward osmosis (FO) systems, several innovative draw spacers have been proposed. However, the small pressure generally applied on the feed side of the process is expected to result in the membrane bending towards the draw side, and in the gradual occlusion of the channel. This phenomenon potentially presents detrimental effects on process performance, including pressure drop and external concentration polarization (ECP) in the draw channel. A flat sheet FO system with a dot-spacer draw channel geometry was characterized to determine the degree of draw channel occlusion resulting from feed pressurization, and the resulting implications on flow performance. First, tensile testing was performed on the FO membrane to derive a Young's modulus, used to assess the membrane stretching, and the resulting draw channel characteristics under a range of moderate feed pressures. Membrane apex reached up to 67% of the membrane channel height when transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 1.4 bar was applied. The new FO channels considerations were then processed by computational fluid dynamics model (computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by ANSYS Fluent v19.1) and validated against previously obtained experimental data. Further simulations were conducted to better assess velocity profiles, Reynolds number and shear rate. Reynolds number on the membrane surface (draw side) increased by 20% and shear rate increased by 90% when occlusion changed from 0 to 70%, impacting concentration polarisation (CP) on the membrane surface and therefore FO performance. This paper shows that FO draw channel occlusion is expected to have a significant impact on fluid hydrodynamics when the membrane is not appropriately supported in the draw side.

RevDate: 2020-05-28

Asghar Z, Ali N, Waqas M, et al (2020)

Locomotion of an efficient biomechanical sperm through viscoelastic medium.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology pii:10.1007/s10237-020-01338-z [Epub ahead of print].

Every group of microorganism utilizes a diverse mechanical strategy to propel through complex environments. These swimming problems deal with the fluid-organism interaction at micro-scales in which Reynolds number is of the order of 10-3. By adopting the same propulsion mechanism of so-called Taylor's sheet, here we address the biomechanical principle of swimming via different wavy surfaces. The passage (containing micro-swimmers) is considered to be passive two-dimensional channel filled with viscoelastic liquid, i.e., Oldroyd-4 constant fluid. For some initial value of unknowns, i.e., cell speed and flow rate of surrounding liquid, the resulting boundary value problem is solved by robust finite difference scheme. This convergent solution is further employed in the equilibrium conditions which will obviously not be satisfied for such crude values of unknowns. These unknowns are further refined (to satisfy the equilibrium conditions) by modified Newton-Raphson algorithm. These computed pairs are also utilized to compute the energy losses. The speed of swimming sheet its power delivered and flow rate of Oldroyd-4 constant fluid are compared for different kinds of wavy sheets. These results are also useful in the manufacturing of artificial (soft) microbots and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

RevDate: 2020-05-22

Cassineri S, Cioncolini A, Smith L, et al (2020)

Experiments on Liquid Flow through Non-Circular Micro-Orifices.

Micromachines, 11(5): pii:mi11050510.

Microfluidics is an active research area in modern fluid mechanics, with several applications in science and engineering. Despite their importance in microfluidic systems, micro-orifices with non-circular cross-sections have not been extensively investigated. In this study, micro-orifice discharge with single-phase liquid flow was experimentally investigated for seven square and rectangular cross-section micro-orifices with a hydraulic diameter in the range of 326-510 µm. The discharge measurements were carried out in pressurized water (12 MPa) at ambient temperature (298 K) and high temperature (503 K). During the tests, the Reynolds number varied between 5883 and 212,030, significantly extending the range in which data are currently available in the literature on non-circular micro-orifices. The results indicate that the cross-sectional shape of the micro-orifice has little, if any, effect on the hydrodynamic behavior. Thus, existing methods for the prediction of turbulent flow behavior in circular micro-orifices can be used to predict the flow behavior in non-circular micro-orifices, provided that the flow geometry of the non-circular micro-orifice is described using a hydraulic diameter.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Moriconi L (2020)

Magnetic dissipation of near-wall turbulent coherent structures in magnetohydrodynamic pipe flows.

Physical review. E, 101(4-1):043111.

Relaminarization of wall-bounded turbulent flows by means of external static magnetic fields is a long-known phenomenon in the physics of electrically conducting fluids at low magnetic Reynolds numbers. Despite the large literature on the subject, it is not yet completely clear what combination of the Hartmann (M) and the Reynolds number has to be used to predict the laminar-turbulent transition in channel or pipe flows fed by upstream turbulent flows free of magnetic perturbations. Relying upon standard phenomenological approaches related to mixing length and structural concepts, we put forward that M/R_{τ}, where R_{τ} is the friction Reynolds number, is the appropriate controlling parameter for relaminarization, a proposal which finds good support from available experimental data.

RevDate: 2020-05-19

Ekanem EM, Berg S, De S, et al (2020)

Signature of elastic turbulence of viscoelastic fluid flow in a single pore throat.

Physical review. E, 101(4-1):042605.

When a viscoelastic fluid, such as an aqueous polymer solution, flows through a porous medium, the fluid undergoes a repetitive expansion and contraction as it passes from one pore to the next. Above a critical flow rate, the interaction between the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and the pore configuration results in spatial and temporal flow instabilities reminiscent of turbulentlike behavior, even though the Reynolds number Re≪1. To investigate whether this is caused by many repeated pore body-pore throat sequences, or simply a consequence of the converging (diverging) nature present in a single pore throat, we performed experiments using anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in a microfluidic flow geometry representing a single pore throat. This allows the viscoelastic fluid to be characterized at increasing flow rates using microparticle image velocimetry in combination with pressure drop measurements. The key finding is that the effect, popularly known as "elastic turbulence," occurs already in a single pore throat geometry. The critical Deborah number at which the transition in rheological flow behavior from pseudoplastic (shear thinning) to dilatant (shear thickening) strongly depends on the ionic strength, the type of cation in the anionic HPAM solution, and the nature of pore configuration. The transition towards the elastic turbulence regime was found to directly correlate with an increase in normal stresses. The topology parameter, Q_{f}, computed from the velocity distribution, suggests that the "shear thickening" regime, where much of the elastic turbulence occurs in a single pore throat, is a consequence of viscoelastic normal stresses that cause a complex flow field. This flow field consists of extensional, shear, and rotational features around the constriction, as well as upstream and downstream of the constriction. Furthermore, this elastic turbulence regime, has high-pressure fluctuations, with a power-law decay exponent of up to |-2.1| which is higher than the Kolmogorov value for turbulence of |-5/3|.

RevDate: 2020-05-11

Jain SK, Banerjee U, AK Sen (2020)

Trapping and coalescence of diamagnetic aqueous droplets using negative magnetophoresis.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Manipulation of aqueous droplets has profound significance in biochemical assays. Magnetic field-driven droplet manipulation, offering unique advantages, is consequently gaining attention. However, the phenomenon relating to diamagnetic droplets is not well understood. Here, we report understanding of trapping and coalescence of flowing diamagnetic aqueous droplets in a paramagnetic (oil-based ferrofluid) medium using negative magnetophoresis. Our study revealed that the trapping phenomenon is underpinned by the interplay of magnetic energy (E_m) and frictional (viscous) energy (E_f), in terms of magnetophoretic stability number, S_m=(E_m⁄E_f). The trapping and non-trapping regimes are characterized based on the peak value of magnetophoretic stability number, S_mp and droplet size, D^*. Study of coalescence of a trapped droplet with a follower droplet (and a train of droplets) revealed that the film-drainage Reynolds number (Re_fd) representing the coalescence time depends on the magnetic Bond number, Bo_m. The coalesced droplet continues to remain trapped or gets self-released obeying the S_mp and D^*criterion. Our study offers an understanding of the magnetic manipulation of diamagnetic aqueous droplets that can potentially be used for biochemical assays in microfluidics.

RevDate: 2020-05-06

Chen H, M Yao (2018)

A high-flow portable biological aerosol trap (HighBioTrap) for rapid microbial detection.

Journal of aerosol science, 117:212-223.

Bioaerosols exposure can lead to many adverse health effects and even result in death if highly infectious agents involved. Apparently, there is a great need for rapid detection of bioaerosols, for which air sampling often is the first critical step. However, currently available samplers often either require an external power and/or with low sampling flow rate, thus falling short of providing a practical solution when response time is of great concern. Here, we have designed and evaluated a new portable high volume bioaerosol sampler named as HighBioTrap through optimizing its operating parameters. The sampler was operated at a sampling flow rate of 1200 L/min, with an impaction velocity of about 10.2 m/s (S/W = 1.5, T/W = 1), while the weight of the sampler is about 1.9 kg. The performances of the HighBioTrap sampler were tested both in lab controlled and natural environments (outdoor and indoor environments in a university building) along with the reference sampler-the BioStage impactor using aerosolized Polystyrene (PS) uniform microspheres of various sizes, aerosolized bacteria and also ambient air particles. The microbial community structures of collected culturable bacterial aerosol particles both by the HighBioTrap and the BioStage impactor in the natural environments were analyzed using gene sequence method. Experimental results with PS particles showed the HighBioTrap has a cutoff size of ~ 2 µm. The widely used impactor design equation was found to be not applicable for predicting the performance of the HighBioTrap due to its large Reynolds number. When sampling aerosolized individual Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis bacterial particles, the HighBioTrap had physical collection efficiencies of 10% and 20%, respectively. Despite the higher desiccation effects introduced by higher flow rate, the HighBioTrap was shown to obtain a higher microbial diversity than the BioStage impactor for both in outdoor and indoor environments given the same sampling time (p < 0.01). Our data also showed that most of the desiccation effects might have occurred between 3 and 5 min of the sampling and an impaction velocity of around 10 m/s might be a close-to-optimal impaction velocity for collecting most environmental bacterial aerosols while maximally preserving their culturability. This work contributes to our understanding of microbial sampling stress (impaction velocity and sampling time), while developing a portable high volume sampler. The HighBioTrap sampler could find its great efficiencies in qualitative microbial aerosol detection and analysis, such as investigation of microbial aerosol diversity for a particular environment, or when the low level of pathogens is present and detection time is of great concern.

RevDate: 2020-05-02

Garcia F, Seilmayer M, Giesecke A, et al (2020)

Chaotic wave dynamics in weakly magnetized spherical Couette flows.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 30(4):043116.

Direct numerical simulations of a liquid metal filling the gap between two concentric spheres are presented. The flow is governed by the interplay between the rotation of the inner sphere (measured by the Reynolds number Re) and a weak externally applied axial magnetic field (measured by the Hartmann number Ha). By varying the latter, a rich variety of flow features, both in terms of spatial symmetry and temporal dependence, is obtained. Flows with two or three independent frequencies describing their time evolution are found as a result of Hopf bifurcations. They are stable on a sufficiently large interval of Hartmann numbers where regions of multistability of two, three, and even four types of these different flows are detected. The temporal character of the solutions is analyzed by means of an accurate frequency analysis and Poincaré sections. An unstable branch of flows undergoing a period doubling cascade and frequency locking of three-frequency solutions is described as well.

RevDate: 2020-05-01

Kang S, R Kwak (2020)

Pattern Formation of Three-Dimensional Electroconvection on a Charge Selective Surface.

Physical review letters, 124(15):154502.

When a charge selective surface consumes or transports only cations or anions in the electrolyte, biased ion rejection initiates hydrodynamic instability, resulting in vortical fluid motions called electroconvection. In this Letter, we describe the first laboratory observation of three-dimensional electroconvection on a charge selective surface. Combining experiment and scaling analysis, we successfully categorized three distinct patterns of 3D electroconvection according to [(Ra_{E})/(Re^{2}Sc)] [electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E}), Reynolds number (Re), Schmidt number (Sc)] as (i) polygonal, (ii) transverse, or (iii) longitudinal rolls. If Re increases or Ra_{E} decreases, pure longitudinal rolls are presented. On the other hand, transverse rolls are formed between longitudinal rolls, and two rolls are transformed as polygonal one at higher Ra_{E} or lower Re. In this pattern selection scenario, Sc determines the critical electric Rayleigh number (Ra_{E}^{*}) for the onset of each roll, resulting in Ra_{E}^{*}∼Re^{2}Sc. We also verify that convective ion flux by electroconvection (represented by an electric Nusselt number Nu_{E}) is fitted to a power law, Nu_{E}∼[(Ra_{E}-Ra_{E}^{*})/(Re^{2}Sc)]^{α_{1}}Re^{α_{2}}Pe^{α_{3}} [Péclet number (Pe)], where each term represents the characteristics of electroconvection, shear flow, and ion transport.

RevDate: 2020-04-30

Raza W, Hossain S, KY Kim (2020)

A Review of Passive Micromixers with a Comparative Analysis.

Micromachines, 11(5): pii:mi11050455.

A wide range of existing passive micromixers are reviewed, and quantitative analyses of ten typical passive micromixers were performed to compare their mixing indices, pressure drops, and mixing costs under the same axial length and flow conditions across a wide Reynolds number range of 0.01-120. The tested micromixers were selected from five types of micromixer designs. The analyses of flow and mixing were performed using continuity, Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations. The results of the comparative analysis were presented for three different Reynolds number ranges: low-Re (Re ≤ 1), intermediate-Re (1 < Re ≤ 40), and high-Re (Re > 40) ranges, where the mixing mechanisms are different. The results show a two-dimensional micromixer of Tesla structure is recommended in the intermediate- and high-Re ranges, while two three-dimensional micromixers with two layers are recommended in the low-Re range due to their excellent mixing performance.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Storm TJ, Nolan KE, Roberts EM, et al (2020)

Oropharyngeal morphology related to filtration mechanisms in suspension-feeding American shad (Clupeidae).

Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology [Epub ahead of print].

To assess potential filtration mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy was used in a comprehensive quantification and analysis of the morphology and surface ultrastructure for all five branchial arches in the ram suspension-feeding fish, American shad (Alosa sapidissima, Clupeidae). The orientation of the branchial arches and the location of mucus cells on the gill rakers were more consistent with mechanisms of crossflow filtration and cross-step filtration rather than conventional dead-end sieving. The long, thin gill rakers could lead to a large area for the exit of water from the oropharyngeal cavity during suspension feeding (high fluid exit ratio). The substantial elongation of gill rakers along the dorsal-ventral axis formed d-type ribs with a groove aspect ratio of 0.5 and a Reynolds number of approximately 500, consistent with the potential operation of cross-step filtration. Mucus cell abundance differed significantly along the length of the raker and the height of the raker. The mucus cell abundance data and the observed sloughing of denticles along the gill raker margins closest to the interior of the oropharyngeal cavity suggest that gill raker growth may occur primarily at the raker tips, the denticle bases, and the internal raker margins along the length of the raker. These findings will be applied in ongoing experiments with 3D-printed physical models of fish oral cavities in flow tanks, and in future ecological studies on the diet and nutrition of suspension-feeding fishes.

RevDate: 2020-04-28

Singh AV, Ansari MHD, Mahajan M, et al (2020)

Sperm Cell Driven Microrobots-Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Biologically Inspired Robotic Design.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040448.

With the advent of small-scale robotics, several exciting new applications like Targeted Drug Delivery, single cell manipulation and so forth, are being discussed. However, some challenges remain to be overcome before any such technology becomes medically usable; among which propulsion and biocompatibility are the main challenges. Propulsion at micro-scale where the Reynolds number is very low is difficult. To overcome this, nature has developed flagella which have evolved over millions of years to work as a micromotor. Among the microscopic cells that exhibit this mode of propulsion, sperm cells are considered to be fast paced. Here, we give a brief review of the state-of-the-art of Spermbots - a new class of microrobots created by coupling sperm cells to mechanical loads. Spermbots utilize the flagellar movement of the sperm cells for propulsion and as such do not require any toxic fuel in their environment. They are also naturally biocompatible and show considerable speed of motion thereby giving us an option to overcome the two challenges of propulsion and biocompatibility. The coupling mechanisms of physical load to the sperm cells are discussed along with the advantages and challenges associated with the spermbot. A few most promising applications of spermbots are also discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the future outlook of this extremely promising category of microrobots is given at the end.

RevDate: 2020-04-23

Zhou Q, Fidalgo J, Calvi L, et al (2020)

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dilute Red Blood Cell Suspensions in Low-Inertia Microchannel Flow.

Biophysical journal pii:S0006-3495(20)30269-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Microfluidic technologies are commonly used for the manipulation of red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and analyses of flow-mediated biomechanics. To enhance the performance of microfluidic devices, understanding the dynamics of the suspensions processed within is crucial. We report novel, to our knowledge, aspects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of RBC suspensions flowing through a typical microchannel at low Reynolds number. Through experiments with dilute RBC suspensions, we find an off-center two-peak (OCTP) profile of cells contrary to the centralized distribution commonly reported for low-inertia flows. This is reminiscent of the well-known "tubular pinch effect," which arises from inertial effects. However, given the conditions of negligible inertia in our experiments, an alternative explanation is needed for this OCTP profile. Our massively parallel simulations of RBC flow in real-size microfluidic dimensions using the immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method confirm the experimental findings and elucidate the underlying mechanism for the counterintuitive RBC pattern. By analyzing the RBC migration and cell-free layer development within a high-aspect-ratio channel, we show that such a distribution is co-determined by the spatial decay of hydrodynamic lift and the global deficiency of cell dispersion in dilute suspensions. We find a cell-free layer development length greater than 46 and 28 hydraulic diameters in the experiment and simulation, respectively, exceeding typical lengths of microfluidic designs. Our work highlights the key role of transient cell distribution in dilute suspensions, which may negatively affect the reliability of experimental results if not taken into account.

RevDate: 2020-04-22

Navah F, de la Llave Plata M, V Couaillier (2020)

A High-Order Multiscale Approach to Turbulence for Compact Nodal Schemes.

Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, 363:.

This article presents a formulation that extends the multiscale modelling for compressible large-eddy simulation to a vast family of compact nodal numerical methods represented by the high-order flux reconstruction scheme. The theoretical aspects of the proposed formulation are laid down via mathematical derivations which clearly expose the underlying assumptions and approximations and provide sufficient details for accurate reproduction of the methodology. The final form is assessed on a Taylor-Green vortex benchmark with Reynolds number of 5000 and compared to filtered direct numerical simulation data. These numerical experiments exhibit the important role of sufficient de-aliasing, appropriate amount of upwinding from Roe's numerical flux and large/small scale partition, in achieving better agreement with reference data, especially on coarse grids, when compared to the baseline implicit large-eddy simulation.

RevDate: 2020-04-21

Banerjee A, Sharma T, Nautiyal AK, et al (2020)

Scale-up strategy for yeast single cell oil production for Rhodotorula mucilagenosa IIPL32 from corn cob derived pentosan.

Bioresource technology, 309:123329 pii:S0960-8524(20)30601-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This work was aimed to strategically scale-up the yeast lipid production process using Reynolds number as a standard rheological parameter from 50 mL to 50 L scale. Oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 was cultivated in xylose rich corncob hydrolysate. The fermentation process for growth and maturation was operated in fed-batch with two different C/N ratios of 40 and 60. The hydrodynamic parameters were used to standardize and represent the effect of rheology on the fermentation process. The growth pattern of the yeast was found similar in both shake flask and fermenter with the maximum growth observed at 48 h. The lipid yield increased from 0.4 g/L and 0.5 g/L to 1.3 g/L and 1.83 g/L for 50 mL to 50 L for C/N ratio 40 and 60 respectively. The increase in productivity during the growth phase and lipid accumulation during the maturation phase showed that the scale-up strategy was successful.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Erdem K, Ahmadi VE, Kosar A, et al (2020)

Differential Sorting of Microparticles Using Spiral Microchannels with Elliptic Configurations.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040412.

Label-free, size-dependent cell-sorting applications based on inertial focusing phenomena have attracted much interest during the last decade. The separation capability heavily depends on the precision of microparticle focusing. In this study, five-loop spiral microchannels with a height of 90 µm and a width of 500 µm are introduced. Unlike their original spiral counterparts, these channels have elliptic configurations of varying initial aspect ratios, namely major axis to minor axis ratios of 3:2, 11:9, 9:11, and 2:3. Accordingly, the curvature of these configurations increases in a curvilinear manner through the channel. The effects of the alternating curvature and channel Reynolds number on the focusing of fluorescent microparticles with sizes of 10 and 20 µm in the prepared suspensions were investigated. At volumetric flow rates between 0.5 and 3.5 mL/min (allowing separation), each channel was tested to collect samples at the designated outlets. Then, these samples were analyzed by counting the particles. These curved channels were capable of separating 20 and 10 µm particles with total yields up to approximately 95% and 90%, respectively. The results exhibited that the level of enrichment and the focusing behavior of the proposed configurations are promising compared to the existing microfluidic channel configurations.

RevDate: 2020-04-16

Sun HCM, Liao P, Wei T, et al (2020)

Magnetically Powered Biodegradable Microswimmers.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040404.

The propulsive efficiency and biodegradability of wireless microrobots play a significant role in facilitating promising biomedical applications. Mimicking biological matters is a promising way to improve the performance of microrobots. Among diverse locomotion strategies, undulatory propulsion shows remarkable efficiency and agility. This work proposes a novel magnetically powered and hydrogel-based biodegradable microswimmer. The microswimmer is fabricated integrally by 3D laser lithography based on two-photon polymerization from a biodegradable material and has a total length of 200 μm and a diameter of 8 μm. The designed microswimmer incorporates a novel design utilizing four rigid segments, each of which is connected to the succeeding segment by spring to achieve undulation, improving structural integrity as well as simplifying the fabrication process. Under an external oscillating magnetic field, the microswimmer with multiple rigid segments connected by flexible spring can achieve undulatory locomotion and move forward along with the directions guided by the external magnetic field in the low Reynolds number (Re) regime. In addition, experiments demonstrated that the microswimmer can be degraded successfully, which allows it to be safely applied in real-time in vivo environments. This design has great potential in future in vivo applications such as precision medicine, drug delivery, and diagnosis.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Huang B, Li H, T Xu (2020)

Experimental Investigation of the Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Reentrant Cavities.

Micromachines, 11(4): pii:mi11040403.

The application of microchannel heat exchangers is of great significance in industrial fields due to their advantages of miniaturized scale, large surface-area-to-volume ratio, and high heat transfer rate. In this study, microchannel heat exchangers with and without fan-shaped reentrant cavities were designed and manufactured, and experiments were conducted to investigate the flow and heat-transfer characteristics. The impact rising from the radius of reentrant cavities, as well as the Reynolds number on the heat transfer and the pressure drop, is also analyzed. The results indicate that, compared with straight microchannels, microchannels with reentrant cavities could enhance the heat transfer and, more importantly, reduce the pressure drop at the same time. For the ranges of parameters studied, increasing the radius of reentrant cavities could augment the effect of pressure-drop reduction, while the corresponding variation of heat transfer is complicated. It is considered that adding reentrant cavities in microchannel heat exchangers is an ideal approach to improve performance.

RevDate: 2020-04-15

Alboussière T, Drif K, F Plunian (2020)

Dynamo action in sliding plates of anisotropic electrical conductivity.

Physical review. E, 101(3-1):033107.

With materials of anisotropic electrical conductivity, it is possible to generate a dynamo with a simple velocity field, of the type precluded by Cowling's theorems with isotropic materials. Following a previous study by Ruderman and Ruzmaikin [M. S. Ruderman and A. A. Ruzmaikin, Magnetic field generation in an anisotropically conducting fluid, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 28, 77 (1984)GAFDD30309-192910.1080/03091928408210135], who considered the dynamo effect induced by a uniform shear flow, we determine the conditions for the dynamo threshold when a solid plate is sliding over another one, both with anisotropic electrical conductivity. We obtain numerical solutions for a general class of anisotropy and obtain the conditions for the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, using a collocation Chebyshev method. In a particular geometry of anisotropy and wave number, we also derive an analytical solution, where the eigenvectors are just combinations of four exponential functions. An explicit analytical expression is obtained for the critical magnetic Reynolds number. Above the critical magnetic Reynolds number, we have also derived an analytical expression for the growth rate showing that this is a "very fast" dynamo, extrapolating on the "slow" and "fast" terminology introduced by Vainshtein and Zeldovich [S. I. Vainshtein and Y. B. Zeldovich, Reviews of topical problems: Origin of magnetic fields in astrophysics (turbulent "dynamo" mechanisms), Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 159 (1972)SOPUAP0038-567010.1070/PU1972v015n02ABEH004960].

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )