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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 27 May 2022 at 01:44 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: "invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-05-26

Zhou C, Zhang Y, Li S, et al (2022)

Exogenous nitrogen from riverine exports promotes soil methane production in saltmarshes in China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03300-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Methane emissions from saltmarshes can potentially promote climate warming. Soil methane production is positively correlated with methane emissions from saltmarshes. Understanding the factors influencing soil methane production will improve the prediction of methane emissions, but an investigation of these factors has not been conducted in saltmarshes in China. We collected soils from native Phragmites australis and invasive Spartina alterniflora saltmarshes along the coast of China; the soil potential methane production (PMP) was determined by incubation experiments. The large-scale investigation results showed that the ratios of methanogens relative to sulfate-reducing bacteria (RMRS) and total organic carbon (TOC) were positively correlated with soil PMP for both species. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was positively correlated with the soil PMP of P. australis saltmarshes, and plant biomass was positively correlated with the soil PMP of S. alterniflora saltmarshes. Our results showed that exogenous nitrogen from riverine exports was positively correlated with DIN and plant biomass in both P. australis and S. alterniflora saltmarshes. In addition, exogenous nitrogen was also positively correlated with TOC in S. alterniflora saltmarshes. Consequently, exogenous nitrogen indirectly promoted soil methane production in P. australis saltmarshes by increasing the DIN and promoted soil methane production in S. alterniflora saltmarshes by enhancing the TOC and plant biomass. Moreover, we found that the promoting effect of DIN on the soil PMP of P. australis saltmarshes increased when the incubation temperature increased from 15 °C to 25 °C. Thus, the promoting effect of exogenous nitrogen on the soil methane production in P. australis saltmarshes might be strengthened in the peak of growing season. Our findings are the first to confirm that exogenous nitrogen inputs from rivers indirectly promote soil methane production in P. australis and S. alterniflora saltmarshes and provide new insights into the factors responsible for soil methane production in saltmarshes.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Moravcová L, Carta A, Pyšek P, et al (2022)

Long-term seed burial reveals differences in the seed-banking strategies of naturalized and invasive alien herbs.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8859.

Soil seed viability and germinability dynamics can have a major influence on the establishment and spread of plants introduced beyond their native distribution range. Yet, we lack information on how temporal variability in these traits could affect the invasion process. To address this issue, we conducted an 8-year seed burial experiment examining seed viability and germinability dynamics for 21 invasive and 38 naturalized herbs in the Czech Republic. Seeds of most naturalized and invasive species persisted in the soil for several years. However, naturalized herbs exhibited greater seed longevity, on average, than invasive ones. Phylogenetic logistic models showed that seed viability (but not germinability) dynamics were significantly related to the invasion status of the study species. Seed viability declined earlier and more sharply in invasive species, and the probability of finding viable seeds of invasive species by the end of the experiment was low. Our findings suggest that invasive herbs might take advantage of high seed viability in the years immediately after dispersal, while naturalized species benefit from extended seed viability over time. These differences, however, are not sufficiently strong to explain the invasiveness of the species examined.

RevDate: 2022-05-25
CmpDate: 2022-05-25

Ivanova ES, Mazakina VV, SE Spiridonov (2022)

Invasive Alien Slug Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Arionidae) in Moscow Parks and Its Co-introduced Parasite Alloionema appendiculatum Schneider, 1859.

Acta parasitologica, 67(2):921-931.

PURPOSE: The present study investigates the origin of Arion vulgaris slugs in the parks of Moscow city and their parasites.

METHODS: Snails and slugs inhabiting green areas of Moscow city were collected in the summer season of 2020 and examined on the presence of gastropod-associated nematodes and trematodes using morphological and molecular methods.

RESULTS: The presence of the alien slug species, Arion vulgaris, was recorded in several locations, and the mitochondrial gene-based analysis has shown that slug populations inhabited Moscow parks originated from West and Central Europe. Out of a total of 15 gastropod species examined, A. vulgaris was the only species infected by the nematode Alloionema appendiculatum Schneider, 1859, a larval parasite of molluscs. It is the first record of this nematode from the territory of the Russian Federation. COX1 mtDNA sequences of A. appendiculatum obtained from 3 populations of infected slugs were identical with those from Western and Central Europe similarly to their gastropod hosts thus indicating that the nematodes travelled with their hosts. No parasites dangerous for humans or animals were found.

CONCLUSION: The complex life cycle of A. appendiculatum includes a free-living stage in soil which offers a source of infection for other potentially susceptible gastropod species but the capacity of A. appendiculatum to change hosts in local conditions needs to be further investigated. The particular susceptibility and tolerance of A. vulgaris to nematodes in our study was in concordance with earlier data while in contradiction with the enemy release hypothesis.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Arnoldi I, Negri A, Soresinetti L, et al (2022)

Assessing the distribution of invasive Asian mosquitoes in Northern Italy and modelling the potential spread of Aedes koreicus in Europe.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(22)00228-5 [Epub ahead of print].

In the last decade, Aedes koreicus and Aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes, which are competent vectors for various arboviruses of public health relevance, colonised Italy and other European countries. Nevertheless, information about their current and potential distribution is partial. Accordingly, in this study four regions of Northern Italy (Lombardy, Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta Valley) were surveyed during 2021 for the presence of eggs, larvae and pupae of these two invasive species. We found evidence for a widespread presence of Ae. koreicus in pre-Alpine territories of Lombardy and Piedmont. Larvae from the invasive subspecies of Ae. j. japonicus were also collected in the same geographic areas, though they were less frequent. Occurrence data from this study and results from previous monitoring campaigns were used to generate a Maxent model for the prediction of habitat suitability for Ae. koreicus mosquitoes in Northern Italy and the rest of Europe. Peri-urban areas located in proximity to forests, pastures and vineyards were revealed as highly suitable environments for colonisation by this invasive species. Maps of the potential distribution also suggest the presence of further suitable areas in currently uncolonized countries. We conclude that this invasive mosquito species has the potential for a broad expansion at the European level in the coming decades.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Osborn RK, Ordóñez ME, AI Cognato (2022)

Ecuadorian Coptoborus beetles harbor Fusarium and Graphium fungi previously associated with Euwallacea ambrosia beetles.

Mycologia [Epub ahead of print].

Ambrosia beetles from the scolytine tribe Xyleborini (Curculionidae) are important to the decomposition of woody plant material on every continent except Antarctica. These insects farm fungi on the walls of tunnels they build inside recently dead trees and rely on the fungi for nutrition during all stages of their lives. Such ambrosia fungi rely on the beetles to provide appropriate substrates and environmental conditions for growth. A small minority of xyleborine ambrosia beetle-fungal partnerships cause significant damage to healthy trees. The xyleborine beetle Coptoborus ochromactonus vectors a Fusarium (Hypocreales) fungus that is lethal to balsa (Ochroma pyramidale (Malvaceae)) trees in Ecuador. Although this pathogenic fungus and its associated beetle are not known to be established in the United States, several other non-native ambrosia beetle species are vectors of destructive plant diseases in this country. This fact and the acceleration of trade between South America and the United States demonstrate the importance of understanding fungal plant pathogens before they escape their native ranges. Here we identify the fungi accompanying Coptoborus ambrosia beetles collected in Ecuador. Classification based ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS) sequences revealed the most prevalent fungi associated with Coptoborus are Fusarium sp. and Graphium sp. (Microascales: Microascaceae), which have been confirmed as ambrosia fungi for xyleborine ambrosia beetles, and Clonostsachys sp. (Hypocreales), which is a diverse genus found abundantly in soils and associated with plants. Phylogenetic analyses of the Fusarium strains based on ITS, translation elongation factor (EF1-α), and two subunits of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2) identified them as Fusarium sp. AF-9 in the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC). This Fusarium species was previously associated with a few xyleborine ambrosia beetles, most notably the species complex Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff 1868) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Examination of ITS and EF1-α sequences showed a close affinity between the Graphium isolated from Coptoborus spp. and other xyleborine-associated Graphium as well as the soil fungus Graphium basitruncatum. This characterization of ambrosia fungi through DNA sequencing confirms the identity of a putative plant pathogen spread by Coptoborus beetles and expands the documented range of Fusarium and Graphium ambrosia fungi.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Formel N, Enochs IC, Sinigalliano C, et al (2021)

Subsurface automated samplers for eDNA (SASe) for biological monitoring and research.

HardwareX, 10:e00239 pii:S2468-0672(21)00069-9.

Sampling of environmental DNA (eDNA) in seawater is an increasingly common approach to non-invasively assess marine biodiversity, detect cryptic or invasive species, and monitor specific groups of organisms. Despite this remarkable utility, collection and filtration of eDNA samples in the field still requires considerable time and effort. Recent advancements in automated water samplers have standardized the eDNA collection process, allowing researchers to collect eDNA day or night, sample in locations that are difficult to access, and remove the need for highly trained personnel to perform sampling. However, the high cost of purchasing or building these samplers represents a financial hurdle to widespread application. To overcome this difficulty, we have designed and built a low-cost subsurface automated sampler for eDNA (SASe). Each sampler is submersible to 55 m, can filter a pre-programmable volume of water, and preserves eDNA at the site of collection. SASe samplers have replaceable filters and a low build cost (∼280 USD vs. >100,000 USD for other eDNA samplers), which facilitates repeated field sampling at fine spatial and temporal scales. Lab testing has shown the SASe to be as effective as a standard desktop peristaltic pump for sampling, preserving, and recovering marine eDNA. SASe design files and operating code are open-source, promoting the use of this tool to meet a range of future eDNA research applications, including project-specific customizations to the current design.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Stead JE, Boucher VL, Moyle PB, et al (2022)

Growth of Lahontan cutthroat trout from multiple sources re-introduced into Sagehen Creek, CA.

PeerJ, 10:e13322 pii:13322.

Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi have experienced massive declines in their native range and are now a threatened species under the US Endangered Species Act. A key management goal for this species is re-establishing extirpated populations using translocations and conservation hatcheries. In California USA, two broodstocks (Pilot Peak and Independence Lake) are available for reintroduction, in addition to translocations from wild and naturalized sources. Pilot Peak and Independence Lake fish are hatchery stocks derived from native fish from the Truckee River basin and used for recovery activities in the western Geographic Management Unit Areas only, specifically within the Truckee River basin. Yet suitability of these sources for re-introduction in different ecosystem types remains an open and important topic. We conducted growth experiments using Lahontan cutthroat trout stocked into Sagehen Creek, CA, USA. Experiments evaluated both available broodstocks and a smaller sample of fish translocated representing a naturalized population of unknown origin from a nearby creek. Fish from the Independence Lake source had significantly higher growth in weight and length compared to the other sources. Further, Independence Lake fish were the only stock that gained weight on average over the duration of the experiment. Our experiments suggest fish from the Independence Lake brood stock should be considered in reintroduction efforts.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Metzloff M, Yang E, Dhole S, et al (2022)

Experimental demonstration of tethered gene drive systems for confined population modification or suppression.

BMC biology, 20(1):119.

BACKGROUND: Homing gene drives hold great promise for the genetic control of natural populations. However, current homing systems are capable of spreading uncontrollably between populations connected by even marginal levels of migration. This could represent a substantial sociopolitical barrier to the testing or deployment of such drives and may generally be undesirable when the objective is only local population control, such as suppression of an invasive species outside of its native range. Tethered drive systems, in which a locally confined gene drive provides the CRISPR nuclease needed for a homing drive, could provide a solution to this problem, offering the power of a homing drive and confinement of the supporting drive.

RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate the engineering of a tethered drive system in Drosophila, using a regionally confined CRISPR Toxin-Antidote Recessive Embryo (TARE) drive to support modification and suppression homing drives. Each drive was able to bias inheritance in its favor, and the TARE drive was shown to spread only when released above a threshold frequency in experimental cage populations. After the TARE drive had established in the population, it facilitated the spread of a subsequently released split homing modification drive (to all individuals in the cage) and of a homing suppression drive (to its equilibrium frequency).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the tethered drive strategy is a viable and easily engineered option for providing confinement of homing drives to target populations.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Dai Y, Wang YH, Li M, et al (2022)

Medium optimization to analyze the protein composition of Bacillus pumilus HR10 antagonizing Sphaeropsis sapinea.

AMB Express, 12(1):61.

A previous study found that a biocontrol bacterium, Bacillus pumilus HR10, inhibited the Sphaeropsis shoot blight disease of pine, and the fermentation broth of HR10 strain contained protein antifungal substances. The optimal formulation of the fermentation medium for the antagonistic substance of B. pumilus HR10 was finally obtained by single-factor test, Packett-Burman test, steepest ascent test and Box-Behnken Design (BBD) response surface test, and the best formulation of the fermentation medium for the antagonistic substance of B. pumilus HR10 was 12 g/L corn meal, 15 g/L beef extract and 13 g/L magnesium sulfate, with a predicted bacterial inhibition rate of 89%. The fermentation filtrate of B. pumilus HR10 cultured with the optimized medium formulation was verified to have an inhibition rate of (87.04 ± 3.2) % on the growth of Sphaeropsis sapinea by three replicate tests. The antagonistic crude protein of B. pumilus HR10 were further isolated and identified using HiTrap Capto Q strong Ion-Exchange Chromatography and LC-MS-MS, and it was speculated that glycoside hydrolase (Ghy), beta-glucanase (Beta), arabinogalactan endonuclease β-1,4-galactanase (Arab), and immunosuppressant A (ImA) are proteins with antagonistic activity against S. sapinea in the B. pumilus HR10.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Pfauserová N, Brabec M, Slavík O, et al (2022)

Effects of physical parameters on fish migration between a reservoir and its tributaries.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8612.

Reservoirs interrupt natural riverine continuity, reduce the overall diversity of the environment, and enhance the spread of non-native fish species through suitable environments. Under favourable conditions, invasive species migrate to tributaries to benefit from local resource supplies. However, the changes in physical conditions in reservoirs that motivate fish species to migrate remain poorly understood. We analysed migration between a reservoir and its tributary in three non-native (asp Leuciscus aspius, ide Leuciscus idus, and bream Abramis brama) and two native (chub Squalius cephalus and pike Esox lucius) species equipped with radio tags. This 5-year study revealed that an increasing day length was the most general predictor of migration into the tributary in all observed species except E. lucius. Only L. aspius responded to the substantially increasing water level in the reservoir, while the migration of L. idus and S. cephalus was attenuated. Abramis brama and S. cephalus occurred more frequently in tributaries with an increase in temperature in the reservoir and vice versa, but if the difference in temperature between the reservoir and its tributary was small, then A. brama did not migrate. Our results showed that migration from the reservoir mainly followed the alterations of daylight, while responses to other parameters were species specific. The interindividual heterogeneity within the species was significant and was not caused by differences in length or sex. Our results contribute to the knowledge of how reservoirs can affect the spread of non-native species that adapt to rapid human-induced environmental changes.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Moreno-Borges S, López C, S Clemente (2022)

Reef fish assemblages associated to new mat-forming zoantharian communities in the Canary Islands.

Marine environmental research, 177:105623.

Proliferations of zoantharians along tropical and subtropical regions are increasingly common and usually associated with anthropogenic impacts and ecosystem degradation. In the Canary Islands, we studied how the dominance in the substrate of Palythoa caribaeorum and Zoanthus pulchellus affected fish communities. For that purpose, we recorded the composition and biodiversity of fish assemblages associated to both zoantharian and macroalgae dominated habitats. In general terms, we found significant reductions of total fish abundance and richness at P. caribaeorum dominated habitats compared with macroalgae stands. However, in terms of trophic structure, there were significant changes within both zoantharian habitats depending on their coverages of the substrate. Herbivores and small invertebrate feeders, which are more adapted to forage in the macroalgae canopy, were less abundant in zoantharian habitats. This study demonstrates that the increasing dominance of zoantharians throughout the archipelago restructure the ecosystems and impact the native fish communities, that may offer a positive feedback for invasive tropical species to thrive.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Baer J, Spiessl C, A Brinker (2022)

Size matters? Species- and size-specific fish predation on recently established invasive quagga mussels Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897 in a large, deep oligotrophic lake.

Journal of fish biology, 100(5):1272-1282.

Since its first appearance in Lake Constance in 2016 the invasive quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis has come to dominate the mussel community and now occurs in hyperabundant densities over the whole lake bottom. A lake-wide field study was conducted between 2019 and 2020 to obtain a systematic insight into the importance of this novel source of potential prey for the native fish community. In total 664 fish of 20 different species were caught and their digestive tracts were analysed. Meanwhile, quagga mussels were sampled to assess their calorific energy value by size and season. Regressions of septum length on maximum valve length were used to evaluate size-specific mussel consumption by the three dominant quagga-eating fish species. The study shows that nearly all benthivorous fish are able to forage efficiently on quaggas. However, in the case of one keystone species with very high commercial interest, the benthic whitefish Coregonus spp., quagga consumption is more limited as only individuals larger than 35 cm consumed quaggas in relevant amounts. The energy content of quagga mussels is positively size dependent with seasonal effect and elevated values during summer for medium- and large-sized mussels. Even at its peak, the calorific value of quaggas by weight is much lower than that of endemic aquatic invertebrates, while single mass is high. Future implications for fish stocks, food web integrity and possible fishery management options are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

de Wit MP, Crookes DJ, Blignaut JN, et al (2022)

An Assessment of the Potential Economic Impacts of the Invasive Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in South Africa.

Journal of economic entomology pii:6590766 [Epub ahead of print].

Studies addressing the economic impacts of invasive alien species are biased towards ex-post assessments of the costs and benefits of control options, but ex-ante assessments are also required to deal with potentially damaging invaders. The polyphagous shot hole borer Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a recent and potentially damaging introduction to South Africa. We assessed the potential impact of this beetle by working across economic and biological disciplines and developing a simulation model that included dynamic mutualistic relations between the beetle and its symbiotic fungus. We modeled the potential growth in beetle populations and their effect on the net present cost of damage to natural forests, urban trees, commercial forestry, and the avocado industry over 10 yr. We modeled high, baseline, and low scenarios using discount rates of 8, 6, and 4%, and a plausible range of costs and mortality rates. Models predicted steady growth in the beetle and fungus populations, leading to average declines in tree populations of between 3.5 and 15.5% over 10 yr. The predicted net present cost was 18.45 billion international dollars (Int. $), or about 0.66% of the country's GDP for our baseline scenario ($2.7 billion to $164 billion for low and high scenarios). Most of the costs are for the removal of urban trees that die as a result of the beetle and its fungal symbiont, as has been found in other regions. We conclude that an ex-ante economic assessment system dynamics model can be useful for informing national strategies on invasive alien species management.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Di B, Firn J, Buckley YM, et al (2022)

Impact of roadside burning on genetic diversity in a high-biomass invasive grass.

Evolutionary applications, 15(5):790-803 pii:EVA13369.

The invasive grass-fire cycle is a widely documented feedback phenomenon in which invasive grasses increase vegetation flammability and fire frequency, resulting in further invasion and compounded effects on fire regimes. Few studies have examined the role of short-term adaptation in driving the invasive grass-fire cycle, despite invasive species often thriving after introduction to new environments. We used a replicated (nine locations), paired sampling design (burn vs unburnt sites) to test the hypothesis that roadside burning increases genetic diversity and thus adaptive potential in the invasive, high-biomass grass Cenchrus ciliaris. Between four and five samples per site (n = 93) were genotyped using the DArTseq platform, and we filtered the data to produce panels of 15,965 neutral and 5030 non-neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Using fastSTRUCTURE, we detected three distinct genetic clusters with extremely high F ST values among them (0.94-0.97) suggesting three different cultivars. We found high rates of asexual reproduction, possibly related to clonality or apomixis common in this species. At three locations, burnt and unburnt sites were genetically different, but genetic structure was not consistently related to fire management across the study region. Burning was associated with high genetic diversity and sexual reproduction in one genetic cluster, but with low genetic diversity and clonality in another. Individual SNPs were associated with longitude and genetic clustering, but not with recent fire management. Overall, we found limited evidence that roadside burning consistently increased genetic diversity and adaptive potential in C. ciliaris; evolutionary and breeding history more strongly shaped genetic structure. Roadside burning could therefore continue to be used for managing biomass in this species, with continued monitoring. Our study provides a framework for detecting fire-related changes on a genetic level-a process that could be used as an early warning system to detect the invasive grass-fire cycle in future.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Dyck MA, Iosif R, Promberger-Fürpass B, et al (2022)

Dracula's ménagerie: A multispecies occupancy analysis of lynx, wildcat, and wolf in the Romanian Carpathians.

Ecology and evolution, 12(5):e8921 pii:ECE38921.

The recovery of terrestrial carnivores in Europe is a conservation success story. Initiatives focused on restoring top predators require information on how resident species may interact with the re-introduced species as their interactions have the potential to alter food webs, yet such data are scarce for Europe.In this study, we assessed patterns of occupancy and interactions between three carnivore species in the Romanian Carpathians. Romania houses one of the few intact carnivore guilds in Europe, making it an ideal system to assess intraguild interactions and serve as a guide for reintroductions elsewhere.We used camera trap data from two seasons in Transylvanian forests to assess occupancy and co-occurrence of carnivores using multispecies occupancy models.Mean occupancy in the study area was highest for lynx (Ψwinter = 0.76 95% CI: 0.42-0.92; Ψautumn = 0.71 CI: 0.38-0.84) and wolf (Ψwinter = 0.60 CI: 0.34-0.78; Ψautumn = 0.81 CI: 0.25-0.95) and lowest for wildcat (Ψwinter = 0.40 CI: 0.19-0.63; Ψautumn = 0.52 CI: 0.17-0.78)We found that marginal occupancy predictors for carnivores varied between seasons. We also found differences in predictors of co-occurrence between seasons for both lynx-wolf and wildcat-wolf co-occurrence. For both seasons, we found that conditional occupancy probabilities of all three species were higher when another species was present.Our results indicate that while there are seasonal differences in predictors of occupancy and co-occurrence of the three species, co-occurrence in our study area is high.Terrestrial carnivore recovery efforts are ongoing worldwide. Insights into interspecific relations between carnivore species are critical when considering the depauperate communities they are introduced in. Our work showcases that apex carnivore coexistence is possible, but dependent on protection afforded to forest habitats and their prey base.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Deneu B, Joly A, Bonnet P, et al (2022)

Very High Resolution Species Distribution Modeling Based on Remote Sensing Imagery: How to Capture Fine-Grained and Large-Scale Vegetation Ecology With Convolutional Neural Networks?.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:839279.

Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are fundamental tools in ecology for predicting the geographic distribution of species based on environmental data. They are also very useful from an application point of view, whether for the implementation of conservation plans for threatened species or for monitoring invasive species. The generalizability and spatial accuracy of an SDM depend very strongly on the type of model used and the environmental data used as explanatory variables. In this article, we study a country-wide species distribution model based on very high resolution (VHR) (1 m) remote sensing images processed by a convolutional neural network. We demonstrate that this model can capture landscape and habitat information at very fine spatial scales while providing overall better predictive performance than conventional models. Moreover, to demonstrate the ecological significance of the model, we propose an original analysis based on the t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) dimension reduction technique. It allows visualizing the relation between input data and species traits or environment learned by the model as well as conducting some statistical tests verifying them. We also analyze the spatial mapping of the t-SNE dimensions at both national and local levels, showing the model benefit of automatically learning environmental variation at multiple scales.

RevDate: 2022-05-22

Paul-André C, N Casper (2022)

Editorial: "Pests and resistance" section of 2022 (volume 51): Invasion biology from the tropics!.

RevDate: 2022-05-22

Cocozza C, Bartolini P, Brunetti C, et al (2022)

Modulation of class III peroxidase pathways and phenylpropanoids in Arundo donax under salt and phosphorus stress.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 183:151-159 pii:S0981-9428(22)00213-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Arundo donax L. is an invasive species that has been recently employed for biomass production due to its well-known ability to colonize harsh environment. Based on previous observations, the present study investigated the potential role of phenylpropanoids and class III peroxidases to confer adaptation through biochemical and transcriptomic analysis in A. donax after Na+ and P excess supply, both in single stress and in combination, and after growth at low P level. The levels of hydrogen peroxide, flavonoids (i.e., quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol derivatives) and the activity of class III peroxidases, as well as the expression of several genes encoding for their enzymes involved in their biosynthesis, increased when Na+ was supplied in combination with P. These results suggest that those biomolecules are involved in the response of A. donax, to the presence of +Na and P in the soil. Moreover, even though at the sampling time no significant accumulation of lignin has been determined, the trend of accumulation of such metabolite and most of all the increase of several transcripts involved in its synthesis was found. This work for the first time indicates the need for further investigation devoted to elucidating whether the strengthening of cell walls via lignin synthesis is one of the mechanisms used by A. donax to adapt to harsh environments.

RevDate: 2022-05-22

de Lange WJ, Boast K, TE Kleynhans (2022)

Modelling cost-effective clearing solutions for invasive alien trees: A case study on wilding conifers.

Journal of environmental management, 316:114985 pii:S0301-4797(22)00558-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Accurate on-site identification of appropriate alien clearing methods can realize significant cost savings for heterogenous sites. We developed a cost-based model accounting for site parameters such as infestation density, slope, obstructive vegetation density and site-access. These parameters are combined with a unit-costing sub-module to identify the most cost-effective clearing method for a particular site. The model was tested in the heterogenous Cape Fynbos biome of South Africa for three clearing methods for Pinus: traditional felling, drill-and-fill, and the arial-basal bark application (ABBA) method. The model accounts for the above-mentioned site parameters after which it is calibrated with the unit-costing for each method. Various scenarios consisting of different combinations of above-mentioned site parameters are then applied to identify the cost-effective solution for any particular combination of site parameters. Results favoured the drill-and-fill method in most cases, with the ABBA method reserved for sites with isolated Pines situated in dense fynbos with difficult access at slope gradients of 45° and higher. At these site combinations, ground teams experience longer walk times which reduces their productivity to such an extent that ABBA is comparatively more cost-effective. Traditional felling turned out to be prohibitively expensive because of team composition (mandatory higher safety and supervision requirements required for chainsaw operations) and slower on-site walking due to heavier equipment. The information enables site managers to do more accurate planning since the model will ensure that a cost-effective method is chosen for any particular site. It is then up to the manager to implement the chosen clearing method in a cost-efficient way.

RevDate: 2022-05-23
CmpDate: 2022-05-23

Jiang NJ, Mo BT, Guo H, et al (2022)

Revisiting the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a new invasive pest in South China.

Insect science, 29(3):865-878.

The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a worldwide serious agricultural pest, and recently invaded South China. Sex pheromone can be employed to monitor its population dynamics accurately in the field. However, the pheromone components previously reported by testing different geographic populations and strains are not consistent. On the basis of confirming that the S. frugiperda population from Yunnan Province belonged to the corn strain, we analyzed the potential sex pheromone components in the pheromone gland extracts of females using gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and electroantennography (EAG). The results show that (Z)-9-tetradecenal acetate (Z9-14:Ac), (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac) or (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate (E7-12:Ac) with a ratio of 100 : 15.8 : 3.9 induced EAD responses to varying degrees: Z9-14:Ac elicited a strong EAD response, Z7-12:Ac or E7-12:Ac elicited a small but clear EAD response, while Z11-16:Ac elicited a weak EAD response. Further single sensillum recording (SSR) showed that Z9-14:Ac and Z7-12:Ac induced dose-dependent activities in two types (A and B) of sensilla in male antennae, respectively, while the sensilla in response to E7-12:Ac and Z11-16:Ac was not recorded. Finally, wind tunnel tests reveal that Z9-14:Ac and Z7-12:Ac are two principal sex pheromone components of the tested population.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Lubośny M, Śmietanka B, Arculeo M, et al (2022)

No evidence of DUI in the Mediterranean alien species Brachidontes pharaonis (P. Fisher, 1870) despite mitochondrial heteroplasmy.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8569.

Two genetically different mitochondrial haplogroups of Brachidontes pharaonis (p-distance 6.8%) have been identified in the Mediterranean Sea. This hinted at a possible presence of doubly uniparental inheritance in this species. To ascertain this possibility, we sequenced two complete mitogenomes of Brachidontes pharaonis mussels and performed a qPCR analysis to measure the relative mitogenome copy numbers of both mtDNAs. Despite the presence of two very similar regions composed entirely of repetitive sequences in the two haplogroups, no recombination between mitogenomes was detected. In heteroplasmic individuals, both mitogenomes were present in the generative tissues of both sexes, which argues against the presence of doubly uniparental inheritance in this species.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Guan Z, Shi S, Diaby M, et al (2022)

Horizontal Transfer of Buster Transposons across Multiple Phyla and Classes of Animals.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(22)00119-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements in the genome and broadly distributed across both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and play an important role in shaping the genome evolution of their hosts. hAT elements are thought to be the most widespread cut-and-paste DNA transposon found throughout the tree of life. Buster is a recently recognized family of hAT. However, the evolutionary profile of the Buster family, such as its taxonomic distribution, evolutionary pattern, and activities, remains largely unknown. We conducted a systematic analysis of the evolutionary landscape of the Buster family and found that most Buster transposons are 1.72-4.66 kilobases (kb) in length, encode 500-736-amino acid (aa) transposases and are flanked by short (10-18 bp) terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and 8 bp target site duplications (TSDs). Buster family is widely distributed in 609 species, involving eight classes of invertebrates and most lineage of vertebrates (including mammals). Horizontal transfer events were detected across multiple phyla and classes of animals, which may have contributed to their wide distribution, and both parasites and invasive species may facilitate HT events of Buster in vertebrates. Our data also suggest that Buster transposons are young, highly active, and appear as intact copies in multiple lineages of animals. High percentages of intact copies (>30%) were identified in some Arthropoda, Actinopterygii, Agnatha, and reptile species, and some of these may be active. These data will help increase understanding of the evolution of the hAT superfamily and its impact on eukaryotic genome evolution.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Bernard-Verdier M, Seitz B, Buchholz S, et al (2022)

Grassland allergenicity increases with urbanisation and plant invasions.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

Pollen allergies have been on the rise in cities, where anthropogenic disturbances, warmer climate and introduced species are shaping novel urban ecosystems. Yet, the allergenic potential of these urban ecosystems, in particular spontaneous vegetation outside parks and gardens, remains poorly known. We quantified the allergenic properties of 56 dry grasslands along a double gradient of urbanisation and plant invasion in Berlin (Germany). 30% of grassland species were classified as allergenic, most of them being natives. Urbanisation was associated with an increase in abundance and diversity of pollen allergens, mainly driven by an increase in allergenic non-native plants. While not inherently more allergenic than native plants, the pool of non-natives contributed a larger biochemical diversity of allergens and flowered later than natives, creating a broader potential spectrum of allergy. Managing novel risks to urban public health will involve not only targeted action on allergenic non-natives, but also policies at the habitat scale favouring plant community assembly of a diverse, low-allergenicity vegetation. Similar approaches could be easily replicated in other cities to provide a broad quantification and mapping of urban allergy risks and drivers.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Loss SR, Boughton B, Cady SM, et al (2022)

Review and synthesis of the global literature on domestic cat impacts on wildlife.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

A vast global literature documents that free-roaming domestic cats (Felis catus) have substantial negative effects on wildlife, including through predation, fear, disease, and competition-related impacts that have contributed to numerous wildlife extinctions and population declines worldwide. However, no study has synthesized this literature on cat impacts on wildlife to evaluate its overarching biases and major gaps. To direct future research and conservation related to cat impacts on wildlife, we conducted a global literature review that entailed evaluation and synthesis of patterns and gaps in the literature related to the geographic context, methods, and types of impacts studied. Our systematic literature search compiled 2,245 publications. We extracted information from 332 of these meeting inclusion criteria designed to ensure the relevance of studies analyzed. This synthesis of research on cat impacts on wildlife highlights a focus on oceanic islands, Australia, Europe, and North America, and on rural areas, predation, impacts of unowned cats, and impacts at population and species levels. Key research advances needed to better understand and manage cat impacts include more studies in underrepresented, highly biodiverse regions (Africa, Asia, South America), on cat impacts other than predation, and on methods designed to reduce impacts on wildlife. The identified areas of needed research into cat impacts on wildlife will be critical to further clarifying the role of cats in global wildlife declines and to implementing science-driven policy and management that benefit conservation efforts.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Pless E, Powell JR, Seger KR, et al (2022)

Evidence for serial founder events during the colonization of North America by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

Ecology and evolution, 12(5):e8896 pii:ECE38896.

The Aedes aegypti mosquito first invaded the Americas about 500 years ago and today is a widely distributed invasive species and the primary vector for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever. Here, we test the hypothesis that the North American colonization by Ae. aegypti occurred via a series of founder events. We present findings on genetic diversity, structure, and demographic history using data from 70 Ae. aegypti populations in North America that were genotyped at 12 microsatellite loci and/or ~20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, the largest genetic study of the region to date. We find evidence consistent with colonization driven by serial founder effect (SFE), with Florida as the putative source for a series of westward invasions. This scenario was supported by (1) a decrease in the genetic diversity of Ae. aegypti populations moving west, (2) a correlation between pairwise genetic and geographic distances, and (3) demographic analysis based on allele frequencies. A few Ae. aegypti populations on the west coast do not follow the general trend, likely due to a recent and distinct invasion history. We argue that SFE provides a helpful albeit simplified model for the movement of Ae. aegypti across North America, with outlier populations warranting further investigation.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

White TB, Petrovan SO, Christie AP, et al (2022)

What is the Price of Conservation? A Review of the Status Quo and Recommendations for Improving Cost Reporting.

Bioscience, 72(5):461-471 pii:biac007.

Wildlife conservation is severely limited by funding. Therefore, to maximize biodiversity outcomes, assessing financial costs of interventions is as important as assessing effectiveness. We reviewed the reporting of costs in studies testing the effectiveness of conservation interventions: 13.3% of the studies provided numeric costs, and 8.8% reported total costs. Even fewer studies broke down these totals into constituent costs, making it difficult to assess the relevance of costs to different contexts. Cost reporting differed between continents and the taxa or habitats targeted by interventions, with higher cost reporting in parts of the Global South. A further analysis of data focused on mammals identified that interventions related to agriculture, invasive species, transport, and residential development reported costs more frequently. We identify opportunities for conservationists to improve future practice through encouraging systematic reporting and collation of intervention costs, using economic evaluation tools, and increasing understanding and skills in finance and economics.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Gunther I, Hawlena H, Azriel L, et al (2022)

Reduction of free-roaming cat population requires high-intensity neutering in spatial contiguity to mitigate compensatory effects.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(15):e2119000119.

When free-roaming in natural areas, the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) is ranked high among the most destructive alien species. Near human dwellings, it might pose a risk to humans, impair sanitation, and suffer from poor welfare. Cats' popularity as companion animals complicates their population control. Thus, culling is often replaced by a fertility control method called “trap–neuter–return/release” (TNR), considered more humane. Despite the extensive application of TNR, a long-term controlled study was never performed to test its effectiveness. We present a uniquely designed controlled field experiment for examining TNR effectiveness. The study was performed over a 12-y period, divided into preintervention and mixed- and full-intervention phases, and spanned a 20-km2 urban area. Trends of cat, intact-female, and kitten counts, cat reproduction, and carcass reports were compared among study phases and areas with different neutering intensities. The cat population increased during the first two study phases and did not decline in highly neutered populations, presumably due to cat immigration. Expansion of high-intensity neutering to the entire city in the full-intervention phase (>70% neutering percentage) reversed cat population growth, reaching an annual approximately 7% reduction. This population reduction was limited by a rebound increase in cat reproduction and longevity. We conclude that cat population management by TNR should be performed with high intensity, continuously, and in geographic contiguity to enable population reduction. To enhance management effectiveness and mitigate compensatory effects, we recommend further evaluating an integrated strategy that combines TNR with complementary methods (e.g., vital resource regulation, ill cat euthanasia, and adoption).

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Rodriguez AK, PJ Krug (2022)

Ecological speciation by sympatric host shifts in a clade of herbivorous sea slugs, with introgression and localized mitochondrial capture between species.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(22)00136-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Host shifting in insect-plant systems was historically important to the development of ecological speciation theory, yet surprisingly few studies have examined whether host shifting drives diversification of marine herbivores. When small-bodied consumers feed and also mate on a preferred host, disruptive selection can split a population into host races despite gene flow. Support for host shifts is notably lacking for invertebrates associated with macroalgae, where the scale of dispersal by planktonic larvae often far exceeds the grain of host patchiness, and adults are typically less specialized than terrestrial herbivores. Here, we present a candidate example of ecological speciation in a clade of sea slugs that primarily consume green algae in the genus Caulerpa, including highly invasive species. Ancestral character state reconstructions supported 'sea grapes' (C. racemosa, C. lentillifera) as the ancestral host for a tropical radiation of 12 Elysia spp., with one shift onto alternative Caulerpa spp. in the Indo-Pacific. A Caribbean radiation of three species included symaptric host shifts to Rhipocephalus brevicaulis in the ancestor of E. pratensis Ortea & Espinosa, 1996, and to C. prolifera in E. hamanni Krug, Vendetti & Valdes 2016, plus a niche expansion to a range of Caulerpa spp. in E. subornata Verrill, 1901. All three species are broadly sympatric across the Caribbean but are host-partitioned at a fine grain, and distinct by morphology and at nuclear loci. However, non-recombining mtDNA revealed a history of gene flow between E. pratensis and E. subornata: COI haplotypes from E. subornata were 10.4% divergent from E. pratensis haplotypes from four sites, but closely related to all E. pratensis haplotypes sampled from six Bahamian islands, indicating historical introgression and localized "mitochondrial capture." Disruptive selective likely fueled divergence and adaptation to distinct host environments, indicating ecological speciation may be an under-appreciated driver of diversification for marine herbivores as well as epibionts and other resource specialists.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Bzonek PA, NE Mandrak (2022)

Wetland fishes avoid a carbon dioxide deterrent deployed in the field.

Conservation physiology, 10(1):coac021 pii:coac021.

Biological invasions are poorly controlled and contribute to the loss of ecosystem services and function. Altered watershed connectivity contributes to aquatic invasions, but such hydrologic connections have become important for human transport. Carbon dioxide (CO2) deterrents have been proposed to control the range expansion of invasive fishes, particularly through altered hydrologic connections, without impeding human transport. However, the effectiveness of CO2 deterrents needs to be further evaluated in the field, where fishes are situated in their natural environment and logistical challenges are present. We deployed a proof-of-concept CO2 deterrent within a trap-and-sort fishway in Cootes Paradise, Ontario, Canada, to determine the avoidance responses of fishes attempting to disperse into a wetland. We aimed to describe deterrent efficiency for our target species, common carp, and for native fishes dispersing into the wetland. Our inexpensive inline CO2 deterrent was deployed quickly and rapidly produced a CO2 plume of 60 mg/l. Over 2000 fishes, representing 13 species, were captured between 23 May and 8 July 2019. A generalized linear model determined that the catch rates of our target species, common carp (n = 1662), decreased significantly during deterrent activation, with catch rates falling from 2.56 to 0.26 individuals per hour. Aggregated catch rates for low-abundance species (n < 150 individuals per species) also decreased, while catch rates for non-target brown bullhead (n = 294) increased. Species did not express a phylogenetic signal in avoidance responses. These results indicate that CO2 deterrents produce a robust common carp avoidance response in the field. This pilot study deployed an inexpensive and rapidly operating deterrent, but to be a reliable management tool, permanent deterrents would need to produce a more concentrated CO2 plume with greater infrastructural support.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Simonov E, Kuranova VN, Lisachov A, et al (2022)

Database of Amphibia distribution in West Siberia (Russia).

Biodiversity data journal, 10:e82436 pii:82436.

Background: West Siberia is a large region in North Eurasia, which harbours multiple climatic zones, landscape types and biomes. Its amphibian fauna is characterised by a combination of European and Asian species. For many species, this region is the place where the limits of their global ranges are located (Ranatemporaria, R.amurensis, Bufotessitibundus). West Siberia also has at least two non-native amphibian species (Pelophylaxridibundus, Bufotesviridis). The exact ranges and patterns of distribution of the West Siberian amphibian species are poorly studied. The mapping of species ranges is important for the development of conservation measures and monitoring of invasive species is required to investigate their impacts on the natural ecosystems.

New information: This work presents the most complete biogeographic and occurrence records database of the amphibians of West Siberia. To assemble the database, we digitised data from 190 published works, obtained data from major museum collections and from the data bank on the abundance and distribution of animals «Zoomonitor» by the Zoomonitoring laboratory of the Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. The database also includes original and partly unpublished data collected by the authors from 1975 to 2021, as well as quality-assessed citizen science data from the iNaturalist portal. In total, the database contains 2530 records for 11 species of amphibians, including the locality data, the observation date (when known) and the source of the observation (at least one of the following: literature reference, museum sample ID, observer's name, iNaturalist link).

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Ceballos-Escalera A, Richards J, Arias MB, et al (2022)

Metabarcoding of insect-associated fungal communities: a comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) rRNA markers.

MycoKeys, 88:1-33 pii:77106.

Full taxonomic characterisation of fungal communities is necessary for establishing ecological associations and early detection of pathogens and invasive species. Complex communities of fungi are regularly characterised by metabarcoding using the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and the Large-Subunit (LSU) gene of the rRNA locus, but reliance on a single short sequence fragment limits the confidence of identification. Here we link metabarcoding from the ITS2 and LSU D1-D2 regions to characterise fungal communities associated with bark beetles (Scolytinae), the likely vectors of several tree pathogens. Both markers revealed similar patterns of overall species richness and response to key variables (beetle species, forest type), but identification against the respective reference databases using various taxonomic classifiers revealed poor resolution towards lower taxonomic levels, especially the species level. Thus, Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) could not be linked via taxonomic classifiers across ITS and LSU fragments. However, using phylogenetic trees (focused on the epidemiologically important Sordariomycetes) we placed OTUs obtained with either marker relative to reference sequences of the entire rRNA cistron that includes both loci and demonstrated the largely similar phylogenetic distribution of ITS and LSU-derived OTUs. Sensitivity analysis of congruence in both markers suggested the biologically most defensible threshold values for OTU delimitation in Sordariomycetes to be 98% for ITS2 and 99% for LSU D1-D2. Studies of fungal communities using the canonical ITS barcode require corroboration across additional loci. Phylogenetic analysis of OTU sequences aligned to the full rRNA cistron shows higher success rate and greater accuracy of species identification compared to probabilistic taxonomic classifiers.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Wilson ER, Murphy KJ, RC Wyeth (2022)

Ecological Review of the Ciona Species Complex.

The Biological bulletin, 242(2):153-171.

AbstractThe set of four closely related solitary ascidians Ciona spp. were once considered a single cosmopolitan species, Ciona intestinalis, but are now recognized as genetically and morphologically distinct species. The possibility of ecological differences between the species was not widely considered in studies preceding the schism of Ciona spp. Consequently, there may be an over-generalization of the ecology of Ciona spp., with potential implications for the broad range of studies targeting these species, encompassing the evolution, development, genomics, and invasion biology of Ciona spp. We completed a comprehensive review of the ecology of Ciona spp. to establish the similarities and differences between the widely distributed Ciona robusta and C. intestinalis (and what little is known of the two other species, Ciona sp. C and Ciona sp. D). When necessary, we used study locations and the species' geographic ranges to infer the species in each study in the review. As expected, ecological similarities are the norm between the two species, spanning both abiotic and biotic interactions. However, there are also important differences that have potential implications for other aspects of the biology of Ciona spp. For example, differences in temperature and salinity tolerances likely correspond with the disparities in the geographic distribution of the species. Asymmetries in topics studied in each species diminish our ability to fully compare several aspects of the ecology of Ciona spp. and are priority areas for future research. We anticipate that our clarification of common and unique aspects of each species' ecology will help to provide context for future research in many aspects of the biology of Ciona spp.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

McGranahan DA, CL Wonkka (2022)

Fuel Properties of Effective Greenstrips in Simulated Cheatgrass Fires.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive annual grasses alter fire regime in steppe ecosystems, and subsequent trends toward larger, more frequent wildfires impacts iconic biodiversity. A common solution is to disrupt novel fuel beds comprising continuous swaths of invasive annual grasses with greenstrips-linear, human-maintained stands of less-flammable vegetation. But selecting effective native species is challenged by the fact that identifying the optimal combination of plant traits that interrupt wildfire spread is logistically difficult. We employed fire behavior simulation modeling to determine plant traits with high potential to slow fire spread in annual Bromus-dominated fuelbeds. We found species with low leaf:stem (fine:coarse) ratios and high live:dead fuel ratios to be most effective. Our approach helps isolate fuelbed characteristics that slow fire spread, providing a geographically-agnostic framework to scale plant traits to greenstrip effectiveness. This framework helps managers assess potential native species for greenstrips without needing logistically-difficult experimental assessments to determine how a species might affect fire behavior.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Gauff RPM, Davoult D, Greff S, et al (2022)

Pollution gradient leads to local adaptation and small-scale spatial variability of communities and functions in an urban marine environment.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03008-X [Epub ahead of print].

Urbanization of coastal habitats, of which harbors and marinas are the paragon, has led to various ecological paradigms about their functioning. Harbor infrastructures offer new hard substrata that are colonized by a wide variety of organisms (biofouling) including many introduced species. These structures also modify hydrodynamism and contaminant dispersal, leading to strong disturbance gradients within them. Differences in sessile community structure have previously been correlated to these gradients at small spatial scale (<100 m). Local adaptation might be involved to explain such results, but as correlation is not causation, the present study aims to understand the causal link between the environmental gradients and community structure through a reciprocal transplant experiment among three sites of a marina (inner, middle, entrance). Our results highlighted strong small-scale spatial variations of contaminants (trace metals, PCB, pesticides, and PAH) in sediments and animal samples which have been causally linked to changes in community composition after transplant. But historical contingency and colonization succession also play an important role. Our results provided strong evidence for local adaptation since community structure, respiration, and pollutant uptake in Bugula neritina, as well as the metabolomes of B. neritina and Ciona intestinalis were impacted by the transplant with a disadvantage for individuals transplanted from the entrance to the inner location. The here observed results may thus indicate that the disturbance gradient in marinas might constitute a staple for selecting pollutant-resistant species and populations, causing local adaptation. This highlights the importance of conducting further studies into small scale local adaptation.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Verdasca MJ, Carvalheiro L, Aguirre Gutierrez J, et al (2022)

Contrasting patterns from two invasion fronts suggest a niche shift of an invasive predator of native bees.

PeerJ, 10:e13269 pii:13269.

Background: The accuracy of predictions of invasive species ranges is dependent on niche similarity between invasive and native populations and on our ability to identify the niche characteristics. With this work we aimed to compare the niche dynamics of two genetically related invasive populations of Vespa velutina (an effective predator of honeybees and wild pollinators), in two distinct climatic regions, one in central Europe and another one in the north-western Iberian Peninsula, and hence to identify uninvaded regions susceptible to invasion.

Methods: Niche dynamics and shifts of V. velutina were assessed by comparing the environmental niches of the native and of the two invasive populations, using climatic, topographic and land use variables. We also ran reciprocal distribution models using different algorithms and records from both native and invasive ranges to compare model predictions and estimate which regions are at a greater risk of being invaded.

Results: An apparent niche shift was detected in the population of the NW of Iberian Peninsula, where the species is living under environmental conditions different from the native niche. In central Europe, large suitable areas remain unoccupied. The fact that both invasive populations are well established, despite occupying environmentally distinct regions indicates that V. velutina has a high ability to successfully invade different environmental envelopes from those existing in its native range. For example, in north-western Iberian Peninsula the species is now thriving out of its native niche limits. Moreover, the large extent of still unoccupied environmental space with similar conditions to those used by the species in its native range suggests that there is still a large area of central and eastern Europe that can be potentially invaded by the species.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Fontana S, Yeh LW, Zhan SH, et al (2022)

A multifaceted ecological assessment reveals the invasion of the freshwater red macroalga Montagnia macrospora (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) in Taiwan.

Ecology and evolution, 12(5):e8906 pii:ECE38906.

Invasive freshwater macroalgae are rarely described. Montagnia macrospora is a freshwater red alga introduced from South America to East Asia via the global aquarium trade. The earliest occurrence record of this alga in Taiwan is dated 2005. To determine whether M. macrospora has become invasive in Taiwan and to understand the traits that facilitated its invasion, we took a multifaceted approach that combines examination of ecological background and population genetic analysis. Our island-wide survey showed that M. macrospora is widespread in the field across Taiwan, where the climate greatly differs from that of South America, and can self-sustain for nearly a decade. Our population genetic analysis revealed a lack of genetic diversity of M. macrospora in Taiwan, consistent with the hypothesis that the alga expanded through asexual reproduction. Moreover, during our long-term ecological assessments and field surveys, we observed that M. macrospora is an ecological generalist that can survive in a wide range of temperature, pH, illumination, and nutrient enrichment. Taken together, our data suggest that M. macrospora has successfully invaded the freshwater ecosystems of Taiwan, likely due to its ability to disperse asexually and to grow under broad environmental conditions. We hope that our study brings attention to invasive freshwater algae, which have been overlooked in conservation planning and management.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Haubrock PJ, Ahmed DA, Cuthbert RN, et al (2022)

Invasion impacts and dynamics of a European-wide introduced species.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Globalization has led to the introduction of thousands of alien species worldwide. With growing impacts by invasive species, understanding the invasion process remains critical for predicting adverse effects and informing efficient management. Theoretically, invasion dynamics have been assumed to follow an "invasion curve" (S-shaped curve of available area invaded over time), but this dynamic has lacked empirical testing using large-scale data and neglects to consider invader abundances. We propose an "impact curve" describing the impacts generated by invasive species over time based on cumulative abundances. To test this curve's large-scale applicability, we used the data-rich New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one of the most damaging freshwater invaders that has invaded almost all of Europe. Using long-term (1979-2020) abundance and environmental data collected across 306 European sites, we observed that P. antipodarum abundance generally increased through time, with slower population growth at higher latitudes and with lower runoff depth. Fifty-nine percent of these populations followed the impact curve, characterized by first occurrence, exponential growth, then long-term saturation. This behaviour is consistent with boom-bust dynamics, as saturation occurs due to a rapid decline in abundance over time. Across sites, we estimated that impact peaked approximately two decades after first detection, but the rate of progression along the invasion process was influenced by local abiotic conditions. The S-shaped impact curve may be common among many invasive species that undergo complex invasion dynamics. This provides a potentially unifying approach to advance understanding of large-scale invasion dynamics and could inform timely management actions to mitigate impacts on ecosystems and economies.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Maliano MR, Rojas MR, Macedo MA, et al (2022)

The invasion biology of tomato begomoviruses in Costa Rica reveals neutral synergism that may lead to increased disease pressure and economic loss.

Virus research pii:S0168-1702(22)00120-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the late 1980s, tomato production in Costa Rica has been affected by diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses. The first was tomato yellow mottle virus (ToYMoV), a locally evolved New World (NW) bipartite begomovirus associated with the tomato yellow mottle disease (ToYMoD). In the late 1990s, the invasive NW bipartite tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus (ToLCSiV) was detected in Costa Rica and has become established and associated with ToYMoD. Finally, the invasive Old World (OW) monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was detected in Costa Rica in 2012 and has also become established and is causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). In the present study, we investigated the invasion biology of these tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Costa Rica in terms of (i) their biological and genetic properties and (ii) disease symptoms and viral DNA accumulation in tomato plants having single and mixed infections. We first generated infectious DNA-A and DNA-B clones and agroinoculation systems for ToYMoV and ToLCSiV isolates recovered from archival ToYMoD samples collected in Costa Rica in 1990 and 2002, respectively. Tomato plants agroinoculated with the infectious clones of both viruses developed ToYMoD symptoms, completing Koch's postulates for ToYMoV, and showing that ToLCSiV also causes this disease. However, pseudorecombinants formed between the DNA components of these viruses were not infectious, which is consistent with independent evolution in different lineages and limits genetic interactions. Furthermore, ToYMoV is well-adapted to tomato, has a narrow host range and is mechanically transmissible. The DNA-A component has a recombination event in the hot spot area and induced a symptomless infection in agroinoculated N. benthamiana and tomato plants. Tomato plants co-infected with two or all three viruses developed more severe symptoms compared with plants infected with each virus alone. Symptoms induced by the NW bipartite ToYMoV and ToLCSiV appeared earlier (∼7 d post-inoculation [dpi]) than those induced by TYLCV (∼10 dpi), but TYLCD symptoms became predominant in single and mixed infections by 14 dpi. Viral DNA accumulation was quantified by qPCR and generally revealed a neutral synergistic interaction in which the viruses co-existed in mixed infections. A transient reduction in accumulation of ToYMoV and ToLCSiV was detected in mixed infections at 7 dpi, whereas TYLCV accumulation was not affected in mixed infections and was uniform among treatments and time points. Together our results suggest that this neutral synergistic interaction will lead to increased begomovirus disease severity in Costa Rica. We discuss this in terms of begomovirus invasion biology and disease management.

RevDate: 2022-05-14

Variza PF, Lorenz C, de Oliveira JG, et al (2022)

Updated spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(22)00203-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Aedes albopictus is native to Asia and is ranked among the top 100 invasive species worldwide, with vector competence for dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Understanding Ae. albopictus dispersal is essential for effective monitoring and vector control strategies. In this study, we analysed and updated the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Brazil using data available from the Ministry of Health through the Rapid Index Survey for Aedes (LIRA) for the years 2015-2020. The results of this research were mapped to visually represent the current distribution of Ae. albopictus in Brazil. In 2015, the presence of the vector was confirmed in 271 of the 1,820 Brazilian municipalities sampled (14.9%), and in 2020 it was detected in 728 of the 2,937 municipalities sampled (24.8%). In 2020, all Brazilian states had recorded the presence of this critical vector with a broader geographic distribution in the Southeast and Midwest regions as compared to the North, Northeast, and South regions. It was possible to note some stabilization of dispersion of this species in the Brazilian territory. The record of Ae. albopictus distribution advanced in Brazilian states and municipalities from 2015 to 2020; it is suggested that surveys of this vector be conducted periodically in all Brazilian municipalities and authorities should developing control strategies for this species together with Ae. aegypti.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Morais MC, Cabral JA, B Gonçalves (2022)

Seasonal Variation in Selected Biochemical Traits in the Leaves of Co-Occurring Invasive and Native Plant Species under Mediterranean Conditions.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9):.

The success of invasive alien species (IAS) is often linked to differences in functional traits in relation to other, either native or non-invasive, species. Two of the most problematic IAS in the Mediterranean area belong to Hakea and Acacia genera that often invade pine plantations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the seasonal variations in photosynthetic pigments, total phenolics, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), including total soluble sugars (SS) and starch (St), and lipid peroxidation, in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves of evergreen species, two IAS (Hakea sericea and Acacia melanoxylon) and one native (Pinus pinaster), throughout 2019. All parameters showed a pronounced seasonal variability while also differing across species. Generally, the lowest contents of photosynthetic pigments, phenolics and SS were noted in early spring, along with the highest St and NSC values. On the other hand, higher photosynthetic pigment and lower NSC contents were measured in early autumn and early winter. When these parameters were compared across the three species, the IAS had significantly higher content of photosynthetic pigments, mainly chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, and lower total phenolics and MDA concentrations in their leaves than Pinus pinaster. Differences in seasonal patterns were also observed. Hakea sericea and Acacia melanoxylon had considerably higher chlorophyll, SS and NSC contents in the early autumn, while Pinus pinaster had higher St and MDA contents in early summer. Overall, the biochemical characteristics of leaves of the studied IAS can explain their success in the Mediterranean area, in terms of tolerance to stressful environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Siller-Clavel P, Badano EI, Villarreal-Guerrero F, et al (2022)

Distribution Patterns of Invasive Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in Mexico Estimated with Climate Niche Models under the Current and Future Climate.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9):.

In Mexico, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) was introduced in the middle of the 20th century. Currently, buffelgrass has become an invasive species and has colonized various ecosystems in the country. In addition to its invasive capacity, climate change is a factor that has to be taken into account when considering how to effectively manage and control this species. The climatic niche models (CNM) and their projections for climate change scenarios allow for estimating the extent of biological invasions. Our study aimed to calibrate a CNM for buffelgrass in Mexico under the current climatic conditions and to project the extent of its biological invasion under climate change scenarios. For that, we used MaxEnt to generate the current CNM and to detect if climate change could cause future changes, we then evaluated the distribution patterns over the periods of 2041-2060, 2061-2080, and 2081-2100 for all the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Linear regressions were used to compare the outputs between current and future scenarios. Under the current climate, the CNM estimated that 42.2% of the continental surface of Mexico is highly suitable for buffelgrass. The regression analyses indicated no effects from climate change on the distribution of buffelgrass. Moreover, when the projected period is further in the future, and when the SSPs intensify, the surface of suitable areas for the species increases. These analyses clearly suggest Mexico is facing a biological invasion from buffelgrass, which may represent a threat to native biodiversity.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Radušienė J, Karpavičienė B, Marksa M, et al (2022)

Distribution Patterns of Essential Oil Terpenes in Native and Invasive Solidago Species and Their Comparative Assessment.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9):.

The importance of invasive Solidago L. species to the environment creates a new approach to controlling their spread through the use of potentially high value raw materials. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution patterns of volatile compounds in the four Solidago spp., by identifying common and species-specific compounds with their potentials, and to confirm the origin of the spontaneous hybrid Solidago × niederederi on the basis of comparative assessment of essential oil (EO) profiles. Plant material in the flowering phase was collected in mixed populations from six different sites. The EOs were isolated separately from the leaf and the inflorescence samples by hydrodistillation for 3 h. The chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate data analysis was employed to explain the interspecies relationships among Solidago spp. The results revealed the similarity among Solidago spp. EO profiles, which were dominated by monoterpenes and oxygenated compound fractions. Solidago spp. differed in species distinctive terpenes and their distribution between accessions and plant parts. Volatile compound patterns confirmed the origin of Solidago × niederederi between Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea, with the higher contribution of alien species than native ones. Correct taxonomic identification of species is highly essential for the targeted collection of raw material from the wild for different applications. Solidago spp. can be considered to be underutilized sources of bioactive secondary metabolites.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt K, Gmyrek K, A Pliszko (2022)

The Effect of the Distance from a Path on Abiotic Conditions and Vascular Plant Species in the Undergrowth of Urban Forests and Parks.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(9):.

Urban forests and parks are essential for the maintenance of biodiversity as well as human health and well-being. Residents and tourists commonly use urban forests and parks for recreational and sport purposes, contributing to changes in vegetation. This study aimed to assess the effect of distance from formal paths on the abiotic conditions, vegetation cover, as well as ecological diversity of vascular plant species in the undergrowth of urban forests and parks. The investigations were carried out in 2021 in 10 urban forests and 10 urban parks located in Kraków (southern Poland), using a total of 400 plots (1 × 1 m) situated in close (CL) and further (FU) vicinity of formal paths. We found a positive effect of the distance from the path on the depth of the compact soil layer, vegetation cover and height of the tallest shoot in the undergrowth of urban forests and parks. On the other hand, the distance from the path had a negative effect on the number of vascular plant species in the undergrowth in both forests and parks. Forests and parks differed significantly from each other in light intensity, the content of P in soil, depth of compact soil layer, number of species, as well as in cover-abundance of species representing different life forms, dispersal types, habitat affiliations and origins. Trampling leads to low plant cover and height of the undergrowth, as well as contributing to shallow localization of the compact soil layer near paths. Human movement on paths (walking, running, biking) with accompanying pets contributes to the successful dispersal of plants, resulting in high species richness. High light intensity in urban parks enhances the total number of species, cover-abundance of meadow and grassland plants, as well as cover-abundance of hemicryptophytes. The number of alien species was higher in parks than in forests, but the cover-abundance of alien plants was higher in forests than in parks. Urban forests are more suitable for the growth and biomass production of some alien herbs than urban parks, as mowing commonly used in parks appears to be an important factor in reducing their cover abundance. Regular fertilization and irrigation contribute to the high content of phosphorus in the soil, as well as to the high cover-abundance of meadow and grassland plants in urban parks. Urban forests enhance cover abundance of plants with dispersal mechanisms of the Bidens and Lycopodium types, whereas urban parks promote cover abundance of plants with the dispersal of the Allium type. Further study is needed to confirm the role of urban forests and parks in the preservation of ancient forest species, as well as to develop an appropriate design of paths that will allow the protection of vegetation and soil in urban forests and parks.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Kim SS, Hwang KS, Kan H, et al (2022)

Neurotoxicological Profiling of Paraquat in Zebrafish Model.

Neurochemical research [Epub ahead of print].

Paraquat is a polar herbicide protecting plant products against invasive species, it requires careful manipulation and restricted usage because of its harmful potentials. Exposure to paraquat triggers oxidative damage in dopaminergic neurons and subsequently causes a behavioral defect in vivo. Thereby, persistent exposure to paraquat is known to increase Parkinson's disease risk by dysregulating dopaminergic systems in humans. Therefore, most studies have focused on the dopaminergic systems to elucidate the neurotoxicological mechanism of paraquat poisoning, and more comprehensive neurochemistry including histaminergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic systems has remained unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the toxicological potential of paraquat poisoning using a variety of approaches such as toxicokinetic profiles, behavioral effects, neural activity, and broad-spectrum neurochemistry in zebrafish larvae after short-term exposure to paraquat and we performed the molecular modeling approach. Our results showed that paraquat was slowly absorbed in the brain of zebrafish after oral administration of paraquat. In addition, paraquat toxicity resulted in behavioral impairments, namely, reduced motor activity and led to abnormal neural activities in zebrafish larvae. This locomotor deficit came with a dysregulation of dopamine synthesis induced by the inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity, which was also indirectly confirmed by molecular modeling studies. Furthermore, short-term exposure to paraquat also caused simultaneous dysregulation of other neurochemistry including cholinergic and serotonergic systems in zebrafish larvae. The present study suggests that this neurotoxicological profiling could be a useful tool for understanding the brain neurochemistry of neurotoxic agents that might be a potential risk to human and environmental health.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Shackleton RT, Vimercati G, Probert AF, et al (2022)

Consensus and controversy in the discipline of invasion science.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Approaches, values and perceptions in invasion science are highly dynamic, and like in other disciplines, views among different people can be somewhat divergent. This has led to debate in the field specifically surrounding the core themes relating to values, management, impacts, and terminology. Considering these debates, we surveyed the views of 698 scientists and practitioners to assess levels of polarization (opposing views) on core and contentious invasion science topics. Our results indicate that although there are generally high levels of consensus in the field, there are still some areas of polarization. Relating to values, there was high polarization regarding claims of invasive species denialism, if invasive species contribute to biodiversity, and, how biodiversity reporting should be conducted. Linking to management there were polarized views on banning the commercial use of beneficial invasive species, the extent to which stakeholders' perceptions should influence management, if invasive species utilization alone is an appropriate control strategy, and, whether the eradication of invasive plants is possible. For impacts, there was high polarization concerning whether invasive species drive, or are a side effect of degradation, and, if invasive species benefits are understated. For terminology, polarized views related to defining invasive species based only on spread, if labelling species as invasive in their native ranges, and, if language used is too xenophobic. Factor and regression analysis revealed that views were particularly divergent between people working on different invasive taxa (plants and mammals) and in different disciplines (especially between biologists and social scientists), between academics and practitioners, and between world regions (especially between Africa and the Global North). Unlike in other studies, age and gender had a limited influence on response patterns. We highlight that better integration globally and between disciplines, taxa and sectors (e.g., academic vs. practitioners), could help build broader understanding and consensus in the field. Article Impact statement: Polarization in invasion science links to differences in values, management approaches, terminology use, and perspective on species' effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Aoyama L, Shoemaker LG, Gilbert B, et al (2022)

Application of modern coexistence theory to rare plant restoration provides early indication of restoration trajectories.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Restoration ecology commonly seeks to reestablish species of interest in degraded habitats. Despite a rich understanding of how succession influences reestablishment, there are several outstanding questions that remain unaddressed: are short-term abundances sufficient to determine long-term reestablishment success, and what factors contribute to unpredictable restorations outcomes? In other words, when restoration fails, is it because the restored habitat is substandard, because of strong competition with invasive species, or alternatively due to changing environmental conditions that would equally impact established populations? Here, we re-purpose tools developed from Modern Coexistence Theory to address these questions, and apply them to an effort to restore the endangered Contra Costa goldfields (Lasthenia conjugens) in constructed ('restored') California vernal pools. Using 16 years of data, we construct a population model of L. conjugens, a species of conservation concern due primarily to habitat loss and invasion of exotic grasses. We show that initial, short-term appearances of restoration success from population abundances is misleading, as year-to-year fluctuations cause long-term population growth rates to fall below zero. The failure of constructed pools is driven by lower maximum growth rates compared to reference ('natural') pools, coupled with a stronger negative sensitivity to annual fluctuations in abiotic conditions that yield decreased maximum growth rates. Nonetheless, our modeling shows that fluctuations in competition (mainly with exotic grasses) benefit L. conjugens through periods of competitive release, especially in constructed pools of intermediate pool depth. We therefore show how reductions in invasives and seed addition in pools of particular depths could change the outcome of restoration for L. conjugens. By applying a largely theoretical framework to the urgent goal of ecological restoration, our study provides a blueprint for predicting restoration success, and identifies future actions to reverse species loss.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Chen D, M van Kleunen (2022)

Invasional meltdown mediated by plant-soil feedbacks may depend on community diversity.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

It has been suggested that establishment of one alien invader might promote further invasions. Such a so-called invasional meltdown could be mediated by differences in soil-legacy effects between alien and native plants. Whether such legacy effects might depend on the diversity of the invaded community has not been explored yet. Here, we conducted a two-phase plant-soil-feedback experiment. In a soil-conditioning phase, we grew five alien and five native species as invaders in 21 communities of one, two or four species. In the subsequent test phase, we grew five alien and five native species on the conditioned soils. We found that growth of these test species was negatively affected by soils conditioned by both a community and an invader, and particularly if the previous invader was a conspecific (i.e. negative plant-soil feedback). Alien test species suffered less from soil-legacy effects of previous allospecific alien invaders than from legacy effects of previous native invaders. However, this effect decreased when the soil had been co-conditioned by a multi-species community. Our findings suggest that plant-soil-feedback-mediated invasional meltdown may depend on community diversity, and thus provide some evidence that diverse communities could increase resistance against subsequent alien invasions.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Andersen JC, JS Elkinton (2022)

Predation and Climate Limit Establishment Success of the Kyushu Strain of the Biological Control Agent Aphalara itadori (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) in the Northeastern United States.

Environmental entomology pii:6584711 [Epub ahead of print].

Species of knotweeds, Reynoutria spp. Houtt. (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae), including Japanese knotweed (R. japonica Houtt.), are among the most invasive and ecologically destructive plant species introduced to North America and Europe. The Kyushu strain of the psyllid Aphalara itadori Shinji (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) has been approved as a biological control agent for release against Japanese knotweed in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. However, recent reports from Canada suggest that both biotic and abiotic factors may limit its establishment. Therefore, we examined the potential role of predation by comparing open- versus closed-sleeve treatments, and climate mis-matches by collecting temperature data from release sites and performing climate suitability analyses using MaxEnt. Our results indicated that populations of the Kyushu strain could only be maintained in the field in closed-sleeve treatments, suggesting that predation is likely limiting the establishment success of this strain. In addition, we noted that daily maximum temperatures at our field sites might exceed documented developmental thresholds for this strain, and that MaxEnt species distribution modeling indicates no climate similarities between locations in eastern North America and Kyushu. Combined with previous results, our study suggests that the establishment of the Kyushu strain of A. itadori as a biological control agent for Japanese knotweed may be limited in eastern North America. We suggest that one strategy to increase the probability of establishment of the Kyushu strain could be to increase the number of release sites in an effort to find a more optimal niche with predator-free space.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Yoshida K, Setogawa T, Sato T, et al (2022)

Male-biased sex ratio in the crawling individuals of an invasive naticid snail during summer: implications for population management.

Scientific reports, 12(1):7911.

The naticid snail Laguncula pulchella is an invasive species that preys on clams in tidal flats and has serious impacts on clam fisheries in Japan. Laguncula pulchella burrow in sand, but often crawl on sediment surfaces during low tide. We investigated seasonal changes in the abundance and sex ratio of crawling L. pulchella during the daytime at Matsukawaura Lagoon, Japan, from March to October from 2015 to 2019. The density of crawling individuals peaked in July. The sex ratio of crawling individuals varied with months and years but was significantly biased towards males during the main copulation period (July-August); males accounted for 77-98% of the mature crawling individuals (≥ 25 mm shell height). The somatic condition of mature males declined from June to August, whereas that of females was constant during this period. These results indicate that mature males actively come to the sand surface during low tide to search for females for copulation from July to August. Fishermen make efforts to remove crawling individuals in summer, but the male-biased sex ratio must also be considered for effective population control of this species.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Lee IH, LB Duvall (2022)

Maternally Instigated Diapause in Aedes albopictus: Coordinating Experience and Internal State for Survival in Variable Environments.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 16:778264.

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the most dangerous invasive species in the world. Females bite mammalian hosts, including humans, to obtain blood for egg development. The ancestral range of Ae. albopictus likely spanned from India to Japan and this species has since invaded a substantial portion of the globe. Ae. albopictus can be broadly categorized into temperate and tropical populations. One key to their ability to invade diverse ecological spaces is the capacity of females to detect seasonal changes and produce stress-resistant eggs that survive harsh winters. Females living in temperate regions respond to cues that predict the onset of unfavorable environmental conditions by producing eggs that enter maternally instigated embryonic diapause, a developmentally arrested state, which allows species survival by protecting the embryos until favorable conditions return. To appropriately produce diapause eggs, the female must integrate environmental cues and internal physiological state (blood feeding and reproductive status) to allocate nutrients and regulate reproduction. There is variation in reproductive responses to environmental cues between interfertile tropical and temperate populations depending on whether females are actively producing diapause vs. non-diapause eggs and whether they originate from populations that are capable of diapause. Although diapause-inducing environmental cues and diapause eggs have been extensively characterized, little is known about how the female detects gradual environmental changes and coordinates her reproductive status with seasonal dynamics to lay diapause eggs in order to maximize offspring survival. Previous studies suggest that the circadian system is involved in detecting daylength as a critical cue. However, it is unknown which clock network components are important, how these connect to reproductive physiology, and how they may differ between behavioral states or across populations with variable diapause competence. In this review, we showcase Ae. albopictus as an emerging species for neurogenetics to study how the nervous system combines environmental conditions and internal state to optimize reproductive behavior. We review environmental cues for diapause induction, downstream pathways that control female metabolic changes and reproductive capacity, as well as diapause heterogeneity between populations with different evolutionary histories. We highlight genetic tools that can be implemented in Ae. albopictus to identify signaling molecules and cellular circuits that control diapause. The tools and discoveries made in this species could translate to a broader understanding of how environmental cues are interpreted to alter reproductive physiology in other species and how populations with similar genetic and circuit organizations diversify behavioral patterns. These approaches may yield new targets to interfere with mosquito reproductive capacity, which could be exploited to reduce mosquito populations and the burden of the pathogens they transmit.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Thredgold L, Gaskin S, Liu Y, et al (2022)

In vitro assessment of the dermal penetration potential of sodium fluoroacetate using a formulated product.

Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene [Epub ahead of print].

This paper presents experimental data on the skin absorption of sodium fluoroacetate from a formulated product using an in vitro approach and human skin. Sodium fluoroacetate is a pesticide, typically applied in formulation (1080) for the control of unwanted vertebrate invasive species. It that has been assigned a Skin Notation by the ACGIH®, and other international workplace health regulatory bodies, due to its predicted ability to permeate intact and abraded human skin. However, there is a distinct lack of experimental data on the skin absorption of sodium fluoroacetate to support this assignment. This study found that sodium fluoroacetate, as a formulated product, permeated human epidermis when in direct contact for greater than 10 hours. A steady state flux (Jss) of 1.31 ± 0.043 µg/cm2/hr and a lag time of 6.1 hours was calculated from cumulative skin permeation data. This study provides important empirical evidence in support of the assignment of a Skin Notation.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Whiting MJ, Holland BS, Keogh JS, et al (2022)

Invasive chameleons released from predation display more conspicuous colors.

Science advances, 8(19):eabn2415.

Conspicuous social and sexual signals are predicted to experience pronounced character release when natural selection via predation is relaxed. However, we have few good examples of this phenomenon in the wild and none in species with dynamic color change. Here, we show that Jackson's chameleons inadvertently introduced from Kenya to Hawaii (Oahu), where there are no coevolved, native lizard predators, experienced pronounced character release of color signals. Hawaiian chameleons displayed more conspicuous social color signals than Kenyan chameleons during male contests and courtship, were less cryptic in response to bird and snake predators, and showed greater change between display and antipredator color states. Hawaiian chameleon display colors were also more conspicuous in their local than ancestral habitats, consistent with local adaptation of social signals. These results demonstrate that relaxed predation pressure can result in character release of dynamic social signals in introduced species experiencing strong sexual selection.

RevDate: 2022-05-12
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Li YZ, Sun ZG, Mao L, et al (2022)

[Phosphorus forms in marsh soils with different years of Spartina alterniflora invasion in the Minjiang River estuary, China].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 33(4):1003-1011.

We examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on phosphorus forms of marsh soils, based on the method of space-for-time substitution by selecting S. alterniflora marshes with different invasion years (SA1, 5-6 years; SA2, 8-10 years; and SA3, 12-14 years) in Shanyutan of the Minjiang River estuary. The results showed that in marsh soils of different invasion years, the proportion of hardly decomposable phosphorus (HCl-Pi and Residual-P) was the highest (46.4%-46.7%), followed by moderately decomposable phosphorus (NaOH-Pi, NaOH-Po and Sonic-Pi) (40.0%-44.0%), and the easily decomposable phosphorus (Resin-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi and NaHCO3-Po) was the lowest (9.5%-13.3%). With increasing invasion years of S. alterniflora, soil phosphorus forms and their spatial distributions were greatly altered. The contents of moderately decomposable phosphorus, hardly decomposable phosphorus, and total phosphorus (TP) generally increased, while easily decomposable phosphorus content generally decreased. Compared with SA1, the contents of moderately decomposable phosphorus, hardly decomposable phosphorus and TP in SA2 increased by 11.5%, 9.7% and 10.5%, while those in SA3 increased by 24.8%, 13.2% and 13.5%, respectively. The distribution of phosphorus forms was greatly altered with increasing invasion years, which was dependent on the variations of key factors such as EC, pH value and grain composition. The implementation of regular mowing activities for S. alterniflora in the Minjiang River estuary in recent years, to some extent, reduced the return of phosphorus from residues to soils and decreased the availability of the easily decomposable phosphorus in soils.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Steyn VM, Mitchell KA, Nyamukondiwa C, et al (2022)

Understanding costs and benefits of thermal plasticity for pest management: insights from the integration of laboratory, semi-field and field assessments of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Bulletin of entomological research pii:S0007485321000389 [Epub ahead of print].

The relative costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for manipulating field performance of pest insects depend upon a number of factors including which traits are affected and how persistent any trait changes are in different environments. By assessing plastic trait responses of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) across three distinct operational environments (laboratory, semi-field, and field), we examined the influence of different thermal acclimation regimes (cool, intermediate [or handling control], and warm) on thermal tolerance traits (chill-coma recovery, heat-knockdown time, critical thermal minimum and critical thermal maximum) and flight performance (mark-release-recapture). Under laboratory conditions, thermal acclimation altered thermal limits in a relatively predictable manner and there was a generally positive effect across all traits assessed, although some traits responded more strongly. By contrast, dispersal-related performance yielded strongly contrasting results depending on the specific operational environment assessed. In semi-field conditions, warm- or cold-acclimated flies were recaptured more often than the control group at cooler ambient conditions suggesting an overall stimulatory influence of thermal variability on low-temperature dispersal. Under field conditions, a different pattern was identified: colder flies were recaptured more in warmer field conditions relative to other treatment groups. This study highlights the trait- and context-specific nature of how thermal acclimation influences traits of thermal performance and tolerance. Consequently, laboratory and semi-field assessments of dispersal may not provide results that extend into the field setting despite the apparent continuum of environmental complexity among them (laboratory < semi-field < field).

RevDate: 2022-05-14
CmpDate: 2022-05-11

Bishop AL, López Del Amo V, Okamoto EM, et al (2022)

Double-tap gene drive uses iterative genome targeting to help overcome resistance alleles.

Nature communications, 13(1):2595.

Homing CRISPR gene drives could aid in curbing the spread of vector-borne diseases and controlling crop pest and invasive species populations due to an inheritance rate that surpasses Mendelian laws. However, this technology suffers from resistance alleles formed when the drive-induced DNA break is repaired by error-prone pathways, which creates mutations that disrupt the gRNA recognition sequence and prevent further gene-drive propagation. Here, we attempt to counteract this by encoding additional gRNAs that target the most commonly generated resistance alleles into the gene drive, allowing a second opportunity at gene-drive conversion. Our presented "double-tap" strategy improved drive efficiency by recycling resistance alleles. The double-tap drive also efficiently spreads in caged populations, outperforming the control drive. Overall, this double-tap strategy can be readily implemented in any CRISPR-based gene drive to improve performance, and similar approaches could benefit other systems suffering from low HDR frequencies, such as mammalian cells or mouse germline transformations.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Galera H, Rudak A, M Wódkiewicz (2022)

Unified system describing factors related to the eradication of an alien plant species.

PeerJ, 10:e13027.

Background: In the field of biological invasions science, a problem of many overlapping terms arose among eradication assessment frameworks. Additionally there is a need to construct a universally applicable eradication evaluation system. To unify the terminology and propose an eradication feasibility assessment scale we created the Unified System for assessing Eradication Feasibility (USEF) as a complex tool of factors for the analysis of eradications of alien (both invasive and candidate) plant species. It compiles 24 factors related to eradication success probability reported earlier in the literature and arranges them in a hierarchical system (context/group/factor/component) with a possibility to score their influence on eradication success.

Methodology: After a literature survey we analyzed, rearranged and defined each factor giving it an intuitive name along with the list of its synonyms and similar and/or related terms from the literature. Each factor influencing eradication feasibility is ascribed into one of four groups depending on the context that best matches the factor: location context (size and location of infestation, ease of access), species context (fitness and fecundity, detectability), human context (knowledge, cognition and resources to act) and reinvasion context (invasion pathways). We also devised a simple ordinal scale to assess each factor's influence on eradication feasibility.

Conclusions: The system may be used to report and analyze eradication campaign data in order to (i) prioritize alien species for eradication, (ii) create the strategy for controlling invasive plants, (iii) compare efficiency of different eradication actions, (iv) find gaps in knowledge disabling a sound eradication campaign assessment. The main advantage of using our system is unification of reporting eradication experience data used by researchers performing different eradication actions in different systems.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Baliota GV, Scheff DS, Morrison WR, et al (2022)

Competition between Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus oryzae on maize: the species that gets there first matters.

Bulletin of entomological research pii:S000748532100105X [Epub ahead of print].

Laboratory tests were carried out in order to examine the population growth of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on maize. These two species were placed either simultaneously or one species was allowed to colonize the kernels 7 days earlier than the other, at two temperatures, 26 and 30 °C for 65 days. Apart from progeny production, grain quality parameters, such as insect-damaged kernels (IDK) and undamaged kernels (NDK), the weight of frass and kernel weight were measured. Our data confirms that temperature plays a key role in the competition of these two species; P. truncatus seems to perform better at the higher temperature (30 °C), regardless of the presence of an additional species. Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrates that P. truncatus outcompetes S. oryzae. Sitophilus oryzae produced fewer progeny than P. truncatus in all combinations. Given the outcome of a competition, we hypothesize that most of the kernel damage was due to feeding by P. truncatus. Based on these data, we surmise that P. truncatus has a competitive advantage as an invasive species in new areas with stored maize, even in the presence of S. oryzae.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Matthias BG, Hrabik TR, Hoffman JC, et al (2021)

Trophic transfer efficiency in the Lake Superior food web: assessing the impacts of non-native species.

Journal of Great Lakes research, 47(4):1146-1158.

Ecosystem-based management relies on understanding how perturbations influence ecosystem structure and function (e.g., invasive species, exploitation, abiotic changes). However, data on unimpacted systems are scarce, therefore, we often rely on impacted systems to make inferences about 'natural states.' Among the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Superior provides a unique case study to address non-native species impacts because the food web is dominated by native species. Additionally, Lake Superior is both vertically (benthic versus pelagic) and horizontally (nearshore versus offshore) structured by depth, providing an opportunity to compare the function of these sub-food webs. We developed an updated Lake Superior EcoPath model using data from the 2005/2006 lake-wide multi-agency surveys covering multiple trophic levels. We then compared trophic transfer efficiency (TTE) to previously published EcoPath models. Finally, we compared ecosystem function of the 2005/2006 ecosystem to that with non-native linkages removed and compared native versus non-native species-specific approximations of TTE and trophic flow. Lake Superior was relatively efficient (TTE = 0.14) compared to systems reported in a global review (average TTE = 0.09) and the microbial loop was highly efficient (TTE > 0.20). Non-native species represented a very small proportion (<0.01%) of total biomass and were generally more efficient and had higher trophic flow compared to native species. Our results provide valuable insight into the importance of the microbial loop and represent a baseline estimate of non-native species impacts on Lake Superior. Finally, this work is a starting point for further model development to predict future changes in the Lake Superior ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Bressman NR (2022)

Terrestrial capabilities of invasive fishes and their management implications.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6576770 [Epub ahead of print].

Amphibious fishes have many adaptations that make them successful in a wide variety of conditions, including air-breathing, terrestrial locomotor capabilities, and extreme tolerance of poor water quality. However, the traits that make them highly adaptable may allow these fishes to successfully establish themselves outside of their native regions. In particular, the terrestrial capabilities of invasive amphibious fishes allow them to disperse overland, unlike fully aquatic invasive fishes, making their management more complicated. Despite numerous amphibious fish introductions around the world, ecological risk assessments and management plans often fail to adequately account for their terrestrial behaviors. In this review, I discuss the diversity of invasive amphibious fishes and what we currently know about why they emerge onto land, how they move around terrestrial environments, and how they orient while on land. In doing so, I use case studies of the performance and motivations of nonnative amphibious fishes in terrestrial environments to propose management solutions that factor in their complete natural history. Because of their terrestrial capabilities, we may need to manage amphibious fishes more like amphibians than fully aquatic fishes, but to do so, we need to learn more about how these species perform in a wide range of terrestrial environments and conditions.

RevDate: 2022-05-12
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Moreno-de-Lima PL, Lambertini C, Becker CG, et al (2022)

Presence of invasive American bullfrogs may reduce infectious disease in a native frog species.

Diseases of aquatic organisms, 149:53-58.

Amphibians breeding in aquatic environments may encounter a myriad of threats during their life cycle. One species known to prey on native amphibians in aquatic habitats is the invasive North American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus, which, besides being a voracious predator and competitor, often acts as a pathogen carrier and disease superspreader because it tolerates high infection loads of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Here, we hypothesized that the presence of the bullfrogs in microcosms should either (1) decrease Bd disease severity in native frog species by discouraging them from using the aquatic environment, or (2) increase the mortality of the native species. We tested these 2 mutually exclusive hypotheses by co-housing the snouted treefrog Scinax x-signatus (native to our study area) with L. catesbeianus in the laboratory, exposing them to Bd, and using qPCR analysis to quantify the resulting Bd infection loads in the native frogs. Our experiment had the following replicated treatments: (1) native-only treatment (3 individuals of S. x-signatus), (2) native-predominant treatment (2 S. x-signatus + 1 L. catesbeianus), and (3) exotic-predominant treatment (1 S. x-signatus + 2 L. catesbeianus). We found that Bd infection loads in the native S. x-signatus were highest in the native-only treatment, and lowest in the exotic-predominant treatment, indicating that bullfrogs may discourage native frogs from occupying the aquatic habitat, thus reducing encounter rates between native frogs and the waterborne pathogen. This effect could be driven by the bullfrogs' predatory behavior and their high philopatry to aquatic habitats. Our results highlight that predation risk adds to the complexity of host-species interactions in Bd epidemiology.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Wang P, Tong X, Zhang N, et al (2022)

Fomite Transmission Follows Invasion Ecology Principles.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The invasion ecology principles illustrated in many ecosystems have not yet been explored in the context of fomite transmission. We hypothesized that invaders in fomite transmission are trackable, are neutrally distributed between hands and environmental surfaces, and exhibit a proximity effect. To test this hypothesis, a surrogate invader, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, was spread by a root carrier in an office housing more than 20 participants undertaking normal activities, and the microbiotas on skin and environmental surfaces were analyzed before and after invasion. First, we found that the invader was trackable. Its identity and emission source could be determined using microbial-interaction networks, and the root carrier could be identified using a rank analysis. Without prior information, L. bulgaricus could be identified as the invader emitted from a source that exclusively contained the invader, and the probable root carrier could be located. In addition to the single-taxon invasion by L. bulgaricus, multiple-taxon invasion was observed, as genera from sputum/saliva exhibited co-occurrence relationships on skin and environmental surfaces. Second, the invader had a below-neutral distribution in a neutral community model, suggesting that hands accrued heavier invader contamination than environmental surfaces. Third, a proximity effect was observed on a surface touch network. Invader contamination on surfaces decreased with increasing geodesic distance from the hands of the carrier, indicating that the carrier's touching behaviors were the main driver of fomite transmission. Taken together, these results demonstrate the invasion ecology principles in fomite transmission and provide a general basis for the management of ecological fomite transmission. IMPORTANCE Fomite transmission contributes to the spread of many infectious diseases. However, pathogens in fomite transmission typically are either investigated individually without considering the context of native microbiotas or investigated in a nondiscriminatory way from the dispersal of microbiotas. In this study, we adopted an invasion ecology framework in which we considered pathogens as invaders, the surface environment as an ecosystem, and human behaviors as the driver of microbial dispersal. With this approach, we assessed the ability of quantitative ecological theories to track and forecast pathogen movements in fomite transmission. By uncovering the relationships between the invader and native microbiotas and between human behaviors and invader/microbiota dispersal, we demonstrated that fomite transmission follows idiosyncratic invasion ecology principles. Our findings suggest that attempts to manage fomite transmission for public health purposes should focus on the microbial communities and anthropogenic factors involved, in addition to the pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Xian X, Zhao H, Wang R, et al (2022)

Ecological Niche Shifts Affect the Potential Invasive Risk of Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All. in China.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:827497.

Ecological niche is a key concept that links species distributions. Ecological niche shifts are expected to affect the potential invasive risk of alien species. Rapistrum rugosum is an invasive agricultural weed in many countries. Wild populations of R. rugosum have been recorded in China, representing a great threat to the regional crops. Based on distribution records from different regions and relevant environmental variables, the present study predicted the potential distribution and estimated the invasive risk of R. rugosum in China. Ecological niche shifts strongly affected the potential invasive risk of R. rugosum in China. The two most important variables were annual temperature range (Bio7) and mean temperature of the coldest quarter (Bio11). The total suitable habitat for the species covered an area of 287.53 × 104km2 and was mainly distributed in Southwest, Southeast, and Central China. Australia, Canada, Brazil, the United States, and Argentina accounted for over 90% of the inspection records of R. rugosum from Chinese entry ports during 2015-2018. The intercepted R. rugosum was frequently mixed in Glycine max (L.) Merr., Hordeum vulgare L., linseed, Triticum aestivum L., and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Moreover, 80% interceptions were recorded from Tianjin, Guangdong, Nanjing, and Chengdu customs. Climatic conditions do not limit the establishment capability of R. rugosum in China. Our results provide a theoretical reference for the development of monitoring and control measures for this invasive weed.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Salata S, BL Fisher (2022)

Taxonomic revision of the Pheidole megacephala species-group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Malagasy Region.

PeerJ, 10:e13263.

Background: The Malagasy Region, one of the top megadiversity regions, hosts one of the highest numbers of endemic and threatened organisms on earth. One of the most spectacular examples of ant radiation on the island has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole. To this date, there are 135 described Madagascan Pheidole divided into 16 species-groups, and 97% of Malagasy species are endemic to the island. This study is a taxonomic revision of the Pheidole megacephala group, one of only two species-groups comprising a combination of native, endemic taxa and widely distributed introduced species.

Methods: The diversity of the Malagasy members of the megacephala group was assessed via application of qualitative morphological and DNA sequence data. Qualitative, external morphological characteristics (e.g., head shape, gaster sculpture, body colouration) were evaluated in order to create a priori grouping hypotheses, and confirm and improve species delimitation. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene fragments were analyzed to test the putative species previously delimited by morphological analyses.

Results: We recognize three species belonging to the megacephala group: P. megacephala (Fabricius, 1793), P. megatron Fischer & Fisher, 2013 and P. spinosa Forel, 1891 stat. nov. Pheidole spinosa is redescribed and elevated to the species level. The following names are recognized as junior synonyms of P. spinosa: P. megacephala scabrior Forel, 1891 syn. nov., P. picata Forel, 1891 syn. nov., P. picata gietleni Forel, 1905 syn. nov., P. picata bernhardae Emery, 1915 syn. nov., and P. decepticon Fischer & Fisher, 2013 syn. nov. The results are supplemented with an identification key to species for major workers of the megacephala group, high-resolution images for major and minor workers, and comments on the distribution and biology of all Malagasy members of the group. Our study revealed that Pheidole megacephala, a species listed among the 100 worst invasive species worldwide, occurs in both natural and disturbed sites in the Malagasy region. The two remaining members of the megacephala group, most likely endemic to this region, are also present in anthropogenic habitats and often co-occur with P. megacephala. It appears that the Malagasy members of the group are generalists and dominant in anthropogenic habitats. Additionally, we documented the presence of supermajors in colonies of P. spinosa-a phenomenon previously not known for this group.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Wagner CM, Bals JD, Hanson ME, et al (2022)

Attenuation and recovery of an avoidance response to a chemical antipredator cue in an invasive fish: implications for use as a repellent in conservation.

Conservation physiology, 10(1):coac019.

The detection of predation risk without direct engagement with a predator is an important driver of prey movement strategies. Consequently, the application of alarm cues may prove an effective tool in guiding the movements of fishes targeted for control or conservation. However, failure to contemplate the sensory, physiological and cognitive outcomes of repeated or persistent exposure to the cue will likely lead to poor performance of management practices. Using a series of behavioural tests and physiological recordings from the olfactory organ, we examined the timing of onset and recovery of the alarm response in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.) when exposed continuously or sporadically to its alarm cue. In the laboratory, sea lamprey exhibited short-term, reversible attenuation of the alarm response over 2-4 h with continuous exposure. The alarm response spontaneously recovered after 30-60 min of removal from the cue. In long-duration free-swimming tests, where the animals were allowed to move into and out of the odour plume volitionally, repeated but sporadic encounter with the alarm cue over 5 h did not alter the alarm response. Electro-olfactogram recordings from the main olfactory epithelium indicated that olfactory sensory neurons quickly adapt to alarm cue and recovered within 15 min. Our findings strongly implicate habituation as the mechanism that induces reduction in the alarm response and provide insight into the design of effective management practices that seek to use fish alarm cues as repellents.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Doyle KE, Ning N, Silva LGM, et al (2022)

Survival estimates across five life stages of redfin (Perca fluviatilis) exposed to simulated pumped-storage hydropower stressors.

Conservation physiology, 10(1):coac017.

The global prevalence of pumped-storage hydropower (PSH) is expected to grow exponentially as countries transition to renewable energy sources. Compared to conventional hydropower, little is currently known regarding PSH impacts on aquatic biota. This study estimated the survival of five life stages (egg, two larval stages, juvenile and adult) of redfin (European) perch (Perca fluviatilis) following passage through a PSH facility during the pumping phase. This was achieved by simulating the individual stressors expected to occur during passage through a 2000-MW PSH facility using laboratory-simulated (shear strain and extreme compression) and modelling (blade strike, BS) approaches. Our results indicate that redfin could survive the shear, pressure and BS stressors expected within the PSH facility, but impacts varied among life stages. Juvenile survival was >70% across all shear strain rates, while the survival of eggs and larvae declined markedly as strain rate increased. All life stages had high survival when exposed to rapid compression and BS. The high survival of redfin to the stressors tested suggests the PSH facility could facilitate the passage of redfin during the pumping phase from the lower to the higher elevation reservoir. This outcome would be welcomed in situations where the species is native, but could have adverse implications for the conservation of native biota where the species is considered a pest.

RevDate: 2022-05-11

Pulscher LA, Peel AJ, Rose K, et al (2022)

Serological evidence of a pararubulavirus and a betacoronavirus in the geographically isolated Christmas Island flying-fox (Pteropus natalis).

Transboundary and emerging diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Due to their geographical isolation and small populations, insular bats may not be able to maintain acute immunizing viruses that rely on a large population for viral maintenance. Instead, endemic transmission may rely on viruses establishing persistent infections within hosts or inducing only short-lived neutralizing immunity. Therefore, studies on insular populations are valuable for developing broader understanding of viral maintenance in bats. The Christmas Island flying-fox (CIFF; Pteropus natalis) is endemic on Christmas Island, a remote Australian territory, and is an ideal model species to understand viral maintenance in small, geographically isolated bat populations. Serum or plasma (n = 190), oral swabs (n = 199), faeces (n = 31), urine (n = 32) and urine swabs (n = 25) were collected from 228 CIFFs. Samples were tested using multiplex serological and molecular assays, and attempts at virus isolation to determine the presence of paramyxoviruses, betacoronaviruses and Australian bat lyssavirus. Analysis of serological data provides evidence that the species is maintaining a pararubulavirus and a betacoronavirus. There was little serological evidence supporting the presence of active circulation of the other viruses assessed in the present study. No viral nucleic acid was detected and no viruses were isolated. Age-seropositivity results support the hypothesis that geographically isolated bat populations can maintain some paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses. Further studies are required to elucidate infection dynamics and characterize viruses in the CIFF. Lastly, apparent absence of some pathogens could have implications for the conservation of the CIFF if a novel disease were introduced into the population through human carriage or an invasive species. Adopting increased biosecurity protocols for ships porting on Christmas Island and for researchers and bat carers working with flying-foxes are recommended to decrease the risk of pathogen introduction and contribute to the health and conservation of the species.

RevDate: 2022-05-12
CmpDate: 2022-05-03

Brown MJF (2022)

Complex networks of parasites and pollinators: moving towards a healthy balance.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1853):20210161.

Parasites are viewed as a major threat to wild pollinator health. While this may be true for epidemics driven by parasite spillover from managed or invasive species, the picture is more complex for endemic parasites. Wild pollinator species host and share a species-rich, generalist parasite community. In contrast to the negative health impacts that these parasites impose on individual hosts, at a community level they may act to reduce competition from common and abundant pollinator species. By providing rare species with space in which to exist, this will act to support and maintain a diverse and thus healthier pollinator community. At this level, and perhaps paraxodically, parasites may be good for pollinators. This stands in clear contrast to the obvious negative impacts of epidemic and spillover parasites on wild pollinator communities. Research into floral resources that control parasites could be best employed to help design landscapes that provide pollinators with the opportunity to moderate their parasite community, rather than attempting to eliminate specific parasites from wild pollinator communities. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.

RevDate: 2022-05-12

Saavedra S, Bartomeus I, Godoy O, et al (2022)

Towards a system-level causative knowledge of pollinator communities.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1853):20210159.

Pollination plays a central role in both crop production and maintaining biodiversity. However, habitat loss, pesticides, invasive species and larger environmental fluctuations are contributing to a dramatic decline of pollinators worldwide. Different management solutions require knowledge of how ecological communities will respond following interventions. Yet, anticipating the response of these systems to interventions remains extremely challenging due to the unpredictable nature of ecological communities, whose nonlinear behaviour depends on the specific details of species interactions and the various unknown or unmeasured confounding factors. Here, we propose that this knowledge can be derived by following a probabilistic systems analysis rooted on non-parametric causal inference. The main outcome of this analysis is to estimate the extent to which a hypothesized cause can increase or decrease the probability that a given effect happens without making assumptions about the form of the cause-effect relationship. We discuss a road map for how this analysis can be accomplished with the aim of increasing our system-level causative knowledge of natural communities. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Renou M (2022)

Is the evolution of insect odorscapes under anthropic pressures a risk for herbivorous insect invasions?.

Current opinion in insect science pii:S2214-5745(22)00061-X [Epub ahead of print].

Olfaction is directly involved in the insect capacity to exploit new habitats by guiding foraging behaviors. We searched in the literature whether some traits of olfactory systems and behaviors are associated to invasiveness and the impact of anthropogenic activities thereof. Human activities dramatically modify habitats and alter insect odorscapes. Air pollution, for instance, decreases lifetime and active range of semiochemicals. Plasticity and behavioral adaptability of invasive species are decisive by allowing host shifts and adaptative responses to new habitats. Changes in biophysical environments also impact on the use of semiochemicals in biocontrol. Although no evidence for a unique ensemble of olfactory traits associated to invasiveness was found, a growing number of case studies reveal characteristics with risk predicting value, opening the paths to better invasion control strategies.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Lowie A, De Kegel B, Wilkinson M, et al (2022)

Regional differences in vertebral shape along the axial skeleton in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

Journal of anatomy [Epub ahead of print].

Caecilians are elongate, limbless and annulated amphibians that, as far as is known, all have an at least partly fossorial lifestyle. It has been suggested that elongate limbless vertebrates show little morphological differentiation throughout the postcranial skeleton. However, relatively few studies have explored the axial skeleton in limbless tetrapods. In this study, we used μCT data and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to explore regional differences in vertebral shape across a broad range of caecilian species. Our results highlight substantial differences in vertebral shape along the axial skeleton, with anterior vertebrae being short and bulky, whereas posterior vertebrae are more elongated. This study shows that despite being limbless, elongate tetrapods such as caecilians still show regional heterogeneity in the shape of individual vertebrae along the vertebral column. Further studies are needed, however, to understand the possible causes and functional consequences of the observed variation in vertebral shape in caecilians.

RevDate: 2022-05-03
CmpDate: 2022-05-03

Zhao Q, Jin K, Hu W, et al (2022)

Rapid and visual monitoring of alien sequences using crop wild relatives specific oligo-painting: The case of cucumber chromosome engineering.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology, 319:111199.

Wild species related to domesticated crops (crop wild relatives, or CWRs) represent a high level of genetic diversity that provides a practical gene pool for crop pre-breeding employed to address climate change and food demand challenges globally. Nevertheless, rapid identifying and visual tracking of alien chromosomes and sequences derived from CWRs have been a technical challenge for crop chromosome engineering. Here, a species-specific oligonucleotide (oligo) pool was developed by using the reference genome of Cucumis hystrix (HH, 2n = 2x = 24), a wild species carrying many favorable traits and interspecific compatibility with cultivated cucumber (C. sativus, CC, 2n = 2x = 14). These synthetic double-stranded oligo probes were applied to validate the assembly and characterize the chromosome architectures of C. hystrix, as well as to rapidly identify C. hystrix-chromosomes in diverse C. sativus-hystrix chromosome-engineered germplasms, including interspecific hybrid F1 (HC), synthetic allopolyploids (HHCC, CHC, and HCH) and alien additional lines (CC-H). Moreover, a ∼2Mb of C. hystrix-specific sequences, introduced into cultivated cucumber, were visualized by CWR-specific oligo-painting. These results demonstrate that the CWR-specific oligo-painting technique holds broad applicability for chromosome engineering of numerous crops, as it allows rapid identification of alien chromosomes, reliable detection of homoeologous recombination, and visual tracking of the introgression process. It is promising to achieve directed and high-precision crop pre-breeding combined with other breeding techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9-mediated chromosome engineering.

RevDate: 2022-05-03
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Mercier A, Obadia T, Carraretto D, et al (2022)

Impact of temperature on dengue and chikungunya transmission by the mosquito Aedes albopictus.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6973.

The mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive species first detected in Europe in Albania in 1979, and now established in 28 European countries. Temperature is a limiting factor in mosquito activities and in the transmission of associated arboviruses namely chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV). Since 2007, local transmissions of CHIKV and DENV have been reported in mainland Europe, mainly in South Europe. Thus, the critical question is how far north transmission could occur. In this context, the Albanian infestation by Ae. albopictus is of interest because the species is present up to 1200 m of altitude; this allows using altitude as a proxy for latitude. Here we show that Ae. albopictus can transmit CHIKV at 28 °C as well as 20 °C, however, the transmission of DENV is only observed at 28 °C. We conclude that if temperature is the key environmental factor limiting transmission, then transmission of CHIKV, but not DENV is feasible in much of Europe.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Hennequin LM, Polizzi K, Fennell PS, et al (2021)

Rhododendron and Japanese Knotweed: invasive species as innovative crops for second generation biofuels for the ionoSolv process.

RSC advances, 11(30):18395-18403.

We investigated the potential of two terrestrial biomass invasive species in the United-Kingdom as lignocellulosic biofuel feedstocks: Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum). We demonstrate that a pretreatment technique using a low-cost protic ionic liquid, the ionoSolv process, can be used for such types of plant species considered as waste, to allow their integration into a biorefinery. N,N,N-Dimethylbutylammonium hydrogen sulfate ([DMBA][HSO4]) was able to fractionate the biomass into a cellulose-rich pulp and a lignin stream at high temperatures (150-170 °C) and short reaction times (15-60 minutes). More than 70-80% of the subsequent cellulose was hydrolysed into fermentable sugars, which were fermented into the renewable energy vector bioethanol.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Sapkota S, Boggess SL, Trigiano RN, et al (2022)

Microsatellite Loci Reveal High Genetic Diversity, Mutation, and Migration Rates as Invasion Drivers of Callery Pear (Pyrus calleryana) in the Southeastern United States.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:861398.

Pyrus calleryana Decne. (Callery pear) is a deciduous tree native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. It is a popular ornamental tree in the United States (US) with early spring blooms and vibrant fall color. There are at least 26 cultivars of P. calleryana available in the US of which "Bradford" is the most well-known. Open-pollinated P. calleryana escapees are becoming one of the most common invasive tree species in the eastern United States. Developing better management practices for invasive P. calleryana requires detailed knowledge about reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species, however, little is currently known about genetic variability within those open-pollinated populations. We investigated genetic diversity and population structure of non-cultivated, escaped P. calleryana populations within a ∼177 km radius in the southeastern United States. Because P. calleryana exhibits a range of morphological variation with great evolutionary potential, we hypothesized that a high genetic diversity would be manifested among escaped P. calleryana. Using 15 previously developed microsatellite loci, we genotyped 180 open-pollinated P. calleryana individuals that were collected across six naturally occurring sites in Tennessee, Georgia, and South Carolina, United States. Our results demonstrated the presence of a population structure with high genetic diversity, high gene flow, and high genetic differentiation between individuals across collection sites. Our results revealed that P. calleryana populations had differentiated shortly after the introduction to the US, most likely from specimens imported from Asia, consistent with historical records and our prior findings. The high invasive potential of the species is perhaps best underscored by transformation of P. calleryana specimens introduced from Asia into escape populations at continental scale across the United States. Our data also provided novel insight into potential issues that could be problematic for the future as P. calleryana may pose a potential threat to the economy, ecology, and native biodiversity in invaded areas.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Cox N, Young BE, Bowles P, et al (2022)

A global reptile assessment highlights shared conservation needs of tetrapods.

Nature, 605(7909):285-290.

Comprehensive assessments of species' extinction risks have documented the extinction crisis1 and underpinned strategies for reducing those risks2. Global assessments reveal that, among tetrapods, 40.7% of amphibians, 25.4% of mammals and 13.6% of birds are threatened with extinction3. Because global assessments have been lacking, reptiles have been omitted from conservation-prioritization analyses that encompass other tetrapods4-7. Reptiles are unusually diverse in arid regions, suggesting that they may have different conservation needs6. Here we provide a comprehensive extinction-risk assessment of reptiles and show that at least 1,829 out of 10,196 species (21.1%) are threatened-confirming a previous extrapolation8 and representing 15.6 billion years of phylogenetic diversity. Reptiles are threatened by the same major factors that threaten other tetrapods-agriculture, logging, urban development and invasive species-although the threat posed by climate change remains uncertain. Reptiles inhabiting forests, where these threats are strongest, are more threatened than those in arid habitats, contrary to our prediction. Birds, mammals and amphibians are unexpectedly good surrogates for the conservation of reptiles, although threatened reptiles with the smallest ranges tend to be isolated from other threatened tetrapods. Although some reptiles-including most species of crocodiles and turtles-require urgent, targeted action to prevent extinctions, efforts to protect other tetrapods, such as habitat preservation and control of trade and invasive species, will probably also benefit many reptiles.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Wang YH, Dai Y, Kong WL, et al (2022)

Improvement of Sphaeropsis Shoot Blight Disease Resistance by Applying the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Hymenochaete sp. Rl and Mycorrhizal Helper Bacterium Bacillus pumilus HR10 to Pinus thunbergii.

Phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMFs) form symbioses with plant roots to promote nutrient uptake by plants but it is controversial as to whether they induce disease resistance in plants. Here, we inoculated pine seedlings with Sphaeropsis sapinea, which was presymbiotic with the EMF Hymenochaete sp. Rl, and the mycorrhizal helper bacterium (MHB) Bacillus pumilus HR10, which promotes the formation of Pinus thunbergia-Hymenochaete sp. Rl mycorrhizae. The results showed that inoculation with Hymenochaete sp. Rl, B. pumilus HR10, and the consortium significantly reduced pine shoot blight disease caused by S. sapinea. After inoculation with pathogenic fungi, callose deposition was significantly increased in needles of pine seedlings inoculated with Hymenochaete sp. Rl, B. pumilus HR10, and the consortium, together with an increase in enzymatic and nonenzymatic systemic antioxidant activity as well as early priming for upregulated expression of PR3 and PR5 genes. Our findings suggest that ectomycorrhizal colonization enhances the resistance of pine seedlings to Sphaeropsis shoot blight by triggering a systemic defense response and that interactions between EMFs and MHBs are essential for mycorrhizal-induced disease resistance.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Edgar A, Ponciano JM, MQ Martindale (2022)

Ctenophores are direct developers that reproduce continuously beginning very early after hatching.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(18):e2122052119.

SignificanceCtenophore cydippid larvae are not larvae at all and begin adult reproduction at an early age (∼14 vs. ∼60 d) and small size (∼1 vs. ∼100 mm) relative to attainment of what has been considered the adult stage. This overturns the previous understanding of the ctenophore life cycle, which was believed to be a unique form of biphasic life cycle with two separate sexually reproductive periods. Practically, these results clarify ecological controls regulating ctenophore reproduction and will aid management of this invasive species. Additionally, the 2-wk egg-to-egg generation time will open new avenues of research in this understudied but informative taxon.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-29

Wu Y, RI Colautti (2022)

Evidence for continent-wide convergent evolution and stasis throughout 150 y of a biological invasion.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(18):e2107584119.

SignificanceAdaptive evolution can help species to persist and spread in new environments, but it is unclear how the rate and duration of adaptive evolution vary throughout species ranges and on the decadal timescales most relevant to managing biodiversity for the 21st century. Using herbarium records, we reconstruct 150 y of evolution in an invasive plant as it spread across North America. Flowering phenology evolves to adapt to local growing seasons throughout the range but stalls after about a century. This punctuated, convergent evolution recapitulates long-term dynamics in the fossil record, implicating limits to evolutionary rates that are not evident for the first century of spread.

RevDate: 2022-04-27

Tonellotto M, Fehr V, Conedera M, et al (2022)

Iconic but Invasive: The Public Perception of the Chinese Windmill Palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) in Switzerland.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions strongly increased during the last centuries and are challenging environmental managers worldwide. In this context, public acceptance of management measures is a key factor determining the long-term success of the control of invasive species. However, in the case of charismatic and iconic invasive species, the public has often been unwilling to accept strict management measures. Here, we studied the public perception of the Chinese windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) in Switzerland, which is declared as invasive in southern Switzerland but also recognized as iconic. We conducted a nation-wide online survey in the multilingual and multicultural context of Switzerland, investigating the influence of social and cultural factors on the knowledge of, the attitude toward, and the willingness to control the invasive T. fortunei. Results confirm that the knowledge and perception of invasive plants have a strong social and cultural component and may vary greatly as a function of the cultural background, education level, age, and other social characteristics. Furthermore, information on the invasiveness of the focal species provided during the survey significantly affected informants' perceptions, which are closely related to the acceptance of possible management and control measures. This allows us to highlight the importance of a holistic approach that includes targeted public information when dealing with biological invasions, especially in the case of charismatic and iconic species. Based on the obtained results, we suggest avenues for refining management and control strategies of T. fortunei in Switzerland, many of which generally applicable to other cases of invasive species.

RevDate: 2022-04-30
CmpDate: 2022-04-28

Carneiro de Melo Moura C, Setyaningsih CA, Li K, et al (2022)

Biomonitoring via DNA metabarcoding and light microscopy of bee pollen in rainforest transformation landscapes of Sumatra.

BMC ecology and evolution, 22(1):51.

BACKGROUND: Intense conversion of tropical forests into agricultural systems contributes to habitat loss and the decline of ecosystem functions. Plant-pollinator interactions buffer the process of forest fragmentation, ensuring gene flow across isolated patches of forests by pollen transfer. In this study, we identified the composition of pollen grains stored in pot-pollen of stingless bees, Tetragonula laeviceps, via dual-locus DNA metabarcoding (ITS2 and rbcL) and light microscopy, and compared the taxonomic coverage of pollen sampled in distinct land-use systems categorized in four levels of management intensity (forest, shrub, rubber, and oil palm) for landscape characterization.

RESULTS: Plant composition differed significantly between DNA metabarcoding and light microscopy. The overlap in the plant families identified via light microscopy and DNA metabarcoding techniques was low and ranged from 22.6 to 27.8%. Taxonomic assignments showed a dominance of pollen from bee-pollinated plants, including oil-bearing crops such as the introduced species Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) as one of the predominant taxa in the pollen samples across all four land-use types. Native plant families Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Cannabaceae appeared in high proportion in the analyzed pollen material. One-way ANOVA (p > 0.05), PERMANOVA (R² values range from 0.14003 to 0.17684, for all tests p-value > 0.5), and NMDS (stress values ranging from 0.1515 to 0.1859) indicated a lack of differentiation between the species composition and diversity of pollen type in the four distinct land-use types, supporting the influx of pollen from adjacent areas.

CONCLUSIONS: Stingless bees collected pollen from a variety of agricultural crops, weeds, and wild plants. Plant composition detected at the family level from the pollen samples likely reflects the plant composition at the landscape level rather than the plot level. In our study, the plant diversity in pollen from colonies installed in land-use systems with distinct levels of forest transformation was highly homogeneous, reflecting a large influx of pollen transported by stingless bees through distinct land-use types. Dual-locus approach applied in metabarcoding studies and visual pollen identification showed great differences in the detection of the plant community, therefore a combination of both methods is recommended for performing biodiversity assessments via pollen identification.

RevDate: 2022-04-30
CmpDate: 2022-04-28

Zhang Y, Wen TY, Wu XQ, et al (2022)

The Bursaphelenchus xylophilus effector BxML1 targets the cyclophilin protein (CyP) to promote parasitism and virulence in pine.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):216.

BACKGROUND: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD) that has caused enormous ecological and economic losses in China. The mechanism in the interaction between nematodes and pine remains unclear. Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) secrete effectors into host plant tissues. However, it is poorly studied that role of effector in the infection of pine wood nematode (PWN).

RESULTS: We cloned, characterized and functionally validated the B. xylophilus effector BxML1, containing an MD-2-related lipid-recognition (ML) domain. This protein inhibits immune responses triggered by the molecular pattern BxCDP1 of B. xylophilus. An insitu hybridization assay demonstrated that BxML1 was expressed mainly in the dorsal glands and intestine of B. xylophilus. Subcellular localization analysis showed the presence of BxML1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Furthermore, number of B. xylophilus and morbidity of pine were significantly reduced in Pinus thunbergii infected with B. xylophilus when BxML was silenced. Using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, we found that the BxML1 interacts with cyclophilin protein PtCyP1 in P. thunbergii.

CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated that BxML1 plays a critical role in the B. xylophilus-plant interaction and virulence of B. xylophilus.

RevDate: 2022-04-26

Li YP, Feng YL, Li WT, et al (2022)

Leaf trait association in relation to herbivore defense, drought resistance, and economics in a tropical invasive plant.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Exploring how functional traits vary and covary is important to understand plant responses to environmental change. However, we have limited understanding of the ways multiple functional traits vary and covary within invasive species.

METHODS: We measured 12 leaf traits of an invasive plant Chromolaena odorata, associated with plant or leaf economics, herbivore defense and drought resistance on 10 introduced populations from Asia and 12 native populations from America, selected across a broad range of climatic conditions, and grown in a common garden.

RESULTS: Species' range and climatic conditions influenced leaf traits, but trait variation across climate space differed between the introduced and native ranges. Traits that confer defense against herbivores and drought resistance were associated with economic strategy, but the patterns differed by range. Plants from introduced populations that were at the fast-return end of the spectrum (high photosynthetic capacity) had high physical defense traits (high trichome density), whereas plants from native populations that were at the fast-return end of the spectrum had high drought escape traits (early leaf senescence and high percentage of withered shoots).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that invasive plants can rapidly adapt to novel environmental conditions. C. odorata showed multiple different functional trait covariation patterns and clines in the native and introduced ranges. Our results emphasize that interaction between multiple traits or functions should be considered when investigating the adaptive evolution of invasive plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-04-25

Whitener AB, Smytheman P, EH Beers (2022)

Efficacy and Species Specificity of Baits and Lures for Spotted-Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

Journal of economic entomology pii:6573913 [Epub ahead of print].

Monitoring is an important element in management programs for Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), helping users to avoid prophylactic treatments. Factors such as attractiveness, sensitivity, selectivity, longevity, and ease of use must be considered when developing a trap and lure system for monitoring and thresholds. We examined various baits and lures over a 5-yr period in sweet cherry orchards in the semiarid climate of eastern Washington. Using a jar trap, the attractants were evaluated for attractiveness (maximum capture), selectivity for D. suzukii (vs. other Drosophila species), and sex ratio of captured D. suzukii. We examined the relative performance of the attractants during periods of low (≈1 D. suzukii per trap per week) and high (232 D. suzukii per trap per week) density over the course of the growing season, which usually corresponded to mid-summer and autumn temperatures, respectively. The Scentry lure was consistently the most attractive lure, capturing the highest numbers of adult D. suzukii over the series of tests, but also had the highest levels of by-catch. Recipe-based baits (yeast, wine-vinegar, and apple cider vinegar) captured fewer D. suzukii overall, although the commercial baits Dros'Attract and Suzukii Trap were comparable to the Scentry lure in late season tests. The Trécé lures were consistently the most selective of the attractants, but had generally lower D. suzukii captures. Sex ratio varied widely among and within the tests, but with no consistent pattern among the various attractants. All attractants were successful in capturing flies, and the choice of attractant depends on the constraints and goals of the user.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Kong WL, Wang WY, Zuo SH, et al (2022)

Genome Sequencing of Rahnella victoriana JZ-GX1 Provides New Insights Into Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Plant Growth Promotion.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:828990.

Genomic information for bacteria within the genus Rahnella remains limited. Rahnella sp. JZ-GX1 was previously isolated from the Pinus massoniana rhizosphere in China and shows potential as a plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacterium. In the present work, we combined the GridION Nanopore ONT and Illumina sequencing platforms to obtain the complete genome sequence of strain JZ-GX1, and the application effects of the strain in natural field environment was assessed. The whole genome of Rahnella sp. JZ-GX1 comprised a single circular chromosome (5,472,828 bp, G + C content of 53.53%) with 4,483 protein-coding sequences, 22 rRNAs, and 77 tRNAs. Based on whole genome phylogenetic and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis, the JZ-GX1 strain was reidentified as R. victoriana. Genes related to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), phosphorus solubilization, nitrogen fixation, siderophores, acetoin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production, spermidine and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) biosynthesis were present in the genome of strain JZ-GX1. In addition, these functions were also confirmed by in vitro experiments. Importantly, compared to uninoculated control plants, Pyrus serotina, Malus spectabilis, Populus euramericana (Dode) Guinier cv. "San Martino" (I-72 poplar) and Pinus elliottii plants inoculated with strain JZ-GX1 showed increased heights and ground diameters. These findings improve our understanding of R. victoriana JZ-GX1 as a potential biofertilizer in agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Kirkendall DS, Bunnell DB, Armenio PM, et al (2021)

Spatial and temporal distributions of Dreissena spp. veligers in Lake Huron: does calcium limit settling success?.

Journal of Great Lakes research, 47(4):1040-1049.

The larval stage of invasive Dreissena spp. mussels (i.e., veligers) are understudied despite their seasonal numerical dominance among plankton. We report the spring and summer veliger densities and size structure across the main basin, North Channel, and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, and seek to explain spatiotemporal variation. Monthly sampling was conducted at 9 transects and up to 3 sites per transect from spring through summer 2017. Veliger densities peaked in June and July, and we found comparable densities and biomasses of veligers between basins, despite differences in density of juvenile and adult mussels across these regions. Using a generalized additive model to explain variations in veliger density, we found that temperature, chlorophyll a, and nitrates/nitrites were most important. We generated an index of veliger attrition based on size distributions that revealed a higher rate of attrition in the North Channel than the rest of the lake. A logistic model indicated a threshold calcium concentration of around 22 mg/L was necessary for veligers to survive to larger sizes and recruit to their juvenile and benthic adult life stages. Improved understanding of factors that regulate the production and survival of Dreissena veligers will improve the ability of managers to assess future invasion threats as well as explore potential control options.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Hall RM, Urban B, HP Kaul (2022)

The management success of the invasive late goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Aiton.) in a nature conservation area is strongly related to site, control measures and environmental factors.

PeerJ, 10:e13161.

The late goldenrod (Soldiago gigantea Aiton; Asteraceae) is one of the most abundant invasive species in various types of habitats. Its long-creeping plagiotropic rhizomes enable the plant to build up dense, monospecific stands within a short time. Particularly in nature conservation areas, the invasion of goldenrod can cause severe disruptions in the naturally occuring mutualims between plants, insects and higher trophic levels, subsequently impeding the achievement of nature conservation goals. As management options of goldenrod in nature conservation areas are limited, this three-year study aimed to test the effectiveness of three management treatments (two-time mowing, triticale cultivation, and reverse rotary cutting) on four different sites in the Austrian Donau-Auen National Park. The number and height of goldenrod shoots were recorded three times a year on twelve permanent trial plots on each site to test for the effectiveness of the treatments. In addition, vegetation surveys were performed to observe the recovery potential of native plant species. Even though the three-years mowing and the triticale cultivation reduced goldenrod by 95.6% and 97.2% resp., we could find no relation between the effectiveness of the treatment and the intensity of disturbance created by the control option. On the contrary, with a reduction of only 5.4% in goldenrod density the most intensive treatment, the rotary cutting, showed the lowest efficiency. The highest positive effect on the re-establishment of native plant species was recorded with two mowing events per year. Even though the study revealed that certain management options have the potential to effectively reduce goldenrod and to simultaneously increase the establishment success of native species, results can only be seen as so-called snapshots. For example, as shown on site EJW one unforeseeable wild boar digging event transformed a 84.5% reduction into a 4.7% increase in goldenrod density. Therefore, a proper and regular monitoring is essential to be able to react to the effects of unpredictable events that can have severe impact on vegetation dynamics.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Kinsley AC, Haight RG, Snellgrove N, et al (2022)

AIS explorer: Prioritization for watercraft inspections-A decision-support tool for aquatic invasive species management.

Journal of environmental management, 314:115037.

Invasions of aquatic invasive species have caused significant economic and ecological damage to global aquatic ecosystems. Once an invasive population has established in a new habitat, eradication can be financially and logistically impossible, motivating management strategies to rely heavily upon prevention measures to reduce the introduction and spread. To be productive, on-the-ground management of aquatic invasive species requires effective decision-making surrounding the allocation of limited resources. Watercraft inspections play an important role in managing aquatic invasive species by preventing the overland transport of invasive species between waterbodies and providing education to boaters. In this study, we developed and tested an interactive web-based decision-support tool, AIS Explorer: Prioritization for Watercraft Inspections, to guide AIS managers in developing efficient watercraft inspection plans. The decision-support tool is informed by a network-based algorithm that maximized the number of inspected watercraft that move from AIS infested to uninfested lakes within and between counties in Minnesota, USA. It was iteratively built with stakeholder feedback, including consultations with county managers, beta-testing of the web-based application, and workshops to educate and train end-users. The co-development and implementation of data-driven decision support tools demonstrate how interdisciplinary methods can be used to connect science and management to support decision-making. The AIS Explorer: Prioritization for Watercraft Inspections application makes optimized research outputs accessible in multiple dynamic forms that maintain pace with discovery of new infestations and local needs. In addition, the decision support tool has supported improved and closer communication between AIS managers and researchers on this topic.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Spurgeon D, Wilkinson H, Civil W, et al (2022)

Worst-case ranking of organic chemicals detected in groundwaters and surface waters in England.

The Science of the total environment, 835:155101 pii:S0048-9697(22)02194-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The Environment Agency has been using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Accurate-mass Quadrupole Time-of-Flight (Q-TOF) / Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) target screen analysis to semi-quantitatively measure organic substances in groundwater and surface water since 2009 for GC-MS and 2014 for LC-MS. Here we use this data to generate a worst-case "risk" ranking of the detected substances. Three sets of hazard values relating to effects on aquatic organisms, namely Water Framework Directive EQSs, NORMAN Network PNECs (hereafter NORMAN PNEC) and chronic Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) HC50s from Posthuma et al., (2019) were used for the assessment. These hazard values were compared to the highest measured concentration for each chemical to generate a worst-case hazard quotient (HQ). Calculated HQs for each metric were ranked, averaged and multiplied by rank for detection frequency to generate an overall ordering based on HQ and occurrence. This worst-case approach was then used to generate ranking lists for GC-MS and LC-MS detected substances in groundwater and surface water. Pesticides in the top 30 overall ranked list included more legacy pesticides in groundwater and more current use actives in surface water. Specific uses were linked to some high rankings (e.g. rotenone for invasive species control). A number of industrial and plastics associated chemicals were ranked highly in the groundwater dataset, while more personal care products and pharmaceuticals were highly ranked in surface waters. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) compounds were commonly highly ranked in both environmental compartments. The approach confirmed high rankings for some substance (e.g. selected pesticides) from previous prioritization exercises, but also identified novel substance for consideration (e.g. some PFAS compounds and pharmaceuticals). Overall our approach provided a simple approach using readily accessible data to identify substances for further and more detailed assessment.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Renault D, Angulo E, Cuthbert RN, et al (2022)

The magnitude, diversity, and distribution of the economic costs of invasive terrestrial invertebrates worldwide.

The Science of the total environment, 835:155391 pii:S0048-9697(22)02484-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive alien species (IAS) are a major driver of global biodiversity loss, hampering conservation efforts and disrupting ecosystem functions and services. While accumulating evidence documented ecological impacts of IAS across major geographic regions, habitat types and taxonomic groups, appraisals for economic costs remained relatively sparse. This has hindered effective cost-benefit analyses that inform expenditure on management interventions to prevent, control, and eradicate IAS. Terrestrial invertebrates are a particularly pervasive and damaging group of invaders, with many species compromising primary economic sectors such as forestry, agriculture and health. The present study provides synthesised quantifications of economic costs caused by invasive terrestrial invertebrates on the global scale and across a range of descriptors, using the InvaCost database. Invasive terrestrial invertebrates cost the global economy US$ 712.44 billion over the investigated period (up to 2020), considering only high-reliability source reports. Overall, costs were not equally distributed geographically, with North America (73%) reporting the greatest costs, with far lower costs reported in Europe (7%), Oceania (6%), Africa (5%), Asia (3%), and South America (< 1%). These costs were mostly due to invasive insects (88%) and mostly resulted from direct resource damages and losses (75%), particularly in agriculture and forestry; relatively little (8%) was invested in management. A minority of monetary costs was directly observed (17%). Economic costs displayed an increasing trend with time, with an average annual cost of US$ 11.40 billion since 1960, but as much as US$ 165.01 billion in 2020, but reporting lags reduced costs in recent years. The massive global economic costs of invasive terrestrial invertebrates require urgent consideration and investment by policymakers and managers, in order to prevent and remediate the economic and ecological impacts of these and other IAS groups.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Grote M, Boudenne JL, Croué JP, et al (2022)

Inputs of disinfection by-products to the marine environment from various industrial activities: Comparison to natural production.

Water research, 217:118383.

Oxidative treatment of seawater in coastal and shipboard installations is applied to control biofouling and/or minimize the input of noxious or invasive species into the marine environment. This treatment allows a safe and efficient operation of industrial installations and helps to protect human health from infectious diseases and to maintain the biodiversity in the marine environment. On the downside, the application of chemical oxidants generates undesired organic compounds, so-called disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are discharged into the marine environment. This article provides an overview on sources and quantities of DBP inputs, which could serve as basis for hazard analysis for the marine environment, human health and the atmosphere. During oxidation of marine water, mainly brominated DBPs are generated with bromoform (CHBr3) being the major DBP. CHBr3 has been used as an indicator to compare inputs from different sources. Total global annual volumes of treated seawater inputs resulting from cooling processes of coastal power stations, from desalination plants and from ballast water treatment in ships are estimated to be 470-800 × 109 m3, 46 × 109 m3 and 3.5 × 109 m3, respectively. Overall, the total estimated anthropogenic bromoform production and discharge adds up to 13.5-21.8 × 106 kg/a (kg per year) with contributions of 11.8-20.1 × 106 kg/a from cooling water treatment, 0.89 × 106 kg/a from desalination and 0.86 × 106 kg/a from ballast water treatment. This equals approximately 2-6% of the natural bromoform emissions from marine water, which is estimated to be 385-870 × 106 kg/a.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Geraerts M, Vangestel C, Artois T, et al (2022)

Population genomics of introduced Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Repeated introductions since colonial times with multiple sources.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

During colonial times, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was introduced into non-native parts of the Congo Basin (Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC) for the first time. Currently, it is the most farmed cichlid in the DRC, and is present throughout the Congo Basin. Although Nile tilapia has been reported as an invasive species, documentation of historical introductions into this basin and its consequences are scant. Here, we study the genetic consequences of these introductions by genotyping 213 Nile tilapia from native and introduced regions, focusing on the Congo Basin. Additionally, 48 specimens from 16 other tilapia species were included to test for hybridization. Using RAD sequencing (27,611 single nucleotide polymorphisms), we discovered genetic admixture with other tilapia species in several morphologically identified Nile tilapia from the Congo Basin, reflecting their ability to interbreed and the potential threat they pose to the genetic integrity of native tilapias. Nile tilapia populations from the Upper Congo and those from the Middle-Lower Congo are strongly differentiated. The former show genetic similarity to Nile tilapia from the White Nile, while specimens from the Benue Basin and Lake Kariba are similar to Nile tilapia from the Middle-Lower Congo, suggesting independent introductions using different sources. We conclude that the presence of Nile tilapia in the Congo Basin results from independent introductions, reflecting the dynamic aquaculture history, and that their introduction probably leads to genetic interactions with native tilapias, which could lower their fitness. We therefore urge avoiding further introductions of Nile tilapia in non-native regions and to use native tilapias in future aquaculture efforts.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Banjade M, Park SM, Adhikari P, et al (2022)

Molecular Evidence Reveals the Sympatric Distribution of Cervus nippon yakushimae and Cervus nippon taiouanus on Jeju Island, South Korea.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(8):.

Non-native species threaten native ecosystems and species, particularly on islands where rates of endemism and vulnerability to threats are high. Understanding species invasion will aid in providing insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. To identify the non-native sika deer (Cervus nippon) population in Jeju, South Korea, and their phylogenetic affinities, we collected tissue samples from roadkill and the World Natural Heritage Headquarters in Jeju. Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome B (CytB) gene sequences were analyzed to determine two distinct CytB haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood tree revealed two haplotypes of CytB clustered into two different groups representing two subspecies: C. n. yakushimae, native to Japan, and C. n. taiouanus, native to Taiwan. The tentative divergence time between the two subspecies was estimated at 1.81 million years. Our study confirmed that the two subspecies of sika deer are sympatric in the natural ecosystem of Jeju Island. This study provides valuable information to help government and conservation agencies understand alien species and determine control policies for conserving native biodiversity in South Korea.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Mu C, Guo X, Y Chen (2022)

Impact of Global Climate Change on the Distribution Range and Niche Dynamics of Eleutherodactylus planirostrish in China.

Biology, 11(4):.

Species distribution models (SDMs) have become indispensable tools in risk assessment and conservation decision-making for invasive species. Eleutherodactylus planirostris has a strong dispersal ability, and the main route of introduction to new regions is likely transport via seedlings. This species is understood as one of the foremost successful invasive amphibian species with direct or indirect negative impacts in multiple regions. In this study, we used MaxEnt to assess suitable areas for this species under current and future climates globally and in China. We considered seven climatic variables, three timepoints (current, 2050, and 2070), and three CO2 emission scenarios. Annual mean temperature, precipitation of the driest month, and annual precipitation were the most important variables predicting E. planirostris occurrence. This species has a much larger suitable habitat area in China than reflected by the current distribution, so the species is likely to spread from the Pearl River Delta to surrounding areas. Under future warming, its invasive range will expand northward in China. In conclusion, this study assessed the risk of invasion of this species and made recommendations for management and prevention.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Rocchia E, Luppi M, Paradiso F, et al (2022)

Distribution Drivers of the Alien Butterfly Geranium Bronze (Cacyreus marshalli) in an Alpine Protected Area and Indications for an Effective Management.

Biology, 11(4):.

Cacyreus marshalli is the only alien butterfly in Europe. It has recently spread in the Gran Paradiso National Park (GPNP), where it could potentially compete with native geranium-consuming butterflies. Our study aimed to (1) assess the main drivers of its distribution, (2) evaluate the potential species distribution in GPNP and (3) predict different scenarios to understand the impact of climate warming and the effect of possible mitigations. Considering different sampling designs (opportunistic and standardised) and different statistical approaches (MaxEnt and N-mixture models), we built up models predicting habitat suitability and egg abundance for the alien species, testing covariates as bioclimatic variables, food plant (Pelargonium spp.) distribution and land cover. A standardised approach resulted in more informative data collection due to the survey design adopted. Opportunistic data could be potentially informative but a major investment in citizen science projects would be needed. Both approaches showed that C. marshalli is associated with its host plant distribution and therefore confined in urban areas. Its expansion is controlled by cold temperatures which, even if the host plant is abundant, constrain the number of eggs. Rising temperatures could lead to an increase in the number of eggs laid, but the halving of Pelargonium spp. populations would mostly mitigate the trend, with a slight countertrend at high elevations.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Pusceddu M, Lezzeri M, Cocco A, et al (2022)

Bio-Ethology of Vespa crabro in Sardinia (Italy), an Area of New Introduction.

Biology, 11(4):.

Vespa crabro, also known as European hornet, is a eusocial Vespidae originally from Eurasia that was accidentally introduced on the island of Sardinia (Italy) in 2010. Currently, its distribution is limited to the northern area of the island. Considering that a non-harmful species in its native region can exhibit invasive behaviour when established in new environments, bio-ethological observations were conducted to better understand whether V. crabro could show invasive traits in Sardinia, which represents a new introduction area. Data on the foraging activity of the European hornet in open fields were collected within a citizen science monitoring program carried out in Sardinia from 2018 to 2020. Moreover, specific behavioural observations were made in apiaries to assess the predatory activity of the hornet towards honey bees and at the entrance of free-living European hornet colonies to evaluate other aspects of its behaviour, i.e., intranidal and extranidal tasks. The results of our study are discussed in relation to the behavioural traits known for this species in its native areas to place the behavioural repertoire of V. crabro in Sardinia into a wider context. Our observations revealed that V. crabro did not show any changes in behavioural traits in Sardinia compared to those described in its area of origin, so the risk of becoming an invasive species on this island seems unlikely.

RevDate: 2022-04-26
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Soares MC, Banha F, Cardoso SC, et al (2022)

Hemolymph Glycemia as an Environmental Stress Biomarker in the Invasive Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ, 95(3):265-277.

AbstractSeveral freshwater crayfish species, including Procambarus clarkii, are both ecologically important and commercially important benthic macroinvertebrates, remarkable for their potential to adapt and reproduce but also for their unique abilities to face distinct abiotic and biotic environments and become successful invaders. While much work has been done to study crayfish introductions, less focus has been given to how crayfish cope with pollution and other environmental stressors, in terms of physiological responses, and whether crayfish responses can be used to assess the effective state of their living environment. Here, we used a mixed approach combining laboratory experiments with field data to validate the use of hemolymph glucose as a relevant biomarker of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) stress response. Three meaningful sampling locations were chosen across southern Portugal that are representative of different environments where crayfish live and are frequently captured for human consumption but also correspond to different pollution levels. To reference field measurements of glucose levels, we performed two lab-based experiments: (a) crayfish were exposed to different levels of stress (stress challenge) and (b) crawfish were exposed to a maze dispersal test, with or without water. Crayfish glucose levels were responsive to induced stress but were not correlated with dispersal efforts. Wild crayfish's body condition and stress levels responded differently to environmental conditions, with more challenged individuals showing higher glycemia levels but similar body condition. The glucose levels of the more stressed wild crayfish were visually similar to lab-based crayfish subjected to the higher stress levels (electric shocks), while the levels of glucose of crayfish at the less polluted site corresponded to those measured before the start of the challenge (baseline). The maintenance of high levels of glycemia in crayfish inhabiting more challenging habitats is revealing of their higher energetic demand state. Since P. clarkii ia globally distributed and easily sampled invasive species, quantifying its hemolymph glucose levels can be a particularly useful proxy for assessing environmental quality.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Xu T, Zhang N, Xu M, et al (2022)

Revisiting the trail pheromone components of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren.

Insect science [Epub ahead of print].

Ants use species-specific trail pheromones to coordinate their sophisticated foraging behavior. During the past decades, many trail pheromone components with various structures have been identified in ants, including the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, a notorious invasive species worldwide. Four compounds, Z,E- (ZEF) and E,E-α-farnesene (EEF), Z,E- (ZEHF) and E,E-α-homofarnesene (EEHF), have been reported as components of S. invicta trail pheromone. However, another study reported an analog of α-farnesene, Z,Z,Z-allofarnesene, as a key trail pheromone component. These contrasting results caused some uncertainty about the trail pheromone composition in S. invicta. In this study, we synthesized ZEF and EEF, ZEHF and EEHF, and reanalyzed the chemicals in the Dufour gland extract and in the trail pheromone fraction of S. invicta worker body extract. The reported isomers of farnesene and homofarnesene were detected and showed trail-following activity, with ZEF as the major compound, while no allofarnesene was found, neither in the Dufour gland extract nor in the whole-body extract. Our results confirm ZEF and EEF, ZEHF and EEHF as trail pheromone components of S. invicta.

RevDate: 2022-04-22

van Rees CB, Hand BK, Carter SC, et al (2022)

A framework to integrate innovations in invasion science for proactive management.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive alien species (IAS) are a rising threat to biodiversity, national security, and regional economies, with impacts in the hundreds of billions of U.S. dollars annually. Proactive or predictive approaches guided by scientific knowledge are essential to keeping pace with growing impacts of invasions under climate change. Although the rapid development of diverse technologies and approaches has produced tools with the potential to greatly accelerate invasion research and management, innovation has far outpaced implementation and coordination. Technological and methodological syntheses are urgently needed to close the growing implementation gap and facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration and synergy among evolving disciplines. A broad review is necessary to demonstrate the utility and relevance of work in diverse fields to generate actionable science for the ongoing invasion crisis. Here, we review such advances in relevant fields including remote sensing, epidemiology, big data analytics, environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling, genomics, and others, and present a generalized framework for distilling existing and emerging data into products for proactive IAS research and management. This integrated workflow provides a pathway for scientists and practitioners in diverse disciplines to contribute to applied invasion biology in a coordinated, synergistic, and scalable manner.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-25

Porco D, Hermant S, Purnomo CA, et al (2022)

eDNA-based detection of the invasive crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in streams with a LAMP assay using dependent replicates to gain higher sensitivity.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6553.

LAMP assays are becoming increasingly popular in the field of invasive species detection but are still underused in eDNA-based monitoring. Here, we propose a LAMP assay designed to detect the North American crayfish species Pacifastacus leniusculus in water samples from streams. The presence of P. leniusculus was detected through this new LAMP assay in all but one of the nine sites sampled. No correlation was found between ddPCR absolute concentration measurements and the number of LAMP-positive technical replicates. However, we showed that using dependent technical replicates could significantly enhance the detection sensitivity of the LAMP assay. Applied to other assays, it could improve sensitivity and thus allow for a more efficient use of eDNA-based LAMP assays for invasive species detection in aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-04-24

Bustamante RO, Quiñones D, Duarte M, et al (2022)

Invasive Stages within Alien Species and Hutchinson's Duality: An Example Using Invasive Plants of the Family Fabaceae in Central Chile.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(8):.

To understand the factors that limit invasive expansion in alien species, it is critical to predict potential zones of colonization. Climatic niche can be an important way to predict the potential distribution of alien species. This correlation between niche and geographic distribution is called Hutchinson's duality. A combination of global and regional niches allows four invasive stages to be identified: quasi-equilibrium, local adaptation, colonization and sink stage. We studied the invasive stages of six alien leguminous species either in the niche or the geographical space. In five of the six species, a higher proportion of populations were in the quasi-equilibrium stage. Notably, Acacia species had the highest proportion of populations in local adaptation. This picture changed dramatically when we projected the climatic niche in the geographic space: in all species the colonization stage had the highest proportional projected area, ranging from 50 to 90%. Our results are consistent with Hutchinson's duality, which predicts that small areas in the niche space can be translated onto large areas of the geographic space. Although the colonization stage accounted for a low proportion of occurrences, in all species, the models predicted the largest areas for this stage. This study complements invasive stages, projecting them in geographic space.

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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )