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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Jan 2020 at 01:31 Created:

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects *how*
organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among
biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical
interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually
impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is
the Reynolds Number (abbreviated *Re*), which is the ratio of
inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a
fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is
determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties
(density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes
exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or
water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces,
gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A
bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity,
possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its
flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond,
coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a
hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward,
wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion.
Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through
mechanical means — is impossible at very low *Re*. An
understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds
numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

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"reynolds number" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations
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(from PubMed^{®})

RevDate: 2020-01-24

**Oral cavity flow distribution and pressure drop in balaenid whales feeding: A theoretical analysis.**

*Bioinspiration & biomimetics* [Epub ahead of print].

Balaenid whales, as continuous ram filter feeders, can efficiently separate prey from water by baleen. The feeding process of balaenid whales is extremely complex, in which the flow distribution and pressure drop in the oral cavity play a significant role. In this paper, a theoretical model coupled with oral cavity velocity and pressure in balaenid whales is established based on mass conservation, momentum conservation and pressure drop equations, considering both the inertial and the friction terms. A discrete method with section-by-section calculation is adopted to solve the theoretical model. The effects of four crucial parameters, i.e., the ratio of filtration area to inlet area (S), the Reynolds number of entrance (Rein), the ratio of thickness to permeability of the porous media formed by the fringe layer (φ) and the width ratio of the anteroposterior canal within the mouth along the tongue (APT channel) to that along the lip (APL channel) (H) are discussed. The results show that, for a give case, the flow distribution and the pressure drop both show increasing trends with the flow direction. For different cases, whenSis small,Reinis small andφis large, a good flow pattern emerges with a smoother flow speed near the oropharynx, better drainage, better shunting and filtration, and higher energy efficiency. However, for smaller values ofH, some energy efficiency is sacrificed to achieve additional average transverse flow in order to produce better shunting and filtration. The research in this paper provides a reference for the design of high-efficiency bionic filters.

Additional Links: PMID-31978919

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@article {pmid31978919,

year = {2020},

author = {Zhu, Y and Yang, G and Zhuang, C and Li, C and Hu, D},

title = {Oral cavity flow distribution and pressure drop in balaenid whales feeding: A theoretical analysis.},

journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ab6fb8},

pmid = {31978919},

issn = {1748-3190},

abstract = {Balaenid whales, as continuous ram filter feeders, can efficiently separate prey from water by baleen. The feeding process of balaenid whales is extremely complex, in which the flow distribution and pressure drop in the oral cavity play a significant role. In this paper, a theoretical model coupled with oral cavity velocity and pressure in balaenid whales is established based on mass conservation, momentum conservation and pressure drop equations, considering both the inertial and the friction terms. A discrete method with section-by-section calculation is adopted to solve the theoretical model. The effects of four crucial parameters, i.e., the ratio of filtration area to inlet area (S), the Reynolds number of entrance (Rein), the ratio of thickness to permeability of the porous media formed by the fringe layer (φ) and the width ratio of the anteroposterior canal within the mouth along the tongue (APT channel) to that along the lip (APL channel) (H) are discussed. The results show that, for a give case, the flow distribution and the pressure drop both show increasing trends with the flow direction. For different cases, whenSis small,Reinis small andφis large, a good flow pattern emerges with a smoother flow speed near the oropharynx, better drainage, better shunting and filtration, and higher energy efficiency. However, for smaller values ofH, some energy efficiency is sacrificed to achieve additional average transverse flow in order to produce better shunting and filtration. The research in this paper provides a reference for the design of high-efficiency bionic filters.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-24

**Simulation of blood flow in arteries with aneurysm: Lattice Boltzmann Approach (LBM).**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **187:**105312 pii:S0169-2607(19)31835-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In most countries, the higher death rates are due to cardiovascular disease and stroke. These problems often derive from irregular blood flow and the circulatory system disorder.

METHODS: In this paper, the blood flow is simulated in a created aneurysm in the artery upon using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Blood is selected as a non-Newtonian fluid which was simulated with power-law model. The lattice Boltzmann results for non-Newtonian fluid flow with power-law model and the curved boundary are compared and validated with previous studies which show a good agreement. In this study, simulations are carried out for two types of aneurysms. For the first aneurysm, three power-law exponents of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 at Reynolds number of 100 for three different cases are investigated.

RESULTS: The results show that the wall shear stress increases with increasing the power-law exponent. In addition, in the main duct of artery where the velocity is larger, shear stress is lower due to the smaller velocity gradient. For the second Aneurysm, the simulations are done for three Reynolds numbers of 100, 150 and 200, and three Womersley numbers of 4, 12 and 20. The blood flow is pulsating at the inlet such as the real pulsating wave in the blood. Results show that with increasing the Womersley number, the velocity profiles in the middle of the aneurysm are closer at a constant Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: With increasing the Reynolds number, the range of vortices and values of velocity and tension grow in the aneurysm.

Additional Links: PMID-31978870

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@article {pmid31978870,

year = {2020},

author = {Afrouzi, HH and Ahmadian, M and Hosseini, M and Arasteh, H and Toghraie, D and Rostami, S},

title = {Simulation of blood flow in arteries with aneurysm: Lattice Boltzmann Approach (LBM).},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {187},

number = {},

pages = {105312},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105312},

pmid = {31978870},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In most countries, the higher death rates are due to cardiovascular disease and stroke. These problems often derive from irregular blood flow and the circulatory system disorder.

METHODS: In this paper, the blood flow is simulated in a created aneurysm in the artery upon using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Blood is selected as a non-Newtonian fluid which was simulated with power-law model. The lattice Boltzmann results for non-Newtonian fluid flow with power-law model and the curved boundary are compared and validated with previous studies which show a good agreement. In this study, simulations are carried out for two types of aneurysms. For the first aneurysm, three power-law exponents of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 at Reynolds number of 100 for three different cases are investigated.

RESULTS: The results show that the wall shear stress increases with increasing the power-law exponent. In addition, in the main duct of artery where the velocity is larger, shear stress is lower due to the smaller velocity gradient. For the second Aneurysm, the simulations are done for three Reynolds numbers of 100, 150 and 200, and three Womersley numbers of 4, 12 and 20. The blood flow is pulsating at the inlet such as the real pulsating wave in the blood. Results show that with increasing the Womersley number, the velocity profiles in the middle of the aneurysm are closer at a constant Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: With increasing the Reynolds number, the range of vortices and values of velocity and tension grow in the aneurysm.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-24

**Wind-Turbine and Wind-Farm Flows: A Review.**

*Boundary-layer meteorology*, **174(1):**1-59.

Wind energy, together with other renewable energy sources, are expected to grow substantially in the coming decades and play a key role in mitigating climate change and achieving energy sustainability. One of the main challenges in optimizing the design, operation, control, and grid integration of wind farms is the prediction of their performance, owing to the complex multiscale two-way interactions between wind farms and the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). From a fluid mechanical perspective, these interactions are complicated by the high Reynolds number of the ABL flow, its inherent unsteadiness due to the diurnal cycle and synoptic-forcing variability, the ubiquitous nature of thermal effects, and the heterogeneity of the terrain. Particularly important is the effect of ABL turbulence on wind-turbine wake flows and their superposition, as they are responsible for considerable turbine power losses and fatigue loads in wind farms. These flow interactions affect, in turn, the structure of the ABL and the turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalars. This review summarizes recent experimental, computational, and theoretical research efforts that have contributed to improving our understanding and ability to predict the interactions of ABL flow with wind turbines and wind farms.

Additional Links: PMID-31975701

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@article {pmid31975701,

year = {2020},

author = {Porté-Agel, F and Bastankhah, M and Shamsoddin, S},

title = {Wind-Turbine and Wind-Farm Flows: A Review.},

journal = {Boundary-layer meteorology},

volume = {174},

number = {1},

pages = {1-59},

doi = {10.1007/s10546-019-00473-0},

pmid = {31975701},

issn = {0006-8314},

abstract = {Wind energy, together with other renewable energy sources, are expected to grow substantially in the coming decades and play a key role in mitigating climate change and achieving energy sustainability. One of the main challenges in optimizing the design, operation, control, and grid integration of wind farms is the prediction of their performance, owing to the complex multiscale two-way interactions between wind farms and the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). From a fluid mechanical perspective, these interactions are complicated by the high Reynolds number of the ABL flow, its inherent unsteadiness due to the diurnal cycle and synoptic-forcing variability, the ubiquitous nature of thermal effects, and the heterogeneity of the terrain. Particularly important is the effect of ABL turbulence on wind-turbine wake flows and their superposition, as they are responsible for considerable turbine power losses and fatigue loads in wind farms. These flow interactions affect, in turn, the structure of the ABL and the turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalars. This review summarizes recent experimental, computational, and theoretical research efforts that have contributed to improving our understanding and ability to predict the interactions of ABL flow with wind turbines and wind farms.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-22

**Application of the stochastic closure theory to the Townsend-Perry constants.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(6-1):**061101.

We compare the stochastic closure theory (SCT) to the Townsend-Perry constants as estimated from measurements in the Flow Physic Facility (FPF) at the University of New Hampshire. First, we explain the derivation of the Townsend-Perry constants, which were originally formulated by Meneveau and Marusic, in analogy with a Gaussian distribution. However, this was not supported by the data. Instead, the data show a sub-Gaussian relation that was explained by Birnir and Chen. We show herein how the SCT can be used to compute the constants, which explains their sub-Gaussian relations. We then compare the SCT theory predictions, including Reynolds-number-dependent corrections, with the data, showing good agreement.

Additional Links: PMID-31962497

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@article {pmid31962497,

year = {2019},

author = {Kaminsky, J and Klewicki, J and Birnir, B},

title = {Application of the stochastic closure theory to the Townsend-Perry constants.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {6-1},

pages = {061101},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.061101},

pmid = {31962497},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {We compare the stochastic closure theory (SCT) to the Townsend-Perry constants as estimated from measurements in the Flow Physic Facility (FPF) at the University of New Hampshire. First, we explain the derivation of the Townsend-Perry constants, which were originally formulated by Meneveau and Marusic, in analogy with a Gaussian distribution. However, this was not supported by the data. Instead, the data show a sub-Gaussian relation that was explained by Birnir and Chen. We show herein how the SCT can be used to compute the constants, which explains their sub-Gaussian relations. We then compare the SCT theory predictions, including Reynolds-number-dependent corrections, with the data, showing good agreement.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-22

**Active pitching of short splitters past a cylinder: Drag increase and wake.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(6-1):**063106.

The flow and drag induced by active pitching of plates in the wake of a cylinder of diameter d were experimentally studied for various plate lengths L as well as pitching frequencies f_{p} and amplitudes A_{0} at Reynolds number Re=1.6×10^{4}. Planar particle image velocimetry and a load cell were used to characterize the flow statistics and mean drag of a variety of cylinder-splitter assemblies. Results show the distinctive effect of active pitching on these quantities. In particular, flow recovery was significantly modulated by L, f_{p}, or A_{0}. Specific pitching settings resulted in a wake with dominant meandering patterns and faster flow recovery. We defined a modified version of the amplitude-based Strouhal number of the system St_{A} to account for the effect of the cylinder in active pitching. It characterizes the drag coefficient C_{d} across all the cases studied, and reveals two regions intersecting at a critical value of St_{A}≈0.035. Below this value, the C_{d} remained nearly constant; however, it exhibited a linear increase with increasing St_{A} past this critical point. Inspection of the integral momentum equation showed the dominant role of velocity fluctuations in modulating C_{d} past the critical St_{A}.

Additional Links: PMID-31962492

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@article {pmid31962492,

year = {2019},

author = {Jin, Y and Cheng, S and Chamorro, LP},

title = {Active pitching of short splitters past a cylinder: Drag increase and wake.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {6-1},

pages = {063106},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.063106},

pmid = {31962492},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {The flow and drag induced by active pitching of plates in the wake of a cylinder of diameter d were experimentally studied for various plate lengths L as well as pitching frequencies f_{p}

and amplitudes A_{0}

at Reynolds number Re=1.6×10^{4}.

Planar particle image velocimetry and a load cell were used to characterize the flow statistics and mean drag of a variety of cylinder-splitter assemblies. Results show the distinctive effect of active pitching on these quantities. In particular, flow recovery was significantly modulated by L, f_{p},

or A_{0}.

Specific pitching settings resulted in a wake with dominant meandering patterns and faster flow recovery. We defined a modified version of the amplitude-based Strouhal number of the system St_{A}

to account for the effect of the cylinder in active pitching. It characterizes the drag coefficient C_{d}

across all the cases studied, and reveals two regions intersecting at a critical value of St_{A}

0.035. Below this value, the C_{d}

remained nearly constant; however, it exhibited a linear increase with increasing St_{A}

past this critical point. Inspection of the integral momentum equation showed the dominant role of velocity fluctuations in modulating C_{d}

past the critical St_{A}.

},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-19

**Hydromorphologically-driven variability of thermal and oxygen conditions at the block ramp hydraulic structure: The Porębianka River, Polish Carpathians.**

*The Science of the total environment*, **713:**136661 pii:S0048-9697(20)30171-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Growing anthropopressure in mountain streams aimed at limiting erosion and flood protection often caused adverse effects on the natural environment. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the restoration and conservation of natural habitats in mountain streams using environmentally friendly solutions such as the Block Ramp (BR) Hydraulic Structures. In this study we investigated the factors responsible for spatial variability in thermal and oxygen conditions at the single BR structure in the growing season, and the relation between water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. This has been done by measurements of hydraulic characteristics along with physicochemical properties of water, such as water temperature and DO concentration, at two different discharges. The redundancy analysis has been applied in order to describe the relationships among hydraulic parameters and physicochemical variables, and extract potential sources of water temperature and DO variability within the BR hydraulic structure. Results have shown that DO and water temperature distributions within the BR hydraulic structure depend on discharge conditions and are associated with the submergence of the block ramp. The highest heterogeneity in hydraulic, DO and water temperature conditions occurs at low flow and is associated with the presence of crevices between protruding cobbles at the block ramp. The lowest variability, in turn, occurs at high discharge, when the block ramp is completely submerged. The results indicated that thermal and oxygen conditions within the BR hydraulic structure are independent of hydraulic parameters at low flow. Moreover, the relation between DO concentration and water temperature is positive at low flow indicating potential impact of biological processes. On the contrary, at high discharge both, the DO concentrations and water temperature within the BR structure, depend on bed shear velocity and maximum Reynolds number.

Additional Links: PMID-31955110

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PubMed:

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@article {pmid31955110,

year = {2020},

author = {Rajwa-Kuligiewicz, A and Radecki-Pawlik, A and Skalski, T and Plesiński, K and Rowiński, PM and Manson, JR},

title = {Hydromorphologically-driven variability of thermal and oxygen conditions at the block ramp hydraulic structure: The Porębianka River, Polish Carpathians.},

journal = {The Science of the total environment},

volume = {713},

number = {},

pages = {136661},

doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136661},

pmid = {31955110},

issn = {1879-1026},

abstract = {Growing anthropopressure in mountain streams aimed at limiting erosion and flood protection often caused adverse effects on the natural environment. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the restoration and conservation of natural habitats in mountain streams using environmentally friendly solutions such as the Block Ramp (BR) Hydraulic Structures. In this study we investigated the factors responsible for spatial variability in thermal and oxygen conditions at the single BR structure in the growing season, and the relation between water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. This has been done by measurements of hydraulic characteristics along with physicochemical properties of water, such as water temperature and DO concentration, at two different discharges. The redundancy analysis has been applied in order to describe the relationships among hydraulic parameters and physicochemical variables, and extract potential sources of water temperature and DO variability within the BR hydraulic structure. Results have shown that DO and water temperature distributions within the BR hydraulic structure depend on discharge conditions and are associated with the submergence of the block ramp. The highest heterogeneity in hydraulic, DO and water temperature conditions occurs at low flow and is associated with the presence of crevices between protruding cobbles at the block ramp. The lowest variability, in turn, occurs at high discharge, when the block ramp is completely submerged. The results indicated that thermal and oxygen conditions within the BR hydraulic structure are independent of hydraulic parameters at low flow. Moreover, the relation between DO concentration and water temperature is positive at low flow indicating potential impact of biological processes. On the contrary, at high discharge both, the DO concentrations and water temperature within the BR structure, depend on bed shear velocity and maximum Reynolds number.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Mass transfer in a novel passive micro-mixer: Flow tortuosity effects.**

*Analytica chimica acta*, **1098:**75-85.

Hydroynamic fluid tortuosity is a parameter to describe the fluid streamlines average elongation. The motivation of the present study is introducing a new concept for theoretical predictions of dynamic tortuosity effects on mass transfer in a novel three-dimensional passive T-shape micro-mixer both experimentally and by numerical simulation. In the numerical analysis, continuity, motion, and diffusion-convection equations were solved, and the amount of mass transfer and the fluid tortuosity was calculated for different rectangular winglet angles. The Reynolds number is considered in the range of 0.1-93. The results show that when the angle of winglet tends to 22.5°, the fluid tortuosity, lateral velocity, and fluid mass transfer tend to maximum values. Furthermore, the effect of fluid tortuosity on the fluid stretching as a theory of chaotic mixing is investigated.

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@article {pmid31948589,

year = {2020},

author = {Haghighinia, A and Movahedirad, S},

title = {Mass transfer in a novel passive micro-mixer: Flow tortuosity effects.},

journal = {Analytica chimica acta},

volume = {1098},

number = {},

pages = {75-85},

doi = {10.1016/j.aca.2019.11.028},

pmid = {31948589},

issn = {1873-4324},

abstract = {Hydroynamic fluid tortuosity is a parameter to describe the fluid streamlines average elongation. The motivation of the present study is introducing a new concept for theoretical predictions of dynamic tortuosity effects on mass transfer in a novel three-dimensional passive T-shape micro-mixer both experimentally and by numerical simulation. In the numerical analysis, continuity, motion, and diffusion-convection equations were solved, and the amount of mass transfer and the fluid tortuosity was calculated for different rectangular winglet angles. The Reynolds number is considered in the range of 0.1-93. The results show that when the angle of winglet tends to 22.5°, the fluid tortuosity, lateral velocity, and fluid mass transfer tend to maximum values. Furthermore, the effect of fluid tortuosity on the fluid stretching as a theory of chaotic mixing is investigated.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Mixing Optimization in Grooved Serpentine Microchannels.**

*Micromachines*, **11(1):** pii:mi11010061.

Computational fluid dynamics modeling at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10 to 100 was used to characterize the performance of a new type of micromixer employing a serpentine channel with a grooved surface. The new topology exploits the overlap between the typical Dean flows present in curved channels due to the centrifugal forces experienced by the fluids, and the helical flows induced by slanted groove-ridge patterns with respect to the direction of the flow. The resulting flows are complex, with multiple vortices and saddle points, leading to enhanced mixing across the section of the channel. The optimization of the mixers with respect to the inner radius of curvature (Rin) of the serpentine channel identifies the designs in which the mixing index quality is both high (M > 0.95) and independent of the Reynolds number across all the values investigated.

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@article {pmid31947897,

year = {2020},

author = {Rhoades, T and Kothapalli, CR and Fodor, PS},

title = {Mixing Optimization in Grooved Serpentine Microchannels.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {11},

number = {1},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi11010061},

pmid = {31947897},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {Undergraduate Summer Research Award 2019 and Graduate Faculty Research Award 2019//Cleveland State University/ ; },

abstract = {Computational fluid dynamics modeling at Reynolds numbers ranging from 10 to 100 was used to characterize the performance of a new type of micromixer employing a serpentine channel with a grooved surface. The new topology exploits the overlap between the typical Dean flows present in curved channels due to the centrifugal forces experienced by the fluids, and the helical flows induced by slanted groove-ridge patterns with respect to the direction of the flow. The resulting flows are complex, with multiple vortices and saddle points, leading to enhanced mixing across the section of the channel. The optimization of the mixers with respect to the inner radius of curvature (Rin) of the serpentine channel identifies the designs in which the mixing index quality is both high (M > 0.95) and independent of the Reynolds number across all the values investigated.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Left Ventricular Vortices in Myocardial Infarction Observed with Echodynamography.**

*Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference*, **2019:**5816-5819.

Echodynamography (EDG) is a computational method to deduce two-dimensional (2D) blood flow vector from conventional color Doppler ultrasound image by considering that the blood flow is divided into vortex and base flow components. Left ventricular (LV) vortices indicate cardiac flow status influenced by LV wall motion. Thus, quantitative assessment of LV vortices may become new and sensitive parameters for cardiac function. In the present study, quantitative parameters of LV vortices such as vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were calculated and relation between each parameter was assessed. Six healthy volunteers and three patients with myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent color Doppler echocardiography (CDE) were involved in the study. Serial CDE images in apical three-chamber view were recorded and 2D blood flow vector was superimposed on the CDE image. Vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were compared between the normal volunteers and the MI patients. The results showed that vortex index (3.09±2.06 vs. 3.34±2.33, p<; 0.05), vortex size (1.76 0.69 vs. 2.01 ±0.68, p<; 0.05), Reynolds number (1020±603 vs.±1312 1046, p<; ±0.05) were significantly greater in the MI patients than in the healthy volunteers. Vortex equivalent diameter in LV showed significant positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.799, y = 0.001x + 0.7098, p <; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.6404, y = 0.0005x+1.3185, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. Vortex index showed positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.9351, y = 0.002x+0.1397, p<; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.758, y = 0.0019x+0.7957, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. In conclusion, EDG provides information on LV hemodynamics by quantitative LV vortices parameters both in healthy volunteers and MI patients.

Additional Links: PMID-31947174

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@article {pmid31947174,

year = {2019},

author = {Oktamuliani, S and Hasegawa, K and Saijo, Y},

title = {Left Ventricular Vortices in Myocardial Infarction Observed with Echodynamography.},

journal = {Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference},

volume = {2019},

number = {},

pages = {5816-5819},

doi = {10.1109/EMBC.2019.8856394},

pmid = {31947174},

issn = {1557-170X},

abstract = {Echodynamography (EDG) is a computational method to deduce two-dimensional (2D) blood flow vector from conventional color Doppler ultrasound image by considering that the blood flow is divided into vortex and base flow components. Left ventricular (LV) vortices indicate cardiac flow status influenced by LV wall motion. Thus, quantitative assessment of LV vortices may become new and sensitive parameters for cardiac function. In the present study, quantitative parameters of LV vortices such as vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were calculated and relation between each parameter was assessed. Six healthy volunteers and three patients with myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent color Doppler echocardiography (CDE) were involved in the study. Serial CDE images in apical three-chamber view were recorded and 2D blood flow vector was superimposed on the CDE image. Vortex index, vortex size, and Reynolds number were compared between the normal volunteers and the MI patients. The results showed that vortex index (3.09±2.06 vs. 3.34±2.33, p<; 0.05), vortex size (1.76 0.69 vs. 2.01 ±0.68, p<; 0.05), Reynolds number (1020±603 vs.±1312 1046, p<; ±0.05) were significantly greater in the MI patients than in the healthy volunteers. Vortex equivalent diameter in LV showed significant positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.799, y = 0.001x + 0.7098, p <; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.6404, y = 0.0005x+1.3185, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. Vortex index showed positive correlation with Reynolds number (R2 = 0.9351, y = 0.002x+0.1397, p<; 0.05) in healthy volunteers and (R2 = 0.758, y = 0.0019x+0.7957, p<; 0.05) in MI patients. In conclusion, EDG provides information on LV hemodynamics by quantitative LV vortices parameters both in healthy volunteers and MI patients.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Investigation of Bifurcation Effect on Various Microfluidic Designs for Blood Separation.**

*Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference*, **2019:**1097-1100.

In this project, a microfluidic device for blood separation will be designed and tested in order to separate plasma from whole blood for diagnostic purposes. The design will be based on previously implemented designs that will be further discussed in the next sections. When designing microfluidic devices, it is essential to consider the different physical phenomena that arise from switching from the macro scale to the micro scale. Parameters such as the Reynolds number and the forces affecting the fluid must be studied in order to produce a suitable and effective design. Finite element methods have been implemented prior to the production of the microfluidic devices. Various geometries/designs have been tested using Fluent ANSYS software. Later on, the successful design was fabricated using micromachining on an acrylic substrate and was tested using simulated blood through of a syringe pump.

Additional Links: PMID-31946085

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@article {pmid31946085,

year = {2019},

author = {Hamad, EM and Sawalmeh, B and Mhawsh, AA and Mansour, M and Awad, M and Al-Halhouli, AT and Al-Gharabli, SI},

title = {Investigation of Bifurcation Effect on Various Microfluidic Designs for Blood Separation.},

journal = {Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference},

volume = {2019},

number = {},

pages = {1097-1100},

doi = {10.1109/EMBC.2019.8856380},

pmid = {31946085},

issn = {1557-170X},

abstract = {In this project, a microfluidic device for blood separation will be designed and tested in order to separate plasma from whole blood for diagnostic purposes. The design will be based on previously implemented designs that will be further discussed in the next sections. When designing microfluidic devices, it is essential to consider the different physical phenomena that arise from switching from the macro scale to the micro scale. Parameters such as the Reynolds number and the forces affecting the fluid must be studied in order to produce a suitable and effective design. Finite element methods have been implemented prior to the production of the microfluidic devices. Various geometries/designs have been tested using Fluent ANSYS software. Later on, the successful design was fabricated using micromachining on an acrylic substrate and was tested using simulated blood through of a syringe pump.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-16

**Novel WS2-based nanofluids for concentrating solar power: performance characterization and molecular-level insights.**

*ACS applied materials & interfaces* [Epub ahead of print].

Nano-colloidal suspensions of nanomaterials in a fluid, nanofluids, are appealing because of their interesting properties related to heat transfer processes. Whilst nanomaterials based on transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have been widely studied in catalysis, sensing, and energy storage applications, there are few studies of nanofluids based on TMCs for heat transfer applications. In this study, the preparation and analysis of nanofluids based on 2D-WS2 in a typical heat transfer fluid (HTF) used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is reported. Nanofluids prepared using a exfoliation process exhibited well-defined nanosheets and were highly stable. The nanofluids were characterized in terms of properties related to their application in CSP. The presence of WS2 nanosheets did not modify significantly the surface tension, the viscosity, or the isobaric specific heat, but the thermal conductivity was improved by up to 30%. The Ur factor, which characterizes the thermal efficiency of the fluid in the solar collector, shows an enhancement of up to 22% in the nanofluid, demonstrating great promise for CSP applications. The Reynolds number and friction factor of the fluid were not significantly modified by the addition of the nanomaterial to the HTF, which is also positive for practical applications in CSP plants. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the nanoparticle/fluid interface showed an irreversible dissociative adsorption of diphenyl oxide molecules on the WS2 edge, with very low kinetic barrier. The resulting 'decoration' of the WS2 edge dramatically affects the nature of the interface interactions and is therefore expected to affect significantly the rheological and transport properties of the nanofluids.

Additional Links: PMID-31942792

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@article {pmid31942792,

year = {2020},

author = {Martínez-Merino, P and Midgley, S and Martín, EI and Estellé, P and Alcántara, R and Sánchez-Coronilla, A and Grau-Crespo, R and Navas, J},

title = {Novel WS2-based nanofluids for concentrating solar power: performance characterization and molecular-level insights.},

journal = {ACS applied materials & interfaces},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1021/acsami.9b18868},

pmid = {31942792},

issn = {1944-8252},

abstract = {Nano-colloidal suspensions of nanomaterials in a fluid, nanofluids, are appealing because of their interesting properties related to heat transfer processes. Whilst nanomaterials based on transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have been widely studied in catalysis, sensing, and energy storage applications, there are few studies of nanofluids based on TMCs for heat transfer applications. In this study, the preparation and analysis of nanofluids based on 2D-WS2 in a typical heat transfer fluid (HTF) used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is reported. Nanofluids prepared using a exfoliation process exhibited well-defined nanosheets and were highly stable. The nanofluids were characterized in terms of properties related to their application in CSP. The presence of WS2 nanosheets did not modify significantly the surface tension, the viscosity, or the isobaric specific heat, but the thermal conductivity was improved by up to 30%. The Ur factor, which characterizes the thermal efficiency of the fluid in the solar collector, shows an enhancement of up to 22% in the nanofluid, demonstrating great promise for CSP applications. The Reynolds number and friction factor of the fluid were not significantly modified by the addition of the nanomaterial to the HTF, which is also positive for practical applications in CSP plants. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the nanoparticle/fluid interface showed an irreversible dissociative adsorption of diphenyl oxide molecules on the WS2 edge, with very low kinetic barrier. The resulting 'decoration' of the WS2 edge dramatically affects the nature of the interface interactions and is therefore expected to affect significantly the rheological and transport properties of the nanofluids.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-15

**Dataset on tip vortex formation noise produced by wall-mounted finite airfoils with flat and rounded tip geometries.**

*Data in brief*, **28:**105058 pii:105058.

The vortex generated at the tip of an airfoil such as an aircraft wing, wind turbine blade, submarine fin or propeller blade can dominate its wake and be a significant source of unwanted noise. The data collection presented in this paper consists of measurements of tip vortex formation noise produced by finite length airfoils with flat and rounded tips. These data were obtained using the specialist aeroacoustic test facilities at the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) in Cottbus, Germany and a 47-channel planar microphone array. Over 1200 unique test cases with variations in airfoil profile shape, tip geometry, angle of attack and Reynolds number were measured during the experimental campaign. The dataset contains one-third-octave band tip noise spectra that have been processed using Acoular, a Python module for acoustic beamforming.

Additional Links: PMID-31938721

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@article {pmid31938721,

year = {2020},

author = {Zhang, T and Moreau, D and Geyer, T and Fischer, J and Doolan, C},

title = {Dataset on tip vortex formation noise produced by wall-mounted finite airfoils with flat and rounded tip geometries.},

journal = {Data in brief},

volume = {28},

number = {},

pages = {105058},

doi = {10.1016/j.dib.2019.105058},

pmid = {31938721},

issn = {2352-3409},

abstract = {The vortex generated at the tip of an airfoil such as an aircraft wing, wind turbine blade, submarine fin or propeller blade can dominate its wake and be a significant source of unwanted noise. The data collection presented in this paper consists of measurements of tip vortex formation noise produced by finite length airfoils with flat and rounded tips. These data were obtained using the specialist aeroacoustic test facilities at the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) in Cottbus, Germany and a 47-channel planar microphone array. Over 1200 unique test cases with variations in airfoil profile shape, tip geometry, angle of attack and Reynolds number were measured during the experimental campaign. The dataset contains one-third-octave band tip noise spectra that have been processed using Acoular, a Python module for acoustic beamforming.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-14

**Production of antifungal saponins in an airlift bioreactor with a cell line transformed from Solanum chrysotrichum and its activity against strawberry phytopathogens.**

*Preparative biochemistry & biotechnology* [Epub ahead of print].

Biotechnology through plant cell cultures in bioreactors is a tool that allows increasing the production of secondary metabolites of commercial interest. The hydrodynamic characterization, in addition to the transfer (OTR) and uptake (OUR) of oxygen through the dynamic method with different aeration rate, were used to see their influence on the production of biomass and saponins. The culture poisoning technique was used to determine the antifungal activity of the SC-2 and SC-3 saponins in vitro. Likewise, the shear or hydrodynamic stress of 273.6 mN/m2 were calculated based on the Reynolds Number. The oxygen supply (OTR) was always greater than the demand (OUR) for all the aeration rate evaluated. Dry weight values of 8.6 gDW/L and a concentration of 2.7 mg/L and 187.3 mg/L of the saponins SC-2 and SC-3 respectively were obtained with an air flow of 0.1 vvm. In addition, it was possible to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro by up to 93%, while in vivo it was possible to reduce the infections of strawberry seeds inoculated with phytopathogens, obtaining up to 94% of germinated seeds. This information will facilitate the rational operation of the bioreactor culture system that produces secondary metabolites.

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@article {pmid31935152,

year = {2020},

author = {Salazar-Magallón, JA and Huerta de la Peña, A},

title = {Production of antifungal saponins in an airlift bioreactor with a cell line transformed from Solanum chrysotrichum and its activity against strawberry phytopathogens.},

journal = {Preparative biochemistry & biotechnology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {1-11},

doi = {10.1080/10826068.2019.1676781},

pmid = {31935152},

issn = {1532-2297},

abstract = {Biotechnology through plant cell cultures in bioreactors is a tool that allows increasing the production of secondary metabolites of commercial interest. The hydrodynamic characterization, in addition to the transfer (OTR) and uptake (OUR) of oxygen through the dynamic method with different aeration rate, were used to see their influence on the production of biomass and saponins. The culture poisoning technique was used to determine the antifungal activity of the SC-2 and SC-3 saponins in vitro. Likewise, the shear or hydrodynamic stress of 273.6 mN/m2 were calculated based on the Reynolds Number. The oxygen supply (OTR) was always greater than the demand (OUR) for all the aeration rate evaluated. Dry weight values of 8.6 gDW/L and a concentration of 2.7 mg/L and 187.3 mg/L of the saponins SC-2 and SC-3 respectively were obtained with an air flow of 0.1 vvm. In addition, it was possible to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro by up to 93%, while in vivo it was possible to reduce the infections of strawberry seeds inoculated with phytopathogens, obtaining up to 94% of germinated seeds. This information will facilitate the rational operation of the bioreactor culture system that produces secondary metabolites.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Influence of non-Newtonian power law rheology on inertial migration of particles in channel flow.**

*Biomicrofluidics*, **14(1):**014105.

In this paper, the inertial migration of particles in the channel flow of power-law fluid is numerically investigated. The effects of the power-law index (n), Reynolds number (Re), blockage ratio (k), and channel aspect ratio (AR) on the inertial migration of particles and equilibrium position are explored. The results show that there exist two stages of particle migration and four stable equilibrium positions for particles in the cross section of a square channel. The particle equilibrium positions in a rectangular channel are much different from those in a square channel. In shear-thinning fluids, the long channel face equilibrium position and two kinds of particle trajectories are found at low Re. With increasing Re, the short channel face equilibrium position turns to be stable, multiequilibrium positions, and three kinds of particle trajectories along the long wall start to form. Only two stable equilibrium positions exist in shear-thickening fluids. The equilibrium positions are getting closer to the channel centerline with increasing n and k and with decreasing Re. The inertial focusing length L2 in the second stage of particle migration is much longer than inertial focusing length L1 in the first stage. In the square channel, L2 is decreased with increasing Re and k and with decreasing n. In the rectangular channel, L2 is the shortest in the shear-thinning fluid.

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@article {pmid31933715,

year = {2020},

author = {Hu, X and Lin, J and Chen, D and Ku, X},

title = {Influence of non-Newtonian power law rheology on inertial migration of particles in channel flow.},

journal = {Biomicrofluidics},

volume = {14},

number = {1},

pages = {014105},

pmid = {31933715},

issn = {1932-1058},

abstract = {In this paper, the inertial migration of particles in the channel flow of power-law fluid is numerically investigated. The effects of the power-law index (n), Reynolds number (Re), blockage ratio (k), and channel aspect ratio (AR) on the inertial migration of particles and equilibrium position are explored. The results show that there exist two stages of particle migration and four stable equilibrium positions for particles in the cross section of a square channel. The particle equilibrium positions in a rectangular channel are much different from those in a square channel. In shear-thinning fluids, the long channel face equilibrium position and two kinds of particle trajectories are found at low Re. With increasing Re, the short channel face equilibrium position turns to be stable, multiequilibrium positions, and three kinds of particle trajectories along the long wall start to form. Only two stable equilibrium positions exist in shear-thickening fluids. The equilibrium positions are getting closer to the channel centerline with increasing n and k and with decreasing Re. The inertial focusing length L2 in the second stage of particle migration is much longer than inertial focusing length L1 in the first stage. In the square channel, L2 is decreased with increasing Re and k and with decreasing n. In the rectangular channel, L2 is the shortest in the shear-thinning fluid.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket.**

*Water research*, **171:**115458 pii:S0043-1354(19)31235-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The performance of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) is significantly governed by the hydrodynamics of the reactor. Though the influence of hydrodynamics on mass transfer, granular size distribution, and biogas production was well studied, the interaction between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) is poorly understood. This study used the impinging-jet technique and bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles (CH4 and CO2) and AGS. The fluxes of normalized CH4 or CO2 bubble-attachment on two kinds of AGS were directly affected by gas velocity and decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number ranged from 40 to 140. The bubble-attachment had a positive linear relationship with the contact angles, ratio of exopolymeric protein and polysaccharide, and hydrophilic functional groups of AGS. A bubble probe AFM was used to explore the adhesion force between a single bubble and AGS. The results indicated that the adhesion force between the bubbles and the two kinds of AGS also decreased with increasing approach velocity. Overall, these results contribute to a new insight into the understanding of interaction between biogas bubbles and AGS in UASB reactors.

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@article {pmid31931378,

year = {2020},

author = {Feng, Y and Wang, Q and Duan, JL and Li, XY and Ma, JY and Wu, L and Han, Y and Liu, XY and Zhang, YB and Yuan, XZ},

title = {Attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket.},

journal = {Water research},

volume = {171},

number = {},

pages = {115458},

doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2019.115458},

pmid = {31931378},

issn = {1879-2448},

abstract = {The performance of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) is significantly governed by the hydrodynamics of the reactor. Though the influence of hydrodynamics on mass transfer, granular size distribution, and biogas production was well studied, the interaction between biogas bubbles and anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) is poorly understood. This study used the impinging-jet technique and bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the attachment and adhesion force between biogas bubbles (CH4 and CO2) and AGS. The fluxes of normalized CH4 or CO2 bubble-attachment on two kinds of AGS were directly affected by gas velocity and decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number ranged from 40 to 140. The bubble-attachment had a positive linear relationship with the contact angles, ratio of exopolymeric protein and polysaccharide, and hydrophilic functional groups of AGS. A bubble probe AFM was used to explore the adhesion force between a single bubble and AGS. The results indicated that the adhesion force between the bubbles and the two kinds of AGS also decreased with increasing approach velocity. Overall, these results contribute to a new insight into the understanding of interaction between biogas bubbles and AGS in UASB reactors.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Fully developed Darcy-Forchheimer mixed convective flow over a curved surface with activation energy and entropy generation.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **188:**105298 pii:S0169-2607(19)31617-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mixed convection (forced+natural convection) is frequently observed in exceptionally high output devices where the forced convection isn't sufficient to dissipate all of the heat essential. At this point, consolidating natural convection with forced convection will frequently convey the ideal outcomes. Nuclear reactor technology and a few features of electronic cooling are the examples of these processes. Mixed convection problems are categorized by Richardson number (Ri), which is the ratio of Grashof number (for natural convection) and Reynolds number (for forced convection). For buoyancy or mixed convection the relative effect can be addressed by Richardson number. Typically, the natural convection is negligible when Richardson number is less than 0.1 (Ri < 0.1), forced convection is negligible when Richardson number is greater than 10 (Ri > 10) and neither is negligible when (0.1 < Ri < 10). It might be noticed that generally the forced convection is large comparative with natural convection except in case of remarkably low forced flow velocities. The current work gives significant insights regarding dissipative mixed convective Darcy-Forchheimer flow with entropy generation over a stretched curved surface. The energy equation is developed with respect to nonlinear radiation, dissipation and Ohmic heating (Joule heating). Binary reaction via activation energy is accounted.

METHOD: Curvilinear transformations are utilized to change the nonlinear PDE's into ordinary ones. Computational outcomes are obtained via NDSolve MATHEMATICA. The results are computed and discussed graphically.

RESULTS: Velocity decays for Forchheimer number. Entropy generation enhances for diffusion parameter and chemical reaction parameter. Concentration profile reduces chemical reaction parameter and enhances for activation parameter.

Additional Links: PMID-31923819

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@article {pmid31923819,

year = {2019},

author = {Muhammad, R and Khan, MI and Jameel, M and Khan, NB},

title = {Fully developed Darcy-Forchheimer mixed convective flow over a curved surface with activation energy and entropy generation.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {188},

number = {},

pages = {105298},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105298},

pmid = {31923819},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND: Mixed convection (forced+natural convection) is frequently observed in exceptionally high output devices where the forced convection isn't sufficient to dissipate all of the heat essential. At this point, consolidating natural convection with forced convection will frequently convey the ideal outcomes. Nuclear reactor technology and a few features of electronic cooling are the examples of these processes. Mixed convection problems are categorized by Richardson number (Ri), which is the ratio of Grashof number (for natural convection) and Reynolds number (for forced convection). For buoyancy or mixed convection the relative effect can be addressed by Richardson number. Typically, the natural convection is negligible when Richardson number is less than 0.1 (Ri < 0.1), forced convection is negligible when Richardson number is greater than 10 (Ri > 10) and neither is negligible when (0.1 < Ri < 10). It might be noticed that generally the forced convection is large comparative with natural convection except in case of remarkably low forced flow velocities. The current work gives significant insights regarding dissipative mixed convective Darcy-Forchheimer flow with entropy generation over a stretched curved surface. The energy equation is developed with respect to nonlinear radiation, dissipation and Ohmic heating (Joule heating). Binary reaction via activation energy is accounted.

METHOD: Curvilinear transformations are utilized to change the nonlinear PDE's into ordinary ones. Computational outcomes are obtained via NDSolve MATHEMATICA. The results are computed and discussed graphically.

RESULTS: Velocity decays for Forchheimer number. Entropy generation enhances for diffusion parameter and chemical reaction parameter. Concentration profile reduces chemical reaction parameter and enhances for activation parameter.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-17

**Computational study of fluid flow in tapered orifices for needle-free injectors.**

*Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society*, **319:**382-396 pii:S0168-3659(20)30019-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Transdermal drug delivery using spring-powered jet injection has been studied for several decades and continues to be highly sought after due to the advent of targeted needle-free techniques, especially for viscous and complex fluids. As such, this paper reports results from numerical simulations to study the role of fluid rheology and cartridge geometry on characteristics such as jet exit velocity, total pressure drop and boundary layer thickness, since these all factor in to jet stability and collimation. The numerical approach involves incompressible steady flow with turbulence modelling based on the system Reynolds number at the orifice (Re = ρdovj/μ). The results are experimentally validated for a given geometry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (101 < Re < 104), and our results indicate a sharp decrease in dimensionless pressure drop (Eu = 2∆P/ρvj2) for Re < 102) and gradually approaching the inviscid limit at Re ≥ 104. By extending the study to non-Newtonian fluids, whose rheological profile is approximated by the Carreau model, we also elucidated the effect of different rheological parameters. Lastly by studying a range of nozzle geometries such as conical, sigmoid taper and multi-tier tapers, we observe that fluid acceleration suppresses the boundary layer growth, which indicates there may be optimal geometries for creating jets to target specific tissue depths.

Additional Links: PMID-31923536

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@article {pmid31923536,

year = {2020},

author = {Rane, YS and Marston, JO},

title = {Computational study of fluid flow in tapered orifices for needle-free injectors.},

journal = {Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society},

volume = {319},

number = {},

pages = {382-396},

doi = {10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.01.013},

pmid = {31923536},

issn = {1873-4995},

abstract = {Transdermal drug delivery using spring-powered jet injection has been studied for several decades and continues to be highly sought after due to the advent of targeted needle-free techniques, especially for viscous and complex fluids. As such, this paper reports results from numerical simulations to study the role of fluid rheology and cartridge geometry on characteristics such as jet exit velocity, total pressure drop and boundary layer thickness, since these all factor in to jet stability and collimation. The numerical approach involves incompressible steady flow with turbulence modelling based on the system Reynolds number at the orifice (Re = ρdovj/μ). The results are experimentally validated for a given geometry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (101 < Re < 104), and our results indicate a sharp decrease in dimensionless pressure drop (Eu = 2∆P/ρvj2) for Re < 102) and gradually approaching the inviscid limit at Re ≥ 104. By extending the study to non-Newtonian fluids, whose rheological profile is approximated by the Carreau model, we also elucidated the effect of different rheological parameters. Lastly by studying a range of nozzle geometries such as conical, sigmoid taper and multi-tier tapers, we observe that fluid acceleration suppresses the boundary layer growth, which indicates there may be optimal geometries for creating jets to target specific tissue depths.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-07

**Experimental Research on the Degradation Coefficient of Ammonia Nitrogen Under Different Hydrodynamic Conditions.**

*Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology* pii:10.1007/s00128-019-02781-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Degradation coefficients for pollutants in water are important parameters that are significantly influenced by environmental conditions. In controlled experiments, the processes and trends of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) degradation in raw waters were studied under different flow conditions using a laboratory annular flume. Analysis of the observed change in NH3-N concentration with time under various flow conditions allowed calculation of a degradation efficiency (concentration change amount/initial concentration) which for NH3-N increased as the flow velocity increased. According to a first-order kinetic equation to fit the experimental data, the range of variation of the degradation coefficient of NH3-N at different flowrates was between 0.047 per day (0.01 m/s) and 0.203 per day (0.30 m/s). Dimensional analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the degradation coefficient and flow velocity (v), water depth (H), Froude number (Fr), and Reynolds number (Re), which was verified through field data collected in the Chishui River.

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@article {pmid31907556,

year = {2020},

author = {Pan, X and Tang, L and Feng, J and Liang, R and Pu, X and Li, R and Li, K},

title = {Experimental Research on the Degradation Coefficient of Ammonia Nitrogen Under Different Hydrodynamic Conditions.},

journal = {Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1007/s00128-019-02781-0},

pmid = {31907556},

issn = {1432-0800},

support = {2019YFS0505//Major Project for Specialized Science and Technology Fund of Sichuan Province/ ; 2018SZDZX0027//Major Project of Specialized Science and Technology Fund of Sichuan Province/ ; },

abstract = {Degradation coefficients for pollutants in water are important parameters that are significantly influenced by environmental conditions. In controlled experiments, the processes and trends of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) degradation in raw waters were studied under different flow conditions using a laboratory annular flume. Analysis of the observed change in NH3-N concentration with time under various flow conditions allowed calculation of a degradation efficiency (concentration change amount/initial concentration) which for NH3-N increased as the flow velocity increased. According to a first-order kinetic equation to fit the experimental data, the range of variation of the degradation coefficient of NH3-N at different flowrates was between 0.047 per day (0.01 m/s) and 0.203 per day (0.30 m/s). Dimensional analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the degradation coefficient and flow velocity (v), water depth (H), Froude number (Fr), and Reynolds number (Re), which was verified through field data collected in the Chishui River.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Numerical Study of Paramagnetic Elliptical Microparticles in Curved Channels and Uniform Magnetic Fields.**

*Micromachines*, **11(1):** pii:mi11010037.

We numerically investigated the dynamics of a paramagnetic elliptical particle immersed in a low Reynolds number Poiseuille flow in a curved channel and under a uniform magnetic field by direct numerical simulation. A finite element method, based on an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, analyzed how the channel geometry, the strength and direction of the magnetic field, and the particle shape affected the rotation and radial migration of the particle. The net radial migration of the particle was analyzed after executing a π rotation and at the exit of the curved channel with and without a magnetic field. In the absence of a magnetic field, the rotation is symmetric, but the particle-wall distance remains the same. When a magnetic field is applied, the rotation of symmetry is broken, and the particle-wall distance increases as the magnetic field strength increases. The causation of the radial migration is due to the magnetic angular velocity caused by the magnetic torque that constantly changes directions during particle transportation. This research provides a method of magnetically manipulating non-spherical particles on lab-on-a-chip devices for industrial and biological applications.

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@article {pmid31905597,

year = {2019},

author = {Sobecki, C and Zhang, J and Wang, C},

title = {Numerical Study of Paramagnetic Elliptical Microparticles in Curved Channels and Uniform Magnetic Fields.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {11},

number = {1},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi11010037},

pmid = {31905597},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {We numerically investigated the dynamics of a paramagnetic elliptical particle immersed in a low Reynolds number Poiseuille flow in a curved channel and under a uniform magnetic field by direct numerical simulation. A finite element method, based on an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, analyzed how the channel geometry, the strength and direction of the magnetic field, and the particle shape affected the rotation and radial migration of the particle. The net radial migration of the particle was analyzed after executing a π rotation and at the exit of the curved channel with and without a magnetic field. In the absence of a magnetic field, the rotation is symmetric, but the particle-wall distance remains the same. When a magnetic field is applied, the rotation of symmetry is broken, and the particle-wall distance increases as the magnetic field strength increases. The causation of the radial migration is due to the magnetic angular velocity caused by the magnetic torque that constantly changes directions during particle transportation. This research provides a method of magnetically manipulating non-spherical particles on lab-on-a-chip devices for industrial and biological applications.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2020-01-06

**Experimental investigation of co-flow jet's airfoil flow control by hot wire anemometer.**

*The Review of scientific instruments*, **90(12):**125107.

An experimental flow control technique is given in this paper to study the jet effect on the coflow jet's airfoil with injection and suction and compared with the jet-off condition. The airfoil is CFJ0025-065-196, and the Reynolds number based on the airfoil's chord length is 105. To measure the turbulence components of flow, a hot wire anemometry apparatus in a wind tunnel has been used. In this paper, the effect of the average velocity and boundary layer thickness on the coflow jet's airfoil is analyzed. The test is done for two different coflow velocities and for different angles of attack. It is also shown that, by increasing the velocity difference between the jet and the main flow, separation is delayed, and this delay can be preserved by raising coflow velocity at higher angles of attack. So, this flow control method has a good efficiency, and it is possible to reach higher numbers of lift and lower numbers of drag coefficients.

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@article {pmid31893769,

year = {2019},

author = {Bahrami, A and Hoseinzadeh, S and Heyns, PS and Mirhosseini, SM},

title = {Experimental investigation of co-flow jet's airfoil flow control by hot wire anemometer.},

journal = {The Review of scientific instruments},

volume = {90},

number = {12},

pages = {125107},

doi = {10.1063/1.5113592},

pmid = {31893769},

issn = {1089-7623},

abstract = {An experimental flow control technique is given in this paper to study the jet effect on the coflow jet's airfoil with injection and suction and compared with the jet-off condition. The airfoil is CFJ0025-065-196, and the Reynolds number based on the airfoil's chord length is 105. To measure the turbulence components of flow, a hot wire anemometry apparatus in a wind tunnel has been used. In this paper, the effect of the average velocity and boundary layer thickness on the coflow jet's airfoil is analyzed. The test is done for two different coflow velocities and for different angles of attack. It is also shown that, by increasing the velocity difference between the jet and the main flow, separation is delayed, and this delay can be preserved by raising coflow velocity at higher angles of attack. So, this flow control method has a good efficiency, and it is possible to reach higher numbers of lift and lower numbers of drag coefficients.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-02

**Formulation of experimental data based model for solid-liquid mass transfer enhancement in three phase fluidized bed using nanofluid.**

*Data in brief*, **28:**104990.

This experimental data based model in three phase fluidized bed was designed to enhance the solid-liquid mass transfer. This data focuses on mass transfer enhancement using nanomaterial. In present investigation benzoic acid-water-air system was used as three phases ie solid, liquid and gas respectively with Arachitol nano as nanomaterial in different volume percent in three phase fluidized bed. Data from experiment were collected by varying gas velocity, bed height, nanomaterial percentage and time. After a convenient selection various correlation have been derived. The data presented here is the full set of experimental value and coefficients and exponents in correlation were estimated from nonlinear optimization technique in MATLAB.

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@article {pmid31890822,

year = {2020},

author = {Pendse, V and Mazumdar, B and Kumar, H},

title = {Formulation of experimental data based model for solid-liquid mass transfer enhancement in three phase fluidized bed using nanofluid.},

journal = {Data in brief},

volume = {28},

number = {},

pages = {104990},

pmid = {31890822},

issn = {2352-3409},

abstract = {This experimental data based model in three phase fluidized bed was designed to enhance the solid-liquid mass transfer. This data focuses on mass transfer enhancement using nanomaterial. In present investigation benzoic acid-water-air system was used as three phases ie solid, liquid and gas respectively with Arachitol nano as nanomaterial in different volume percent in three phase fluidized bed. Data from experiment were collected by varying gas velocity, bed height, nanomaterial percentage and time. After a convenient selection various correlation have been derived. The data presented here is the full set of experimental value and coefficients and exponents in correlation were estimated from nonlinear optimization technique in MATLAB.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**A simple analytic model for predicting the wicking velocity in micropillar arrays.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**20074.

Hemiwicking is the phenomena where a liquid wets a textured surface beyond its intrinsic wetting length due to capillary action and imbibition. In this work, we derive a simple analytical model for hemiwicking in micropillar arrays. The model is based on the combined effects of capillary action dictated by interfacial and intermolecular pressures gradients within the curved liquid meniscus and fluid drag from the pillars at ultra-low Reynolds numbers [Formula: see text]. Fluid drag is conceptualized via a critical Reynolds number: [Formula: see text], where v0 corresponds to the maximum wetting speed on a flat, dry surface and x0 is the extension length of the liquid meniscus that drives the bulk fluid toward the adsorbed thin-film region. The model is validated with wicking experiments on different hemiwicking surfaces in conjunction with v0 and x0 measurements using Water [Formula: see text], viscous FC-70 [Formula: see text] and lower viscosity Ethanol [Formula: see text].

Additional Links: PMID-31882681

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@article {pmid31882681,

year = {2019},

author = {Krishnan, SR and Bal, J and Putnam, SA},

title = {A simple analytic model for predicting the wicking velocity in micropillar arrays.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {20074},

pmid = {31882681},

issn = {2045-2322},

support = {N00014-15-1-2481//United States Department of Defense | United States Navy | Office of Naval Research (ONR)/ ; 1653396//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; },

abstract = {Hemiwicking is the phenomena where a liquid wets a textured surface beyond its intrinsic wetting length due to capillary action and imbibition. In this work, we derive a simple analytical model for hemiwicking in micropillar arrays. The model is based on the combined effects of capillary action dictated by interfacial and intermolecular pressures gradients within the curved liquid meniscus and fluid drag from the pillars at ultra-low Reynolds numbers [Formula: see text]. Fluid drag is conceptualized via a critical Reynolds number: [Formula: see text], where v0 corresponds to the maximum wetting speed on a flat, dry surface and x0 is the extension length of the liquid meniscus that drives the bulk fluid toward the adsorbed thin-film region. The model is validated with wicking experiments on different hemiwicking surfaces in conjunction with v0 and x0 measurements using Water [Formula: see text], viscous FC-70 [Formula: see text] and lower viscosity Ethanol [Formula: see text].},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Flow Characteristics of the Entrance Region with Roughness Effect within Rectangular Microchannels.**

*Micromachines*, **11(1):** pii:mi11010030.

We conducted systematic numerical investigations of the flow characteristics within the entrance region of rectangular microchannels. The effects of the geometrical aspect ratio and roughness on entrance lengths were analyzed. The incompressible laminar Navier-Stokes equations were solved using finite volume method (FVM). In the simulation, hydraulic diameters (Dh) ranging from 50 to 200 µm were studied, and aspect ratios of 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 were considered as well. The working fluid was set as water, and the Reynolds number ranged from 0.5 to 100. The results showed a good agreement with the conducted experiment. Correlations are proposed to predict the entrance lengths of microchannels with respect to different aspect ratios. Compared with other correlations, these new correlations are more reliable because a more practical inlet condition was considered in our investigations. Instead of considering the influence of the width and height of the microchannels, in our investigation we proved that the critical role is played by the aspect ratio, representing the combination of the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the existence of rough elements obviously shortens the entrance region, and this effect became more pronounced with increasing relative roughness and Reynolds number. A similar effect could be seen by shortening the roughness spacing. An asymmetric distribution of rough elements decreased the entrance length compared with a symmetric distribution, which can be extrapolated to other irregularly distributed forms.

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@article {pmid31881751,

year = {2019},

author = {Li, H and Li, Y and Huang, B and Xu, T},

title = {Flow Characteristics of the Entrance Region with Roughness Effect within Rectangular Microchannels.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {11},

number = {1},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi11010030},

pmid = {31881751},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {We conducted systematic numerical investigations of the flow characteristics within the entrance region of rectangular microchannels. The effects of the geometrical aspect ratio and roughness on entrance lengths were analyzed. The incompressible laminar Navier-Stokes equations were solved using finite volume method (FVM). In the simulation, hydraulic diameters (Dh) ranging from 50 to 200 µm were studied, and aspect ratios of 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 were considered as well. The working fluid was set as water, and the Reynolds number ranged from 0.5 to 100. The results showed a good agreement with the conducted experiment. Correlations are proposed to predict the entrance lengths of microchannels with respect to different aspect ratios. Compared with other correlations, these new correlations are more reliable because a more practical inlet condition was considered in our investigations. Instead of considering the influence of the width and height of the microchannels, in our investigation we proved that the critical role is played by the aspect ratio, representing the combination of the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the existence of rough elements obviously shortens the entrance region, and this effect became more pronounced with increasing relative roughness and Reynolds number. A similar effect could be seen by shortening the roughness spacing. An asymmetric distribution of rough elements decreased the entrance length compared with a symmetric distribution, which can be extrapolated to other irregularly distributed forms.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Effects of Channel Wall Twisting on the Mixing in a T-Shaped Micro-Channel.**

*Micromachines*, **11(1):** pii:mi11010026.

A new design scheme is proposed for twisting the walls of a microchannel, and its performance is demonstrated numerically. The numerical study was carried out for a T-shaped microchannel with twist angles in the range of 0 to 34π. The Reynolds number range was 0.15 to 6. The T-shaped microchannel consists of two inlet branches and an outlet branch. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the twisting scheme is an effective way to enhance the mixing in a T-shaped microchannel. The mixing enhancement is realized by the swirling of two fluids in the cross section and is more prominent as the Reynolds number decreases. The twist angle was optimized to maximize the degree of mixing (DOM), which increases with the length of the outlet branch. The twist angle was also optimized in terms of the relative mixing cost (MC). The two optimum twisting angles are generally not coincident. The optimum twist angle shows a dependence on the length of the outlet branch but it is not affected much by the Reynolds number.

Additional Links: PMID-31878263

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@article {pmid31878263,

year = {2019},

author = {Kang, DJ},

title = {Effects of Channel Wall Twisting on the Mixing in a T-Shaped Micro-Channel.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {11},

number = {1},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi11010026},

pmid = {31878263},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {2018//Yeungnam University/ ; },

abstract = {A new design scheme is proposed for twisting the walls of a microchannel, and its performance is demonstrated numerically. The numerical study was carried out for a T-shaped microchannel with twist angles in the range of 0 to 34π. The Reynolds number range was 0.15 to 6. The T-shaped microchannel consists of two inlet branches and an outlet branch. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the twisting scheme is an effective way to enhance the mixing in a T-shaped microchannel. The mixing enhancement is realized by the swirling of two fluids in the cross section and is more prominent as the Reynolds number decreases. The twist angle was optimized to maximize the degree of mixing (DOM), which increases with the length of the outlet branch. The twist angle was also optimized in terms of the relative mixing cost (MC). The two optimum twisting angles are generally not coincident. The optimum twist angle shows a dependence on the length of the outlet branch but it is not affected much by the Reynolds number.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-26

**Numerical investigation on the solid particle erosion in elbow with water-hydrate-solid flow.**

*Science progress* [Epub ahead of print].

Erosion in pipeline caused by solid particles, which may lead to premature failure of the pipe system, is regarded as one of the most important concerns in the field of oil and gas. Therefore, the Euler-Lagrange, erosion model, and discrete phase model are applied for the purpose of simulating the erosion of water-hydrate-solid flow in submarine hydrate transportation pipeline. In this article, the flow and erosion characteristics are well verified on the basis of experiments. Moreover, analysis is conducted to have a good understanding of the effects of hydrate volume, mean curvature radius/pipe diameter (R/D) rate, flow velocity, and particle diameter on elbow erosion. It is finally obtained that the hydrate volume directly affects the Reynolds number through viscosity and the trend of the Reynolds number is consistent with the trend of erosion rate. Taking into account different R/D rates, the same Stokes number reflects different dynamic transforms of the maximum erosion zone. However, the outmost wall (zone D) will be the final erosion zone when the value of the Stokes number increases to a certain degree. In addition, the erosion rate increases sharply along with the increase of flow velocity and particle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the erosion zone can be ignored in comparison with the particle diameter. Moreover, it is observed that flow velocity is deemed as the most sensitive factor on erosion rate among these factors employed in the orthogonal experiment.

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@article {pmid31875772,

year = {2019},

author = {Zhang, L and Zhou, J and Zhang, B and Gong, W},

title = {Numerical investigation on the solid particle erosion in elbow with water-hydrate-solid flow.},

journal = {Science progress},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {36850419897245},

doi = {10.1177/0036850419897245},

pmid = {31875772},

issn = {2047-7163},

abstract = {Erosion in pipeline caused by solid particles, which may lead to premature failure of the pipe system, is regarded as one of the most important concerns in the field of oil and gas. Therefore, the Euler-Lagrange, erosion model, and discrete phase model are applied for the purpose of simulating the erosion of water-hydrate-solid flow in submarine hydrate transportation pipeline. In this article, the flow and erosion characteristics are well verified on the basis of experiments. Moreover, analysis is conducted to have a good understanding of the effects of hydrate volume, mean curvature radius/pipe diameter (R/D) rate, flow velocity, and particle diameter on elbow erosion. It is finally obtained that the hydrate volume directly affects the Reynolds number through viscosity and the trend of the Reynolds number is consistent with the trend of erosion rate. Taking into account different R/D rates, the same Stokes number reflects different dynamic transforms of the maximum erosion zone. However, the outmost wall (zone D) will be the final erosion zone when the value of the Stokes number increases to a certain degree. In addition, the erosion rate increases sharply along with the increase of flow velocity and particle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the erosion zone can be ignored in comparison with the particle diameter. Moreover, it is observed that flow velocity is deemed as the most sensitive factor on erosion rate among these factors employed in the orthogonal experiment.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Effects of Simulated Gravel on Hydraulic Characteristics of Overland Flow Under Varying Flow Discharges, Slope Gradients and Gravel Coverage Degrees.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**19781 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-56223-2.

To quantify the hydraulic characteristics of overland flow on gravel-covered slopes, eight flow discharges (Q) (8.44-122 L/min), five slope gradients (J) (2°-10°) and four gravel coverage degrees (Cr) (0-30%) were examined via a laboratory flume. The results showed that (1) gravel changed flow regime. Gravel increased the Reynolds number (Re) by 2.94-33.03%. Re were less affected by J and positively correlated with Cr and Q. Gravel decreased the Froude number (Fr) by 6.83-77.31%. Fr was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. (2) Gravel delayed the flow velocity (u) and increased the flow depth (h) and flow resistance (f). Gravel reduced u by 1.20-58.95%. u was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. Gravel increased h by 0.12-2.41 times. h was positively correlated with Q and Cr and negatively correlated with J. Gravel increased f by 0.15-18.42 times. f were less affected by J, positively correlated with Cr and negatively correlated with Q. (3) The relationships between hydraulic parameters and Q, J and Cr identified good power functions. Hydraulic parameters were mainly affected by Cr. These results can guide the ecological construction of soil and water conservation.

Additional Links: PMID-31874992

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@article {pmid31874992,

year = {2019},

author = {Liu, X and Fan, D and Yu, X and Liu, Z and Sun, J},

title = {Effects of Simulated Gravel on Hydraulic Characteristics of Overland Flow Under Varying Flow Discharges, Slope Gradients and Gravel Coverage Degrees.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {19781},

doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-56223-2},

pmid = {31874992},

issn = {2045-2322},

abstract = {To quantify the hydraulic characteristics of overland flow on gravel-covered slopes, eight flow discharges (Q) (8.44-122 L/min), five slope gradients (J) (2°-10°) and four gravel coverage degrees (Cr) (0-30%) were examined via a laboratory flume. The results showed that (1) gravel changed flow regime. Gravel increased the Reynolds number (Re) by 2.94-33.03%. Re were less affected by J and positively correlated with Cr and Q. Gravel decreased the Froude number (Fr) by 6.83-77.31%. Fr was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. (2) Gravel delayed the flow velocity (u) and increased the flow depth (h) and flow resistance (f). Gravel reduced u by 1.20-58.95%. u was positively correlated with Q and J and negatively correlated with Cr. Gravel increased h by 0.12-2.41 times. h was positively correlated with Q and Cr and negatively correlated with J. Gravel increased f by 0.15-18.42 times. f were less affected by J, positively correlated with Cr and negatively correlated with Q. (3) The relationships between hydraulic parameters and Q, J and Cr identified good power functions. Hydraulic parameters were mainly affected by Cr. These results can guide the ecological construction of soil and water conservation.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2019-12-30

**Solenoidal Scaling Laws for Compressible Mixing.**

*Physical review letters*, **123(22):**224501.

Mixing of passive scalars in compressible turbulence does not obey the same classical Reynolds number scaling as its incompressible counterpart. We first show from a large database of direct numerical simulations that even the solenoidal part of the velocity field fails to follow the classical incompressible scaling when the forcing includes a substantial dilatational component. Though the dilatational effects on the flow remain significant, our main results are that both the solenoidal energy spectrum and the passive scalar spectrum assume incompressible forms, and that the scalar gradient essentially aligns with the most compressive eigenvalue of the solenoidal part, provided that only the solenoidal components are consistently used for scaling. A slight refinement of this statement is also pointed out.

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@article {pmid31868425,

year = {2019},

author = {Panickacheril John, J and Donzis, DA and Sreenivasan, KR},

title = {Solenoidal Scaling Laws for Compressible Mixing.},

journal = {Physical review letters},

volume = {123},

number = {22},

pages = {224501},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.224501},

pmid = {31868425},

issn = {1079-7114},

abstract = {Mixing of passive scalars in compressible turbulence does not obey the same classical Reynolds number scaling as its incompressible counterpart. We first show from a large database of direct numerical simulations that even the solenoidal part of the velocity field fails to follow the classical incompressible scaling when the forcing includes a substantial dilatational component. Though the dilatational effects on the flow remain significant, our main results are that both the solenoidal energy spectrum and the passive scalar spectrum assume incompressible forms, and that the scalar gradient essentially aligns with the most compressive eigenvalue of the solenoidal part, provided that only the solenoidal components are consistently used for scaling. A slight refinement of this statement is also pointed out.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Optimization of double diffusive mixed convection in a BFS channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle using Taguchi method and utility concept.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**19536.

This research work focuses on the implementation of Taguchi method and utility concept for optimization of flow, geometrical and thermo-physical parameters for mixed convective heat and mass transfer in a backward facing step (BFS) channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle doped in water-ethylene glycol mixture. Mass, momentum, energy and solutal conservation equations for the flow field are cast in velocity-vorticity form of Navier-Stokes equations, which are solved using Galerkin's weighted residual finite element method through isoparametric formulation. The following six parameters, expansion ratio of the BFS channel (H/h), Reynolds number (Re), buoyancy ratio (N), nanoparticle volume fraction (χ), shape of nanoparticles and thermal Grashof number (GrT) at three levels are considered as controlling parameters for optimization using Taguchi method. An L27 orthogonal array has been chosen to get the levels of the six parameters for the 27 trial runs. Simulation results were obtained for 27 trial runs from which three different sets of optimum levels of the control parameters were obtained for maximum Nu and Sh and minimum wall shear stress during double diffusive mixed convection in the channel. Then, in order to obtain a single set of optimum levels of the control parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress concurrently, utility concept has been implemented. Taguchi results indicate that expansion ratio and volume fraction of nanoparticles are the significant contributing parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress. Utility concept predicts the average Nusselt number less by 2% and Sherwood number less by 3% compared to the Taguchi method with equal weightage of 40% assumed for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers and 20% for wall shear stress.

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@article {pmid31862924,

year = {2019},

author = {Nath, R and Krishnan, M},

title = {Optimization of double diffusive mixed convection in a BFS channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle using Taguchi method and utility concept.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {19536},

pmid = {31862924},

issn = {2045-2322},

abstract = {This research work focuses on the implementation of Taguchi method and utility concept for optimization of flow, geometrical and thermo-physical parameters for mixed convective heat and mass transfer in a backward facing step (BFS) channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle doped in water-ethylene glycol mixture. Mass, momentum, energy and solutal conservation equations for the flow field are cast in velocity-vorticity form of Navier-Stokes equations, which are solved using Galerkin's weighted residual finite element method through isoparametric formulation. The following six parameters, expansion ratio of the BFS channel (H/h), Reynolds number (Re), buoyancy ratio (N), nanoparticle volume fraction (χ), shape of nanoparticles and thermal Grashof number (GrT) at three levels are considered as controlling parameters for optimization using Taguchi method. An L27 orthogonal array has been chosen to get the levels of the six parameters for the 27 trial runs. Simulation results were obtained for 27 trial runs from which three different sets of optimum levels of the control parameters were obtained for maximum Nu and Sh and minimum wall shear stress during double diffusive mixed convection in the channel. Then, in order to obtain a single set of optimum levels of the control parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress concurrently, utility concept has been implemented. Taguchi results indicate that expansion ratio and volume fraction of nanoparticles are the significant contributing parameters to achieve maximum heat and mass transfer and minimum wall shear stress. Utility concept predicts the average Nusselt number less by 2% and Sherwood number less by 3% compared to the Taguchi method with equal weightage of 40% assumed for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers and 20% for wall shear stress.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Simulation of Air Puff Tonometry Test Using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Deforming Mesh for Corneal Material Characterisation.**

*International journal of environmental research and public health*, **17(1):** pii:ijerph17010054.

: Purpose: To improve numerical simulation of the non-contact tonometry test by using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian deforming mesh in the coupling between computational fluid dynamics model of an air jet and finite element model of the human eye.

METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics model simulated impingement of the air puff and employed Spallart-Allmaras model to capture turbulence of the air jet. The time span of the jet was 30 ms and maximum Reynolds number was Re=2.3×104, with jet orifice diameter 2.4 mm and impinging distance 11 mm. The model of the human eye was analysed using finite element method with regional hyperelastic material variation and corneal patient-specific topography starting from stress-free configuration. The cornea was free to deform as a response to the air puff using an adaptive deforming mesh at every time step of the solution. Aqueous and vitreous humours were simulated as a fluid cavity filled with incompressible fluid with a density of 1000 kg/m3.

RESULTS: Using the adaptive deforming mesh in numerical simulation of the air puff test improved the traditional understanding of how pressure distribution on cornea changes with time of the test. There was a mean decrease in maximum pressure (at corneal apex) of 6.29 ± 2.2% and a development of negative pressure on a peripheral corneal region 2-4 mm away from cornea centre.

CONCLUSIONS: The study presented an improvement of numerical simulation of the air puff test, which will lead to more accurate intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal material behaviour estimation. The parametric study showed that pressure of the air puff is different from one model to another, value-wise and distribution-wise, based on cornea biomechanical parameters.

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@article {pmid31861736,

year = {2019},

author = {Maklad, O and Eliasy, A and Chen, KJ and Theofilis, V and Elsheikh, A},

title = {Simulation of Air Puff Tonometry Test Using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Deforming Mesh for Corneal Material Characterisation.},

journal = {International journal of environmental research and public health},

volume = {17},

number = {1},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/ijerph17010054},

pmid = {31861736},

issn = {1660-4601},

abstract = {: Purpose: To improve numerical simulation of the non-contact tonometry test by using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian deforming mesh in the coupling between computational fluid dynamics model of an air jet and finite element model of the human eye.

METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics model simulated impingement of the air puff and employed Spallart-Allmaras model to capture turbulence of the air jet. The time span of the jet was 30 ms and maximum Reynolds number was Re=2.3×104, with jet orifice diameter 2.4 mm and impinging distance 11 mm. The model of the human eye was analysed using finite element method with regional hyperelastic material variation and corneal patient-specific topography starting from stress-free configuration. The cornea was free to deform as a response to the air puff using an adaptive deforming mesh at every time step of the solution. Aqueous and vitreous humours were simulated as a fluid cavity filled with incompressible fluid with a density of 1000 kg/m3.

RESULTS: Using the adaptive deforming mesh in numerical simulation of the air puff test improved the traditional understanding of how pressure distribution on cornea changes with time of the test. There was a mean decrease in maximum pressure (at corneal apex) of 6.29 ± 2.2% and a development of negative pressure on a peripheral corneal region 2-4 mm away from cornea centre.

CONCLUSIONS: The study presented an improvement of numerical simulation of the air puff test, which will lead to more accurate intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal material behaviour estimation. The parametric study showed that pressure of the air puff is different from one model to another, value-wise and distribution-wise, based on cornea biomechanical parameters.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-31

**Scaling of the performance of insect-inspired passive-pitching flapping wings.**

*Journal of the Royal Society, Interface*, **16(161):**20190609.

Flapping flight using passive pitch regulation is a commonly used mode of thrust and lift generation in insects and has been widely emulated in flying vehicles because it allows for simple implementation of the complex kinematics associated with flapping wing systems. Although robotic flight employing passive pitching to regulate angle of attack has been previously demonstrated, there does not exist a comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of this mode of aerodynamic force generation, nor a method to accurately predict its performance over a range of relevant scales. Here, we present such scaling laws, incorporating aerodynamic, inertial and structural elements of the flapping-wing system, validating the theoretical considerations using a mechanical model which is tested for a linear elastic hinge and near-sinusoidal stroke kinematics over a range of scales, hinge stiffnesses and flapping frequencies. We find that suitably defined dimensionless parameters, including the Reynolds number, Re, the Cauchy number, Ch, and a newly defined 'inertial-elastic' number, IE, can reliably predict the kinematic and aerodynamic performance of the system. Our results also reveal a consistent dependency of pitching kinematics on these dimensionless parameters, providing a connection between lift coefficient and kinematic features such as angle of attack and wing rotation.

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@article {pmid31847758,

year = {2019},

author = {Sum Wu, K and Nowak, J and Breuer, KS},

title = {Scaling of the performance of insect-inspired passive-pitching flapping wings.},

journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface},

volume = {16},

number = {161},

pages = {20190609},

pmid = {31847758},

issn = {1742-5662},

abstract = {Flapping flight using passive pitch regulation is a commonly used mode of thrust and lift generation in insects and has been widely emulated in flying vehicles because it allows for simple implementation of the complex kinematics associated with flapping wing systems. Although robotic flight employing passive pitching to regulate angle of attack has been previously demonstrated, there does not exist a comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of this mode of aerodynamic force generation, nor a method to accurately predict its performance over a range of relevant scales. Here, we present such scaling laws, incorporating aerodynamic, inertial and structural elements of the flapping-wing system, validating the theoretical considerations using a mechanical model which is tested for a linear elastic hinge and near-sinusoidal stroke kinematics over a range of scales, hinge stiffnesses and flapping frequencies. We find that suitably defined dimensionless parameters, including the Reynolds number, Re, the Cauchy number, Ch, and a newly defined 'inertial-elastic' number, IE, can reliably predict the kinematic and aerodynamic performance of the system. Our results also reveal a consistent dependency of pitching kinematics on these dimensionless parameters, providing a connection between lift coefficient and kinematic features such as angle of attack and wing rotation.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**µ-PIV Measurements of Flows Generated by Photolithography-Fabricated Achiral Microswimmers.**

*Micromachines*, **10(12):** pii:mi10120865.

Robotic micro/nanoswimmers can potentially be used as tools for medical applications, such as drug delivery and noninvasive surgery. Recently, achiral microswimmers have gained significant attention because of their simple structures, which enables high-throughput fabrication and size scalability. Here, microparticle image velocimetry (µ-PIV) was used to study the hydrodynamics of achiral microswimmers near a boundary. The structures of these microswimmers resemble the letter L and were fabricated using photolithography and thin-film deposition. Through µ-PIV measurements, the velocity flow fields of the microswimmers rotating at different frequencies were observed. The results herein yield an understanding of the hydrodynamics of the L-shaped microswimmers, which will be useful in applications such as fluidic manipulation.

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@article {pmid31835453,

year = {2019},

author = {Tan, L and Ali, J and Cheang, UK and Shi, X and Kim, D and Kim, MJ},

title = {µ-PIV Measurements of Flows Generated by Photolithography-Fabricated Achiral Microswimmers.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {12},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10120865},

pmid = {31835453},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {JCYJ20180302174151692//Science, Technology and Innovation Commission of Shenzhen Municipality/ ; 51850410516//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 20181119590C//Shenzhen Peacock Plan/ ; 2017KTSCX167//Department of Education of Guangdong Province/ ; 1735968//National Science Foundation/ ; },

abstract = {Robotic micro/nanoswimmers can potentially be used as tools for medical applications, such as drug delivery and noninvasive surgery. Recently, achiral microswimmers have gained significant attention because of their simple structures, which enables high-throughput fabrication and size scalability. Here, microparticle image velocimetry (µ-PIV) was used to study the hydrodynamics of achiral microswimmers near a boundary. The structures of these microswimmers resemble the letter L and were fabricated using photolithography and thin-film deposition. Through µ-PIV measurements, the velocity flow fields of the microswimmers rotating at different frequencies were observed. The results herein yield an understanding of the hydrodynamics of the L-shaped microswimmers, which will be useful in applications such as fluidic manipulation.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-18

**Hydrodynamics of metachronal paddling: effects of varying Reynolds number and phase lag.**

*Royal Society open science*, **6(10):**191387.

Negatively buoyant freely swimming crustaceans such as krill must generate downward momentum in order to maintain their position in the water column. These animals use a drag-based propulsion strategy, where pairs of closely spaced swimming limbs are oscillated rhythmically from the tail to head. Each pair is oscillated with a phase delay relative to the neighbouring pair, resulting in a metachronal wave travelling in the direction of animal motion. It remains unclear how oscillations of limbs in the horizontal plane can generate vertical momentum. Using particle image velocimetry measurements on a robotic model, we observed that metachronal paddling with non-zero phase lag created geometries of adjacent paddles that promote the formation of counter-rotating vortices. The interaction of these vortices resulted in generating large-scale angled downward jets. Increasing phase lag resulted in more vertical orientation of the jet, and phase lags in the range used by Antarctic krill produced the most total momentum. Synchronous paddling produced lower total momentum when compared with metachronal paddling. Lowering Reynolds number by an order of magnitude below the range of adult krill (250-1000) showed diminished downward propagation of the jet and lower vertical momentum. Our findings show that metachronal paddling is capable of producing flows that can generate both lift (vertical) and thrust (horizontal) forces needed for fast forward swimming and hovering.

Additional Links: PMID-31824735

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@article {pmid31824735,

year = {2019},

author = {Ford, MP and Lai, HK and Samaee, M and Santhanakrishnan, A},

title = {Hydrodynamics of metachronal paddling: effects of varying Reynolds number and phase lag.},

journal = {Royal Society open science},

volume = {6},

number = {10},

pages = {191387},

pmid = {31824735},

issn = {2054-5703},

abstract = {Negatively buoyant freely swimming crustaceans such as krill must generate downward momentum in order to maintain their position in the water column. These animals use a drag-based propulsion strategy, where pairs of closely spaced swimming limbs are oscillated rhythmically from the tail to head. Each pair is oscillated with a phase delay relative to the neighbouring pair, resulting in a metachronal wave travelling in the direction of animal motion. It remains unclear how oscillations of limbs in the horizontal plane can generate vertical momentum. Using particle image velocimetry measurements on a robotic model, we observed that metachronal paddling with non-zero phase lag created geometries of adjacent paddles that promote the formation of counter-rotating vortices. The interaction of these vortices resulted in generating large-scale angled downward jets. Increasing phase lag resulted in more vertical orientation of the jet, and phase lags in the range used by Antarctic krill produced the most total momentum. Synchronous paddling produced lower total momentum when compared with metachronal paddling. Lowering Reynolds number by an order of magnitude below the range of adult krill (250-1000) showed diminished downward propagation of the jet and lower vertical momentum. Our findings show that metachronal paddling is capable of producing flows that can generate both lift (vertical) and thrust (horizontal) forces needed for fast forward swimming and hovering.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-18

**Theory of the flow-induced deformation of shallow compliant microchannels with thick walls.**

*Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences*, **475(2231):**20190513.

Long, shallow microchannels embedded in thick, soft materials are widely used in microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications. However, the bulging effect caused by fluid-structure interactions between the internal viscous flow and the soft walls has not been completely understood. Previous models either contain a fitting parameter or are specialized to channels with plate-like walls. This work is a theoretical study of the steady-state response of a compliant microchannel with a thick wall. Using lubrication theory for low-Reynolds-number flows and the theory for linearly elastic isotropic solids, we obtain perturbative solutions for the flow and deformation. Specifically, only the channel's top wall deformation is considered, and the ratio between its thickness t and width w is assumed to be (t/w)2≫1. We show that the deformation at each stream-wise cross section can be considered independently, and that the top wall can be regarded as a simply supported rectangle subject to uniform pressure at its bottom. The stress and displacement fields are found using Fourier series, based on which the channel shape and the hydrodynamic resistance are calculated, yielding a new flow rate-pressure drop relation without fitting parameters. Our results agree favourably with, and thus rationalize, previous experiments.

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@article {pmid31824223,

year = {2019},

author = {Wang, X and Christov, IC},

title = {Theory of the flow-induced deformation of shallow compliant microchannels with thick walls.},

journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences},

volume = {475},

number = {2231},

pages = {20190513},

pmid = {31824223},

issn = {1364-5021},

abstract = {Long, shallow microchannels embedded in thick, soft materials are widely used in microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip applications. However, the bulging effect caused by fluid-structure interactions between the internal viscous flow and the soft walls has not been completely understood. Previous models either contain a fitting parameter or are specialized to channels with plate-like walls. This work is a theoretical study of the steady-state response of a compliant microchannel with a thick wall. Using lubrication theory for low-Reynolds-number flows and the theory for linearly elastic isotropic solids, we obtain perturbative solutions for the flow and deformation. Specifically, only the channel's top wall deformation is considered, and the ratio between its thickness t and width w is assumed to be (t/w)2≫1. We show that the deformation at each stream-wise cross section can be considered independently, and that the top wall can be regarded as a simply supported rectangle subject to uniform pressure at its bottom. The stress and displacement fields are found using Fourier series, based on which the channel shape and the hydrodynamic resistance are calculated, yielding a new flow rate-pressure drop relation without fitting parameters. Our results agree favourably with, and thus rationalize, previous experiments.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Asymmetrical Split-and-Recombine Micromixer with Baffles.**

*Micromachines*, **10(12):** pii:mi10120844.

The present work proposes a planar micromixer design comprising hybrid mixing modules of split-and-recombine units and curved channels with radial baffles. The mixing performance was evaluated numerically by solving the continuity and momentum equations along with the advection-diffusion equation in a Reynolds number range of 0.1-80. The variance of the concentration of the mixed species was considered to quantify the mixing index. The micromixer showed far better mixing performance over whole Reynolds number range than an earlier split-and-recombine micromixer. The mixer achieved mixing indices greater than 90% at Re ≥ 20 and a mixing index of 99.8% at Re = 80. The response of the mixing quality to the change of three geometrical parameters was also studied. A mixing index over 80% was achieved within 63% of the full length at Re = 20.

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@article {pmid31816973,

year = {2019},

author = {Raza, W and Kim, KY},

title = {Asymmetrical Split-and-Recombine Micromixer with Baffles.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {12},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10120844},

pmid = {31816973},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {2019R1A2C1007657//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; },

abstract = {The present work proposes a planar micromixer design comprising hybrid mixing modules of split-and-recombine units and curved channels with radial baffles. The mixing performance was evaluated numerically by solving the continuity and momentum equations along with the advection-diffusion equation in a Reynolds number range of 0.1-80. The variance of the concentration of the mixed species was considered to quantify the mixing index. The micromixer showed far better mixing performance over whole Reynolds number range than an earlier split-and-recombine micromixer. The mixer achieved mixing indices greater than 90% at Re ≥ 20 and a mixing index of 99.8% at Re = 80. The response of the mixing quality to the change of three geometrical parameters was also studied. A mixing index over 80% was achieved within 63% of the full length at Re = 20.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Cross-sectional focusing of red blood cells in a constricted microfluidic channel.**

*Soft matter*, **16(2):**534-543.

Constrictions in blood vessels and microfluidic devices can dramatically change the spatial distribution of passing cells or particles and are commonly used in biomedical cell sorting applications. However, the three-dimensional nature of cell focusing in the channel cross-section remains poorly investigated. Here, we explore the cross-sectional distribution of living and rigid red blood cells passing a constricted microfluidic channel by tracking individual cells in multiple layers across the channel depth and across the channel width. While cells are homogeneously distributed in the channel cross-section pre-contraction, we observe a strong geometry-induced focusing towards the four channel faces post-contraction. The magnitude of this cross-sectional focusing effect increases with increasing Reynolds number for both living and rigid red blood cells. We discuss how this non-uniform cell distribution downstream of the contraction results in an apparent double-peaked velocity profile in particle image velocimetry analysis and show that trapping of red blood cells in the recirculation zones of the abrupt construction depends on cell deformability.

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@article {pmid31808773,

year = {2020},

author = {Abay, A and Recktenwald, SM and John, T and Kaestner, L and Wagner, C},

title = {Cross-sectional focusing of red blood cells in a constricted microfluidic channel.},

journal = {Soft matter},

volume = {16},

number = {2},

pages = {534-543},

doi = {10.1039/c9sm01740b},

pmid = {31808773},

issn = {1744-6848},

abstract = {Constrictions in blood vessels and microfluidic devices can dramatically change the spatial distribution of passing cells or particles and are commonly used in biomedical cell sorting applications. However, the three-dimensional nature of cell focusing in the channel cross-section remains poorly investigated. Here, we explore the cross-sectional distribution of living and rigid red blood cells passing a constricted microfluidic channel by tracking individual cells in multiple layers across the channel depth and across the channel width. While cells are homogeneously distributed in the channel cross-section pre-contraction, we observe a strong geometry-induced focusing towards the four channel faces post-contraction. The magnitude of this cross-sectional focusing effect increases with increasing Reynolds number for both living and rigid red blood cells. We discuss how this non-uniform cell distribution downstream of the contraction results in an apparent double-peaked velocity profile in particle image velocimetry analysis and show that trapping of red blood cells in the recirculation zones of the abrupt construction depends on cell deformability.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-17

**Micropolar gold blood nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer between permeable channels.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **186:**105197 pii:S0169-2607(19)31672-4 [Epub ahead of print].

This article characterizes flow and heat transmission of blood that carries the micropolar nanofluid of gold in a permeable channel. The thermal radiations are also present in the channel while its walls are either moving or stationary. The base-fluid is considered as blood while micro polar nanofluid is taken as gold. By using similarity transformations along with dimensionless quantities the modeled equations of the problem are transmuted into a system of non-linear ODEs with a set of appropriate boundary conditions. The semi-analytical method, HAM is then applied to determine the solution of a set of resultant equations. The results obtained by HAM have also compared with numerical solutions. The influence of non-dimensional parameters like fractional parameter suction/injection β, Reynolds Number Re, Darcys Number Da, micropolar parameter K, Prandtl number Pr and Radiation parameter Rd etc., which provides physical interpretations of temperature, microrotation n and velocity fields are discussed in detail with the help of graphical representations. Nusselt number is calculated and presented through table. This study determined that the temperature of micropolar nanofluid augmented along with augmentation in the volume fraction. Radiation Rd augmented the heat transfer rate at the upper wall and reduce it at the lower wall. The suction/injection parameter 'β' reduces the heat transfer rate in case of β < 0 at the upper wall, where it is augmented at lower wall.

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@article {pmid31805484,

year = {2019},

author = {Shah, Z and Khan, A and Khan, W and Kamran Alam, M and Islam, S and Kumam, P and Thounthong, P},

title = {Micropolar gold blood nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer between permeable channels.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {186},

number = {},

pages = {105197},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105197},

pmid = {31805484},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {This article characterizes flow and heat transmission of blood that carries the micropolar nanofluid of gold in a permeable channel. The thermal radiations are also present in the channel while its walls are either moving or stationary. The base-fluid is considered as blood while micro polar nanofluid is taken as gold. By using similarity transformations along with dimensionless quantities the modeled equations of the problem are transmuted into a system of non-linear ODEs with a set of appropriate boundary conditions. The semi-analytical method, HAM is then applied to determine the solution of a set of resultant equations. The results obtained by HAM have also compared with numerical solutions. The influence of non-dimensional parameters like fractional parameter suction/injection β, Reynolds Number Re, Darcys Number Da, micropolar parameter K, Prandtl number Pr and Radiation parameter Rd etc., which provides physical interpretations of temperature, microrotation n and velocity fields are discussed in detail with the help of graphical representations. Nusselt number is calculated and presented through table. This study determined that the temperature of micropolar nanofluid augmented along with augmentation in the volume fraction. Radiation Rd augmented the heat transfer rate at the upper wall and reduce it at the lower wall. The suction/injection parameter 'β' reduces the heat transfer rate in case of β < 0 at the upper wall, where it is augmented at lower wall.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-16

**A review study on blood in human coronary artery: Numerical approach.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **187:**105243 pii:S0169-2607(19)31946-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of blood flow in human coronary artery is one of the emerging fields of Biomed- ical engineering. In present review paper, Finite Volume Method with governing equations and boundary conditions are briefly discussed for different coronary models. Many researchers have come up with astonishing results related to the various factors (blood viscosity, rate of blood flow, shear stress on the arterial wall, Reynolds number, etc.) affecting the hemodynamic of blood in the right/left coronary artery. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of all those work done by the researchers to justify their work related to factors which hampers proper functioning of heart and lead to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Governing equations like Navier-stokes equations, continuity equations etc. are widely used and are solved using CFD solver to get a clearer view of coronary artery blockage. Different boundary conditions and blood properties published in the last ten years are summarized in the tabulated form. This table will help new researchers to work on this area.

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@article {pmid31805457,

year = {2019},

author = {Pandey, R and Kumar, M and Majdoubi, J and Rahimi-Gorji, M and Srivastav, VK},

title = {A review study on blood in human coronary artery: Numerical approach.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {187},

number = {},

pages = {105243},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105243},

pmid = {31805457},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of blood flow in human coronary artery is one of the emerging fields of Biomed- ical engineering. In present review paper, Finite Volume Method with governing equations and boundary conditions are briefly discussed for different coronary models. Many researchers have come up with astonishing results related to the various factors (blood viscosity, rate of blood flow, shear stress on the arterial wall, Reynolds number, etc.) affecting the hemodynamic of blood in the right/left coronary artery. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of all those work done by the researchers to justify their work related to factors which hampers proper functioning of heart and lead to Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Governing equations like Navier-stokes equations, continuity equations etc. are widely used and are solved using CFD solver to get a clearer view of coronary artery blockage. Different boundary conditions and blood properties published in the last ten years are summarized in the tabulated form. This table will help new researchers to work on this area.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-04

**Axisymmetric spheroidal squirmers and self-diffusiophoretic particles.**

*Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal* [Epub ahead of print].

We study, by means of an exact analytical solution, the motion of a spheroidal, axisymmetric squirmer in an unbounded fluid, as well as the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic flow associated to it. In contrast to the case of a spherical squirmer --- for which, e.g., the velocity of the squirmer and the magnitude of the stresslet associated with the flow induced by the squirmer are respectively determined by the amplitudes of the first two slip (``squirming'') modes --- for the spheroidal squirmer each squirming mode either contributes to the velocity, or contributes to the stresslet. The results are straightforwardly extended to the self-phoresis of axisymmetric, spheroidal, chemically active particles in the case when the phoretic slip approximation holds.

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@article {pmid31801127,

year = {2019},

author = {Poehnl, R and Popescu, MN and Uspal, W},

title = {Axisymmetric spheroidal squirmers and self-diffusiophoretic particles.},

journal = {Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1088/1361-648X/ab5edd},

pmid = {31801127},

issn = {1361-648X},

abstract = {We study, by means of an exact analytical solution, the motion of a spheroidal, axisymmetric squirmer in an unbounded fluid, as well as the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic flow associated to it. In contrast to the case of a spherical squirmer --- for which, e.g., the velocity of the squirmer and the magnitude of the stresslet associated with the flow induced by the squirmer are respectively determined by the amplitudes of the first two slip (``squirming'') modes --- for the spheroidal squirmer each squirming mode either contributes to the velocity, or contributes to the stresslet. The results are straightforwardly extended to the self-phoresis of axisymmetric, spheroidal, chemically active particles in the case when the phoretic slip approximation holds.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Epidermal biopolysaccharides from plant seeds enable biodegradable turbulent drag reduction.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**18263.

The high cost of synthetic polymers has been a key impediment limiting the widespread adoption of polymer drag reduction techniques in large-scale engineering applications, such as marine drag reduction. To address consumable cost constraints, we investigate the use of high molar mass biopolysaccharides, present in the mucilaginous epidermis of plant seeds, as inexpensive drag reducers in large Reynolds number turbulent flows. Specifically, we study the aqueous mucilage extracted from flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) and compare its drag reduction efficacy to that of poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO, a common synthetic polymer widely used as a drag reducing agent in aqueous flows. Macromolecular and rheological characterisation confirm the presence of high molar mass (≥2 MDa) polysaccharides in the extracted mucilage, with an acidic fraction comprising negatively charged chains. Frictional drag measurements, performed inside a bespoke Taylor-Couette apparatus, show that the as-extracted mucilage has comparable drag reduction performance under turbulent flow conditions as aqueous PEO solutions, while concurrently offering advantages in terms of raw material cost, availability, and bio-compatibility. Our results indicate that plant-sourced mucilage can potentially serve as a cost-effective and eco-friendly substitute for synthetic drag reducing polymers in large scale turbulent flow applications.

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@article {pmid31797965,

year = {2019},

author = {Rajappan, A and McKinley, GH},

title = {Epidermal biopolysaccharides from plant seeds enable biodegradable turbulent drag reduction.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {18263},

pmid = {31797965},

issn = {2045-2322},

support = {DMR-1419807//National Science Foundation, United States/ ; DMR-1419807//National Science Foundation, United States/ ; },

abstract = {The high cost of synthetic polymers has been a key impediment limiting the widespread adoption of polymer drag reduction techniques in large-scale engineering applications, such as marine drag reduction. To address consumable cost constraints, we investigate the use of high molar mass biopolysaccharides, present in the mucilaginous epidermis of plant seeds, as inexpensive drag reducers in large Reynolds number turbulent flows. Specifically, we study the aqueous mucilage extracted from flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) and compare its drag reduction efficacy to that of poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO, a common synthetic polymer widely used as a drag reducing agent in aqueous flows. Macromolecular and rheological characterisation confirm the presence of high molar mass (≥2 MDa) polysaccharides in the extracted mucilage, with an acidic fraction comprising negatively charged chains. Frictional drag measurements, performed inside a bespoke Taylor-Couette apparatus, show that the as-extracted mucilage has comparable drag reduction performance under turbulent flow conditions as aqueous PEO solutions, while concurrently offering advantages in terms of raw material cost, availability, and bio-compatibility. Our results indicate that plant-sourced mucilage can potentially serve as a cost-effective and eco-friendly substitute for synthetic drag reducing polymers in large scale turbulent flow applications.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-16

**Mathematical modeling and analysis of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water flow over a stretchable sheet.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **187:**105222 pii:S0169-2607(19)31683-9 [Epub ahead of print].

In this article we focused on the mixed convection flow of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water over a stretchable permeable sheet. The nanofluid occupied porous medium. Darcy's law is used to characterize porous medium. The impact of viscous dissipation is considered. Transformation procedure is adopted to transform the governing PDE's system into dimensionless form. In order to solve the dimensionless PDE's system we used numerical method known as Finite difference method. Effects of flow variables i.e porosity parameter, suction parameter, Grashof number and Reynolds number on velocity, skin friction, temperature and Nusselt number are described graphically. The obtained results shows that velocity is dominant in SWCNT-Water over MWCNT-Water. Temperature is dominant in MWCNT-Water over SWCNT-Water.

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@article {pmid31786449,

year = {2019},

author = {Ibrahim, M and Ijaz Khan, M},

title = {Mathematical modeling and analysis of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water flow over a stretchable sheet.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {187},

number = {},

pages = {105222},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105222},

pmid = {31786449},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {In this article we focused on the mixed convection flow of SWCNT-Water and MWCNT-Water over a stretchable permeable sheet. The nanofluid occupied porous medium. Darcy's law is used to characterize porous medium. The impact of viscous dissipation is considered. Transformation procedure is adopted to transform the governing PDE's system into dimensionless form. In order to solve the dimensionless PDE's system we used numerical method known as Finite difference method. Effects of flow variables i.e porosity parameter, suction parameter, Grashof number and Reynolds number on velocity, skin friction, temperature and Nusselt number are described graphically. The obtained results shows that velocity is dominant in SWCNT-Water over MWCNT-Water. Temperature is dominant in MWCNT-Water over SWCNT-Water.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-16

**Single phase nanofluids in fluid mechanics and their hydrodynamic linear stability analysis.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **187:**105171 pii:S0169-2607(19)31698-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The hydrodynamic stability of nanofluids of one phase is investigated in this paper based on linear stability theory. The overall thrust here is that the linear stability features of nanofluids can be estimated from their corresponding working fluid, at least in special circumstances.

METHODS: The approach uses the adjusting parameter to make assertions about stability. This is possible by certain correlations between the resulting eigenvalues.

RESULTS: It is shown that as the nanoparticles are added, the mean flow of nanofluids is slightly modified and the resulting eigen space of nano disturbances is built on the corresponding pure flow eigen space of perturbations. Several fluid dynamics problems are revisited to verify the usefulness of the obtained correlations.

CONCLUSION: The presented approach in this work serves us to understand the stabilizing/destabilizing effects of nanofluids as compared to the standard base fluids in terms of stability of viscous/inviscid and temporal/spatial senses. To illustrate, the critical Reynolds number in a traditional boundary layer flow is shown to be pushed to higher values with the dispersed nanoparticles in a working fluid, clearly implying the delay in transition from laminar to turbulent state.

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@article {pmid31785535,

year = {2019},

author = {Turkyilmazoglu, M},

title = {Single phase nanofluids in fluid mechanics and their hydrodynamic linear stability analysis.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {187},

number = {},

pages = {105171},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105171},

pmid = {31785535},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The hydrodynamic stability of nanofluids of one phase is investigated in this paper based on linear stability theory. The overall thrust here is that the linear stability features of nanofluids can be estimated from their corresponding working fluid, at least in special circumstances.

METHODS: The approach uses the adjusting parameter to make assertions about stability. This is possible by certain correlations between the resulting eigenvalues.

RESULTS: It is shown that as the nanoparticles are added, the mean flow of nanofluids is slightly modified and the resulting eigen space of nano disturbances is built on the corresponding pure flow eigen space of perturbations. Several fluid dynamics problems are revisited to verify the usefulness of the obtained correlations.

CONCLUSION: The presented approach in this work serves us to understand the stabilizing/destabilizing effects of nanofluids as compared to the standard base fluids in terms of stability of viscous/inviscid and temporal/spatial senses. To illustrate, the critical Reynolds number in a traditional boundary layer flow is shown to be pushed to higher values with the dispersed nanoparticles in a working fluid, clearly implying the delay in transition from laminar to turbulent state.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-13

CmpDate: 2020-01-13

**Dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community with different aeration depths in malodorous river.**

*World journal of microbiology & biotechnology*, **35(12):**196.

In this research, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community in malodorous river were investigated with different aeration depths. Computational flow dynamics (CFD) and Reynolds number (Re) were specially used to characterize the hydrodynamics condition under different aeration depths. The results indicated that aeration depth had vital impact on nitrogen transformation and bacterial community structure. It was found that a range of aeration depth (0.20-0.45 m above sediment-water interface) facilitated the removal of NH4+-N and TN with Re ranging between 6211 and 8930. Proteobacteria took over Firmicutes to become the predominant phylum (36-78%) under aeration, and the main subdivisions of γ-, β- and δ-Proteobacteria also varied greatly with different aeration depths. Interestingly, there was a marked shift of the inferentially identified dominant functional role within Proteobacteria from organic-matter degradation to nitrogen metabolism and then to sulfur metabolism as well as the coupling of nitrogen and sulfur with the increase of disturbance. The redundancy analysis (RDA) further confirmed the importance of aeration disturbance in shaping bacterial community. These findings help to gain improved understanding of endogenous N-behavior and aquatic microbial ecology, and underline the need for integrating the hydrodynamics factors with microbial community.

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@article {pmid31784839,

year = {2019},

author = {Chen, J and He, Y and Wang, J and Huang, M and Guo, C},

title = {Dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community with different aeration depths in malodorous river.},

journal = {World journal of microbiology & biotechnology},

volume = {35},

number = {12},

pages = {196},

pmid = {31784839},

issn = {1573-0972},

support = {41877477//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 16ZR1408800//Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai/ ; 16PJD023//Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program/ ; 18DZ1203806//Shanghai Science and Technology Development Foundation/ ; 1701K005//Research Funds of The Guangxi Key Laboratory of Theory and Technology for Environmental Pollution Control/ ; },

mesh = {Bacteria/classification/genetics/*metabolism ; China ; Geologic Sediments/microbiology ; Microbiota/*physiology ; Nitrogen/*metabolism ; Oxygen/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S ; Rivers/*chemistry/*microbiology ; Sulfur/metabolism ; },

abstract = {In this research, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation and bacterial community in malodorous river were investigated with different aeration depths. Computational flow dynamics (CFD) and Reynolds number (Re) were specially used to characterize the hydrodynamics condition under different aeration depths. The results indicated that aeration depth had vital impact on nitrogen transformation and bacterial community structure. It was found that a range of aeration depth (0.20-0.45 m above sediment-water interface) facilitated the removal of NH4+-N and TN with Re ranging between 6211 and 8930. Proteobacteria took over Firmicutes to become the predominant phylum (36-78%) under aeration, and the main subdivisions of γ-, β- and δ-Proteobacteria also varied greatly with different aeration depths. Interestingly, there was a marked shift of the inferentially identified dominant functional role within Proteobacteria from organic-matter degradation to nitrogen metabolism and then to sulfur metabolism as well as the coupling of nitrogen and sulfur with the increase of disturbance. The redundancy analysis (RDA) further confirmed the importance of aeration disturbance in shaping bacterial community. These findings help to gain improved understanding of endogenous N-behavior and aquatic microbial ecology, and underline the need for integrating the hydrodynamics factors with microbial community.},

}

MeSH Terms:

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Bacteria/classification/genetics/*metabolism

China

Geologic Sediments/microbiology

Microbiota/*physiology

Nitrogen/*metabolism

Oxygen/metabolism

Phylogeny

RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

Rivers/*chemistry/*microbiology

Sulfur/metabolism

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2019-12-02

**A large thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette (THETACO) facility for investigation of turbulence induced by simultaneous action of rotation and radial temperature gradient.**

*The Review of scientific instruments*, **90(11):**115112.

A thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette facility has been designed to investigate turbulent flows generated by differential rotation and radial temperature gradient. It consists of a cylindrical annulus with a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder. The electric heating system is installed inside the inner cylinder, and the annulus is immersed in a large cylindrical container filled with cooling fluid. Temperature regulators independently control the temperature of the inner surface of the inner cylinder and that of the cooling fluid. The facility allows us to reach values of the Reynolds number (Re ∼ 5 × 105) and of the Rayleigh number (Ra ∼ 3 × 106) for water as the working fluid. The facility provides torque measurements, a full optical access at the side and from the bottom for velocity measurements using particle image velocimetry (2D, stereoscopic, and tomographic). Temperature measurements in the flow can be performed by thermochromic liquid crystals or laser induced fluorescence.

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@article {pmid31779425,

year = {2019},

author = {Singh, H and Bonnesoeur, A and Besnard, H and Houssin, C and Prigent, A and Crumeyrolle, O and Mutabazi, I},

title = {A large thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette (THETACO) facility for investigation of turbulence induced by simultaneous action of rotation and radial temperature gradient.},

journal = {The Review of scientific instruments},

volume = {90},

number = {11},

pages = {115112},

doi = {10.1063/1.5119811},

pmid = {31779425},

issn = {1089-7623},

abstract = {A thermal turbulent Taylor-Couette facility has been designed to investigate turbulent flows generated by differential rotation and radial temperature gradient. It consists of a cylindrical annulus with a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder. The electric heating system is installed inside the inner cylinder, and the annulus is immersed in a large cylindrical container filled with cooling fluid. Temperature regulators independently control the temperature of the inner surface of the inner cylinder and that of the cooling fluid. The facility allows us to reach values of the Reynolds number (Re ∼ 5 × 105) and of the Rayleigh number (Ra ∼ 3 × 106) for water as the working fluid. The facility provides torque measurements, a full optical access at the side and from the bottom for velocity measurements using particle image velocimetry (2D, stereoscopic, and tomographic). Temperature measurements in the flow can be performed by thermochromic liquid crystals or laser induced fluorescence.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-01

**Dynamics of deformable straight and curved prolate capsules in simple shear flow.**

*Physical review fluids*, **4(4):**.

This work investigates the motion of neutrally-buoyant, slightly deformable straight and curved prolate fluid-filled capsules in unbounded simple shear flow at zero Reynolds number using direct simulations. The curved capsules serve as a model for the typical crescent-shaped sickle red blood cells in sickle cell disease (SCD). The effects of deformability and curvature on the dynamics are revealed. We show that with low deformability, straight prolate spheroidal capsules exhibit tumbling in the shear plane as their unique asymptotically stable orbit. This result contrasts with that for rigid spheroids, where infinitely many neutrally stable Jeffery orbits exist. The dynamics of curved prolate capsules are more complicated due to a combined effect of deformability and curvature. At short times, depending on the initial orientation, slightly deformable curved prolate capsules exhibit either a Jeffery-like motion such as tumbling or kayaking, or a non-Jeffery-like behavior in which the director (end-to-end vector) of the capsule crosses the shear-gradient plane back and forth. At long times, however, a Jeffery-like quasiperiodic orbit is taken regardless of the initial orientation. We further show that the average of the long-time trajectory can be well approximated using the analytical solution for Jeffery orbits with an effective orbit constant Ceff and aspect ratio ℓeff. These parameters are useful for characterizing the dynamics of curved capsules as a function of given deformability and curvature. As the capsule becomes more deformable or curved, Ceff decreases, indicating a shift of the orbit towards log-rolling motion, while ℓeff increases weakly as the degree of curvature increases but shows negligible dependency on deformability. These features are not changed substantially as the viscosity ratio between the inner and outer fluids is changed from 1 to 5. As cell deformability, cell shape, and cell-cell interactions are all pathologically altered in blood disorders such as SCD, these results will have clear implications on improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of hematologic disease.

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@article {pmid31777765,

year = {2019},

author = {Zhang, X and Lam, WA and Graham, MD},

title = {Dynamics of deformable straight and curved prolate capsules in simple shear flow.},

journal = {Physical review fluids},

volume = {4},

number = {4},

pages = {},

pmid = {31777765},

issn = {2469-990X},

support = {R21 MD011590/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/United States ; },

abstract = {This work investigates the motion of neutrally-buoyant, slightly deformable straight and curved prolate fluid-filled capsules in unbounded simple shear flow at zero Reynolds number using direct simulations. The curved capsules serve as a model for the typical crescent-shaped sickle red blood cells in sickle cell disease (SCD). The effects of deformability and curvature on the dynamics are revealed. We show that with low deformability, straight prolate spheroidal capsules exhibit tumbling in the shear plane as their unique asymptotically stable orbit. This result contrasts with that for rigid spheroids, where infinitely many neutrally stable Jeffery orbits exist. The dynamics of curved prolate capsules are more complicated due to a combined effect of deformability and curvature. At short times, depending on the initial orientation, slightly deformable curved prolate capsules exhibit either a Jeffery-like motion such as tumbling or kayaking, or a non-Jeffery-like behavior in which the director (end-to-end vector) of the capsule crosses the shear-gradient plane back and forth. At long times, however, a Jeffery-like quasiperiodic orbit is taken regardless of the initial orientation. We further show that the average of the long-time trajectory can be well approximated using the analytical solution for Jeffery orbits with an effective orbit constant Ceff and aspect ratio ℓeff. These parameters are useful for characterizing the dynamics of curved capsules as a function of given deformability and curvature. As the capsule becomes more deformable or curved, Ceff decreases, indicating a shift of the orbit towards log-rolling motion, while ℓeff increases weakly as the degree of curvature increases but shows negligible dependency on deformability. These features are not changed substantially as the viscosity ratio between the inner and outer fluids is changed from 1 to 5. As cell deformability, cell shape, and cell-cell interactions are all pathologically altered in blood disorders such as SCD, these results will have clear implications on improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of hematologic disease.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2019-11-29

**Central-moment-based Galilean-invariant multiple-relaxation-time collision model.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(4-1):**043308.

Aiming at systematically correcting the non-Galilean-invariant thermal diffusivity in the previous multiple-relaxation-time Boltzmann equation collision model [Shan and Chen, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 18, 635 (2007)IJMPEO0129-183110.1142/S0129183107010887], we show that by separately relaxing the central moments of the distribution function, Chapman-Enskog calculation leads to the correct hydrodynamic equations with mutually independent and Galilean invariant viscosity and thermal diffusivity, provided the velocity-space discretization preserves moments up to the fourth order. By transforming the central moments back to the absolute reference frame and evaluating using fixed discrete velocities, the efficient and accurate streaming-collision time-stepping algorithm is preserved. The lattice Boltzmann model is found to have excellent numerical stability in high-Reynolds-number simulations.

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@article {pmid31771023,

year = {2019},

author = {Shan, X},

title = {Central-moment-based Galilean-invariant multiple-relaxation-time collision model.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {4-1},

pages = {043308},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.043308},

pmid = {31771023},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {Aiming at systematically correcting the non-Galilean-invariant thermal diffusivity in the previous multiple-relaxation-time Boltzmann equation collision model [Shan and Chen, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 18, 635 (2007)IJMPEO0129-183110.1142/S0129183107010887], we show that by separately relaxing the central moments of the distribution function, Chapman-Enskog calculation leads to the correct hydrodynamic equations with mutually independent and Galilean invariant viscosity and thermal diffusivity, provided the velocity-space discretization preserves moments up to the fourth order. By transforming the central moments back to the absolute reference frame and evaluating using fixed discrete velocities, the efficient and accurate streaming-collision time-stepping algorithm is preserved. The lattice Boltzmann model is found to have excellent numerical stability in high-Reynolds-number simulations.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2019-11-29

**Information production in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(4-1):**041101.

We study the Reynolds number scaling of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and attractor dimension for three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence through the use of direct numerical simulation. To do so, we obtain Lyapunov spectra for a range of different Reynolds numbers by following the divergence of a large number of orthogonal fluid trajectories. We find that the attractor dimension grows with the Reynolds number as Re^{2.35} with this exponent being larger than predicted by either dimensional arguments or intermittency models. The distribution of Lyapunov exponents is found to be finite around λ≈0 contrary to a possible divergence suggested by Ruelle. The relevance of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Lyapunov spectra in comparing complex physical systems is discussed.

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@article {pmid31771016,

year = {2019},

author = {Berera, A and Clark, D},

title = {Information production in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {4-1},

pages = {041101},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.041101},

pmid = {31771016},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {We study the Reynolds number scaling of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and attractor dimension for three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence through the use of direct numerical simulation. To do so, we obtain Lyapunov spectra for a range of different Reynolds numbers by following the divergence of a large number of orthogonal fluid trajectories. We find that the attractor dimension grows with the Reynolds number as Re^{2.35}

with this exponent being larger than predicted by either dimensional arguments or intermittency models. The distribution of Lyapunov exponents is found to be finite around λ≈0 contrary to a possible divergence suggested by Ruelle. The relevance of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Lyapunov spectra in comparing complex physical systems is discussed.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2019-11-29

**Impact of an initial random magnetic field on the evolution of two-dimensional shearless mixing layers.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(4-1):**043106.

The impact of an initial random magnetic field on the temporal evolution of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent shearless mixing layer is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Different intensities of the initial random magnetic field are imposed with uniform probability distribution on an identical flow field. The initial flow field condition is the turbulent shearless mixing layer with different kinetic energy ratio (E_{H}/E_{L}=6.7) and identical integral length scale. Simulations are carried out in a moderate magnetic Reynolds number, which causes a two-way interaction between the velocity and magnetic fields. In order to analyze the effect of the initial random magnetic field on the mixing characteristics, the intermittency inside the mixing layer and the mixing evolution parameters are investigated. It is found that with small initial magnetic field intensity, the intermittency in both large and small scales are larger than those values in hydrodynamic flow. However, increasing the intensity of the initial magnetic field reduces the intermittency in the mixing region to lower values compared to the hydrodynamic flow. The mixing layer growth rate and the mixing efficiency both show reduction by increasing the initial magnetic field intensity, which is attributed to the reduction of the averaged Reynolds number of both homogenous isotropic turbulent regions due to the suppressing effect of the Lorentz force on the velocity fields of these regions.

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@article {pmid31770976,

year = {2019},

author = {Chitsaz, M and Fathali, M},

title = {Impact of an initial random magnetic field on the evolution of two-dimensional shearless mixing layers.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {4-1},

pages = {043106},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.043106},

pmid = {31770976},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {The impact of an initial random magnetic field on the temporal evolution of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent shearless mixing layer is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Different intensities of the initial random magnetic field are imposed with uniform probability distribution on an identical flow field. The initial flow field condition is the turbulent shearless mixing layer with different kinetic energy ratio (E_{H}/

E_{L}=

6.7) and identical integral length scale. Simulations are carried out in a moderate magnetic Reynolds number, which causes a two-way interaction between the velocity and magnetic fields. In order to analyze the effect of the initial random magnetic field on the mixing characteristics, the intermittency inside the mixing layer and the mixing evolution parameters are investigated. It is found that with small initial magnetic field intensity, the intermittency in both large and small scales are larger than those values in hydrodynamic flow. However, increasing the intensity of the initial magnetic field reduces the intermittency in the mixing region to lower values compared to the hydrodynamic flow. The mixing layer growth rate and the mixing efficiency both show reduction by increasing the initial magnetic field intensity, which is attributed to the reduction of the averaged Reynolds number of both homogenous isotropic turbulent regions due to the suppressing effect of the Lorentz force on the velocity fields of these regions.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-11

**Response of freshwater mussel recruitment to hydrological changes in a eutrophic floodplain lake.**

*The Science of the total environment*, **703:**135467.

Although eutrophication of freshwaters is a natural process, the human impact often leads to inland waters becoming overloaded with nutrients, impoverishing many valuable and vanishing habitats, such as floodplain lakes. These changes need to be reversed if the occurrence of endangered aquatic species is to be restored. In this paper we analyse the impact of a change in the water regime of a naturally eutrophic floodplain lake, which harbours a large diversity of Unionidae (large freshwater mussels), a globally threatened taxonomic group that provides important ecosystem functions and services. We found that a slight increase in the discharge from this waterbody, following the construction of an additional outflow pipe, positively influenced recruitment in three of the five mussel species inhabiting the lake. We also found that, after the construction of this additional outflow, the niches of juveniles of Anodonta cygnea and Unio spp. changed, revealing differences in their hydrological requirements. Our results suggest that, as in lotic habitats, complex hydraulic parameters are highly significant to unionid mussels in lentic conditions.

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@article {pmid31759716,

year = {2020},

author = {Ćmiel, AM and Strużyński, A and Wyrębek, M and Lipińska, AM and Zając, K and Zając, T},

title = {Response of freshwater mussel recruitment to hydrological changes in a eutrophic floodplain lake.},

journal = {The Science of the total environment},

volume = {703},

number = {},

pages = {135467},

doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135467},

pmid = {31759716},

issn = {1879-1026},

abstract = {Although eutrophication of freshwaters is a natural process, the human impact often leads to inland waters becoming overloaded with nutrients, impoverishing many valuable and vanishing habitats, such as floodplain lakes. These changes need to be reversed if the occurrence of endangered aquatic species is to be restored. In this paper we analyse the impact of a change in the water regime of a naturally eutrophic floodplain lake, which harbours a large diversity of Unionidae (large freshwater mussels), a globally threatened taxonomic group that provides important ecosystem functions and services. We found that a slight increase in the discharge from this waterbody, following the construction of an additional outflow pipe, positively influenced recruitment in three of the five mussel species inhabiting the lake. We also found that, after the construction of this additional outflow, the niches of juveniles of Anodonta cygnea and Unio spp. changed, revealing differences in their hydrological requirements. Our results suggest that, as in lotic habitats, complex hydraulic parameters are highly significant to unionid mussels in lentic conditions.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Mixing Performance of a Cost-effective Split-and-Recombine 3D Micromixer Fabricated by Xurographic Method.**

*Micromachines*, **10(11):**.

This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of a novel passive micromixer based on the lamination of fluid layers. Lamination-based mixers benefit from increasing the contact surface between two fluid phases by enhancing molecular diffusion to achieve a faster mixing. Novel three-dimensional split and recombine (SAR) structures are proposed to generate fluid laminations. Numerical simulations were conducted to model the mixer performance. Furthermore, experiments were conducted using dyes to observe fluid laminations and evaluate the proposed mixer's characteristics. Mixing quality was experimentally obtained by means of image-based mixing index (MI) measurement. The multi-layer device was fabricated utilizing the Xurography method, which is a simple and low-cost method to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. Mixing indexes of 96% and 90% were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 0.1 and 1, respectively. Moreover, the device had an MI value of 67% at a Reynolds number of 10 (flow rate of 116 µL/min for each inlet). The proposed micromixer, with its novel design and fabrication method, is expected to benefit a wide range of lab-on-a-chip applications, due to its high efficiency, low cost, high throughput and ease of fabrication.

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@article {pmid31744080,

year = {2019},

author = {Taheri, RA and Goodarzi, V and Allahverdi, A},

title = {Mixing Performance of a Cost-effective Split-and-Recombine 3D Micromixer Fabricated by Xurographic Method.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {11},

pages = {},

pmid = {31744080},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of a novel passive micromixer based on the lamination of fluid layers. Lamination-based mixers benefit from increasing the contact surface between two fluid phases by enhancing molecular diffusion to achieve a faster mixing. Novel three-dimensional split and recombine (SAR) structures are proposed to generate fluid laminations. Numerical simulations were conducted to model the mixer performance. Furthermore, experiments were conducted using dyes to observe fluid laminations and evaluate the proposed mixer's characteristics. Mixing quality was experimentally obtained by means of image-based mixing index (MI) measurement. The multi-layer device was fabricated utilizing the Xurography method, which is a simple and low-cost method to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. Mixing indexes of 96% and 90% were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 0.1 and 1, respectively. Moreover, the device had an MI value of 67% at a Reynolds number of 10 (flow rate of 116 µL/min for each inlet). The proposed micromixer, with its novel design and fabrication method, is expected to benefit a wide range of lab-on-a-chip applications, due to its high efficiency, low cost, high throughput and ease of fabrication.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-18

**A sixteen decimal places' accurate Darcy friction factor database using non-linear Colebrook's equation with a million nodes: A way forward to the soft computing techniques.**

*Data in brief*, **27:**104733 pii:104733.

The Colebrook's equation is considered as an empirical model to accurately compute the Darcy friction factor in pipes under fully-developed turbulent flow. Due to non-linearity and implicitness of the Colebrook's equation, one needs to use numerical methods to acquire reasonably good approximation to the true friction factor values. However, such idea is not preferred by practitioners as it demands use of computers - also more computational time and effort. To overcome this, explicit equations that can describe Darcy friction factor directly in terms of the Reynolds number and relative roughness are essential. Using Fixed point iteration method in the MATLAB software, we have developed a 16 decimal places' accurate friction factor database for the Darcy friction factor for a 1000 by 1000 mesh of Reynolds number and relative roughness values. The accurate dataset described in this work will serve to be basis for the construction of new and more reliable explicit equations using regression modeling, artificial intelligence techniques and other soft computing methods.

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@article {pmid31737769,

year = {2019},

author = {Shaikh, MM and Massan, SU and Wagan, AI},

title = {A sixteen decimal places' accurate Darcy friction factor database using non-linear Colebrook's equation with a million nodes: A way forward to the soft computing techniques.},

journal = {Data in brief},

volume = {27},

number = {},

pages = {104733},

doi = {10.1016/j.dib.2019.104733},

pmid = {31737769},

issn = {2352-3409},

abstract = {The Colebrook's equation is considered as an empirical model to accurately compute the Darcy friction factor in pipes under fully-developed turbulent flow. Due to non-linearity and implicitness of the Colebrook's equation, one needs to use numerical methods to acquire reasonably good approximation to the true friction factor values. However, such idea is not preferred by practitioners as it demands use of computers - also more computational time and effort. To overcome this, explicit equations that can describe Darcy friction factor directly in terms of the Reynolds number and relative roughness are essential. Using Fixed point iteration method in the MATLAB software, we have developed a 16 decimal places' accurate friction factor database for the Darcy friction factor for a 1000 by 1000 mesh of Reynolds number and relative roughness values. The accurate dataset described in this work will serve to be basis for the construction of new and more reliable explicit equations using regression modeling, artificial intelligence techniques and other soft computing methods.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-18

**Analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model for two-fluid shear driven flows.**

*Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences*, **475(2230):**20190367.

This paper is concerned with analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model developed in Kalogirou & Papageorgiou (J. Fluid Mech.802, 5-36, 2016) for a perturbed two-layer Couette flow when the thickness of the more viscous fluid layer next to the stationary wall is small compared to the thickness of the less viscous fluid. Travelling wave solutions and their stability are determined numerically, and secondary bifurcation points are identified in the process. We also determine regions in parameter space where bistability is observed with two branches being linearly stable at the same time. The travelling wave solutions are mathematically justified through a quasi-solution analysis in a neighbourhood of an empirically constructed approximate solution. This relies in part on precise asymptotics of integrals of Airy functions for large wave numbers. The primary bifurcation about the trivial state is shown rigorously to be supercritical, and the dependence of bifurcation points, as a function of Reynolds number R and the primary wavelength 2πν-1/2 of the disturbance, is determined analytically.

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@article {pmid31736648,

year = {2019},

author = {Papageorgiou, DT and Tanveer, S},

title = {Analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model for two-fluid shear driven flows.},

journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences},

volume = {475},

number = {2230},

pages = {20190367},

doi = {10.1098/rspa.2019.0367},

pmid = {31736648},

issn = {1364-5021},

abstract = {This paper is concerned with analysis and computations of a non-local thin-film model developed in Kalogirou & Papageorgiou (J. Fluid Mech.802, 5-36, 2016) for a perturbed two-layer Couette flow when the thickness of the more viscous fluid layer next to the stationary wall is small compared to the thickness of the less viscous fluid. Travelling wave solutions and their stability are determined numerically, and secondary bifurcation points are identified in the process. We also determine regions in parameter space where bistability is observed with two branches being linearly stable at the same time. The travelling wave solutions are mathematically justified through a quasi-solution analysis in a neighbourhood of an empirically constructed approximate solution. This relies in part on precise asymptotics of integrals of Airy functions for large wave numbers. The primary bifurcation about the trivial state is shown rigorously to be supercritical, and the dependence of bifurcation points, as a function of Reynolds number R and the primary wavelength 2πν-1/2 of the disturbance, is determined analytically.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-17

**Entropy generation minimization (EGM) in magneto peristalsis with variable properties.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **186:**105045 pii:S0169-2607(19)30711-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: This article featuring the peristaltic transport of viscous material with variable properties (i.e. temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity) through curved configuration. Fluid saturating through porous channel walls of uniform space. Entropy generation consideration here is to analyze irreversibility aspects. Channel boundaries retain the velocity and thermal slip conditions.

METHOD: Wave frame of reference is attained with the utilization of long wavelength and small Reynolds number approach. Solution of the simplified coupled system of dimensionless constraints is obtained numerically. Detailed analysis of important quantities of interest has been presented in discussion portion.

RESULTS: Entropy generation variation near center is very small whereas in the vicinity of the channel wall is larger. Bejan number has reverse variation as observed for entropy generation.

CONCLUSION: Variable characteristics of viscosity has opposite impact on velocity and temperature is observed. It is also noticed small irreversibility effects are obtained for higher varying viscosity and thermal conductivity near the vicinity of the channel walls.

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@article {pmid31734470,

year = {2019},

author = {Farooq, S and Hayat, T and Khan, MI and Alsaedi, A},

title = {Entropy generation minimization (EGM) in magneto peristalsis with variable properties.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {186},

number = {},

pages = {105045},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105045},

pmid = {31734470},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: This article featuring the peristaltic transport of viscous material with variable properties (i.e. temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity) through curved configuration. Fluid saturating through porous channel walls of uniform space. Entropy generation consideration here is to analyze irreversibility aspects. Channel boundaries retain the velocity and thermal slip conditions.

METHOD: Wave frame of reference is attained with the utilization of long wavelength and small Reynolds number approach. Solution of the simplified coupled system of dimensionless constraints is obtained numerically. Detailed analysis of important quantities of interest has been presented in discussion portion.

RESULTS: Entropy generation variation near center is very small whereas in the vicinity of the channel wall is larger. Bejan number has reverse variation as observed for entropy generation.

CONCLUSION: Variable characteristics of viscosity has opposite impact on velocity and temperature is observed. It is also noticed small irreversibility effects are obtained for higher varying viscosity and thermal conductivity near the vicinity of the channel walls.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Inertial Focusing and Separation of Particles in Similar Curved Channels.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**16575.

Inertial particle focusing in curved channels has enormous potential for lab-on-a-chip applications. This paper compares a zigzag channel, which has not been used previously for inertial focusing studies, with a serpentine channel and a square wave channel to explore their differences in terms of focusing performance and separation possibilities. The particle trajectories and fluid fields in the curved channels are studied by a numerical simulation. The effects of different conditions (structure, Reynolds number, and particle size) on the competition between forces and the focusing performance are studied. The results indicate that the zigzag channel has the best focusing effect at a high Reynolds number and that the serpentine channel is second in terms of performance. Regarding the particle separation potential, the zigzag channel has a good performance in separating 5 μm and 10 μm particles at ReC = 62.5. In addition, the pressure drop of the channel is also considered to evaluate the channel performance, which has not been taken into account in the literature on inertial microfluidics. This result is expected to be instructive for the selection and optimization of inertial microchannel structures.

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@article {pmid31719582,

year = {2019},

author = {Ying, Y and Lin, Y},

title = {Inertial Focusing and Separation of Particles in Similar Curved Channels.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {16575},

pmid = {31719582},

issn = {2045-2322},

abstract = {Inertial particle focusing in curved channels has enormous potential for lab-on-a-chip applications. This paper compares a zigzag channel, which has not been used previously for inertial focusing studies, with a serpentine channel and a square wave channel to explore their differences in terms of focusing performance and separation possibilities. The particle trajectories and fluid fields in the curved channels are studied by a numerical simulation. The effects of different conditions (structure, Reynolds number, and particle size) on the competition between forces and the focusing performance are studied. The results indicate that the zigzag channel has the best focusing effect at a high Reynolds number and that the serpentine channel is second in terms of performance. Regarding the particle separation potential, the zigzag channel has a good performance in separating 5 μm and 10 μm particles at ReC = 62.5. In addition, the pressure drop of the channel is also considered to evaluate the channel performance, which has not been taken into account in the literature on inertial microfluidics. This result is expected to be instructive for the selection and optimization of inertial microchannel structures.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-10

**Numerical Interpretation to the Roles of Liquid Viscosity in Droplet Spreading at Small Weber Numbers.**

*Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids*, **35(49):**16164-16171.

Droplet impacting a free-slip plane at small Weber numbers (We < 30) was numerically investigated by a front tracking method, with particular emphasis on clarifying the roles of the liquid viscosity and the "left-over" internal kinetic energy in droplet spreading. The most interesting discovery is that there exists a certain range of We in which the maximum diameter rate, D̃m, shows a nonmonotonic variation with the Reynolds number, Re. This non-monotonic variation is owing to the dual role of liquid viscosity in influencing droplet spreading. Specifically, when the initial surface energy is comparable to the initial kinetic energy (the corresponding We is around 10-30), the high strain rates of the droplet internal flow dominate its viscous dissipation at a relatively large Re, while the liquid viscosity dominates the viscous dissipation at a relatively small Re. Furthermore, to unravel the influence of droplet attachment and detachment on droplet spreading, we considered two limiting situations such as full attachment (with no gas film throughout droplet spreading) and full detachment (with a gas film throughout droplet spreading). The results show that the droplet with a gas film tends to generate a stronger vortical motion in its rim, results in a larger left-over kinetic energy, and hence causes a smaller spreading.

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@article {pmid31718189,

year = {2019},

author = {Zhang, Z and Zhang, P},

title = {Numerical Interpretation to the Roles of Liquid Viscosity in Droplet Spreading at Small Weber Numbers.},

journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids},

volume = {35},

number = {49},

pages = {16164-16171},

doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02736},

pmid = {31718189},

issn = {1520-5827},

abstract = {Droplet impacting a free-slip plane at small Weber numbers (We < 30) was numerically investigated by a front tracking method, with particular emphasis on clarifying the roles of the liquid viscosity and the "left-over" internal kinetic energy in droplet spreading. The most interesting discovery is that there exists a certain range of We in which the maximum diameter rate, D̃m, shows a nonmonotonic variation with the Reynolds number, Re. This non-monotonic variation is owing to the dual role of liquid viscosity in influencing droplet spreading. Specifically, when the initial surface energy is comparable to the initial kinetic energy (the corresponding We is around 10-30), the high strain rates of the droplet internal flow dominate its viscous dissipation at a relatively large Re, while the liquid viscosity dominates the viscous dissipation at a relatively small Re. Furthermore, to unravel the influence of droplet attachment and detachment on droplet spreading, we considered two limiting situations such as full attachment (with no gas film throughout droplet spreading) and full detachment (with a gas film throughout droplet spreading). The results show that the droplet with a gas film tends to generate a stronger vortical motion in its rim, results in a larger left-over kinetic energy, and hence causes a smaller spreading.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Accelerated Particle Separation in a DLD Device at Re > 1 Investigated by Means of µPIV.**

*Micromachines*, **10(11):**.

A pressure resistant and optically accessible deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) device was designed and microfabricated from silicon and glass for high-throughput fractionation of particles between 3.0 and 7.0 µm comprising array segments of varying tilt angles with a post size of 5 µm. The design was supported by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using OpenFOAM software. Simulations indicated a change in the critical particle diameter for fractionation at higher Reynolds numbers. This was experimentally confirmed by microparticle image velocimetry (µPIV) in the DLD device with tracer particles of 0.86 µm. At Reynolds numbers above 8 an asymmetric flow field pattern between posts could be observed. Furthermore, the new DLD device allowed successful fractionation of 2 µm and 5 µm fluorescent polystyrene particles at Re = 0.5-25.

Additional Links: PMID-31718021

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Citation:

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@article {pmid31718021,

year = {2019},

author = {Kottmeier, J and Wullenweber, M and Blahout, S and Hussong, J and Kampen, I and Kwade, A and Dietzel, A},

title = {Accelerated Particle Separation in a DLD Device at Re > 1 Investigated by Means of µPIV.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {11},

pages = {},

pmid = {31718021},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {A pressure resistant and optically accessible deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) device was designed and microfabricated from silicon and glass for high-throughput fractionation of particles between 3.0 and 7.0 µm comprising array segments of varying tilt angles with a post size of 5 µm. The design was supported by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using OpenFOAM software. Simulations indicated a change in the critical particle diameter for fractionation at higher Reynolds numbers. This was experimentally confirmed by microparticle image velocimetry (µPIV) in the DLD device with tracer particles of 0.86 µm. At Reynolds numbers above 8 an asymmetric flow field pattern between posts could be observed. Furthermore, the new DLD device allowed successful fractionation of 2 µm and 5 µm fluorescent polystyrene particles at Re = 0.5-25.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-07

**Continuous production of celecoxib nanoparticles using a three-dimensional-coaxial-flow microfluidic platform.**

*International journal of pharmaceutics*, **572:**118831.

Increasing the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs by decreasing the particle size of the drugs into nano-size is a well-known strategy. However, continuous production of drug nanoparticles with uniform particle size is critical for clinical application of the strategy. Here we report a simple microfluidic mixing method that can achieve continuous production of celecoxib nanoparticles with uniform particle size and high dissolution rate. A three-dimensional (3D) coaxial-flow microfluidic device was fabricated by assembling two coaxial aligned borosilicate glass capillaries on a glass slide, and a tapered glass capillary was inserted into another bigger cylindrical one with coaxial alignment. Celecoxib nanoparticles were prepared by the microfluidic device under the turbulent jet regime. The 3D-coaxial-flow pattern and high Reynolds number ensured the extremely short mixing time, consequently, resulted in the high throughput production of drug nanoparticles with uniform particle size. The obtained nanoparticles were spherical in shape, and showed superior dissolution rate compared with the coarse powder both in sink and non-sink conditions. The bioavailability of the water insoluble drug was also significantly improved by the reduction of particle size into nano-size.

Additional Links: PMID-31715344

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PubMed:

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@article {pmid31715344,

year = {2019},

author = {Di, D and Qu, X and Liu, C and Fang, L and Quan, P},

title = {Continuous production of celecoxib nanoparticles using a three-dimensional-coaxial-flow microfluidic platform.},

journal = {International journal of pharmaceutics},

volume = {572},

number = {},

pages = {118831},

doi = {10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118831},

pmid = {31715344},

issn = {1873-3476},

abstract = {Increasing the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs by decreasing the particle size of the drugs into nano-size is a well-known strategy. However, continuous production of drug nanoparticles with uniform particle size is critical for clinical application of the strategy. Here we report a simple microfluidic mixing method that can achieve continuous production of celecoxib nanoparticles with uniform particle size and high dissolution rate. A three-dimensional (3D) coaxial-flow microfluidic device was fabricated by assembling two coaxial aligned borosilicate glass capillaries on a glass slide, and a tapered glass capillary was inserted into another bigger cylindrical one with coaxial alignment. Celecoxib nanoparticles were prepared by the microfluidic device under the turbulent jet regime. The 3D-coaxial-flow pattern and high Reynolds number ensured the extremely short mixing time, consequently, resulted in the high throughput production of drug nanoparticles with uniform particle size. The obtained nanoparticles were spherical in shape, and showed superior dissolution rate compared with the coarse powder both in sink and non-sink conditions. The bioavailability of the water insoluble drug was also significantly improved by the reduction of particle size into nano-size.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-10

**Spiral microfluidic devices for cell separation and sorting in bioprocesses.**

*Biomicrofluidics*, **13(6):**061501.

Inertial microfluidic systems have been arousing interest in medical applications due to their simple and cost-efficient use. However, comparably small sample volumes in the microliter and milliliter ranges have so far prevented efficient applications in continuous bioprocesses. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that these systems are well suited for cell separation in bioprocesses because of their facile adaptability to various reactor sizes and cell types. This review will discuss potential applications of inertial microfluidic cell separation systems in downstream bioprocesses and depict recent advances in inertial microfluidics for bioprocess intensification. This review thereby focusses on spiral microchannels that separate particles at a moderate Reynolds number in a laminar flow (Re < 2300) according to their size by applying lateral hydrodynamic forces. Spiral microchannels have already been shown to be capable of replacing microfilters, extracting dead cells and debris in perfusion processes, and removing contaminant microalgae species. Recent advances in parallelization made it possible to process media on a liter-scale, which might pave the way toward industrial applications.

Additional Links: PMID-31700559

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Citation:

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@article {pmid31700559,

year = {2019},

author = {Herrmann, N and Neubauer, P and Birkholz, M},

title = {Spiral microfluidic devices for cell separation and sorting in bioprocesses.},

journal = {Biomicrofluidics},

volume = {13},

number = {6},

pages = {061501},

pmid = {31700559},

issn = {1932-1058},

abstract = {Inertial microfluidic systems have been arousing interest in medical applications due to their simple and cost-efficient use. However, comparably small sample volumes in the microliter and milliliter ranges have so far prevented efficient applications in continuous bioprocesses. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that these systems are well suited for cell separation in bioprocesses because of their facile adaptability to various reactor sizes and cell types. This review will discuss potential applications of inertial microfluidic cell separation systems in downstream bioprocesses and depict recent advances in inertial microfluidics for bioprocess intensification. This review thereby focusses on spiral microchannels that separate particles at a moderate Reynolds number in a laminar flow (Re < 2300) according to their size by applying lateral hydrodynamic forces. Spiral microchannels have already been shown to be capable of replacing microfilters, extracting dead cells and debris in perfusion processes, and removing contaminant microalgae species. Recent advances in parallelization made it possible to process media on a liter-scale, which might pave the way toward industrial applications.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-25

**Hemodynamic effects of myocardial bridging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.**

*American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology*, **317(6):**H1282-H1291.

Myocardial bridging (MB) is linked to angina and myocardial ischemia and may lead to sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it remains unclear how MB affect the coronary blood flow in HCM patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of MB on coronary hemodynamics in HCM patients. Fifteen patients with MB (7 HCM and 8 non-HCM controls) in their left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were chosen. Transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in anatomically realistic models of diseased (with MB) and virtually healthy (without MB) LAD from these patients, reconstructed from biplane angiograms. Our CFD simulation results demonstrated that dynamic compression of MB led to diastolic flow disturbances and could significantly reduce the coronary flow in HCM patients as compared with non-HCM group (P < 0.01). The pressure drop coefficient was remarkably higher (P < 0.05) in HCM patients. The flow rate change is strongly correlated with both upstream Reynolds number and MB compression ratio, while the MB length has less impact on coronary flow. The hemodynamic results and clinical outcomes revealed that HCM patients with an MB compression ratio higher than 65% required a surgical intervention. In conclusion, the transient MB compression can significantly alter the diastolic flow pattern and wall shear stress distribution in HCM patients. HCM patients with severe MB may need a surgical intervention.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, the hemodynamic significance of myocardial bridging (MB) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was investigated to provide valuable information for surgical decision-making. Our results illustrated that the transient MB compression led to complex flow patterns, which can significantly alter the diastolic flow and wall shear stress distribution. The hemodynamic results and clinical outcomes demonstrated that patients with HCM and an MB compression ratio higher than 65% required a surgical intervention.

Additional Links: PMID-31674812

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PubMed:

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@article {pmid31674812,

year = {2019},

author = {Sharzehee, M and Chang, Y and Song, JP and Han, HC},

title = {Hemodynamic effects of myocardial bridging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.},

journal = {American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology},

volume = {317},

number = {6},

pages = {H1282-H1291},

doi = {10.1152/ajpheart.00466.2019},

pmid = {31674812},

issn = {1522-1539},

abstract = {Myocardial bridging (MB) is linked to angina and myocardial ischemia and may lead to sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it remains unclear how MB affect the coronary blood flow in HCM patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of MB on coronary hemodynamics in HCM patients. Fifteen patients with MB (7 HCM and 8 non-HCM controls) in their left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were chosen. Transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in anatomically realistic models of diseased (with MB) and virtually healthy (without MB) LAD from these patients, reconstructed from biplane angiograms. Our CFD simulation results demonstrated that dynamic compression of MB led to diastolic flow disturbances and could significantly reduce the coronary flow in HCM patients as compared with non-HCM group (P < 0.01). The pressure drop coefficient was remarkably higher (P < 0.05) in HCM patients. The flow rate change is strongly correlated with both upstream Reynolds number and MB compression ratio, while the MB length has less impact on coronary flow. The hemodynamic results and clinical outcomes revealed that HCM patients with an MB compression ratio higher than 65% required a surgical intervention. In conclusion, the transient MB compression can significantly alter the diastolic flow pattern and wall shear stress distribution in HCM patients. HCM patients with severe MB may need a surgical intervention.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, the hemodynamic significance of myocardial bridging (MB) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was investigated to provide valuable information for surgical decision-making. Our results illustrated that the transient MB compression led to complex flow patterns, which can significantly alter the diastolic flow and wall shear stress distribution. The hemodynamic results and clinical outcomes demonstrated that patients with HCM and an MB compression ratio higher than 65% required a surgical intervention.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Microfluidic Magnetic Mixing at Low Reynolds Numbers and in Stagnant Fluids.**

*Micromachines*, **10(11):**.

Microfluidic mixing becomes a necessity when thorough sample homogenization is required in small volumes of fluid, such as in lab-on-a-chip devices. For example, efficient mixing is extraordinarily challenging in capillary-filling microfluidic devices and in microchambers with stagnant fluids. To address this issue, specifically designed geometrical features can enhance the effect of diffusion and provide efficient mixing by inducing chaotic fluid flow. This scheme is known as "passive" mixing. In addition, when rapid and global mixing is essential, "active" mixing can be applied by exploiting an external source. In particular, magnetic mixing (where a magnetic field acts to stimulate mixing) shows great potential for high mixing efficiency. This method generally involves magnetic beads and external (or integrated) magnets for the creation of chaotic motion in the device. However, there is still plenty of room for exploiting the potential of magnetic beads for mixing applications. Therefore, this review article focuses on the advantages of magnetic bead mixing along with recommendations on improving mixing in low Reynolds number flows (Re ≤ 1) and in stagnant fluids.

Additional Links: PMID-31671753

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@article {pmid31671753,

year = {2019},

author = {Shanko, ES and van de Burgt, Y and Anderson, PD and den Toonder, JMJ},

title = {Microfluidic Magnetic Mixing at Low Reynolds Numbers and in Stagnant Fluids.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {11},

pages = {},

pmid = {31671753},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {Microfluidic mixing becomes a necessity when thorough sample homogenization is required in small volumes of fluid, such as in lab-on-a-chip devices. For example, efficient mixing is extraordinarily challenging in capillary-filling microfluidic devices and in microchambers with stagnant fluids. To address this issue, specifically designed geometrical features can enhance the effect of diffusion and provide efficient mixing by inducing chaotic fluid flow. This scheme is known as "passive" mixing. In addition, when rapid and global mixing is essential, "active" mixing can be applied by exploiting an external source. In particular, magnetic mixing (where a magnetic field acts to stimulate mixing) shows great potential for high mixing efficiency. This method generally involves magnetic beads and external (or integrated) magnets for the creation of chaotic motion in the device. However, there is still plenty of room for exploiting the potential of magnetic beads for mixing applications. Therefore, this review article focuses on the advantages of magnetic bead mixing along with recommendations on improving mixing in low Reynolds number flows (Re ≤ 1) and in stagnant fluids.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-02

**Entropy optimized dissipative CNTs based flow with probable error and statistical declaration.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **185:**105137 pii:S0169-2607(19)31706-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: CNTs are categorized subject to their structures i.e., SWCNTs (single wall nanotubes), DWCNTs (double wall nanotubes) and MWCNTs (multi-wall nanotubes). The various structures have distinct characteristics that make the nanotubes suitable for various physical applications. It is due their unique electrical, mechanical and thermal attributes CNTs present thrilling opportunities for mechanical engineering, industrial, scientific research and commercial applications. There is fruitful potential for carbon nanotubes in the composites business and industry. Today, CNTs find utilization in frequent various products, and analyst continue to explore new applications. Currently applications comprise wind turbines, bicycle components, scanning probe microscopes, flat panel displays, marine paints, sensing devices, electronics, batteries with longer lifetime and electrical circuitry etc. Such applications in mind, entropy optimized dissipative CNTs based flow of nanomaterial by a stretched surface. Flow is caused due to stretching phenomenon and studied in 3D coordinates. Both types of CNTs are studied i.e., SWCNTs and MWCNTs. CNTs are considered for nanoparticles and water for continuous phase fluid. Special consideration is given to the analysis of statistical declaration and probable error for skin friction and Nusselt number. Furthermore, entropy rate is calculated. Entropy rate is discussed in the presence of four main irreversibilities i.e., heat transfer, Joule heating, porosity and dissipation.

METHOD: Homotopy technique is utilized to develop the convergence series solutions.

RESULTS: Impacts of sundry variables subject to both SWCNTs (single) and MWCNTs (multi) are graphically discussed. Statistical analysis and probable error for surface drag force and Nusselt number are numerically calculated subject to various flow variables. Numerical results for such engineering quantities are displayed through tables. In addition, comparative analysis for SWCNTs and MWCNTs are presented for the velocity, concentration and thermal fields.

CONCLUSIONS: Results for entropy rate is calculated in the presence of various sundry variable through implementation of second law of thermodynamics. It is examined from the results that velocity decreases for both CNTs via higher magnetic, inertia coefficient and porosity parameters. Secondary velocity i.e., velocity in g-direction boosts up versus rotation parameter while it declines for larger slip parameter for both CNTs. thermal field intensifies for both CNTs via larger heat generation/absorption parameter. Concentration which shows the mass transfer of species increases subject to higher homogeneous parameter and Schmidt number in case of both CNTs. Entropy rate in more for larger magnetic, Reynolds number and slip parameter. Bejan number boosts up for higher Reynold number and slip parameter while it declines for magnetic parameter.

Additional Links: PMID-31671339

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PubMed:

Citation:

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@article {pmid31671339,

year = {2019},

author = {Ijaz Khan, M and Ali, A and Hayat, T and Alsaedi, A},

title = {Entropy optimized dissipative CNTs based flow with probable error and statistical declaration.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {185},

number = {},

pages = {105137},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105137},

pmid = {31671339},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND: CNTs are categorized subject to their structures i.e., SWCNTs (single wall nanotubes), DWCNTs (double wall nanotubes) and MWCNTs (multi-wall nanotubes). The various structures have distinct characteristics that make the nanotubes suitable for various physical applications. It is due their unique electrical, mechanical and thermal attributes CNTs present thrilling opportunities for mechanical engineering, industrial, scientific research and commercial applications. There is fruitful potential for carbon nanotubes in the composites business and industry. Today, CNTs find utilization in frequent various products, and analyst continue to explore new applications. Currently applications comprise wind turbines, bicycle components, scanning probe microscopes, flat panel displays, marine paints, sensing devices, electronics, batteries with longer lifetime and electrical circuitry etc. Such applications in mind, entropy optimized dissipative CNTs based flow of nanomaterial by a stretched surface. Flow is caused due to stretching phenomenon and studied in 3D coordinates. Both types of CNTs are studied i.e., SWCNTs and MWCNTs. CNTs are considered for nanoparticles and water for continuous phase fluid. Special consideration is given to the analysis of statistical declaration and probable error for skin friction and Nusselt number. Furthermore, entropy rate is calculated. Entropy rate is discussed in the presence of four main irreversibilities i.e., heat transfer, Joule heating, porosity and dissipation.

METHOD: Homotopy technique is utilized to develop the convergence series solutions.

RESULTS: Impacts of sundry variables subject to both SWCNTs (single) and MWCNTs (multi) are graphically discussed. Statistical analysis and probable error for surface drag force and Nusselt number are numerically calculated subject to various flow variables. Numerical results for such engineering quantities are displayed through tables. In addition, comparative analysis for SWCNTs and MWCNTs are presented for the velocity, concentration and thermal fields.

CONCLUSIONS: Results for entropy rate is calculated in the presence of various sundry variable through implementation of second law of thermodynamics. It is examined from the results that velocity decreases for both CNTs via higher magnetic, inertia coefficient and porosity parameters. Secondary velocity i.e., velocity in g-direction boosts up versus rotation parameter while it declines for larger slip parameter for both CNTs. thermal field intensifies for both CNTs via larger heat generation/absorption parameter. Concentration which shows the mass transfer of species increases subject to higher homogeneous parameter and Schmidt number in case of both CNTs. Entropy rate in more for larger magnetic, Reynolds number and slip parameter. Bejan number boosts up for higher Reynold number and slip parameter while it declines for magnetic parameter.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Pulsatile Flow in Microfluidic Systems.**

*Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)* [Epub ahead of print].

This review describes the current knowledge and applications of pulsatile flow in microfluidic systems. Elements of fluid dynamics at low Reynolds number are first described in the context of pulsatile flow. Then the practical applications in microfluidic processes are presented: the methods to generate a pulsatile flow, the generation of emulsion droplets through harmonic flow rate perturbation, the applications in mixing and particle separation, and the benefits of pulsatile flow for clog mitigation. The second part of the review is devoted to pulsatile flow in biological applications. Pulsatile flows can be used for mimicking physiological systems, to alter or enhance cell cultures, and for bioassay automation. Pulsatile flows offer unique advantages over a steady flow, especially in microfluidic systems, but also require some new physical insights and more rigorous investigation to fully benefit future applications.

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@article {pmid31657131,

year = {2019},

author = {Dincau, B and Dressaire, E and Sauret, A},

title = {Pulsatile Flow in Microfluidic Systems.},

journal = {Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {e1904032},

doi = {10.1002/smll.201904032},

pmid = {31657131},

issn = {1613-6829},

support = {ACS-PRF 60108-DNI9//American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund/ ; },

abstract = {This review describes the current knowledge and applications of pulsatile flow in microfluidic systems. Elements of fluid dynamics at low Reynolds number are first described in the context of pulsatile flow. Then the practical applications in microfluidic processes are presented: the methods to generate a pulsatile flow, the generation of emulsion droplets through harmonic flow rate perturbation, the applications in mixing and particle separation, and the benefits of pulsatile flow for clog mitigation. The second part of the review is devoted to pulsatile flow in biological applications. Pulsatile flows can be used for mimicking physiological systems, to alter or enhance cell cultures, and for bioassay automation. Pulsatile flows offer unique advantages over a steady flow, especially in microfluidic systems, but also require some new physical insights and more rigorous investigation to fully benefit future applications.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-01

**Boundary layer transition modeling on leading edge inflatable kite airfoils.**

*Wind energy (Chichester, England)*, **22(7):**908-921.

We present a computational fluid dynamic analysis of boundary layer transition on leading edge inflatable kite airfoils used for airborne wind energy generation. Because of the operation in pumping cycles, the airfoil is generally subject to a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The analysis is based on the combination of the shear stress transport turbulence model with the γ - R ˜ e θ t transition model, which can handle the laminar boundary layer and its transition to turbulence. The implementation of both models in OpenFOAM is described. We show a validation of the method for a sailwing (ie, a wing with a membrane) airfoil and an application to a leading edge inflatable kite airfoil. For the sailwing airfoil, the results computed with transition model agree well with the existing low Reynolds number experiment over the whole range of angles of attack. For the leading edge inflatable kite airfoil, the transition modeling has both favorable and unfavorable effects on the aerodynamics. On the one hand, the aerodynamics suffer from the laminar separation. But, on the other hand, the laminar boundary layer thickens slower than the turbulent counterpart, which, in combination with transition, delays the separation. The results also indicate that the aerodynamics of the kite airfoil could be improved by delaying the boundary layer transition during the traction phase and tripping the transition in the retraction phase.

Additional Links: PMID-31656395

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@article {pmid31656395,

year = {2019},

author = {Folkersma, M and Schmehl, R and Viré, A},

title = {Boundary layer transition modeling on leading edge inflatable kite airfoils.},

journal = {Wind energy (Chichester, England)},

volume = {22},

number = {7},

pages = {908-921},

pmid = {31656395},

issn = {1099-1824},

abstract = {We present a computational fluid dynamic analysis of boundary layer transition on leading edge inflatable kite airfoils used for airborne wind energy generation. Because of the operation in pumping cycles, the airfoil is generally subject to a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The analysis is based on the combination of the shear stress transport turbulence model with the γ - R ˜ e θ t transition model, which can handle the laminar boundary layer and its transition to turbulence. The implementation of both models in OpenFOAM is described. We show a validation of the method for a sailwing (ie, a wing with a membrane) airfoil and an application to a leading edge inflatable kite airfoil. For the sailwing airfoil, the results computed with transition model agree well with the existing low Reynolds number experiment over the whole range of angles of attack. For the leading edge inflatable kite airfoil, the transition modeling has both favorable and unfavorable effects on the aerodynamics. On the one hand, the aerodynamics suffer from the laminar separation. But, on the other hand, the laminar boundary layer thickens slower than the turbulent counterpart, which, in combination with transition, delays the separation. The results also indicate that the aerodynamics of the kite airfoil could be improved by delaying the boundary layer transition during the traction phase and tripping the transition in the retraction phase.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-20

**Numerical investigation of wall pressure fluctuations downstream of concentric and eccentric blunt stenosis models.**

*Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine*, **234(1):**48-60.

Pressure fluctuations that cause acoustic radiation from vessel models with concentric and eccentric blunt stenoses are investigated. Large eddy simulations of non-pulsatile flow condition are performed using OpenFOAM. Calculated amplitude and spatial-spectral distribution of acoustic pressures at the post-stenotic region are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. It is found that increasing the Reynolds number does not change the location of the maximum root mean square wall pressure, but causes a general increase in the spectrum level, although the change in the shape of the spectrum is not significant. On the contrary, compared to the concentric model at the same Reynolds number, eccentricity leads to an increase both at the distance of the location of the maximum root mean square wall pressure from the stenosis exit and the spectrum level. This effect becomes more distinct when radial eccentricity of the stenosis increases. Both the flow rate and the eccentricity of the stenosis shape are evaluated to be clinically important parameters in diagnosing stenosis.

Additional Links: PMID-31648622

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@article {pmid31648622,

year = {2020},

author = {Ozden, K and Sert, C and Yazicioglu, Y},

title = {Numerical investigation of wall pressure fluctuations downstream of concentric and eccentric blunt stenosis models.},

journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine},

volume = {234},

number = {1},

pages = {48-60},

doi = {10.1177/0954411919884167},

pmid = {31648622},

issn = {2041-3033},

abstract = {Pressure fluctuations that cause acoustic radiation from vessel models with concentric and eccentric blunt stenoses are investigated. Large eddy simulations of non-pulsatile flow condition are performed using OpenFOAM. Calculated amplitude and spatial-spectral distribution of acoustic pressures at the post-stenotic region are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. It is found that increasing the Reynolds number does not change the location of the maximum root mean square wall pressure, but causes a general increase in the spectrum level, although the change in the shape of the spectrum is not significant. On the contrary, compared to the concentric model at the same Reynolds number, eccentricity leads to an increase both at the distance of the location of the maximum root mean square wall pressure from the stenosis exit and the spectrum level. This effect becomes more distinct when radial eccentricity of the stenosis increases. Both the flow rate and the eccentricity of the stenosis shape are evaluated to be clinically important parameters in diagnosing stenosis.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Thermally Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in Elliptical Minichannels with Constant Wall Temperature.**

*Micromachines*, **10(10):**.

Laminar convective heat transfer of elliptical minichannels is investigated for hydrodynamically fully developed but thermal developing flow with no-slip condition. A three-dimensional numerical model is developed in different elliptical geometries with the aspect ratio varying from 0.2 to 1. The effect of Reynolds number (25 ≤ Re ≤ 2000) on the local Nusselt number is examined in detail. The results indicate that the local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of Reynolds number and it is sensitive to Reynolds number especially for Re less than 250. The effect of aspect ratio on local Nusselt number is small when compared with the effect of Reynolds number on local Nusselt number. The local Nusselt number is independent of cross-section geometry at the inlet. The maximum effect of aspect ratio on local Nusselt number arises at the transition section rather than the fully developed region. However, the non-dimensional thermal entrance length is a monotonic decreasing concave function of aspect ratio but a weak function of Reynolds number. Correlations for the local Nusselt number and the thermal developing length for elliptical channels are developed with good accuracy, which may provide guidance for design and optimization of elliptical minichannel heat sinks.

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@article {pmid31640254,

year = {2019},

author = {Su, L and Duan, Z and He, B and Ma, H and Xu, Z},

title = {Thermally Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in Elliptical Minichannels with Constant Wall Temperature.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {10},

pages = {},

pmid = {31640254},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {2019YJS158//Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities/ ; },

abstract = {Laminar convective heat transfer of elliptical minichannels is investigated for hydrodynamically fully developed but thermal developing flow with no-slip condition. A three-dimensional numerical model is developed in different elliptical geometries with the aspect ratio varying from 0.2 to 1. The effect of Reynolds number (25 ≤ Re ≤ 2000) on the local Nusselt number is examined in detail. The results indicate that the local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of Reynolds number and it is sensitive to Reynolds number especially for Re less than 250. The effect of aspect ratio on local Nusselt number is small when compared with the effect of Reynolds number on local Nusselt number. The local Nusselt number is independent of cross-section geometry at the inlet. The maximum effect of aspect ratio on local Nusselt number arises at the transition section rather than the fully developed region. However, the non-dimensional thermal entrance length is a monotonic decreasing concave function of aspect ratio but a weak function of Reynolds number. Correlations for the local Nusselt number and the thermal developing length for elliptical channels are developed with good accuracy, which may provide guidance for design and optimization of elliptical minichannel heat sinks.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Single and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Three-Dimensional Unbalanced Split-and-Recombine Micromixer.**

*Micromachines*, **10(10):**.

The three-dimensional geometry of a micromixer with an asymmetrical split-and-recombine mechanism was optimized to enhance the fluid-mixing capability at a Reynolds number of 20. Single and multi-objective optimizations were carried out by using particle swarm optimization and a genetic algorithm on a modeled surrogate surface. Surrogate modeling was performed using the computational results for the mixing. Mixing and flow analyses were carried out by solving the convection-diffusion equation in combination with the three-dimensional continuity and momentum equations. The optimization was carried out with two design variables related to dimensionless geometric parameters. The mixing effectiveness was chosen as the objective function for the single-objective optimization, and the pressure drop and mixing index at the outlet were chosen for the multi-objective optimization. The sampling points in the design space were determined using a design of experiment technique called Latin hypercube sampling. The surrogates for the objective functions were developed using a Kriging model. The single-objective optimization resulted in 58.9% enhancement of the mixing effectiveness compared to the reference design. The multi-objective optimization provided Pareto-optimal solutions that showed a maximum increase of 48.5% in the mixing index and a maximum decrease of 55.0% in the pressure drop in comparison to the reference design.

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@article {pmid31640175,

year = {2019},

author = {Raza, W and Ma, SB and Kim, KY},

title = {Single and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Three-Dimensional Unbalanced Split-and-Recombine Micromixer.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {10},

pages = {},

pmid = {31640175},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {No. 2019R1A2C1007657//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; },

abstract = {The three-dimensional geometry of a micromixer with an asymmetrical split-and-recombine mechanism was optimized to enhance the fluid-mixing capability at a Reynolds number of 20. Single and multi-objective optimizations were carried out by using particle swarm optimization and a genetic algorithm on a modeled surrogate surface. Surrogate modeling was performed using the computational results for the mixing. Mixing and flow analyses were carried out by solving the convection-diffusion equation in combination with the three-dimensional continuity and momentum equations. The optimization was carried out with two design variables related to dimensionless geometric parameters. The mixing effectiveness was chosen as the objective function for the single-objective optimization, and the pressure drop and mixing index at the outlet were chosen for the multi-objective optimization. The sampling points in the design space were determined using a design of experiment technique called Latin hypercube sampling. The surrogates for the objective functions were developed using a Kriging model. The single-objective optimization resulted in 58.9% enhancement of the mixing effectiveness compared to the reference design. The multi-objective optimization provided Pareto-optimal solutions that showed a maximum increase of 48.5% in the mixing index and a maximum decrease of 55.0% in the pressure drop in comparison to the reference design.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2019-10-28

**Kolmogorov or Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling: Universal energy spectra in stably stratified turbulent fluids.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(3-1):**033117.

We set up the scaling theory for stably stratified turbulent fluids. For a system having infinite extent in the horizontal directions, but with a finite width in the vertical direction, this theory predicts that the inertial range can display three possible scaling behavior, which are essentially parametrized by the buoyancy frequency N, or dimensionless horizontal Froude number F_{h}, and the vertical length scale l_{v} that sets the scale of variation of the velocity field in the vertical direction for a fixed Reynolds number. For very low N or very high Re_{b} or F_{h}, and with l_{v}≫l_{h}, the typical horizontal length scale, buoyancy forces are irrelevant and hence, unsurprisingly, the kinetic energy spectra show the well-known K41 scaling in the inertial range. In this regime, the local temperature behaves as a passively advected scalar, without any effect on the flow fields. For intermediate ranges of values of N,F_{h}∼O(1), corresponding to moderate stratification, buoyancy forces are important enough to affect the scaling. This leads to the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling which is isotropic, when l_{v}∼l_{h}. Finally, for very large N, corresponding to strong stratification, together with a very small l_{v}, the inertial-range flow fields effectively two-dimensionalize. The kinetic energy spectra are predicted to be anisotropic with only the horizontal part of the kinetic energy spectra following the K41 scaling. This suggests an intriguing re-entrant K41 scaling, as a function of stratification, for the horizontal components of the velocity field in this regime. The scaling theory further predicts the scaling of the thermal energy in each of these three scaling regimes. Our theory can be tested in large-scale simulations and appropriate laboratory-based experiments.

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@article {pmid31639948,

year = {2019},

author = {Basu, A and Bhattacharjee, JK},

title = {Kolmogorov or Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling: Universal energy spectra in stably stratified turbulent fluids.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {3-1},

pages = {033117},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.033117},

pmid = {31639948},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {We set up the scaling theory for stably stratified turbulent fluids. For a system having infinite extent in the horizontal directions, but with a finite width in the vertical direction, this theory predicts that the inertial range can display three possible scaling behavior, which are essentially parametrized by the buoyancy frequency N, or dimensionless horizontal Froude number F_{h},

and the vertical length scale l_{v}

that sets the scale of variation of the velocity field in the vertical direction for a fixed Reynolds number. For very low N or very high Re_{b}

or F_{h},

and with l_{v}

l_{h},

the typical horizontal length scale, buoyancy forces are irrelevant and hence, unsurprisingly, the kinetic energy spectra show the well-known K41 scaling in the inertial range. In this regime, the local temperature behaves as a passively advected scalar, without any effect on the flow fields. For intermediate ranges of values of N,F_{h}

O(1), corresponding to moderate stratification, buoyancy forces are important enough to affect the scaling. This leads to the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling which is isotropic, when l_{v}

l_{h}.

Finally, for very large N, corresponding to strong stratification, together with a very small l_{v},

the inertial-range flow fields effectively two-dimensionalize. The kinetic energy spectra are predicted to be anisotropic with only the horizontal part of the kinetic energy spectra following the K41 scaling. This suggests an intriguing re-entrant K41 scaling, as a function of stratification, for the horizontal components of the velocity field in this regime. The scaling theory further predicts the scaling of the thermal energy in each of these three scaling regimes. Our theory can be tested in large-scale simulations and appropriate laboratory-based experiments.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Dynamic slip wall model for large-eddy simulation.**

*Journal of fluid mechanics*, **859:**400-432.

Wall modelling in large-eddy simulation (LES) is necessary to overcome the prohibitive near-wall resolution requirements in high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. Most existing wall models rely on assumptions about the state of the boundary layer and require a priori prescription of tunable coefficients. They also impose the predicted wall stress by replacing the no-slip boundary condition at the wall with a Neumann boundary condition in the wall-parallel directions while maintaining the no-transpiration condition in the wall-normal direction. In the present study, we first motivate and analyse the Robin (slip) boundary condition with transpiration (non-zero wall-normal velocity) in the context of wall-modelled LES. The effect of the slip boundary condition on the one-point statistics of the flow is investigated in LES of turbulent channel flow and a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. It is shown that the slip condition provides a framework to compensate for the deficit or excess of mean momentum at the wall. Moreover, the resulting non-zero stress at the wall alleviates the well-known problem of the wall-stress under-estimation by current subgrid-scale (SGS) models (Jiménez & Moser, AIAA J., vol. 38 (4), 2000, pp. 605-612). Second, we discuss the requirements for the slip condition to be used in conjunction with wall models and derive the equation that connects the slip boundary condition with the stress at the wall. Finally, a dynamic procedure for the slip coefficients is formulated, providing a dynamic slip wall model free of a priori specified coefficients. The performance of the proposed dynamic wall model is tested in a series of LES of turbulent channel flow at varying Reynolds numbers, non-equilibrium three-dimensional transient channel flow and a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. The results show that the dynamic wall model is able to accurately predict one-point turbulence statistics for various flow configurations, Reynolds numbers and grid resolutions.

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@article {pmid31631905,

year = {2019},

author = {Bae, HJ and Lozano-Durán, A and Bose, ST and Moin, P},

title = {Dynamic slip wall model for large-eddy simulation.},

journal = {Journal of fluid mechanics},

volume = {859},

number = {},

pages = {400-432},

pmid = {31631905},

issn = {0022-1120},

support = {NNX15AU93A//NASA/United States ; },

abstract = {Wall modelling in large-eddy simulation (LES) is necessary to overcome the prohibitive near-wall resolution requirements in high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. Most existing wall models rely on assumptions about the state of the boundary layer and require a priori prescription of tunable coefficients. They also impose the predicted wall stress by replacing the no-slip boundary condition at the wall with a Neumann boundary condition in the wall-parallel directions while maintaining the no-transpiration condition in the wall-normal direction. In the present study, we first motivate and analyse the Robin (slip) boundary condition with transpiration (non-zero wall-normal velocity) in the context of wall-modelled LES. The effect of the slip boundary condition on the one-point statistics of the flow is investigated in LES of turbulent channel flow and a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. It is shown that the slip condition provides a framework to compensate for the deficit or excess of mean momentum at the wall. Moreover, the resulting non-zero stress at the wall alleviates the well-known problem of the wall-stress under-estimation by current subgrid-scale (SGS) models (Jiménez & Moser, AIAA J., vol. 38 (4), 2000, pp. 605-612). Second, we discuss the requirements for the slip condition to be used in conjunction with wall models and derive the equation that connects the slip boundary condition with the stress at the wall. Finally, a dynamic procedure for the slip coefficients is formulated, providing a dynamic slip wall model free of a priori specified coefficients. The performance of the proposed dynamic wall model is tested in a series of LES of turbulent channel flow at varying Reynolds numbers, non-equilibrium three-dimensional transient channel flow and a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. The results show that the dynamic wall model is able to accurately predict one-point turbulence statistics for various flow configurations, Reynolds numbers and grid resolutions.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Error scaling of large-eddy simulation in the outer region of wall-bounded turbulence.**

*Journal of computational physics*, **392:**532-555.

We study the error scaling properties of large-eddy simulation (LES) in the outer region of wall-bounded turbulence at moderately high Reynolds numbers. In order to avoid the additional complexity of wall-modeling, we perform LES of turbulent channel flows in which the no-slip condition at the wall is replaced by a Neumann condition supplying the exact mean wall-stress. The statistics investigated are the mean velocity profile, turbulence intensities, and kinetic energy spectra. The errors follow (Δ / L) α R e τ γ , where Δ is the characteristic grid resolution, Reτ is the friction Reynolds number, and L is the meaningful length-scale to normalize Δ in order to collapse the errors across the wall-normal distance. We show that Δ can be expressed as the L2-norm of the grid vector and that L is well represented by the ratio of the friction velocity and mean shear. The exponent α is estimated from theoretical arguments for each statistical quantity of interest and shown to roughly match the values computed by numerical simulations. For the mean profile and kinetic energy spectra, α ≈ 1, whereas the turbulence intensities converge at a slower rate α < 1. The exponent γ is approximately 0, i.e. the LES solution is independent of the Reynolds number. The expected behavior of the turbulence intensities at high Reynolds numbers is also derived and shown to agree with the classic log-layer profiles for grid resolutions lying within the inertial range. Further examination of the LES turbulence intensities and spectra reveals that both quantities resemble their filtered counterparts from direct numerical simulation (DNS) data, but that the mechanism responsible for this similarity is related to the balance between the input power and dissipation rather than to filtering.

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@article {pmid31631902,

year = {2019},

author = {Lozano-Durán, A and Bae, HJ},

title = {Error scaling of large-eddy simulation in the outer region of wall-bounded turbulence.},

journal = {Journal of computational physics},

volume = {392},

number = {},

pages = {532-555},

pmid = {31631902},

issn = {0021-9991},

support = {NNX15AU93A//NASA/United States ; },

abstract = {We study the error scaling properties of large-eddy simulation (LES) in the outer region of wall-bounded turbulence at moderately high Reynolds numbers. In order to avoid the additional complexity of wall-modeling, we perform LES of turbulent channel flows in which the no-slip condition at the wall is replaced by a Neumann condition supplying the exact mean wall-stress. The statistics investigated are the mean velocity profile, turbulence intensities, and kinetic energy spectra. The errors follow (Δ / L) α R e τ γ , where Δ is the characteristic grid resolution, Reτ is the friction Reynolds number, and L is the meaningful length-scale to normalize Δ in order to collapse the errors across the wall-normal distance. We show that Δ can be expressed as the L2-norm of the grid vector and that L is well represented by the ratio of the friction velocity and mean shear. The exponent α is estimated from theoretical arguments for each statistical quantity of interest and shown to roughly match the values computed by numerical simulations. For the mean profile and kinetic energy spectra, α ≈ 1, whereas the turbulence intensities converge at a slower rate α < 1. The exponent γ is approximately 0, i.e. the LES solution is independent of the Reynolds number. The expected behavior of the turbulence intensities at high Reynolds numbers is also derived and shown to agree with the classic log-layer profiles for grid resolutions lying within the inertial range. Further examination of the LES turbulence intensities and spectra reveals that both quantities resemble their filtered counterparts from direct numerical simulation (DNS) data, but that the mechanism responsible for this similarity is related to the balance between the input power and dissipation rather than to filtering.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-07

**Entropy optimization in CNTs based nanomaterial flow induced by rotating disks: A study on the accuracy of statistical declaration and probable error.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **184:**105105 pii:S0169-2607(19)31590-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: CNTs (Carbon nanotubes) being allotropes of carbon, made of graphene and diameters of single and multi-walls carbon nanotubes are typically 0.8 to 2 nm and 5 to 20 mn, although diameter of MWCNTs can exceed 100 nm. Carbon nanotubes lengths range from less than 100 nm to 0.5 m. Their impressive structural, electronic and mechanical attributes subject to their small size and mass, their high electrical and thermal conductivities, and their strong mechanical potency. CNTs based materials are successfully applied in medicine and pharmacy subject to their huge surface area that is proficient of conjugating or adsorbing with a wide variety of genes, drugs, antibodies, vaccines and biosensors etc. Therefore, we have presented a theoretical study about mathematical modeling of CNTs based viscous material flow between two rotating disks. Both types of nanotubes i.e., SWCNTs and MWCNTs are considered. Xue model is used for the mathematical modeling. Fluid flow is due to rotating disks. Main focus here is given to probable error and statistical declaration. Entropy is calculated for both single and multi-walls nanotubes.

METHOD: Nonlinear PDEs are first converted into ODEs and then computed for homotopy convergent solutions.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Statistical declaration and probable error for skin friction and Nusselt number are numerically computed and discussed through Tables. From obtained outcomes it is concluded that magnitude of skin friction increases at both disks surface for higher values of Reynolds number, lower stretching parameter and porosity parameter while it decays for both of disks versus larger rotation parameter. Nusselt number or heat transfer rate also enhances at both disks in the presence of radiation and Reynolds number while it decays against Eckert number.

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@article {pmid31627151,

year = {2019},

author = {Hayat, T and Waqar Ahmad, M and Ijaz Khan, M and Alsaedi, A},

title = {Entropy optimization in CNTs based nanomaterial flow induced by rotating disks: A study on the accuracy of statistical declaration and probable error.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {184},

number = {},

pages = {105105},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105105},

pmid = {31627151},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND: CNTs (Carbon nanotubes) being allotropes of carbon, made of graphene and diameters of single and multi-walls carbon nanotubes are typically 0.8 to 2 nm and 5 to 20 mn, although diameter of MWCNTs can exceed 100 nm. Carbon nanotubes lengths range from less than 100 nm to 0.5 m. Their impressive structural, electronic and mechanical attributes subject to their small size and mass, their high electrical and thermal conductivities, and their strong mechanical potency. CNTs based materials are successfully applied in medicine and pharmacy subject to their huge surface area that is proficient of conjugating or adsorbing with a wide variety of genes, drugs, antibodies, vaccines and biosensors etc. Therefore, we have presented a theoretical study about mathematical modeling of CNTs based viscous material flow between two rotating disks. Both types of nanotubes i.e., SWCNTs and MWCNTs are considered. Xue model is used for the mathematical modeling. Fluid flow is due to rotating disks. Main focus here is given to probable error and statistical declaration. Entropy is calculated for both single and multi-walls nanotubes.

METHOD: Nonlinear PDEs are first converted into ODEs and then computed for homotopy convergent solutions.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Statistical declaration and probable error for skin friction and Nusselt number are numerically computed and discussed through Tables. From obtained outcomes it is concluded that magnitude of skin friction increases at both disks surface for higher values of Reynolds number, lower stretching parameter and porosity parameter while it decays for both of disks versus larger rotation parameter. Nusselt number or heat transfer rate also enhances at both disks in the presence of radiation and Reynolds number while it decays against Eckert number.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

CmpDate: 2019-12-02

**Sedimenting pairs of elastic microfilaments.**

*Soft matter*, **15(46):**9405-9417.

The dynamics of two identical elastic filaments settling under gravity in a viscous fluid in the low Reynolds number regime is investigated numerically. A large family of initial configurations symmetric with respect to a vertical plane is considered, as well as their non-symmetric perturbations. The behaviour of the filaments is primarily governed by the elasto-gravitational number, which depends on the filament's length and flexibility, and the strength of the external force. Flexible filaments usually converge toward horizontal and parallel orientation. We explain this phenomenon and show that it occurs also for curved rigid particles of similar shapes. Once aligned, the two fibres either converge toward a stationary, flexibility-dependent distance, or tend to collide or continuously repel each other. Rigid and straight rods perform periodic motions while settling down. Apart from very stiff particles, the dynamics is robust to non-symmetric perturbations.

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@article {pmid31620754,

year = {2019},

author = {Bukowicki, M and Ekiel-Jeżewska, ML},

title = {Sedimenting pairs of elastic microfilaments.},

journal = {Soft matter},

volume = {15},

number = {46},

pages = {9405-9417},

doi = {10.1039/c9sm01373c},

pmid = {31620754},

issn = {1744-6848},

abstract = {The dynamics of two identical elastic filaments settling under gravity in a viscous fluid in the low Reynolds number regime is investigated numerically. A large family of initial configurations symmetric with respect to a vertical plane is considered, as well as their non-symmetric perturbations. The behaviour of the filaments is primarily governed by the elasto-gravitational number, which depends on the filament's length and flexibility, and the strength of the external force. Flexible filaments usually converge toward horizontal and parallel orientation. We explain this phenomenon and show that it occurs also for curved rigid particles of similar shapes. Once aligned, the two fibres either converge toward a stationary, flexibility-dependent distance, or tend to collide or continuously repel each other. Rigid and straight rods perform periodic motions while settling down. Apart from very stiff particles, the dynamics is robust to non-symmetric perturbations.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-23

**A trio of simple optimized axisymmetric kinematic dynamos in a sphere.**

*Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences*, **475(2229):**20190308.

Planetary magnetic fields are generated by the motion of conductive fluid in the planet's interior. Complex flows are not required for dynamo action; simple flows have been shown to act as efficient kinematic dynamos, whose physical characteristics are more straightforward to study. Recently, Chen et al. (2018, J. Fluid Mech.839, 1-32. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2017.924)) found the optimal, unconstrained kinematic dynamo in a sphere, which, despite being of theoretical importance, is of limited practical use. We extend their work by restricting the optimization to three simple two-mode axisymmetric flows based on the kinematic dynamos of Dudley & James (1989, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A425, 407-429. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1989.0112)). Using a Lagrangian optimization, we find the smallest critical magnetic Reynolds number for each flow type, measured using an enstrophy-based norm. A Galerkin method is used, in which the spectral coefficients of the fluid flow and magnetic field are updated in order to maximize the final magnetic energy. We consider the t01s01, t01s02 and t02s02 flows and find enstrophy-based critical magnetic Reynolds numbers of 107.7, 142.4 and 125.5 (13.7, 19.6 and 16.4, respectively, with the energy-based definition). These are up to four times smaller than the original flows. These simple and efficient flows may be used as benchmarks in future studies.

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@article {pmid31611726,

year = {2019},

author = {Holdenried-Chernoff, D and Chen, L and Jackson, A},

title = {A trio of simple optimized axisymmetric kinematic dynamos in a sphere.},

journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences},

volume = {475},

number = {2229},

pages = {20190308},

pmid = {31611726},

issn = {1364-5021},

abstract = {Planetary magnetic fields are generated by the motion of conductive fluid in the planet's interior. Complex flows are not required for dynamo action; simple flows have been shown to act as efficient kinematic dynamos, whose physical characteristics are more straightforward to study. Recently, Chen et al. (2018, J. Fluid Mech.839, 1-32. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2017.924)) found the optimal, unconstrained kinematic dynamo in a sphere, which, despite being of theoretical importance, is of limited practical use. We extend their work by restricting the optimization to three simple two-mode axisymmetric flows based on the kinematic dynamos of Dudley & James (1989, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A425, 407-429. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1989.0112)). Using a Lagrangian optimization, we find the smallest critical magnetic Reynolds number for each flow type, measured using an enstrophy-based norm. A Galerkin method is used, in which the spectral coefficients of the fluid flow and magnetic field are updated in order to maximize the final magnetic energy. We consider the t01s01, t01s02 and t02s02 flows and find enstrophy-based critical magnetic Reynolds numbers of 107.7, 142.4 and 125.5 (13.7, 19.6 and 16.4, respectively, with the energy-based definition). These are up to four times smaller than the original flows. These simple and efficient flows may be used as benchmarks in future studies.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Pore-Scale Flow Characterization of Polymer Solutions in Microfluidic Porous Media.**

*Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)* [Epub ahead of print].

Polymer solutions are frequently used in enhanced oil recovery and groundwater remediation to improve the recovery of trapped nonaqueous fluids. However, applications are limited by an incomplete understanding of the flow in porous media. The tortuous pore structure imposes both shear and extension, which elongates polymers; moreover, the flow is often at large Weissenberg numbers, Wi, at which polymer elasticity in turn strongly alters the flow. This dynamic elongation can even produce flow instabilities with strong spatial and temporal fluctuations despite the low Reynolds number, Re. Unfortunately, macroscopic approaches are limited in their ability to characterize the pore-scale flow. Thus, understanding how polymer conformations, flow dynamics, and pore geometry together determine these nontrivial flow patterns and impact macroscopic transport remains an outstanding challenge. This review describes how microfluidic tools can shed light on the physics underlying the flow of polymer solutions in porous media at high Wi and low Re. Specifically, microfluidic studies elucidate how steady and unsteady flow behavior depends on pore geometry and solution properties, and how polymer-induced effects impact nonaqueous fluid recovery. This work thus provides new insights for polymer dynamics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, and applications such as enhanced oil recovery and groundwater remediation.

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@article {pmid31602809,

year = {2019},

author = {Browne, CA and Shih, A and Datta, SS},

title = {Pore-Scale Flow Characterization of Polymer Solutions in Microfluidic Porous Media.},

journal = {Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {e1903944},

doi = {10.1002/smll.201903944},

pmid = {31602809},

issn = {1613-6829},

support = {//American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund/ ; DGE-1656466//National Science Foundation/ ; },

abstract = {Polymer solutions are frequently used in enhanced oil recovery and groundwater remediation to improve the recovery of trapped nonaqueous fluids. However, applications are limited by an incomplete understanding of the flow in porous media. The tortuous pore structure imposes both shear and extension, which elongates polymers; moreover, the flow is often at large Weissenberg numbers, Wi, at which polymer elasticity in turn strongly alters the flow. This dynamic elongation can even produce flow instabilities with strong spatial and temporal fluctuations despite the low Reynolds number, Re. Unfortunately, macroscopic approaches are limited in their ability to characterize the pore-scale flow. Thus, understanding how polymer conformations, flow dynamics, and pore geometry together determine these nontrivial flow patterns and impact macroscopic transport remains an outstanding challenge. This review describes how microfluidic tools can shed light on the physics underlying the flow of polymer solutions in porous media at high Wi and low Re. Specifically, microfluidic studies elucidate how steady and unsteady flow behavior depends on pore geometry and solution properties, and how polymer-induced effects impact nonaqueous fluid recovery. This work thus provides new insights for polymer dynamics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, and applications such as enhanced oil recovery and groundwater remediation.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-23

**Supersonic turbulent flow simulation using a scalable parallel modal discontinuous Galerkin numerical method.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**14442 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-50546-w.

The scalability and efficiency of numerical methods on parallel computer architectures is of prime importance as we march towards exascale computing. Classical methods like finite difference schemes and finite volume methods have inherent roadblocks in their mathematical construction to achieve good scalability. These methods are popularly used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow simulations. The discontinuous Galerkin family of methods for solving continuum partial differential equations has shown promise in realizing parallel efficiency and scalability when approaching petascale computations. In this paper an explicit modal discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method utilizing Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) is proposed for unsteady turbulent flow simulations involving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. A study of the method was performed for the Taylor-Green vortex case at a Reynolds number ranging from 100 to 1600. The polynomial order P = 2 (third order accurate) was found to closely match the Direct Navier-Stokes (DNS) results for all Reynolds numbers tested outside of Re = 1600, which had a normalized RMS error of 3.43 × 10-4 in the dissipation rate for a 603 element mesh. The scalability and performance study of the method was then conducted for a Reynolds number of 1600 for polynomials orders from P = 2 to P = 6. The highest order polynomial that was tested (P = 6) was found to have the most efficient scalability using both the MPI and OpenMP implementations.

Additional Links: PMID-31594959

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@article {pmid31594959,

year = {2019},

author = {Houba, T and Dasgupta, A and Gopalakrishnan, S and Gosse, R and Roy, S},

title = {Supersonic turbulent flow simulation using a scalable parallel modal discontinuous Galerkin numerical method.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {14442},

doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-50546-w},

pmid = {31594959},

issn = {2045-2322},

support = {GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; GS04T09DBC0017//Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//National Science Foundation (NSF)/ ; ACI-1548562//NSF | National Science Board (NSB)/ ; },

abstract = {The scalability and efficiency of numerical methods on parallel computer architectures is of prime importance as we march towards exascale computing. Classical methods like finite difference schemes and finite volume methods have inherent roadblocks in their mathematical construction to achieve good scalability. These methods are popularly used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow simulations. The discontinuous Galerkin family of methods for solving continuum partial differential equations has shown promise in realizing parallel efficiency and scalability when approaching petascale computations. In this paper an explicit modal discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method utilizing Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) is proposed for unsteady turbulent flow simulations involving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. A study of the method was performed for the Taylor-Green vortex case at a Reynolds number ranging from 100 to 1600. The polynomial order P = 2 (third order accurate) was found to closely match the Direct Navier-Stokes (DNS) results for all Reynolds numbers tested outside of Re = 1600, which had a normalized RMS error of 3.43 × 10-4 in the dissipation rate for a 603 element mesh. The scalability and performance study of the method was then conducted for a Reynolds number of 1600 for polynomials orders from P = 2 to P = 6. The highest order polynomial that was tested (P = 6) was found to have the most efficient scalability using both the MPI and OpenMP implementations.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-08

**The effect of the incoming boundary layer thickness on the aeroacoustics of finite wall-mounted square cylinders.**

*The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, **146(3):**1808.

This paper is concerned with the influence of the incoming wall boundary layer thickness on the noise produced by a square finite wall-mounted cylinder in cross-flow. Acoustic and near wake velocity measurements have been taken in an anechoic wind tunnel for a cylinder in two different near-zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers with thicknesses of 130% and 370% of the cylinder width, W. The cylinders have an aspect ratio of 0.29≤L/W≤22.9 (where L is the cylinder span) and were examined at a Reynolds number, based on width, of ReW = 1.4 × 104. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that increasing the height of the boundary layer delays the production of acoustic tones to higher aspect ratios. The height of the boundary layer changes the balance between upwash and downwash across the cylinder span, resulting in a delayed onset of the shedding regimes and correspondingly, the production of acoustic tones.

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@article {pmid31590559,

year = {2019},

author = {Porteous, R and Moreau, DJ and Doolan, CJ},

title = {The effect of the incoming boundary layer thickness on the aeroacoustics of finite wall-mounted square cylinders.},

journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},

volume = {146},

number = {3},

pages = {1808},

doi = {10.1121/1.5126693},

pmid = {31590559},

issn = {1520-8524},

abstract = {This paper is concerned with the influence of the incoming wall boundary layer thickness on the noise produced by a square finite wall-mounted cylinder in cross-flow. Acoustic and near wake velocity measurements have been taken in an anechoic wind tunnel for a cylinder in two different near-zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers with thicknesses of 130% and 370% of the cylinder width, W. The cylinders have an aspect ratio of 0.29≤L/W≤22.9 (where L is the cylinder span) and were examined at a Reynolds number, based on width, of ReW = 1.4 × 104. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that increasing the height of the boundary layer delays the production of acoustic tones to higher aspect ratios. The height of the boundary layer changes the balance between upwash and downwash across the cylinder span, resulting in a delayed onset of the shedding regimes and correspondingly, the production of acoustic tones.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-26

**Viscosity Estimation of a Suspension with Rigid Spheres in Circular Microchannels Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry.**

*Micromachines*, **10(10):**.

Suspension flows are ubiquitous in industry and nature. Therefore, it is important to understand the rheological properties of a suspension. The key to understanding the mechanism of suspension rheology is considering changes in its microstructure. It is difficult to evaluate the influence of change in the microstructure on the rheological properties affected by the macroscopic flow field for non-colloidal particles. In this study, we propose a new method to evaluate the changes in both the microstructure and rheological properties of a suspension using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a power-law fluid model. Dilute suspension (0.38%) flows with fluorescent particles in a microchannel with a circular cross section were measured under low Reynolds number conditions (Re ≈ 10-4). Furthermore, the distribution of suspended particles in the radial direction was obtained from the measured images. Based on the power-law index and dependence of relative viscosity on the shear rate, we observed that the non-Newtonian properties of the suspension showed shear-thinning. This method will be useful in revealing the relationship between microstructural changes in a suspension and its rheology.

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@article {pmid31590317,

year = {2019},

author = {Kawaguchi, M and Fukui, T and Funamoto, K and Tanaka, M and Tanaka, M and Murata, S and Miyauchi, S and Hayase, T},

title = {Viscosity Estimation of a Suspension with Rigid Spheres in Circular Microchannels Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {10},

pages = {},

pmid = {31590317},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {Suspension flows are ubiquitous in industry and nature. Therefore, it is important to understand the rheological properties of a suspension. The key to understanding the mechanism of suspension rheology is considering changes in its microstructure. It is difficult to evaluate the influence of change in the microstructure on the rheological properties affected by the macroscopic flow field for non-colloidal particles. In this study, we propose a new method to evaluate the changes in both the microstructure and rheological properties of a suspension using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a power-law fluid model. Dilute suspension (0.38%) flows with fluorescent particles in a microchannel with a circular cross section were measured under low Reynolds number conditions (Re ≈ 10-4). Furthermore, the distribution of suspended particles in the radial direction was obtained from the measured images. Based on the power-law index and dependence of relative viscosity on the shear rate, we observed that the non-Newtonian properties of the suspension showed shear-thinning. This method will be useful in revealing the relationship between microstructural changes in a suspension and its rheology.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-02

CmpDate: 2019-10-02

**Wall-mounted flexible plates in a two-dimensional channel trigger early flow instabilities.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(2-1):**023109.

A high level of mixing by passive means is a desirable feature in microchannels for various applications, and use of flexible obstacles (or plates) is one of the prime choices in that regard. To gain further insight, we carry out two-dimensional numerical simulations for flow past one or two flexible plates anchored to a channel's opposite walls using a fluid-structure interaction framework. For the inlet flow Reynolds number vs the Strouhal number plane, we observe a sudden flow change from a laminar to a time-periodic vortex shedding state when flexible plates are present in the channel. We found the critical Reynolds number to be Re_{cr}≈370 when a single plate is anchored on the channel wall and Re_{cr}≈290 or even lower when two plates are anchored. With an increase in the inlet flow Reynolds number (up to 3200), we found that vortices detach regularly at the plates' tips, which causes the flow to meander in the channel. In a two-plate anchored configuration, primary vortices generated at the first plate are constrained by the second plate and result in an energetic secondary vortex generation in the downstream side. The overall flow features and the energy dissipation in the channel are mainly controlled by the separation gap between the plates. At high-inlet-flow Reynolds numbers (≥1600), the probability density function (F) of the kinetic energy dissipation in a flexible plate configuration shows a stretched exponential shape in the form F(Z)∼1/sqrt[Z]e^{-pZ^{q}}, where Z is the normalized kinetic energy dissipation and the constants p=0.89 and q=0.86. The observed increase in energy dissipation comes at the cost of an increase in pressure loss in the channel, and we found that the loss is inversely related to the plates' separation gap. From our simulations, we found that if high mixing levels are desired, then two flexible plates anchored to the channel walls is a better choice than a channel flow without obstacles or flow past a single plate. The two-plate configuration with zero separation gap between the plates is best suited to achieve a high mixing level.

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@article {pmid31574775,

year = {2019},

author = {Singh, G and Lakkaraju, R},

title = {Wall-mounted flexible plates in a two-dimensional channel trigger early flow instabilities.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {2-1},

pages = {023109},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023109},

pmid = {31574775},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {A high level of mixing by passive means is a desirable feature in microchannels for various applications, and use of flexible obstacles (or plates) is one of the prime choices in that regard. To gain further insight, we carry out two-dimensional numerical simulations for flow past one or two flexible plates anchored to a channel's opposite walls using a fluid-structure interaction framework. For the inlet flow Reynolds number vs the Strouhal number plane, we observe a sudden flow change from a laminar to a time-periodic vortex shedding state when flexible plates are present in the channel. We found the critical Reynolds number to be Re_{cr}

370 when a single plate is anchored on the channel wall and Re_{cr}

290 or even lower when two plates are anchored. With an increase in the inlet flow Reynolds number (up to 3200), we found that vortices detach regularly at the plates' tips, which causes the flow to meander in the channel. In a two-plate anchored configuration, primary vortices generated at the first plate are constrained by the second plate and result in an energetic secondary vortex generation in the downstream side. The overall flow features and the energy dissipation in the channel are mainly controlled by the separation gap between the plates. At high-inlet-flow Reynolds numbers (≥1600), the probability density function (F) of the kinetic energy dissipation in a flexible plate configuration shows a stretched exponential shape in the form F(Z)∼1/sqrt[Z]e^{-pZ^{q}}

, where Z is the normalized kinetic energy dissipation and the constants p=0.89 and q=0.86. The observed increase in energy dissipation comes at the cost of an increase in pressure loss in the channel, and we found that the loss is inversely related to the plates' separation gap. From our simulations, we found that if high mixing levels are desired, then two flexible plates anchored to the channel walls is a better choice than a channel flow without obstacles or flow past a single plate. The two-plate configuration with zero separation gap between the plates is best suited to achieve a high mixing level.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-02

CmpDate: 2019-10-02

**Hybrid recursive regularized lattice Boltzmann simulation of humid air with application to meteorological flows.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(2-1):**023304.

An extended version of the hybrid recursive regularized lattice-Boltzmann model which incorporates external force is developed to simulate humid air flows with phase change mechanisms under the Boussinesq approximation. Mass and momentum conservation equations are solved by a regularized lattice Boltzmann approach well suited for high Reynolds number flows, whereas the energy and humidity related equations are solved by a finite volume approach. Two options are investigated to account for cloud formation in atmospheric flow simulations. The first option considers a single conservation equation for total water and an appropriate invariant variable of temperature. In the other approach, liquid and vapor are considered via two separated equations, and phase transition is accounted for via a relaxation procedure. The obtained models are then systematically validated on four well-established benchmark problems including a double diffusive Rayleigh Bénard convection of humid air, two- and three-dimensional thermal moist rising bubble under convective atmospheric environment, as well as a shallow cumulus convection in the framework of large-eddy simulation.

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@article {pmid31574747,

year = {2019},

author = {Feng, Y and Boivin, P and Jacob, J and Sagaut, P},

title = {Hybrid recursive regularized lattice Boltzmann simulation of humid air with application to meteorological flows.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {2-1},

pages = {023304},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023304},

pmid = {31574747},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {An extended version of the hybrid recursive regularized lattice-Boltzmann model which incorporates external force is developed to simulate humid air flows with phase change mechanisms under the Boussinesq approximation. Mass and momentum conservation equations are solved by a regularized lattice Boltzmann approach well suited for high Reynolds number flows, whereas the energy and humidity related equations are solved by a finite volume approach. Two options are investigated to account for cloud formation in atmospheric flow simulations. The first option considers a single conservation equation for total water and an appropriate invariant variable of temperature. In the other approach, liquid and vapor are considered via two separated equations, and phase transition is accounted for via a relaxation procedure. The obtained models are then systematically validated on four well-established benchmark problems including a double diffusive Rayleigh Bénard convection of humid air, two- and three-dimensional thermal moist rising bubble under convective atmospheric environment, as well as a shallow cumulus convection in the framework of large-eddy simulation.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-02

CmpDate: 2019-10-02

**Taylor-vortex flow in shear-thinning fluids.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(2-1):**023117.

This paper deals with the Taylor-Couette flow of shear-thinning fluids. It focuses on the first principles understanding of the influence of the viscosity stratification and the nonlinear variation of the effective viscosity μ with the shear rate γ[over ̇] on the flow structure in the Taylor-vortex flow regime. A wide gap configuration (η=0.4) is mainly considered. A weakly nonlinear analysis, using the amplitude expansion method at high order, is adopted as a first approach to study nonlinear effects. For the numerical computation, the shear-thinning behavior is described by the Carreau model. The rheological parameters are varied in a wide range. The results indicate that the flow field undergoes a significant change as shear-thinning effects increase. First, vortices are squeezed against the inner wall and the center of the patterns is shifted axially toward the radial outflow boundaries (z=0,z/λ_{z}=1). This axial shift leads to increasing concentration of vorticity at these positions. The outflow becomes stronger than the inflow and the extent of the inflow zone where the vorticity is low increases acoordingly. Nevertheless, the strength of the vortices relative to the velocity of the inner cylinder is weaker. Second, the pseudo-Nusselt number, ratio of the torque to that obtained in the laminar flow, decreases. Third, higher harmonics become more relevant and grow faster with Reynolds number. Finally, the modification of the viscosity field is described.

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@article {pmid31574698,

year = {2019},

author = {Topayev, S and Nouar, C and Bernardin, D and Neveu, A and Bahrani, SA},

title = {Taylor-vortex flow in shear-thinning fluids.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {2-1},

pages = {023117},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023117},

pmid = {31574698},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {This paper deals with the Taylor-Couette flow of shear-thinning fluids. It focuses on the first principles understanding of the influence of the viscosity stratification and the nonlinear variation of the effective viscosity μ with the shear rate γ[over ̇] on the flow structure in the Taylor-vortex flow regime. A wide gap configuration (η=0.4) is mainly considered. A weakly nonlinear analysis, using the amplitude expansion method at high order, is adopted as a first approach to study nonlinear effects. For the numerical computation, the shear-thinning behavior is described by the Carreau model. The rheological parameters are varied in a wide range. The results indicate that the flow field undergoes a significant change as shear-thinning effects increase. First, vortices are squeezed against the inner wall and the center of the patterns is shifted axially toward the radial outflow boundaries (z=0,z/λ_{z}=

1). This axial shift leads to increasing concentration of vorticity at these positions. The outflow becomes stronger than the inflow and the extent of the inflow zone where the vorticity is low increases acoordingly. Nevertheless, the strength of the vortices relative to the velocity of the inner cylinder is weaker. Second, the pseudo-Nusselt number, ratio of the torque to that obtained in the laminar flow, decreases. Third, higher harmonics become more relevant and grow faster with Reynolds number. Finally, the modification of the viscosity field is described.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-02

CmpDate: 2019-10-02

**Pseudoentropic derivation of the regularized lattice Boltzmann method.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(2-1):**023302.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) facilitates efficient simulations of fluid turbulence based on advection and collision of local particle distribution functions. To ensure stable simulations on underresolved grids, the collision operator must prevent drastic deviations from local equilibrium. This can be achieved by various methods, such as the multirelaxation time, entropic, quasiequilibrium, regularized, and cumulant schemes. Complementing a part of a unified theoretical framework of these schemes, the present work presents a derivation of the regularized lattice Boltzmann method (RLBM), which follows a recently introduced entropic multirelaxation time LBM by Karlin, Bösch, and Chikatamarla (KBC). It is shown that both methods can be derived by locally maximizing a quadratic Taylor expansion of the entropy function. While KBC expands around the local equilibrium distribution, the RLBM is recovered by expanding entropy around a global equilibrium. Numerical tests were performed to elucidate the role of pseudoentropy maximization in these models. Simulations of a two-dimensional shear layer show that the RLBM successfully reproduces the largest eddies even on a 16×16 grid, while the conventional LBM becomes unstable for grid resolutions of 128×128 and lower. The RLBM suppresses spurious vortices more effectively than KBC. In contrast, simulations of the three-dimensional Taylor-Green and Kida vortices show that KBC performs better in resolving small scale vortices, outperforming the RLBM by a factor of 1.8 in terms of the effective Reynolds number.

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@article {pmid31574640,

year = {2019},

author = {Krämer, A and Wilde, D and Küllmer, K and Reith, D and Foysi, H},

title = {Pseudoentropic derivation of the regularized lattice Boltzmann method.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {2-1},

pages = {023302},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023302},

pmid = {31574640},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) facilitates efficient simulations of fluid turbulence based on advection and collision of local particle distribution functions. To ensure stable simulations on underresolved grids, the collision operator must prevent drastic deviations from local equilibrium. This can be achieved by various methods, such as the multirelaxation time, entropic, quasiequilibrium, regularized, and cumulant schemes. Complementing a part of a unified theoretical framework of these schemes, the present work presents a derivation of the regularized lattice Boltzmann method (RLBM), which follows a recently introduced entropic multirelaxation time LBM by Karlin, Bösch, and Chikatamarla (KBC). It is shown that both methods can be derived by locally maximizing a quadratic Taylor expansion of the entropy function. While KBC expands around the local equilibrium distribution, the RLBM is recovered by expanding entropy around a global equilibrium. Numerical tests were performed to elucidate the role of pseudoentropy maximization in these models. Simulations of a two-dimensional shear layer show that the RLBM successfully reproduces the largest eddies even on a 16×16 grid, while the conventional LBM becomes unstable for grid resolutions of 128×128 and lower. The RLBM suppresses spurious vortices more effectively than KBC. In contrast, simulations of the three-dimensional Taylor-Green and Kida vortices show that KBC performs better in resolving small scale vortices, outperforming the RLBM by a factor of 1.8 in terms of the effective Reynolds number.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-02

**Active morphogenesis of epithelial monolayers.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(2-1):**022413.

During typical early-stage embryo development, single-cell-thick tissues of tightly bound epithelial cells autonomously generate profound changes in their shape, forming the basis of organism anatomy. We report on a (covariant) active-hydrodynamic theory of such monolayer morphogenesis that is closed under its shape-changing dynamics-i.e., the degrees of freedom that encode monolayer geometry appear properly as broken-symmetry variables. In our theory, the salient physics of tissue-scale deformations emerges from a balance between the displacement and/or shear of a low-Reynolds-number embedding fluid (the "yolk") and cell-autonomous stresses, themselves a result of combining apical contractile stresses with an elastic-like mechanical response under the constraint of constant cell volume. The leading-order hydrodynamic instabilities include both passive constrained-buckling and active deformation, which can be further categorized by cell shape changes that are either "squamous to columnar" or "regular-prism to truncated-pyramid." The deformations resulting from the latter qualitatively reproduce in vivo observations of the onset of both mesoderm and posterior midgut invaginations, which take place during gastrulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

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@article {pmid31574614,

year = {2019},

author = {Morris, RG and Rao, M},

title = {Active morphogenesis of epithelial monolayers.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {2-1},

pages = {022413},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.022413},

pmid = {31574614},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {During typical early-stage embryo development, single-cell-thick tissues of tightly bound epithelial cells autonomously generate profound changes in their shape, forming the basis of organism anatomy. We report on a (covariant) active-hydrodynamic theory of such monolayer morphogenesis that is closed under its shape-changing dynamics-i.e., the degrees of freedom that encode monolayer geometry appear properly as broken-symmetry variables. In our theory, the salient physics of tissue-scale deformations emerges from a balance between the displacement and/or shear of a low-Reynolds-number embedding fluid (the "yolk") and cell-autonomous stresses, themselves a result of combining apical contractile stresses with an elastic-like mechanical response under the constraint of constant cell volume. The leading-order hydrodynamic instabilities include both passive constrained-buckling and active deformation, which can be further categorized by cell shape changes that are either "squamous to columnar" or "regular-prism to truncated-pyramid." The deformations resulting from the latter qualitatively reproduce in vivo observations of the onset of both mesoderm and posterior midgut invaginations, which take place during gastrulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.},

}

RevDate: 2019-12-13

**CFD analysis of the flow structure in a monkey upper airway validated by PIV experiments.**

*Respiratory physiology & neurobiology*, **271:**103304.

Inhalation exposure to airborne contaminants has adverse effects on humans; however, related research is typically conducted using in vivo/in vitro tests on animals. Extrapolating the test results is complicated by anatomical and physiological differences between animals and humans and a lack of understanding of the transport mechanism inside their respective respiratory tracts. This study determined the detailed air-flow structure in the upper airway of a monkey. A steady computational fluid dynamics simulation, which was validated by previous particle image velocimetry measurements, was adopted for flow rates of 4 L/min and 10 L/min to analyze the flow structure from the nasal/oral cavities to the trachea region in a monkey airway model. The low Reynolds number type k-ε model provided a reasonably accurate prediction of the airflow in a monkey upper airway. Furthermore, it was confirmed that large velocity gradients were generated in the nasal vestibule and larynx regions, as well as increased turbulent air kinetic energy and wall sheer stress.

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@article {pmid31546025,

year = {2020},

author = {Phuong, NL and Quang, TV and Khoa, ND and Kim, JW and Ito, K},

title = {CFD analysis of the flow structure in a monkey upper airway validated by PIV experiments.},

journal = {Respiratory physiology & neurobiology},

volume = {271},

number = {},

pages = {103304},

doi = {10.1016/j.resp.2019.103304},

pmid = {31546025},

issn = {1878-1519},

abstract = {Inhalation exposure to airborne contaminants has adverse effects on humans; however, related research is typically conducted using in vivo/in vitro tests on animals. Extrapolating the test results is complicated by anatomical and physiological differences between animals and humans and a lack of understanding of the transport mechanism inside their respective respiratory tracts. This study determined the detailed air-flow structure in the upper airway of a monkey. A steady computational fluid dynamics simulation, which was validated by previous particle image velocimetry measurements, was adopted for flow rates of 4 L/min and 10 L/min to analyze the flow structure from the nasal/oral cavities to the trachea region in a monkey airway model. The low Reynolds number type k-ε model provided a reasonably accurate prediction of the airflow in a monkey upper airway. Furthermore, it was confirmed that large velocity gradients were generated in the nasal vestibule and larynx regions, as well as increased turbulent air kinetic energy and wall sheer stress.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-22

**Temporal model of fluid-feeding mechanisms in a long proboscid orchid bee compared to the short proboscid honey bee.**

*Journal of theoretical biology*, **484:**110017.

Bees (Apidae) are flower-visiting insects that possess highly efficient mouthparts for the ingestion of nectar and other sucrose fluids. Their mouthparts are composed of mandibles and a tube-like proboscis. The proboscis forms a food canal, which encompasses a protrusible and hairy tongue to load and imbibe nectar, representing a fluid-feeding technique with a low Reynolds number. The western honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica, can rhythmically erect the tongue microtrichia to regulate the glossal shape, achieving a tradeoff between nectar intake rate and viscous drag. Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossa imperialis) possess a proboscis longer than the body and combines this lapping-sucking mode of fluid-feeding with suction feeding. This additional technique of nectar uptake may have different biophysics. In order to reveal the effect of special structures of mouthparts in terms of feeding efficiency, we build a temporal model for orchid bees considering fluid transport in multi-states including active suction, tongue protraction and viscous dipping. Our model indicates that the dipping technique employed by honey bees can contribute to more than seven times the volumetric and energetic intake rate at a certain nectar concentration compared with the combined mode used by orchid bees. The high capability of the honey bee's proboscis to ingest nectar may inspire micropumps for transporting viscous liquid with higher efficiency.

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@article {pmid31542476,

year = {2020},

author = {Shi, L and Wu, J and Krenn, HW and Yang, Y and Yan, S},

title = {Temporal model of fluid-feeding mechanisms in a long proboscid orchid bee compared to the short proboscid honey bee.},

journal = {Journal of theoretical biology},

volume = {484},

number = {},

pages = {110017},

doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.110017},

pmid = {31542476},

issn = {1095-8541},

abstract = {Bees (Apidae) are flower-visiting insects that possess highly efficient mouthparts for the ingestion of nectar and other sucrose fluids. Their mouthparts are composed of mandibles and a tube-like proboscis. The proboscis forms a food canal, which encompasses a protrusible and hairy tongue to load and imbibe nectar, representing a fluid-feeding technique with a low Reynolds number. The western honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica, can rhythmically erect the tongue microtrichia to regulate the glossal shape, achieving a tradeoff between nectar intake rate and viscous drag. Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossa imperialis) possess a proboscis longer than the body and combines this lapping-sucking mode of fluid-feeding with suction feeding. This additional technique of nectar uptake may have different biophysics. In order to reveal the effect of special structures of mouthparts in terms of feeding efficiency, we build a temporal model for orchid bees considering fluid transport in multi-states including active suction, tongue protraction and viscous dipping. Our model indicates that the dipping technique employed by honey bees can contribute to more than seven times the volumetric and energetic intake rate at a certain nectar concentration compared with the combined mode used by orchid bees. The high capability of the honey bee's proboscis to ingest nectar may inspire micropumps for transporting viscous liquid with higher efficiency.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-09

**A numerical investigation of the heat transfer characteristics of water-based mango bark nanofluid flowing in a double-pipe heat exchanger.**

*Heliyon*, **5(9):**e02416.

In this study, the heat transfer characteristics of a new class of nanofluids made from mango bark was numerically simulated and studied during turbulent flow through a double pipe heat exchanger. A range of volume fractions was considered for a particle size of 100 nm. A two-phase flow was considered using the mixture model. The mixture model governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and volume fraction were solved using the finite-volume method. The results showed an increase of the Nusselt number by 68% for a Reynolds number of 5,000 and 45% for a Reynolds number of 13 000, and the heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid was about twice that of the base fluid. In addition, the Nusselt number decreased by an average value of 0.76 with an increase of volume fraction by 1%. It was also found that there was a range of Reynolds numbers in which the trend of the average heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid was completely reversed, and several plots showing zones of higher heat transfer which if taken advantage of in design will lead to higher heat transfer while avoiding other zones that have low heat transfer. It is hoped that these results will influence the thermal design of new heat exchangers.

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@article {pmid31538112,

year = {2019},

author = {Onyiriuka, EJ and Ighodaro, OO and Adelaja, AO and Ewim, DRE and Bhattacharyya, S},

title = {A numerical investigation of the heat transfer characteristics of water-based mango bark nanofluid flowing in a double-pipe heat exchanger.},

journal = {Heliyon},

volume = {5},

number = {9},

pages = {e02416},

pmid = {31538112},

issn = {2405-8440},

abstract = {In this study, the heat transfer characteristics of a new class of nanofluids made from mango bark was numerically simulated and studied during turbulent flow through a double pipe heat exchanger. A range of volume fractions was considered for a particle size of 100 nm. A two-phase flow was considered using the mixture model. The mixture model governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and volume fraction were solved using the finite-volume method. The results showed an increase of the Nusselt number by 68% for a Reynolds number of 5,000 and 45% for a Reynolds number of 13 000, and the heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid was about twice that of the base fluid. In addition, the Nusselt number decreased by an average value of 0.76 with an increase of volume fraction by 1%. It was also found that there was a range of Reynolds numbers in which the trend of the average heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid was completely reversed, and several plots showing zones of higher heat transfer which if taken advantage of in design will lead to higher heat transfer while avoiding other zones that have low heat transfer. It is hoped that these results will influence the thermal design of new heat exchangers.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-22

**Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Propulsion System for the Common Research Model.**

*Journal of aircraft*, **55(3):**1141-1153.

The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown, and improvements between subsequent BLI designs are presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet, with Reynolds number of 40 million based on mean aerodynamic chord and an angle of attack of 2° for all geometries. Results indicate an 8% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration compared to the baseline geometry. Small geometric alterations of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to marginally increase the benefit from boundary-layer ingestion further, resulting in an 8.7% reduction in power requirements for cruise, as well as a drag reduction of approximately twelve counts over the baseline geometry.

Additional Links: PMID-31534269

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@article {pmid31534269,

year = {2019},

author = {Blumenthal, BT and Elmiligui, AA and Geiselhart, KA and Campbell, RL and Maughmer, MD and Schmitz, S},

title = {Computational Investigation of a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Propulsion System for the Common Research Model.},

journal = {Journal of aircraft},

volume = {55},

number = {3},

pages = {1141-1153},

doi = {10.2514/1.C034454},

pmid = {31534269},

issn = {0021-8669},

support = {//Langley Research Center NASA/United States ; N-999999//Intramural NASA/United States ; },

abstract = {The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown, and improvements between subsequent BLI designs are presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet, with Reynolds number of 40 million based on mean aerodynamic chord and an angle of attack of 2° for all geometries. Results indicate an 8% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration compared to the baseline geometry. Small geometric alterations of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to marginally increase the benefit from boundary-layer ingestion further, resulting in an 8.7% reduction in power requirements for cruise, as well as a drag reduction of approximately twelve counts over the baseline geometry.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-01

**Analysis and Optimization of a Microchannel Heat Sink with V-Ribs Using Nanofluids for Micro Solar Cells.**

*Micromachines*, **10(9):**.

It is crucial to control the temperature of solar cells for enhancing efficiency with the increasing power intensity of multiple photovoltaic systems. In order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) with V-ribs using a water-based nanofluid as a coolant for micro solar cells was designed. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the flows and heat transfers in the MCHS when the Reynolds number ranges from 200 to 1000. The numerical results showed that the periodically arranged V-ribs can interrupt the thermal boundary, induce chaotic convection, increase heat transfer area, and subsequently improve the heat transfer performance of a MCHS. In addition, the preferential values of the geometric parameters of V-ribs and the physical parameters of the nanofluid were obtained on the basis of the Nusselt numbers at identical pump power. For MCHS with V-ribs on both the top and bottom wall, preferential values of V-rib are rib width d / W = 1 , flare angle α = 75 ° , rib height h r / H = 0.3 , and ratio of two slant sides b / a = 0.75 , respectively. This can provide sound foundations for the design of a MCHS in micro solar cells.

Additional Links: PMID-31533305

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@article {pmid31533305,

year = {2019},

author = {Wang, R and Wang, J and Yuan, W},

title = {Analysis and Optimization of a Microchannel Heat Sink with V-Ribs Using Nanofluids for Micro Solar Cells.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {9},

pages = {},

pmid = {31533305},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {11572107, 51376055//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; },

abstract = {It is crucial to control the temperature of solar cells for enhancing efficiency with the increasing power intensity of multiple photovoltaic systems. In order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) with V-ribs using a water-based nanofluid as a coolant for micro solar cells was designed. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the flows and heat transfers in the MCHS when the Reynolds number ranges from 200 to 1000. The numerical results showed that the periodically arranged V-ribs can interrupt the thermal boundary, induce chaotic convection, increase heat transfer area, and subsequently improve the heat transfer performance of a MCHS. In addition, the preferential values of the geometric parameters of V-ribs and the physical parameters of the nanofluid were obtained on the basis of the Nusselt numbers at identical pump power. For MCHS with V-ribs on both the top and bottom wall, preferential values of V-rib are rib width d / W = 1 , flare angle α = 75 ° , rib height h r / H = 0.3 , and ratio of two slant sides b / a = 0.75 , respectively. This can provide sound foundations for the design of a MCHS in micro solar cells.},

}

RevDate: 2019-10-28

**Experimental Investigation on the Relationship Between COD Degradation and Hydrodynamic Conditions in Urban Rivers.**

*International journal of environmental research and public health*, **16(18):** pii:ijerph16183447.

Due to extensive pollution and the relatively weak flow replacement in urban rivers, determining how to fully utilize the self-purification abilities of water bodies for water quality protection has been a complex and popular topic of research and social concern. Organic pollution is an important type of urban river pollution, and COD (chemical oxygen demand) is one of the key pollution factors. Currently, there is a lack of research on the relationship between COD degradation and the flow characteristics of urban rivers. In this paper, COD degradation experiments were conducted in an annular flume with Jinjiang River water at controlled flow velocities and the COD degradation coefficients under different hydraulic conditions were analyzed. A good correlation was observed between the degradation coefficient and hydraulic conditions. According to dimensional analysis, the relationship between the COD degradation coefficient and hydraulic conditions such as the flow velocity, water depth, Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) was established as K COD = 86400 u h F r 0.8415 R e - 1.2719 + 0.258 . The COD degradation coefficients of the Chishui River in Guizhou Province ranged from 0.175-0.373 1/d based on this formula, and the field-measured values varied from 0.234-0.463 1/d. The error in the formula ranged from 5.4-25.3%. This study provides a scientific basis for the prediction of the COD degradation coefficients of urban rivers.

Additional Links: PMID-31533232

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@article {pmid31533232,

year = {2019},

author = {Tang, L and Pan, X and Feng, J and Pu, X and Liang, R and Li, R and Li, K},

title = {Experimental Investigation on the Relationship Between COD Degradation and Hydrodynamic Conditions in Urban Rivers.},

journal = {International journal of environmental research and public health},

volume = {16},

number = {18},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/ijerph16183447},

pmid = {31533232},

issn = {1660-4601},

abstract = {Due to extensive pollution and the relatively weak flow replacement in urban rivers, determining how to fully utilize the self-purification abilities of water bodies for water quality protection has been a complex and popular topic of research and social concern. Organic pollution is an important type of urban river pollution, and COD (chemical oxygen demand) is one of the key pollution factors. Currently, there is a lack of research on the relationship between COD degradation and the flow characteristics of urban rivers. In this paper, COD degradation experiments were conducted in an annular flume with Jinjiang River water at controlled flow velocities and the COD degradation coefficients under different hydraulic conditions were analyzed. A good correlation was observed between the degradation coefficient and hydraulic conditions. According to dimensional analysis, the relationship between the COD degradation coefficient and hydraulic conditions such as the flow velocity, water depth, Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) was established as K COD = 86400 u h F r 0.8415 R e - 1.2719 + 0.258 . The COD degradation coefficients of the Chishui River in Guizhou Province ranged from 0.175-0.373 1/d based on this formula, and the field-measured values varied from 0.234-0.463 1/d. The error in the formula ranged from 5.4-25.3%. This study provides a scientific basis for the prediction of the COD degradation coefficients of urban rivers.},

}

RevDate: 2020-01-08

**Enhancing propulsion performance of a flexible heaving foil through dynamically adjusting its flexibility.**

*Bioinspiration & biomimetics*, **14(6):**064002.

This study investigates how dynamically adjusting the bending stiffness of a heaving foil affects its propulsion performance in a flow of Reynolds number 200. The foil is forced to oscillate sinusoidally at the leading edge, and its bending stiffness is tuned in a square-wave manner. Such a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem is explored using an immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) based numerical framework. The results reveal that when the lower and upper bounds of the foil's time-dependent bending stiffness are moderate, the net thrust can be evidently enhanced compared to those in the corresponding constant-bending-stiffness cases, while the propulsion efficiency is not apparently ameliorated. The most significant enhancement is observed when the bending stiffness has lower and upper bounds of the same duration (i.e. a duty cycle of 1/2) and also it remains at the lower bound during stroke reversals (corresponding to an actuation phase angle of [Formula: see text]). When the two bounds simultaneously increase or decrease, however, dynamically adjusting the bending stiffness fails to improve the net thrust. Through this study, competitions among various forces/moments, including the inertial force, tension force, bending moment and fluid loading, acting on the foil and their influences on the foil's dynamics are also unveiled.

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@article {pmid31533091,

year = {2019},

author = {Wang, C and Ren, F and Tang, H},

title = {Enhancing propulsion performance of a flexible heaving foil through dynamically adjusting its flexibility.},

journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics},

volume = {14},

number = {6},

pages = {064002},

doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/ab45d9},

pmid = {31533091},

issn = {1748-3190},

abstract = {This study investigates how dynamically adjusting the bending stiffness of a heaving foil affects its propulsion performance in a flow of Reynolds number 200. The foil is forced to oscillate sinusoidally at the leading edge, and its bending stiffness is tuned in a square-wave manner. Such a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem is explored using an immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) based numerical framework. The results reveal that when the lower and upper bounds of the foil's time-dependent bending stiffness are moderate, the net thrust can be evidently enhanced compared to those in the corresponding constant-bending-stiffness cases, while the propulsion efficiency is not apparently ameliorated. The most significant enhancement is observed when the bending stiffness has lower and upper bounds of the same duration (i.e. a duty cycle of 1/2) and also it remains at the lower bound during stroke reversals (corresponding to an actuation phase angle of [Formula: see text]). When the two bounds simultaneously increase or decrease, however, dynamically adjusting the bending stiffness fails to improve the net thrust. Through this study, competitions among various forces/moments, including the inertial force, tension force, bending moment and fluid loading, acting on the foil and their influences on the foil's dynamics are also unveiled.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-18

**On the motion of magnetotactic bacteria: theoretical predictions and experimental observations.**

*European biophysics journal : EBJ*, **48(8):**691-700.

The movement of magnetotactic bacteria is done in a viscous media in the low Reynolds number regime. In the present research, the simple model for magnetotactic bacteria motion, proposed by Nogueira and Lins de Barros (Eur Biophys J 24:13-21, 1995), was used to numerically simulate their trajectory. The model was done considering a spherical bacterium with a single flagellum and a magnetic moment positioned in the sphere center and parallel to the flagella. The numerical solution shows that the trajectory is a cylindrical helix and that the body Euler angles have linear dependencies on time. Using that information, analytical expressions were obtained for the first time for the center-of-mass coordinates, showing that the trajectories are helixes oriented to the magnetic field direction. They also show that the magnetic moment does not align to the magnetic field, but it precesses around it, being fully oriented only for very high magnetic fields. The analytical solution obtained permits to relate for the first time the flagellar force to the axial velocity and helical radius. Trajectories of uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria were registered in video and the coordinates were obtained for several bacteria in different magnetic fields. The trajectories showed to be a complex mixture of two oscillating functions: one with frequency lower than 5 Hz and the other one with frequency higher than 10 Hz. The simple model of Nogueira and Lins de Barros shows to be incomplete, because is unable to explain the trajectories composed of two oscillating functions observed in uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria.

Additional Links: PMID-31511924

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@article {pmid31511924,

year = {2019},

author = {Acosta-Avalos, D and Rodrigues, E},

title = {On the motion of magnetotactic bacteria: theoretical predictions and experimental observations.},

journal = {European biophysics journal : EBJ},

volume = {48},

number = {8},

pages = {691-700},

pmid = {31511924},

issn = {1432-1017},

abstract = {The movement of magnetotactic bacteria is done in a viscous media in the low Reynolds number regime. In the present research, the simple model for magnetotactic bacteria motion, proposed by Nogueira and Lins de Barros (Eur Biophys J 24:13-21, 1995), was used to numerically simulate their trajectory. The model was done considering a spherical bacterium with a single flagellum and a magnetic moment positioned in the sphere center and parallel to the flagella. The numerical solution shows that the trajectory is a cylindrical helix and that the body Euler angles have linear dependencies on time. Using that information, analytical expressions were obtained for the first time for the center-of-mass coordinates, showing that the trajectories are helixes oriented to the magnetic field direction. They also show that the magnetic moment does not align to the magnetic field, but it precesses around it, being fully oriented only for very high magnetic fields. The analytical solution obtained permits to relate for the first time the flagellar force to the axial velocity and helical radius. Trajectories of uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria were registered in video and the coordinates were obtained for several bacteria in different magnetic fields. The trajectories showed to be a complex mixture of two oscillating functions: one with frequency lower than 5 Hz and the other one with frequency higher than 10 Hz. The simple model of Nogueira and Lins de Barros shows to be incomplete, because is unable to explain the trajectories composed of two oscillating functions observed in uncultivated magnetotactic bacteria.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-11

CmpDate: 2019-09-11

**Nonlinear stability results for plane Couette and Poiseuille flows.**

*Physical review. E*, **100(1-1):**013113.

We prove that the plane Couette and Poiseuille flows are nonlinearly stable if the Reynolds number is less than Re_{Orr}(2π/(λsinθ))/sinθ when a perturbation is a tilted perturbation in the direction x^{'} which forms an angle θ∈(0,π/2] with the direction i of the basic motion and does not depend on x^{'}. Re_{Orr} is the critical Orr-Reynolds number for spanwise perturbations which is computed for wave number 2π/(λsinθ), with λ being any positive wavelength. By taking the minimum with respect to λ, we obtain the critical energy Reynolds number for a fixed inclination angle and any wavelength: for plane Couette flow, it is Re_{Orr}=44.3/sinθ, and for plane Poiseuille flow, it is Re_{Orr}=87.6/sinθ (in particular, for θ=π/2 we have the classical values Re_{Orr}=44.3 for plane Couette flow and Re_{Orr}=87.6 for plane Poiseuille flow). Here the nondimensional interval between the planes bounding the channel is [-1,1]. In particular, these results improve those obtained by Joseph, who found for streamwise perturbations a critical nonlinear value of 20.65 in the plane Couette case, and those obtained by Joseph and Carmi who found the value 49.55 for plane Poiseuille flow for streamwise perturbations. If we fix some wavelengths from the experimental data and the numerical simulations, the critical Reynolds numbers that we obtain are in a very good agreement both with the the experiments and the numerical simulation. These results partially solve the Couette-Sommerfeld paradox.

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@article {pmid31499817,

year = {2019},

author = {Falsaperla, P and Giacobbe, A and Mulone, G},

title = {Nonlinear stability results for plane Couette and Poiseuille flows.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {100},

number = {1-1},

pages = {013113},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.100.013113},

pmid = {31499817},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {We prove that the plane Couette and Poiseuille flows are nonlinearly stable if the Reynolds number is less than Re_{Orr}(

2π/(λsinθ))/sinθ when a perturbation is a tilted perturbation in the direction x^{'}

which forms an angle θ∈(0,π/2] with the direction i of the basic motion and does not depend on x^{'}.

Re_{Orr}

is the critical Orr-Reynolds number for spanwise perturbations which is computed for wave number 2π/(λsinθ), with λ being any positive wavelength. By taking the minimum with respect to λ, we obtain the critical energy Reynolds number for a fixed inclination angle and any wavelength: for plane Couette flow, it is Re_{Orr}=

44.3/sinθ, and for plane Poiseuille flow, it is Re_{Orr}=

87.6/sinθ (in particular, for θ=π/2 we have the classical values Re_{Orr}=

44.3 for plane Couette flow and Re_{Orr}=

87.6 for plane Poiseuille flow). Here the nondimensional interval between the planes bounding the channel is [-1,1]. In particular, these results improve those obtained by Joseph, who found for streamwise perturbations a critical nonlinear value of 20.65 in the plane Couette case, and those obtained by Joseph and Carmi who found the value 49.55 for plane Poiseuille flow for streamwise perturbations. If we fix some wavelengths from the experimental data and the numerical simulations, the critical Reynolds numbers that we obtain are in a very good agreement both with the the experiments and the numerical simulation. These results partially solve the Couette-Sommerfeld paradox.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-24

**Theoretical and mathematical analysis of entropy generation in fluid flow subject to aluminum and ethylene glycol nanoparticles.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **182:**105057.

BACKGROUND: Here we have conducted a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of viscous material with alumina water and ethylene glycol over a stretched surface. The flow is discussed with and without effective Prandtl number. MHD liquid is considered. Electric field is absent. Effect of uniform magnetic field is taken in the vertical direction to the surface. Influence of thermal radiation as well as Joule heating are taken into account for both aluminum oxide-water and aluminum oxide-Ethylene glycol nanofluids. Velocity slip and melting heat effects are considered.

METHODS: The nonlinear flow expressions are numerically solved via ND-solve technique (built-in-Shooting).

RESULTS: The physical impacts of flow variables like mixed convection parameter, magnetic parameter, Reynold number, Eckert number, melting parameter and heat source/sink parameter are graphically discussed. Moreover, entropy generation (irreversibility) and Bejan number are discussed graphically through various flow variables. Physical quantities like skin friction coefficient and Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are numerically calculated and discussed through Tables.

CONCLUSIONS: Impact of magnetic and slip parameters on the velocity field show decreasing behavior for both effective and without effective Prandtl number. Temperature field increases for both effective and without effective Prandtl number for higher values of magnetic and radiative parameters. Entropy number is an increasing function of Reynolds number while Bejan number shows opposite impact against Reynolds number. Moreover, heat transfer rate upsurges versus larger melting and radiative parameter.

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@article {pmid31499421,

year = {2019},

author = {Shah, F and Khan, MI and Hayat, T and Khan, MI and Alsaedi, A and Khan, WA},

title = {Theoretical and mathematical analysis of entropy generation in fluid flow subject to aluminum and ethylene glycol nanoparticles.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {182},

number = {},

pages = {105057},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105057},

pmid = {31499421},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND: Here we have conducted a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of viscous material with alumina water and ethylene glycol over a stretched surface. The flow is discussed with and without effective Prandtl number. MHD liquid is considered. Electric field is absent. Effect of uniform magnetic field is taken in the vertical direction to the surface. Influence of thermal radiation as well as Joule heating are taken into account for both aluminum oxide-water and aluminum oxide-Ethylene glycol nanofluids. Velocity slip and melting heat effects are considered.

METHODS: The nonlinear flow expressions are numerically solved via ND-solve technique (built-in-Shooting).

RESULTS: The physical impacts of flow variables like mixed convection parameter, magnetic parameter, Reynold number, Eckert number, melting parameter and heat source/sink parameter are graphically discussed. Moreover, entropy generation (irreversibility) and Bejan number are discussed graphically through various flow variables. Physical quantities like skin friction coefficient and Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are numerically calculated and discussed through Tables.

CONCLUSIONS: Impact of magnetic and slip parameters on the velocity field show decreasing behavior for both effective and without effective Prandtl number. Temperature field increases for both effective and without effective Prandtl number for higher values of magnetic and radiative parameters. Entropy number is an increasing function of Reynolds number while Bejan number shows opposite impact against Reynolds number. Moreover, heat transfer rate upsurges versus larger melting and radiative parameter.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-04

**Intraglottal Aerodynamics at Vocal Fold Vibration Onset.**

*Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation* pii:S0892-1997(19)30237-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The most frequently observed type of voice onset in spontaneous speech in normal subjects is the soft onset, and it may be considered as the "physiological" onset. It starts from an immobile narrow glottal slit crossed by a continuous airflow, and then a few oscillations (even a single one in some cases) precede the first glottal closure. It is a transient event, during which the acting forces, lung pressure, intraglottal pressure, myoelastic tension of the vocal fold (VF) oscillator and inertance of the supraglottal vocal tract, interact to progressively reach the steady state of a sustained oscillation. Combined measurements of flow, area, and pressure provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the intraglottal mechanical events at the precise moment of starting oscillation in a physiological (soft or soft/breathy) onset. Our in vivo measurements of airflow and glottal area show that the very first oscillation occurs exactly at the time when turbulence appears at the level of the glottal narrowing, ie, when the Reynolds number reaches its critical value. The turbulence may be assumed to trigger an oscillator consisting in the ensemble of the VFs and the air of the vocal tract, which is known to be weakly damped. Turbulence can act here as an aspecific flick, triggering the oscillator, the frequency of oscillation being determined by its mechanical properties. Furthermore, the first noticeable glottal oscillations are sinusoidal: the VFs are neither steeply sucked together by a negative Bernoulli pressure, nor burst apart by the lung pressure. Our measurements show that, at the critical time, the rising positive lung pressure is balanced by the rising negative Bernoulli pressure generated by the transglottal flow.

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@article {pmid31481279,

year = {2019},

author = {DeJonckere, P and Lebacq, J},

title = {Intraglottal Aerodynamics at Vocal Fold Vibration Onset.},

journal = {Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1016/j.jvoice.2019.08.002},

pmid = {31481279},

issn = {1873-4588},

abstract = {The most frequently observed type of voice onset in spontaneous speech in normal subjects is the soft onset, and it may be considered as the "physiological" onset. It starts from an immobile narrow glottal slit crossed by a continuous airflow, and then a few oscillations (even a single one in some cases) precede the first glottal closure. It is a transient event, during which the acting forces, lung pressure, intraglottal pressure, myoelastic tension of the vocal fold (VF) oscillator and inertance of the supraglottal vocal tract, interact to progressively reach the steady state of a sustained oscillation. Combined measurements of flow, area, and pressure provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the intraglottal mechanical events at the precise moment of starting oscillation in a physiological (soft or soft/breathy) onset. Our in vivo measurements of airflow and glottal area show that the very first oscillation occurs exactly at the time when turbulence appears at the level of the glottal narrowing, ie, when the Reynolds number reaches its critical value. The turbulence may be assumed to trigger an oscillator consisting in the ensemble of the VFs and the air of the vocal tract, which is known to be weakly damped. Turbulence can act here as an aspecific flick, triggering the oscillator, the frequency of oscillation being determined by its mechanical properties. Furthermore, the first noticeable glottal oscillations are sinusoidal: the VFs are neither steeply sucked together by a negative Bernoulli pressure, nor burst apart by the lung pressure. Our measurements show that, at the critical time, the rising positive lung pressure is balanced by the rising negative Bernoulli pressure generated by the transglottal flow.},

}

RevDate: 2019-11-01

**Experimental Study on Microfluidic Mixing with Different Zigzag Angles.**

*Micromachines*, **10(9):**.

This paper presents experimental investigations of passive mixing in a microfluidic channel with different zigzag angles. Zigzag channel is commonly used for microfluidic mixing because it does not need an additional control unit and can be easily implemented in a lab-on-a-chip system. In this work, microfluidic channels with six different zigzag angles, from θ = 0° to θ = 75°, are tested under ten different flow rates corresponding to Reynolds number from 0.309 to 309. Two colored liquids are mixed with the zigzag channels and mixing performance is evaluated based on the color of the pixels on the region of interest from captured images. According to the results, we found that the mixing performance is almost independent of the zigzag angle in the low-speed regime where its Reynolds number is less than 4. The mixing became very much depending on the zigzag angle in the high-speed regime where its Reynolds number is greater than 100. Microfluidic mixing is needed for Lab-on-a-chip applications in both low flow speed, such as medium perfusion for cell culture, and high flow speed, such as high-speed sensing on a point-of-care device. This work is aimed to provide practical information on zigzag mixing for chip design and applications.

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@article {pmid31480452,

year = {2019},

author = {Tsai, CD and Lin, XY},

title = {Experimental Study on Microfluidic Mixing with Different Zigzag Angles.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {9},

pages = {},

pmid = {31480452},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {108-2321-B-009-004-//Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan/ ; 108-2221-E-009-107-//Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan/ ; 108-2218-E-009-013-//Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan/ ; },

abstract = {This paper presents experimental investigations of passive mixing in a microfluidic channel with different zigzag angles. Zigzag channel is commonly used for microfluidic mixing because it does not need an additional control unit and can be easily implemented in a lab-on-a-chip system. In this work, microfluidic channels with six different zigzag angles, from θ = 0° to θ = 75°, are tested under ten different flow rates corresponding to Reynolds number from 0.309 to 309. Two colored liquids are mixed with the zigzag channels and mixing performance is evaluated based on the color of the pixels on the region of interest from captured images. According to the results, we found that the mixing performance is almost independent of the zigzag angle in the low-speed regime where its Reynolds number is less than 4. The mixing became very much depending on the zigzag angle in the high-speed regime where its Reynolds number is greater than 100. Microfluidic mixing is needed for Lab-on-a-chip applications in both low flow speed, such as medium perfusion for cell culture, and high flow speed, such as high-speed sensing on a point-of-care device. This work is aimed to provide practical information on zigzag mixing for chip design and applications.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-01

**Dissipative particle dynamics for modeling micro-objects in microfluidics: application to dielectrophoresis.**

*Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology* pii:10.1007/s10237-019-01216-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) technique is employed to model the trajectories of micro-objects in a practical microfluidic device. The simulation approach is first developed using an in-house Fortran code to model Stokes flow at Reynolds number of 0.01. The extremely low Reynolds number is achieved by adjusting the DPD parameters, such as force coefficients, thermal energies of the particles, and time steps. After matching the numerical flow profile with the analytical results, the technique is developed further to simulate the deflection of micro-objects under the effect of a deflecting external force in a rectangular microchannel. A mapping algorithm is introduced to establish the scaling relationship for the deflecting force between the physical device and the DPD domain. Dielectrophoresis is studied as a case study for the deflecting force, and the trajectory of a single red blood cell under the influence of the dielectrophoretic force is simulated. The device is fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques, and the experiments involving a dilute sample of red blood cells are performed at two different cases of the actuation voltage. Good agreement between the numerical and experimental results is achieved.

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@article {pmid31473843,

year = {2019},

author = {Waheed, W and Alazzam, A and Al-Khateeb, AN and Abu-Nada, E},

title = {Dissipative particle dynamics for modeling micro-objects in microfluidics: application to dielectrophoresis.},

journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1007/s10237-019-01216-3},

pmid = {31473843},

issn = {1617-7940},

abstract = {The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) technique is employed to model the trajectories of micro-objects in a practical microfluidic device. The simulation approach is first developed using an in-house Fortran code to model Stokes flow at Reynolds number of 0.01. The extremely low Reynolds number is achieved by adjusting the DPD parameters, such as force coefficients, thermal energies of the particles, and time steps. After matching the numerical flow profile with the analytical results, the technique is developed further to simulate the deflection of micro-objects under the effect of a deflecting external force in a rectangular microchannel. A mapping algorithm is introduced to establish the scaling relationship for the deflecting force between the physical device and the DPD domain. Dielectrophoresis is studied as a case study for the deflecting force, and the trajectory of a single red blood cell under the influence of the dielectrophoretic force is simulated. The device is fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques, and the experiments involving a dilute sample of red blood cells are performed at two different cases of the actuation voltage. Good agreement between the numerical and experimental results is achieved.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-23

**Hydrodynamic and biological constraints on group cohesion in plankton.**

*Journal of theoretical biology*, **482:**109987.

The dynamics of plankton in the ocean are determined by biophysical interactions. Although physics and biotic behaviors are known to influence the observed patchiness of planktonic populations, it is still unclear how much, and if, group behavior contributes to this biophysical interaction. Here, we demonstrate how simple rules of behavior can enhance or inhibit active group cohesion in plankton in a turbulent environment. In this study, we used coral-reef fish larvae as a model to investigate the interaction between microscale turbulence and planktonic organisms. We synthesized available information on the swimming speeds and sizes of reef fish larvae, and developed a set of equations to investigate the effects of viscosity and turbulence on larvae dispersion. We then calculated the critical dispersion rates for three different swimming strategies - cruise, random-walk, and pause-travel - to determine which strategies could facilitate group cohesion during dispersal. Our results indicate that swimming strategies and migration to low-turbulence regions are the key to maintaining group cohesion, suggesting that many reef fish species have the potential to remain together, from hatching to settlement. In addition, larvae might change their swimming strategies to maintain group cohesion, depending on environmental conditions and/or their ontogenic stage. This study provides a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and biological constraints on group formation and cohesion in planktonic organisms, and reveals a wide range of conditions under which group formation may occur.

Additional Links: PMID-31473190

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Citation:

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@article {pmid31473190,

year = {2019},

author = {Chaput, R and Majoris, JE and Buston, PM and Paris, CB},

title = {Hydrodynamic and biological constraints on group cohesion in plankton.},

journal = {Journal of theoretical biology},

volume = {482},

number = {},

pages = {109987},

doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.08.018},

pmid = {31473190},

issn = {1095-8541},

abstract = {The dynamics of plankton in the ocean are determined by biophysical interactions. Although physics and biotic behaviors are known to influence the observed patchiness of planktonic populations, it is still unclear how much, and if, group behavior contributes to this biophysical interaction. Here, we demonstrate how simple rules of behavior can enhance or inhibit active group cohesion in plankton in a turbulent environment. In this study, we used coral-reef fish larvae as a model to investigate the interaction between microscale turbulence and planktonic organisms. We synthesized available information on the swimming speeds and sizes of reef fish larvae, and developed a set of equations to investigate the effects of viscosity and turbulence on larvae dispersion. We then calculated the critical dispersion rates for three different swimming strategies - cruise, random-walk, and pause-travel - to determine which strategies could facilitate group cohesion during dispersal. Our results indicate that swimming strategies and migration to low-turbulence regions are the key to maintaining group cohesion, suggesting that many reef fish species have the potential to remain together, from hatching to settlement. In addition, larvae might change their swimming strategies to maintain group cohesion, depending on environmental conditions and/or their ontogenic stage. This study provides a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and biological constraints on group formation and cohesion in planktonic organisms, and reveals a wide range of conditions under which group formation may occur.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-23

**Aeolian noise of a cylinder in the critical regime.**

*The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, **146(2):**1404.

The noise from the flow around a circular cylinder in the critical regime is investigated by combining a compressible wall-resolved large eddy simulation and a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings analogy on solid and porous surfaces. This simulation is validated by comparing several flow parameters with previous experimental and numerical data in the same flow regime. Significantly reduced drag and increased vortex shedding Strouhal number (0.33) are observed. Two slightly asymmetric laminar separation bubbles (LSBs) on the cylinder surface at about 100° are shown to trigger turbulence through Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) shear-layer instability. The latter contributes to a narrowband hump in the wall-pressure fluctuations with a tone at a Strouhal number of 27, which can be as intense as the dominant vortex shedding tone. The ratio of the corresponding Strouhal numbers is consistent with the proposed variation with the Reynolds number by Prasad and Williamson [(1997). J. Fluid Mech. 333, 375-402]. The dominant far-field noise source is still the vortex shedding dipolar tone radiating mostly at 90°. Yet, two additional broadband noise sources are evidenced in the wake, one at low frequencies caused by the wake oscillation and another one at high frequencies caused by the KH instability mostly directly toward the LSB locations.

Additional Links: PMID-31472558

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PubMed:

Citation:

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@article {pmid31472558,

year = {2019},

author = {Zhang, C and Sanjose, M and Moreau, S},

title = {Aeolian noise of a cylinder in the critical regime.},

journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},

volume = {146},

number = {2},

pages = {1404},

doi = {10.1121/1.5122185},

pmid = {31472558},

issn = {1520-8524},

abstract = {The noise from the flow around a circular cylinder in the critical regime is investigated by combining a compressible wall-resolved large eddy simulation and a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings analogy on solid and porous surfaces. This simulation is validated by comparing several flow parameters with previous experimental and numerical data in the same flow regime. Significantly reduced drag and increased vortex shedding Strouhal number (0.33) are observed. Two slightly asymmetric laminar separation bubbles (LSBs) on the cylinder surface at about 100° are shown to trigger turbulence through Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) shear-layer instability. The latter contributes to a narrowband hump in the wall-pressure fluctuations with a tone at a Strouhal number of 27, which can be as intense as the dominant vortex shedding tone. The ratio of the corresponding Strouhal numbers is consistent with the proposed variation with the Reynolds number by Prasad and Williamson [(1997). J. Fluid Mech. 333, 375-402]. The dominant far-field noise source is still the vortex shedding dipolar tone radiating mostly at 90°. Yet, two additional broadband noise sources are evidenced in the wake, one at low frequencies caused by the wake oscillation and another one at high frequencies caused by the KH instability mostly directly toward the LSB locations.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-01

**Comparing the Efficiency of Two Treatment Methods of Hydrocephalus: Shunt Implantation and Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy.**

*Basic and clinical neuroscience*, **10(3):**185-198.

Introduction: Hydrocephalus is one of the most common diseases in children, and its treatment requires brain operation. However, the pathophysiology of the disease is very complicated and still unknown.

Methods: Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV) and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt (VPS) implantation are among the common treatments of hydrocephalus. In this study, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) hydrodynamic parameters and efficiency of the treatment methods were compared with numerical simulation and clinical follow-up of the treated patients.

Results: Studies have shown that in patients under 19 years of age suffering from hydrocephalus related to a Posterior Fossa Brain Tumor (PFBT), the cumulative failure rate was 21% and 29% in ETV and VPS operation, respectively. At first, the ETV survival curve shows a sharp decrease and after two months it gets fixed while VPS curve makes a gradual decrease and reaches to a level lower than ETV curve after 5.7 months. Post-operative complications in ETV and VPS methods are 17% and 31%, respectively. In infants younger than 12 months with hydrocephalus due to congenital Aqueduct Stenosis (AS), and also in the elderly patients suffering from Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH), ETV is a better treatment option. Computer simulations show that the maximum CSF pressure is the most reliable hydrodynamic index for the evaluation of the treatment efficacy in these patients. After treatment by ETV and shunt methods, CSF pressure decreases about 9 and 5.3 times, respectively and 2.5 years after shunt implantation, this number returns to normal range.

Conclusion: In infants with hydrocephalus, initial treatment by ETV was more reasonable than implanting the shunt. In adult with hydrocephalus, the initial failure in ETV occurred sooner compared to shunt therapy; however, ETV was more efficient.

Additional Links: PMID-31462974

Full Text:

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PubMed:

Citation:

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@article {pmid31462974,

year = {2019},

author = {Gholampour, S and Bahmani, M and Shariati, A},

title = {Comparing the Efficiency of Two Treatment Methods of Hydrocephalus: Shunt Implantation and Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy.},

journal = {Basic and clinical neuroscience},

volume = {10},

number = {3},

pages = {185-198},

doi = {10.32598/bcn.9.10.285},

pmid = {31462974},

issn = {2008-126X},

abstract = {Introduction: Hydrocephalus is one of the most common diseases in children, and its treatment requires brain operation. However, the pathophysiology of the disease is very complicated and still unknown.

Methods: Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV) and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt (VPS) implantation are among the common treatments of hydrocephalus. In this study, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) hydrodynamic parameters and efficiency of the treatment methods were compared with numerical simulation and clinical follow-up of the treated patients.

Results: Studies have shown that in patients under 19 years of age suffering from hydrocephalus related to a Posterior Fossa Brain Tumor (PFBT), the cumulative failure rate was 21% and 29% in ETV and VPS operation, respectively. At first, the ETV survival curve shows a sharp decrease and after two months it gets fixed while VPS curve makes a gradual decrease and reaches to a level lower than ETV curve after 5.7 months. Post-operative complications in ETV and VPS methods are 17% and 31%, respectively. In infants younger than 12 months with hydrocephalus due to congenital Aqueduct Stenosis (AS), and also in the elderly patients suffering from Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH), ETV is a better treatment option. Computer simulations show that the maximum CSF pressure is the most reliable hydrodynamic index for the evaluation of the treatment efficacy in these patients. After treatment by ETV and shunt methods, CSF pressure decreases about 9 and 5.3 times, respectively and 2.5 years after shunt implantation, this number returns to normal range.

Conclusion: In infants with hydrocephalus, initial treatment by ETV was more reasonable than implanting the shunt. In adult with hydrocephalus, the initial failure in ETV occurred sooner compared to shunt therapy; however, ETV was more efficient.},

}

RevDate: 2019-08-25

**4D modelling of fluid mechanics in the zebrafish embryonic heart.**

*Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology* pii:10.1007/s10237-019-01205-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Abnormal blood flow mechanics can result in pathological heart malformation, underlining the importance of understanding embryonic cardiac fluid mechanics. In the current study, we performed image-based computational fluid dynamics simulation of the zebrafish embryonic heart ventricles and characterized flow mechanics, organ dynamics, and energy dynamics in detail. 4D scans of 5 days post-fertilization embryonic hearts with GFP-labelled myocardium were acquired using line-scan focal modulation microscopy. This revealed that the zebrafish hearts exhibited a wave-like contractile/relaxation motion from the inlet to the outlet during both systole and diastole, which we showed to be an energy efficient configuration. No impedance pumping effects of pressure and velocity waves were observed. Due to its tube-like configuration, inflow velocities were higher near the inlet and smaller at the outlet and vice versa for outflow velocities. This resulted in an interesting spatial wall shear stress (WSS) pattern where WSS waveforms near the inlet and those near the outlet were out of phase. There was large spatial variability in WSS magnitudes. Peak WSS was in the range of 47.5-130 dyne/cm2 at the inflow and outflow tracts, but were much smaller, in the range of 4-11 dyne/cm2, in the mid-ventricular segment. Due to very low Reynolds number and the highly viscous environment, intraventricular pressure gradients were high, suggesting substantial energy losses of flow through the heart.

Additional Links: PMID-31446522

Publisher:

PubMed:

Citation:

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@article {pmid31446522,

year = {2019},

author = {Foo, YY and Pant, S and Tay, HS and Imangali, N and Chen, N and Winkler, C and Yap, CH},

title = {4D modelling of fluid mechanics in the zebrafish embryonic heart.},

journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1007/s10237-019-01205-6},

pmid = {31446522},

issn = {1617-7940},

abstract = {Abnormal blood flow mechanics can result in pathological heart malformation, underlining the importance of understanding embryonic cardiac fluid mechanics. In the current study, we performed image-based computational fluid dynamics simulation of the zebrafish embryonic heart ventricles and characterized flow mechanics, organ dynamics, and energy dynamics in detail. 4D scans of 5 days post-fertilization embryonic hearts with GFP-labelled myocardium were acquired using line-scan focal modulation microscopy. This revealed that the zebrafish hearts exhibited a wave-like contractile/relaxation motion from the inlet to the outlet during both systole and diastole, which we showed to be an energy efficient configuration. No impedance pumping effects of pressure and velocity waves were observed. Due to its tube-like configuration, inflow velocities were higher near the inlet and smaller at the outlet and vice versa for outflow velocities. This resulted in an interesting spatial wall shear stress (WSS) pattern where WSS waveforms near the inlet and those near the outlet were out of phase. There was large spatial variability in WSS magnitudes. Peak WSS was in the range of 47.5-130 dyne/cm2 at the inflow and outflow tracts, but were much smaller, in the range of 4-11 dyne/cm2, in the mid-ventricular segment. Due to very low Reynolds number and the highly viscous environment, intraventricular pressure gradients were high, suggesting substantial energy losses of flow through the heart.},

}

RevDate: 2019-08-23

**"Learning on a chip:" Microfluidics for formal and informal science education.**

*Biomicrofluidics*, **13(4):**041501 pii:017903BMF.

Microfluidics is a technique for the handling of small volumes of liquids on the order of picoliters to nanoliters and has impact for miniaturized biomedical science and fundamental research. Because of its multi- and interdisciplinary nature (i.e., combining the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering), microfluidics offers much potential for educational applications, both at the university level as well as primary and secondary education. Microfluidics is also an ideal "tool" to enthuse and educate members of the general public about the interdisciplinary aspects of modern sciences, including concepts of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subjects such as (bio)engineering, chemistry, and biomedical sciences. Here, we provide an overview of approaches that have been taken to make microfluidics accessible for formal and informal learning. We also point out future avenues and desired developments. At the extreme ends, we can distinguish between projects that teach how to build microfluidic devices vs projects that make various microscopic phenomena (e.g., low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, microbiology) accessible to learners and the general public. Microfluidics also enables educators to make experiments low-cost and scalable, and thereby widely accessible. Our goal for this review is to assist academic researchers working in the field of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies as well as educators with translating research from the laboratory into the lecture hall, teaching laboratory, or public sphere.

Additional Links: PMID-31431815

Full Text:

Publisher:

PubMed:

Citation:

show bibtex listing

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@article {pmid31431815,

year = {2019},

author = {Rackus, DG and Riedel-Kruse, IH and Pamme, N},

title = {"Learning on a chip:" Microfluidics for formal and informal science education.},

journal = {Biomicrofluidics},

volume = {13},

number = {4},

pages = {041501},

doi = {10.1063/1.5096030},

pmid = {31431815},

issn = {1932-1058},

abstract = {Microfluidics is a technique for the handling of small volumes of liquids on the order of picoliters to nanoliters and has impact for miniaturized biomedical science and fundamental research. Because of its multi- and interdisciplinary nature (i.e., combining the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering), microfluidics offers much potential for educational applications, both at the university level as well as primary and secondary education. Microfluidics is also an ideal "tool" to enthuse and educate members of the general public about the interdisciplinary aspects of modern sciences, including concepts of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subjects such as (bio)engineering, chemistry, and biomedical sciences. Here, we provide an overview of approaches that have been taken to make microfluidics accessible for formal and informal learning. We also point out future avenues and desired developments. At the extreme ends, we can distinguish between projects that teach how to build microfluidic devices vs projects that make various microscopic phenomena (e.g., low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, microbiology) accessible to learners and the general public. Microfluidics also enables educators to make experiments low-cost and scalable, and thereby widely accessible. Our goal for this review is to assist academic researchers working in the field of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies as well as educators with translating research from the laboratory into the lecture hall, teaching laboratory, or public sphere.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-18

**MHD peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in an inclined channel subject to radiative flux and convective boundary conditions.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **180:**104999.

BACKGROUND: In abundant of a digestive tract like smooth muscle tissue, human gastrointestinal tract contracts in sequence to generate a peristaltic wave, which pushes a food along the tract. The peristaltic motion contains circular relaxation smooth muscles, then their shrinkage (contraction) behind the chewed material to keep it from moving backward, then longitudinal contraction to shove it ahead. Therefore, we have conducted a theoretical investigation on peristaltic transport in flow of Johnson-Segalman liquid subject to inclined magnetic field. The energy equation is developed with extra heat transport assumptions like thermal radiative flux and dissipation. The channel walls are heated convectively.

METHODS: Dimensionless problems subject to small Reynolds number and long wavelength are tackled. Perturbation technique is implemented for small Weissenberg number.

RESULTS: The physical importance of involved parameters that directly affect the heat transfer rate temperature and velocity. The pertinent variables are amplitude ratio, wave number, Reynolds number, Hartman number, Prandtl number, Weissenberg number, thermal radiative heat flux, Biot number, elasticity variables and Froude number are graphically discussed. The obtained outcome shows that the velocity field increases against higher values of elasticity variables but velocity the material decays through higher fluid parameter. Temperature field declines through higher Hartman number. Furthermore, it is also examined that the heat transfer rate decays against rising Hartman number.

CONCLUSIONS: The impact of complaint walls on radiative peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman liquid in symmetric channel subject to inclined angle. The influence of Johnson-Segalman variable on the velocity field shows decreasing behavior. Velocity also declines against larger Hartman number. Temperature and heat transfer rate boosts through rising values of E1 E2 while decays versus larger E3. Furthermore, reduction in heat transfer coefficient is observed when the values of α and Br are increased.

Additional Links: PMID-31421603

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PubMed:

Citation:

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@article {pmid31421603,

year = {2019},

author = {Hayat, T and Aslam, N and Ijaz Khan, M and Imran Khan, M and Alsaedi, A},

title = {MHD peristaltic motion of Johnson-Segalman fluid in an inclined channel subject to radiative flux and convective boundary conditions.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {180},

number = {},

pages = {104999},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.104999},

pmid = {31421603},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND: In abundant of a digestive tract like smooth muscle tissue, human gastrointestinal tract contracts in sequence to generate a peristaltic wave, which pushes a food along the tract. The peristaltic motion contains circular relaxation smooth muscles, then their shrinkage (contraction) behind the chewed material to keep it from moving backward, then longitudinal contraction to shove it ahead. Therefore, we have conducted a theoretical investigation on peristaltic transport in flow of Johnson-Segalman liquid subject to inclined magnetic field. The energy equation is developed with extra heat transport assumptions like thermal radiative flux and dissipation. The channel walls are heated convectively.

METHODS: Dimensionless problems subject to small Reynolds number and long wavelength are tackled. Perturbation technique is implemented for small Weissenberg number.

RESULTS: The physical importance of involved parameters that directly affect the heat transfer rate temperature and velocity. The pertinent variables are amplitude ratio, wave number, Reynolds number, Hartman number, Prandtl number, Weissenberg number, thermal radiative heat flux, Biot number, elasticity variables and Froude number are graphically discussed. The obtained outcome shows that the velocity field increases against higher values of elasticity variables but velocity the material decays through higher fluid parameter. Temperature field declines through higher Hartman number. Furthermore, it is also examined that the heat transfer rate decays against rising Hartman number.

CONCLUSIONS: The impact of complaint walls on radiative peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman liquid in symmetric channel subject to inclined angle. The influence of Johnson-Segalman variable on the velocity field shows decreasing behavior. Velocity also declines against larger Hartman number. Temperature and heat transfer rate boosts through rising values of E1 E2 while decays versus larger E3. Furthermore, reduction in heat transfer coefficient is observed when the values of α and Br are increased.},

}

RevDate: 2019-09-18

**Numerical simulation of electroosmosis regulated peristaltic transport of Bingham nanofluid.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **180:**105005.

The effects of slip condition and Joule heating on the peristaltic flow of Bingham nanofluid are investigated. The flow is taken in a porous channel with elastic walls. Mathematical formulation is presented under the assumption of long wavelength and small Reynolds number. The transformed equations for the flow are solved to seek values for the nanoparticles velocity, concentration and temperature along the channel length. Graphs are plotted to evaluate the behavior of various physical parameters on flow quantities in both slip and no-slip cases. The main features of the physical parameters are highlighted on the inclined non uniform channel. The results show an increment in velocity with rise in inclination and porosity while it reduces with magnetic field. Moreover, nanofluid favors the heat transfer and decline the concentration.

Additional Links: PMID-31421600

Publisher:

PubMed:

Citation:

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@article {pmid31421600,

year = {2019},

author = {Tanveer, A and Khan, M and Salahuddin, T and Malik, MY},

title = {Numerical simulation of electroosmosis regulated peristaltic transport of Bingham nanofluid.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {180},

number = {},

pages = {105005},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105005},

pmid = {31421600},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {The effects of slip condition and Joule heating on the peristaltic flow of Bingham nanofluid are investigated. The flow is taken in a porous channel with elastic walls. Mathematical formulation is presented under the assumption of long wavelength and small Reynolds number. The transformed equations for the flow are solved to seek values for the nanoparticles velocity, concentration and temperature along the channel length. Graphs are plotted to evaluate the behavior of various physical parameters on flow quantities in both slip and no-slip cases. The main features of the physical parameters are highlighted on the inclined non uniform channel. The results show an increment in velocity with rise in inclination and porosity while it reduces with magnetic field. Moreover, nanofluid favors the heat transfer and decline the concentration.},

}

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