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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 20 Jul 2024 at 01:49 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-07-19

Wang Z, Chang N, Li H, et al (2024)

Impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of Pulex simulans and Polygenis gwyni.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11621 pii:ECE311621.

Pulex simulans and Polygenis gwyni are vectors of many flea-borne diseases. They were widely recorded in the United States and Mexico between 1970 and 2000. Maximum entropy models were used to explore the habitats of both fleas under different climate scenarios to provide the scientific basis for the surveillance and control of flea-borne diseases. We screened climate variables by principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation test and evaluated model performance by ROC curve. ArcMap was used to visualize expressions. Under current climatic conditions, the medium and highly suitable areas for P. simulans are estimated to be 9.16 × 10[6] km[2] and 4.97 × 10[6] km[2], respectively. These regions are predominantly located in South America, along the Mediterranean coast of Europe, the southern part of the African continent, the Middle East, North China, and Australia. For P. gwyni, the medium and highly suitable areas under current climatic conditions are approximately 4.01 × 10[6] and 2.04 × 10[6] km[2], respectively, with the primary distribution in North China extending to the Himalayas, near the Equator in Africa, and in a few areas of Europe. Under future climate scenarios, in the SSP3-7.0 scenario for the years 2081-2100, the area of high suitability for P. simulans is projected to reach its maximum. Similarly, in the SSP2-4.5 scenario for 2061-2080, the area of high suitability for P. gwyni is expected to reach its maximum. Under global climate change, there is a large range in the potential distribution for both fleas, with an overall upward trend in the area of habitat under future climate scenarios. Governments should develop scientific prevention and control measures to prevent the invasive alien species flea.

RevDate: 2024-07-19

Williams GL, J Stephen Brewer (2024)

Aboveground versus soil-mediated effects of an invasive grass on fire-dependent forbs in an oak woodland.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11712 pii:ECE311712.

Most work on plant competition intensity in general has focused on how aboveground and belowground competition for resources between plants changes with soil resource availability. In contrast, much work on the competitive effects of non-native invasive species on native species has focused on other mechanisms (e.g., allelopathy and microbial changes) and has largely ignored how these effects interact with mechanisms of resource competition along productivity gradients. We examined aboveground effects of an invasive grass, Microstegium vimineum, along with soil differences between invaded and non-invaded areas on two native perennial herbs at a productive and an unproductive oak woodland site in north Mississippi, USA. We transplanted 32 individuals each of Helianthus silphioides and Potentilla simplex from uninvaded areas into natural patches dominated by M. vimineum at each of the sites. Each transplant was randomly assigned to a pot with either native soil or soil from around M. vimineum roots. Aboveground competition was manipulated by securing M. vimineum shoots in a non-shading position around the transplant. We monitored survival of all transplants weekly in the growing seasons of 2020 and 2021. Transplant survival of H. silphioides was lowest in M. vimineum soil at the more productive site when M. vimineum was not pinned back. Transplant survival of P. simplex was lower at the more productive site but was mostly unresponsive to pinning and soil treatments. Synthesis. Our results suggest that soil-mediated legacy effects of an invader may reduce some native species' ability to compete for light at productive sites.

RevDate: 2024-07-19

Jackson RT, Marshall PM, Burkhart C, et al (2024)

Risk of invasive waterfowl interaction with poultry production: Understanding potential for avian pathogen transmission via species distribution models.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11647 pii:ECE311647.

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have devastated poultry production across the United States, with more than 77 million birds culled in 2022-2024 alone. Wild waterfowl, including various invasive species, host numerous pathogens, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), and have been implicated as catalysts of disease outbreaks among native fauna and domestic birds. In major poultry-producing states like Arkansas, USA, where the poultry sector is responsible for significant economic activity (>$4 billion USD in 2022), understanding the risk of invasive waterfowl interactions with domestic poultry is critical. Here, we assessed the risk of invasive waterfowl-poultry interaction in Arkansas by comparing the density of poultry production sites (chicken houses) to areas of high habitat suitability for two invasive waterfowl species, (Egyptian Goose [Alopochen aegyptiaca] and Mute Swan [Cygnus olor]), known to host significant pathogens, including avian influenza viruses. The percentage of urban land cover was the most important habitat characteristic for both invasive waterfowl species. At the 95% confidence interval, chicken house densities in areas highly suitable for both species (Egyptian Goose = 0.91 ± 0.11 chicken houses/km[2]; Mute Swan = 0.61 ± 0.03 chicken houses/km[2]) were three to five times higher than chicken house densities across the state (0.17 ± 0.01 chicken houses/km[2]). We show that northwestern and western Arkansas, both areas of high importance for poultry production, are also at high risk of invasive waterfowl presence. Our results suggest that targeted monitoring efforts for waterfowl-poultry contact in these areas could help mitigate the risk of avian pathogen exposure in Arkansas and similar regions with high poultry production.

RevDate: 2024-07-19

Walsh-Antzak CR, PA Erickson (2024)

Strength of enemy release from parasitoids is context-dependent in the invasive African Fig Fly, Zaprionus indianus.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.07.09.602257.

UNLABELLED: Understanding the mechanisms underlying the success of biological invasions is essential to employ effective prediction and management strategies. The escape from natural enemies in invaded regions (enemy release hypothesis) and increased competitive ability are hallmarks of invasive species; however, these two processes are rarely studied within the same context. Here, we examined the effect of enemy release on the competition outcomes of a successful invasive insect pest in North America, the African fig fly (Zaprionus indianus) . Parasitoid wasps such as Leptopilina heterotoma that parasitize drosophilid larvae may seek out established species with known host suitability over a novel species, so we hypothesized Z. indianus may have low susceptibility to parasitoids, giving them a competitive advantage over co-occurring drosophilids. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the adult emergence rates from Z. indianus larvae reared alone or in competition with Drosophila hydei or D. simulans larvae in the presence and absence of parasitoid wasps. These interactions might be influenced by larval density, so we tested competitive interactions under low and high larval densities. At low larval densities, Z. indianus emerged at equal rates to D. hydei but outcompeted D. simulans , and these outcomes were not affected by parasitoids. However, at high densities, the addition of parasitoids shifted competition outcomes in favor of Z. indianus , suggesting enemy release provides a competitive advantage under some circumstances. These results indicate that the strength of enemy release in Z. indianus is widely dependent on contextual factors such as density and competitor species. Further investigation of how these results apply to field environments could offer insight into how Z. indianus alters ecosystems and how productive biological control may limit the spread of Z. indianus .

SHORT ABSTRACT: Invasive species may succeed in new environments in part because they are less susceptible to diseases and parasites that have co-evolved with local hosts, giving invaders a competitive advantage. We tested this hypothesis by competing an invasive fruit fly against established species in the presence of parasitoid wasps that lay their eggs in fruit fly larvae. We found that the invasive species generally outcompeted other species in the presence of parasitoids, but the extent of its advantage depended on the species it was competing against and the number of larvae present.

RevDate: 2024-07-18
CmpDate: 2024-07-18

Lewis M, Lainé K, Dawnay L, et al (2024)

The forensic potential of environmental DNA (eDNA) in freshwater wildlife crime investigations: From research to application.

Science & justice : journal of the Forensic Science Society, 64(4):443-454.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) is widely used in biodiversity, conservation, and ecological studies but despite its successes, similar approaches have not yet been regularly applied to assist in wildlife crime investigations. The purpose of this paper is to review current eDNA methods and assess their potential forensic application in freshwater environments considering collection, transport and persistence, analysis, and interpretation, while identifying additional research required to present eDNA evidence in court. An extensive review of the literature suggests that commonly used collection methods can be easily adapted for forensic frameworks providing they address the appropriate investigative questions and take into consideration the uniqueness of the target species, its habitat, and the requirements of the end user. The use of eDNA methods to inform conservationists, monitor biodiversity and impacts of climate change, and detect invasive species and pathogens shows confidence within the scientific community, making the acceptance of these methods by the criminal justice system highly possible. To contextualise the potential application of eDNA on forensic investigations, two test cases are explored involving i) species detection and ii) species localisation. Recommendations for future work within the forensic eDNA discipline include development of suitable standardised collection methods, considered collection strategies, forensically validated assays and publication of procedures and empirical research studies to support implementation within the legal system.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Epanchin-Niell R, X Pi (2024)

Nonnative pest establishment: Spatial patterns and public detection.

Journal of environmental management, 366:121838 pii:S0301-4797(24)01824-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Early detection of new pests can reduce their long-term impacts by enabling more rapid management response. Knowledge of pest establishment risk and background rates of detection (e.g., by the public) can help inform more cost-effective targeting of formal early detection survey programs. Here we quantify county-level locational attributes associated with pest establishment and detection by the public using data for 113 new pest incursions detected in the United States from 2010 through 2018. Aligning with expectations, we find a higher likelihood of new pest establishment in counties with higher human population numbers, nearer to ports (<250 km), and with amenable climate characteristics. Controlling for potential sample selection issues, we find that pests are less likely to be first detected by the public (e.g., homeowners, community members) versus by other sources (e.g., agency surveys, researchers, or agricultural operators) in counties with higher total crop sales values and lower human population number. The negative association between public detection and high agricultural values may reflect greater survey efforts by other sources (e.g., by agency surveillance programs, researchers, and agricultural operators) in high-value agricultural areas. The positive association between public detection and human population size may reflect larger numbers of public detectors (i.e., people) available to encounter the pests. Our models provide spatially explicit estimates of the likelihood of new pest establishment across U.S. counties and of the likelihood that an established pest would first be detected by the public. These estimates can serve as quantitative inputs to decision-support activities for new pest surveillance planning.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Golo R, Santamaría J, Vergés A, et al (2024)

The role of species thermal plasticity for alien species invasibility in a changing climate: A case study of Lophocladia trichoclados.

Marine environmental research, 200:106642 pii:S0141-1136(24)00303-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The Mediterranean Sea provides fertile ground for understanding the complex interplay between invasive species and native habitats, particularly within the context of climate change. This thermal tolerance study reveals the remarkable ability of Lophocladia trichoclados, a red algae species that has proven highly invasive, to adapt to varying temperatures, particularly thriving in colder Mediterranean waters, where it can withstand temperatures as low as 14 °C, a trait not observed in its native habitat. This rapid acclimation, occurring in less than a century, might entail a trade-off with high temperature resistance. Additionally, all sampled populations in the Mediterranean share the same haplotype, suggesting a common origin and the possibility that we might be facing an exceptionally acclimatable and invasive strain. This high degree of acclimatability could determine the future spread capacity in a changing scenario, highlighting the importance of considering both acclimation and adaptation in understanding the expansion of invasive species' ranges.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

De Giorgi R, Bardelli R, Cilenti L, et al (2024)

Opportunistic omnivory impairs the use of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus as a trace metal biomonitor in invaded Mediterranean coastal waters.

Marine pollution bulletin, 206:116715 pii:S0025-326X(24)00692-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The contribution of non-indigenous species to the transfer of contaminants in invaded food webs represents an active research area. Here we measured trace metals and CN stable isotopes in five populations of the invasive Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus and in baseline bivalve species from Spain, Italy and Greece. They were used to estimate trophic transfer effects and the trophic position and isotopic niche of C. sapidus. Maximum trophic transfer effects occurred where the crab showed the largest isotopic niches and highest trophic positions; furthermore, the consistency of trace metal profiles between bivalves and crabs co-varied with the trophic position of the latters. Omnivory may influence the success of an invasive species, but also limit its effectiveness for biomonitoring. However, our results indicated that stable isotopes analysis provides a clarifying background where to cast patterns of contamination of the blue crab as well as of other omnivorous biomonitor species.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Adams DR, Barbarin AM, MH Reiskind (2024)

New report of Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in Mecklenburg County, Virginia from field collections.

Journal of medical entomology pii:7716132 [Epub ahead of print].

Haemaphysalis longicornis (Neumann) was first established in New Jersey and has rapidly spread across most of the eastern United States. This tick has the potential to infest a wide variety of hosts and can reproduce quickly via parthenogenesis, presenting a new threat to animal health. Here we report the first record of a single H. longicornis tick in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, from incidental field collections of ticks. In addition to H. longicornis, we collected 787 Amblyomma americanum, 25 Dermacentor variabilis, 6 Ixodes affinis, 1 Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and 1 Amblyomma maculatum using standard dragging and flagging techniques. The expansion of H. longicornis will have economic consequences for livestock producers in south-central Virginia, who must now manage this species. Enhanced surveillance is needed to fully understand its growing geographic distribution in the United States and the subsequent consequences of its spread.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

de Oliveira Carneiro L, Roman Miiller NO, Cuthbert RN, et al (2024)

Biological invasions negatively impact global protected areas.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04972-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Protected areas underpin global biodiversity conservation and sustainability agendas. Biological invasions increasingly threaten the ecological functioning and long-term conservation value of protected areas, while a lack of information on impact impedes management decisions. We collated data from effects of biological invasions in protected areas to provide the first quantitative analysis of their global impacts. Based on 300 reported effects from 44 invasive species, we show that there are overall negative impacts from invasive species on both biotic and abiotic characteristics of protected areas globally. Impacts were pervasive across population, community, and ecosystem scales, and for the vast majority of invasive taxa with sufficient data. Negative impacts have been incurred around the world, with National Parks and World Heritage Sites in the Neartic and Neotropical regions the most studied. Notwithstanding context-dependencies and uneven research efforts, the recurrent negative impacts of invasive species indicate that current efforts are insufficient to curb current stressors and meet conservation and sustainability targets on land and in water. To address the risk of biological invasions in protected areas, it is imperative to prioritise fundamental research on ecological interactions, establish robust monitoring and prevention programs, and raise awareness through global initiatives.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-17

Baz-González E, P Foronda (2024)

Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in the North African hedgehog (Atelerix algirus) in the Canary Islands, Spain.

Parasitology research, 123(7):274.

The North African hedgehog (Atelerix algirus) is an introduced species from Northwest Africa and is currently distributed in the Canary Islands. This species of hedgehog has been studied as a reservoir of enteropathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. However, there are no data at species level. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the Cryptosporidium species present in a population of hedgehogs (n = 36) in the Canary Islands. Molecular screening was performed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium spp. Seven of the 36 fecal samples (19.45%) were positive and confirmed by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene and Sanger sequencing. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified in 11.1% (4/36) and 5.6% (2/36) of the samples, respectively, while one sample could only be identified at the genus level. The zoonotic subtypes IIdA15G1 (n = 1), IIdA16G1b (n = 1), and IIdA22G1 (n = 1) of C. parvum were identified by nested PCR followed by analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequence. This study is the first genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in A. algirus, identifying zoonotic species and subtypes of the parasite.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Douglas HB, Renkema J, Smith TW, et al (2024)

Palearctic flea beetle and pest of hops and Cannabis, Psylliodesattenuata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae), new to North America.

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e120340.

BACKGROUND: The univoltine leaf beetle Psylliodesattenuata (Koch, 1803) is a pest of Cannabis and Humulus (Cannabaceae) and native to the Palaearctic Region, known from eastern Asia to western Europe.

NEW INFORMATION: First North American records are presented for P.attenuata from Canada: Ontario and Québec. Adult beetle feeding damage to hops Humuluslupulus L. (Cannabacaea) plants is recorded from Québec. Diagnostic information is presented to distinguish P.attenuata from other North American Chrysomelidae and a preliminary assessment of its potential to spread in North America is presented. While our climate analysis is limited by a lack of data, it appears P.attenuata is physiologically capable of persisting throughout the range of Humulus in North America.The United States of America and Canada are now known to be home to 71 or more species of adventive Chrysomelidae.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Wu W-C, Pan Y-F, Zhou W-D, et al (2024)

Meta-transcriptomic analysis of companion animal infectomes reveals their diversity and potential roles in animal and human disease.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Companion animals such as cats and dogs harbor diverse microbial communities that can potentially impact human health due to close and frequent contact. To better characterize their total infectomes and assess zoonotic risks, we characterized the overall infectomes of companion animals (cats and dogs) and evaluated their potential zoonotic risks. Meta-transcriptomic analyses were performed on 239 samples from cats and dogs collected across China, identifying 24 viral species, 270 bacterial genera, and two fungal genera. Differences in the overall microbiome and infectome composition were compared across different animal species (cats or dogs), sampling sites (rectal or oropharyngeal), and health status (healthy or diseased). Diversity analyses revealed that viral abundance was generally higher in diseased animals compared to healthy ones, while differences in microbial composition were mainly driven by sampling site, followed by animal species and health status. Disease association analyses validated the pathogenicity of known pathogens and suggested potential pathogenic roles of previously undescribed bacteria and newly discovered viruses. Cross-species transmission analyses identified seven pathogens shared between cats and dogs, such as alphacoronavirus 1, which was detected in both oropharyngeal and rectal swabs albeit with differential pathogenicity. Further analyses showed that some viruses, like alphacoronavirus 1, harbored multiple lineages exhibiting distinct pathogenicity, tissue, or host preferences. Ultimately, a systematic evolutionary screening identified 27 potential zoonotic pathogens in this sample set, with far more bacterial than viral species, implying potential health threats to humans. Overall, our meta-transcriptomic analysis reveals a landscape of actively transcribing microorganisms in major companion animals, highlighting key pathogens, those with the potential for cross-species transmission, and possible zoonotic threats.

IMPORTANCE: This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the entire community of infectious microbes (viruses, bacteria, and fungi) in companion animals like cats and dogs, termed the "infectome." By analyzing hundreds of samples from across China, the researchers identified numerous known and novel pathogens, including 27 potential zoonotic agents that could pose health risks to both animals and humans. Notably, some of these zoonotic pathogens were detected even in apparently healthy pets, highlighting the importance of surveillance. The study also revealed key microbial factors associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in pets, as well as potential cross-species transmission events between cats and dogs. Overall, this work sheds light on the complex microbial landscapes of companion animals and their potential impacts on animal and human health, underscoring the need for monitoring and management of these infectious agents.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

DA Silva LP, Coutinho AP, Ramos JA, et al (2024)

Anthropogenic forests simplify seed- but not pollen-dispersal networks.

Integrative zoology [Epub ahead of print].

Natural native forests are rapidly being replaced by anthropogenic forests often with a strong presence of invasive alien plant species. Eucalypt species are widely planted worldwide, with Eucalyptus globulus plantations being particularly expressive in Portugal. Poor forestry practices often lead to the associated expansion of invasive species, such as Acacia dealbata. However, we still know relatively little about the functioning of anthropogenic forests, such as seed and pollen dispersal services. Here, we compared bird abundance and richness and the seed and pollen dispersal networks in both forest types. Anthropogenic forests presented lower bird abundance, and smaller, more simplified, and more random (abundance-based) seed dispersal services than those of natural forests. Interestingly, the pollen dispersal network was more similar than the seed dispersal network for both forest types and dominated by opportunistic and neutral processes, given the absence of specialized nectarivorous. The proportion of birds transporting seeds decreased, while those carrying pollen significantly increased in the anthropogenic forest compared to the native forest. Our work highlights the impact of anthropogenic forests on bird abundance, with consequences for seed dispersal services and forest regeneration.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Benning JW, Clark EI, Hufbauer RA, et al (2024)

Environmental gradients mediate dispersal evolution during biological invasions.

Ecology letters, 27(7):e14472.

Rapid evolution of increased dispersal at the edge of a range expansion can accelerate invasions. However, populations expanding across environmental gradients often face challenging environments that reduce fitness of dispersing individuals. We used an eco-evolutionary model to explore how environmental gradients influence dispersal evolution and, in turn, modulate the speed and predictability of invasion. Environmental gradients opposed evolution of increased dispersal during invasion, even leading to evolution of reduced dispersal along steeper gradients. Counterintuitively, reduced dispersal could allow for faster expansion by minimizing maladaptive gene flow and facilitating adaptation. While dispersal evolution across homogenous landscapes increased both the mean and variance of expansion speed, these increases were greatly dampened by environmental gradients. We illustrate our model's potential application to prediction and management of invasions by parameterizing it with data from a recent invertebrate range expansion. Overall, we find that environmental gradients strongly modulate the effect of dispersal evolution on invasion trajectories.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Chen N, Tian X, Yang M, et al (2024)

Effect of carbon nanoparticles on the growth and photosynthetic property of Ficus tikoua Bur. plant.

PeerJ, 12:e17652.

The application of nanomaterials in different plants exerts varying effects, both positive and negative. This study aimed to investigate the influence of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) on the growth and development of Ficus tikoua Bur. plant. The morphological characteristics, photosynthetic parameters, and chlorophyll content of F. tikoua Bur. plants were evaluated under four different concentrations of CNPs. Results indicated a decreasing trend in several agronomic traits, such as leaf area, branching number, and green leaf number and most photosynthetic parameters with increasing CNPs concentration. Total chlorophyll and chlorophyll b contents were also significantly reduced in CNPs-exposed plants compared to the control. Notably, variations in plant tolerance to CNPs were observed based on morphological and physiological parameters. A critical concentration of 50 g/kg was identified as potentially inducing plant toxicity, warranting further investigation into the effects of lower CNPs concentrations to determine optimal application levels.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Gawai T, Sadawarte S, Khandagale K, et al (2024)

Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Allium host in India.

PeerJ, 12:e17679.

BACKGROUND: Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) is a complex of cryptic species with subtle morphological differences and distinct genetic backgrounds; thus, species identification using traditional methods remains challenging. The existence of different haplotypes and genotypes within a species can significantly influence various aspects of its biology, including host preference, reproductive capacity, resistance to pesticides, and vector competence for plant viruses. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure of cryptic species within T. tabaci will not only aid in the development of more effective control strategies tailored to specific genetic variants but also in monitoring population dynamics, tracking invasive species, and implementing quarantine measures to prevent the spread of economically damaging thrips biotypes.

METHODS: This study aims to explore intraspecies genetic diversity and molecular evolutionary relationships of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (mtCOI) in T. tabaci populations from India. To capture diversity within the Indian T. tabaci populations, amplicon sequencing was performed for the thrips mtCOI gene from eight diverse localities in India. A total of 48 sequences retrieved for the mtCOI gene from the NCBI Nucleotide database were analysed.

RESULTS: Multiple insertions and deletions were detected at various genomic positions across the populations from different localities, with the highest variation observed in the 300-400 genome position range. Molecular diversity analyses identified 30 haplotypes within the population, with certain subpopulations exhibiting higher gene flow. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism patterns within the mtCOI gene across diverse Indian locales revealed significant intrapopulation genetic heterogeneity and its potential repercussions on gene functionality. Elevated F statistics (Fst) values in the northern-western subpopulations suggested high genetic variability, particularly evident in haplotype networks originating mainly from the northern region, notably Delhi. While most populations displayed stable and ancient evolutionary histories, thrips populations from northern, western, and north-eastern regions indicated rapid growth.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Choi TY, Son DC, Oh A, et al (2024)

Unveiling a potential threat to forest ecosystems: molecular diagnosis of Alliaria petiolata, a newly introduced alien plant in Korea.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1395676.

Identifying stages of a species invasion in a new habitat (i.e., colonization, establishment, and landscape spread) and their primary determinants in biological invasion warrants attention, as it provides vital insights for preventing non-native species from becoming pervasive invaders. However, delineating invasion stages and their associated factors can pose significant challenges due to the ambiguous distinctions between these stages. Alliaria petiolata, one of the most noxious weeds in woodland habitats, has recently been introduced to Korea and observed in a few distant locations. Although the plant's spread has been relatively slow thus far, rapid spread is highly likely in the future, given the high invasive potential reported elsewhere. We indirectly diagnose the current status of A. petiolata invasion in Korea through the assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic inferences using genome-wide molecular markers and cytological data. We analyzed 86 individual samples collected from two native and six introduced populations, employing 1,172 SNPs. Our analysis estimated within- and among-population genetic diversity and included two clustering analyses. Furthermore, we investigated potential gene flow and reticulation events among the sampled populations. Our data unraveled that Korean garlic mustard exhibits a hexaploid ploidy level with two distinct chromosome numbers, 2n = 36 and 42. The extent of genetic diversity measured in Korean populations was comparable to that of native populations. Using genome-wide SNP data, we identified three distinct clusters with minor gene flow, while failing to detect indications of reticulation among Korean populations. Based on the multifaceted analyses, our study provides valuable insights into the colonization process and stressed the importance of closely monitoring A. petiolata populations in Korea.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Al-Qthanin R, Radwan AM, Donia AM, et al (2024)

Comprehensive analysis and implications of Veronica persica germination and growth traits in their invasion ecology.

Scientific reports, 14(1):16285.

Invasive alien species implications in ecological threats are attributed to their unique characteristics that are linked to their invasion. Veronica persica (Plantaginaceae family) is an alien weed species in Egypt. Regardless of its widespread globally in various regions, the growth traits and behavior of V. persica remain poorly understood. The comprehensive analysis, reveals the optimal germination (Gmax) was detected at 10/20 °C, 15/20 °C, and 20/25 °C at the moderate temperature regimes. The rapid germination rate (G rate) peaked at 10/20 °C regime, with a rate of 0.376 per day. Furthermore, under stress conditions, V. persica has 50% germination inhibition (G50) and 50% of growth inhibition occurred at - 0.91 MPa and 0.75 MPa of osmotic pressure and 3225.81 ppm and 2677.1 ppm of salt stress (NaCl) respectively. The germination ranged from 6 to 9 pH, with the highest germination percentage occurring at a pH of 7 & 8, reaching 88.75% compared to the control group. There is a strong interaction effect between habitats and plant stages, the plant stages and habitats have significant effects (p ≤ 0.00) on V. persica growth. There was high and moderate plasticity in the response of morphological and growth features between stages. During the seedling-juvenile interval and the juvenile-flowering stages, respectively, there was a noticeable increase in both Relative Growth Rate and Net Assimilation Rate. Demographic surveys identified approximately 24 species across 11 families associated with V. persica in invaded areas. The Sorenson indices of qualitative index exhibited high similarity values in the invaded sites by (82.35%) compared to (72.72%) in non-invaded sites. However, interactions with native communities were reflected in lower richness, diversity, and evenness, displaying slightly higher Simpson index 1 (λ) values compared to invaded and non-invaded sites (0.043 and 0.0290) vs. (0.0207 and 0.268), in rangelands and F. carica orchards respectively. These results emphasize the substantially higher adaptability of V. persica to variable environmental conditions and abilities to invade a new community. This knowledge about invasive V. persica weeds germination and growth is itemized as the consistent predictive base for future invasion and informs strategic management priorities.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Fu Y, Xu C, Liu X, et al (2024)

Superoxide Photoproduction from Wetland Plant-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter: Implications for Biogeochemical Impacts of Plant Invasion.

Environmental science & technology, 58(28):12477-12487.

Although the impacts of exotic wetland plant invasions on native biodiversity, landscape features, and carbon-nitrogen cycles are well appreciated, biogeochemical consequences posed by ecological competition, such as the heterogeneity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from plant detritus and its impact on the formation of reactive oxygen species, are poorly understood. Thus, this study delves into O2[•-] photogeneration potential of DOM derived from three different parts (stem, leaf, and panicle) of invasive Spartina alterniflora (SA) and native Phragmites australis (PA). It is found that DOM from the leaves of SA and the panicles of PA has a superior ability to produce O2[•-]. With more stable aromatic structures and a higher proportion of sulfur-containing organic compounds, SA-derived DOM generally yields more O2[•-] than that derived from PA. UVA exposure enhances the leaching of diverse DOM molecules from plant detritus. Based on the reported monitoring data and our findings, the invasion of SA is estimated to approximately double the concentration of O2[•-] in the surrounding water bodies. This study can help to predict the underlying biogeochemical impacts from the perspective of aquatic photochemistry in future scenarios of plant invasion, seawater intrusion, wetland degradation, and elevated solar UV radiation.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Abba A, S Sankarannair (2024)

Global impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) on rural communities and mitigation strategies: a systematic review.

Environmental science and pollution research international, 31(31):43616-43632.

The proliferation of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes), recognized as one of the most invasive aquatic plants worldwide, presents profound ecological and socioeconomic challenges across diverse ecosystems, particularly in rural communities. This systematic review examines the extensive global impacts and explores various mitigation strategies to manage and utilize this pervasive species. Ecologically, water hyacinth disrupts aquatic ecosystems by depleting oxygen levels, obstructing sunlight, and displacing native species, which in turn compromises water quality and biodiversity. Economically, its rapid spread affects agriculture, fishing, and navigation, imposing significant costs on local economies and livelihoods. In response, this review assesses integrated management approaches combining mechanical, chemical, and biological controls that have been implemented to curb its growth. Moreover, innovative strategies that repurpose the biomass for bioenergy, handicrafts, and bio-remediation are discussed, highlighting their potential to transform an ecological menace into an economic resource. These strategies not only mitigate the plant's negative impacts but also contribute to sustainable development by providing economic opportunities and enhancing ecosystem services. This review stresses the necessity for a holistic approach to water hyacinth management that is adaptive, sustainable, and beneficial to affected communities.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Gabel F, Vosshage ATL, EI Meyer (2024)

Non-native amphipods reach higher maximum swimming velocities than natives.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04943-X [Epub ahead of print].

The invasion of non-native amphipods often leads to severe changes in the composition of aquatic communities and may also result in the local replacement of native species. Particularly, a lower risk of being preyed upon resulting from high swimming velocities can be an advantage in interspecific competition. Furthermore, as swimming velocities are ecologically important, they are often used in ecotoxicological studies to estimate effects of different stressors. However, knowledge on swimming velocities of native and non-native amphipods is still rather limited. We experimentally investigated the maximum swimming velocities of three native and three non-native amphipods via video analyses in the laboratory. Results showed that non-native species reach higher maximum swimming velocities compared to natives probably leading to a higher predation success and reduced risk of being preyed upon. Additionally, body length correlates positively with swimming velocities, except for the invader Dikerogammarus villosus. As D. villosus can be cannibalistic, the high swimming velocities of the small individuals may reduce the intraspecific predation and may increase the survival rates of smaller specimen. Hence, knowledge about the swimming velocities of species contribute to the understanding of interspecific competition among species and might support explanation approaches for the success of invasive species. Furthermore, it provides baselines for ecotoxicological studies of stressor impacts.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Grison CM, C Grison (2024)

[Protecting biodiversity and sustainable sciences].

Biologie aujourd'hui, 218(1-2):55-61.

The latest IPBES report clearly showed that pollution and proliferation of invasive alien species constituted two of the five major factors responsible for the biodiversity decline. Faced with this situation, we present here the development of nature-based solutions in response to these two challenges. This approach has firstly made it possible to progress in understanding the adaptation strategies of plants and associated micro-organisms to respond to attacks such as pollution. Thus, relevant studies showed that certain plant species are able to grow in environments contaminated with metallic elements, or even to sequester toxic pollutants in their leaves or their roots. This research has made it possible to provide original solutions for the ecological restoration of soils and the decontamination of aquatic systems using dead invasive exotic plant species. The promotion of these solutions through the concept of ecocatalysis, at the interface of ecology and chemistry, contributed to make them sustainable and economically viable.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Pili AN, Leroy B, Measey JG, et al (2024)

Forecasting potential invaders to prevent future biological invasions worldwide.

Global change biology, 30(7):e17399.

The ever-increasing and expanding globalisation of trade and transport underpins the escalating global problem of biological invasions. Developing biosecurity infrastructures is crucial to anticipate and prevent the transport and introduction of invasive alien species. Still, robust and defensible forecasts of potential invaders are rare, especially for species without known invasion history. Here, we aim to support decision-making by developing a quantitative invasion risk assessment tool based on invasion syndromes (i.e., generalising typical attributes of invasive alien species). We implemented a workflow based on 'Multiple Imputation with Chain Equation' to estimate invasion syndromes from imputed datasets of species' life-history and ecological traits and macroecological patterns. Importantly, our models disentangle the factors explaining (i) transport and introduction and (ii) establishment. We showcase our tool by modelling the invasion syndromes of 466 amphibians and reptile species with invasion history. Then, we project these models to amphibians and reptiles worldwide (16,236 species [c.76% global coverage]) to identify species with a risk of being unintentionally transported and introduced, and risk of establishing alien populations. Our invasion syndrome models showed high predictive accuracy with a good balance between specificity and generality. Unintentionally transported and introduced species tend to be common and thrive well in human-disturbed habitats. In contrast, those with established alien populations tend to be large-sized, are habitat generalists, thrive well in human-disturbed habitats, and have large native geographic ranges. We forecast that 160 amphibians and reptiles without known invasion history could be unintentionally transported and introduced in the future. Among them, 57 species have a high risk of establishing alien populations. Our reliable, reproducible, transferable, statistically robust and scientifically defensible quantitative invasion risk assessment tool is a significant new addition to the suite of decision-support tools needed for developing a future-proof preventative biosecurity globally.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Hao Z, Jiang X, Pan L, et al (2024)

The complete mitochondrial genome of Pontederia crassipes: using HiFi reads to investigate genome recombination and gene transfer from chloroplast genome.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1407309.

Water hyacinth (Pontederia crassipes Mart.) is a monocotyledonous aquatic plant renowned for its rapid growth, extensive proliferation, biological invasiveness, and ecological resilience to variations in pH, nutrients, and temperature. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed P. crassipes among the top 100 invasive species. However, comprehensive genomic information, particularly concerning its mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), remains surprisingly limited. In this study, the complete mitogenome of P. crassipes was analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. The mitogenome is 399,263 bp long and contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 24 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed that the complete mitogenome of the species contains 3,289 dispersed repeats, and 765 RNA editing sites in protein-coding genes. The P. crassipes mitogenome possessed un-conserved structures, including extensive sequence transfer between its chloroplasts and mitochondria. Our study on the mitogenome of P. crassipes offers critical insights into its evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic relationships with related taxa. This research enhances our understanding of this invasive species, known for its significant biomass and rapid overgrowth in aquatic environments.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Taylor A, Sigona A, M Kelly (2024)

Centering Amah Mutsun voices in the analysis of a culturally important, fire-managed coastal grassland.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Indigenous communities throughout California, USA, are increasingly advocating for and practicing cultural fire stewardship, leading to a host of social, cultural, and ecological benefits. Simultaneously, state agencies are recognizing the importance of controlled burning and cultural fire as a means of reducing the risk of severe wildfire while benefiting fire-adapted ecosystems. However, much of the current research on the impacts of controlled burning ignores the cultural importance of these ecosystems, and risks further marginalizing Indigenous knowledge systems. Our work adds a critical Indigenous perspective to the study of controlled burning in California's unique coastal grasslands, one of the most biodiverse and endangered ecosystems in the country. In this study, we partnered with the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band to investigate how the abundance and occurrence of shrubs, cultural plants, and invasive plants differed among three adjacent coastal grasslands with varying fire histories. These three sites are emblematic of the state's diverging approaches to grassland management: fire suppression, fire suppression followed by wildfire, and an exceedingly rare example of a grassland that has been repeatedly burned approximately every 2 years for more than 30 years. We found that Danthonia californica was significantly more abundant on the burned sites, whereas all included shrub species (Baccharis pilularis, Frangula californica, and Rubus ursinus) were significantly more abundant on the site with no recorded fire, results that have important implications for future cultural revitalization efforts and the loss of coastal grasslands to shrub encroachment. In addition to conducting a culturally relevant vegetation survey, we used Sentinel-2 satellite imagery to compare the relative severities of the two most recent fire events within the study area. Critically, we used interviews with Amah Mutsun tribal members to contextualize the results of our vegetation survey and remote sensing analysis, and to investigate how cultural burning contrasts from typical Western fire management approaches in this region. Our study is a novel example of how interviews, field data, and satellite imagery can be combined to gain a deeper ecological and cultural understanding of fire in California's endangered coastal grasslands.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Szarmach D, Wiśniewski K, Kobak J, et al (2024)

Impact of habitat engineering by invasive Corbicula clams on native European unionid mussels.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04913-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions cause biodiversity erosion on a global scale. Invasive species spreading beyond their natural range compete with native fauna for food and space, push native species to suboptimal habitats, impairing their behaviour and thus limiting their occurrence. Freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions and their ecological and economic impacts. The invasive Asian clams (Corbicula spp.), due to their opportunistic life style, can occur at densities of thousands ind. m[-2]. They act as ecosystem engineers transforming bottom substrata through accumulation of shells. Our goal was to determine the effect of substratum modification by living Corbicula and their shells on substratum choice and behaviour of Unio tumidus and Anodonta anatina, two European freshwater mussel species of the highly imperilled Unionidae family. We assessed their substratum selection in pairwise choice tests (pure sand vs. sand modified by living Corbicula or their shells, sand modified by shells vs. living Corbicula). Next, we tested locomotion and burrowing of unionids on pure substratum and substrata modified by Corbicula. Unionids avoided sand modified by living Corbicula and their empty shells, not distinguishing between these two types of substratum modification. In the presence of Corbicula, their burrowing was shallower or it took them longer to obtain the same depth as in the pure sand. Additionally, on sand modified by Corbicula shells, we observed a locomotion increase (U. tumidus) or slowing down (A. anatina). Our research showed a novel mechanism of negative impact of Corbicula on unionids, consisting in pushing them away from their optimal habitats. This may contribute to their habitat loss and future declines in invaded ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Singh G, Moncrieff G, Venter Z, et al (2024)

Uncertainty quantification for probabilistic machine learning in earth observation using conformal prediction.

Scientific reports, 14(1):16166.

Machine learning is increasingly applied to Earth Observation (EO) data to obtain datasets that contribute towards international accords. However, these datasets contain inherent uncertainty that needs to be quantified reliably to avoid negative consequences. In response to the increased need to report uncertainty, we bring attention to the promise of conformal prediction within the domain of EO. Unlike previous uncertainty quantification methods, conformal prediction offers statistically valid prediction regions while concurrently supporting any machine learning model and data distribution. To support the need for conformal prediction, we reviewed EO datasets and found that only 22.5% of the datasets incorporated a degree of uncertainty information, with unreliable methods prevalent. Current open implementations require moving large amounts of EO data to the algorithms. We introduced Google Earth Engine native modules that bring conformal prediction to the data and compute, facilitating the integration of uncertainty quantification into existing traditional and deep learning modelling workflows. To demonstrate the versatility and scalability of these tools we apply them to valued EO applications spanning local to global extents, regression, and classification tasks. Subsequently, we discuss the opportunities arising from the use of conformal prediction in EO. We anticipate that accessible and easy-to-use tools, such as those provided here, will drive wider adoption of rigorous uncertainty quantification in EO, thereby enhancing the reliability of downstream uses such as operational monitoring and decision-making.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Michelot-Antalik A, Kergunteuil A, Genty L, et al (2024)

Ecological restoration combining mowing and competition limits the development of invasive Reynoutria japonica.

Journal of environmental management, 366:121818 pii:S0301-4797(24)01804-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Limiting the negative effects of an invasive species, such as Reynoutria japonica, has become a challenge for scientists and a necessity for managers. Ecologically relevant, technically feasible, and sustainable control methods must be created to reduce the development or spread of R. japonica in ecosystems. The objective of our study was to investigate how monthly mowing in association with plant competition affects the development of R. japonica over a three-year field experiment. Among the plant traits measured, the height growth of R. japonica was the most affected; it was strongly reduced in the presence of competing plants. Combined mowing and competition with restoration plants negatively affected the growth diameter of R. japonica. Most competitive sown species were well established and complementary in limiting the development of R. japonica. The plant communities showed interannual dynamics in which R. japonica declined progressively. The restoration methodology adopted in this study allows managers to make appropriate decisions to reduce the impact of R. japonica on ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Yang D, Rui L, Qiu YJ, et al (2024)

The Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Effector BxNMP1 Targets PtTLP-L2 to Mediate PtGLU Promoting Parasitism and Virulence in Pinus thunbergii.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(13): pii:ijms25137452.

Pinus is an important economic tree species, but pine wilt disease (PWD) seriously threatens the survival of pine trees. PWD caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a major quarantine disease worldwide that causes significant economic losses. However, more information about its molecular pathogenesis is needed, resulting in a lack of effective prevention and treatment measures. In recent years, effectors have become a hot topic in exploring the molecular pathogenic mechanism of pathogens. Here, we identified a specific effector, BxNMP1, from B. xylophilus. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that BxNMP1 was specifically expressed in dorsal gland cells and intestinal cells, and RT-qPCR experiments revealed that BxNMP1 was upregulated in the early stage of infection. The sequence of BxNMP1 was different in the avirulent strain, and when BxNMP1-silenced B. xylophilus was inoculated into P. thunbergii seedlings, the disease severity significantly decreased. We demonstrated that BxNMP1 interacted with the thaumatin-like protein PtTLP-L2 in P. thunbergii. Additionally, we found that the β-1,3-glucanase PtGLU interacted with PtTLP-L2. Therefore, we hypothesized that BxNMP1 might indirectly interact with PtGLU through PtTLP-L2 as an intermediate mediator. Both targets can respond to infection, and PtTLP-L2 can enhance the resistance of pine trees. Moreover, we detected increased salicylic acid contents in P. thunbergii seedlings inoculated with B. xylophilus when BxNMP1 was silenced or when the PtTLP-L2 recombinant protein was added. In summary, we identified a key virulence effector of PWNs, BxNMP1. It positively regulates the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus and interacts directly with PtTLP-L2 and indirectly with PtGLU. It also inhibits the expression of two targets and the host salicylic acid pathway. This study provides theoretical guidance and a practical basis for controlling PWD and breeding for disease resistance.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Ruocco N, Nuzzo G, Federico S, et al (2024)

Potential of Polar Lipids Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona (Halichoclona) vansoesti against Melanoma.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(13): pii:ijms25137418.

Marine sponges represent a good source of natural metabolites for biotechnological applications in the pharmacological, cosmeceutical, and nutraceutical fields. In the present work, we analyzed the biotechnological potential of the alien species Haliclona (Halichoclona) vansoesti de Weerdt, de Kluijver & Gomez, 1999, previously collected in the Mediterranean Sea (Faro Lake, Sicily). The bioactivity and chemical content of this species has never been investigated, and information in the literature on its Caribbean counterpart is scarce. We show that an enriched extract of H. vansoesti induced cell death in human melanoma cells with an IC50 value of 36.36 µg mL[-1], by (i) triggering a pro-inflammatory response, (ii) activating extrinsic apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor receptors triggering the mitochondrial apoptosis via the involvement of Bcl-2 proteins and caspase 9, and (iii) inducing a significant reduction in several proteins promoting human angiogenesis. Through orthogonal SPE fractionations, we identified two active sphingoid-based lipid classes, also characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, as the main components of two active fractions. Overall, our findings provide the first evaluation of the anti-cancer potential of polar lipids isolated from the marine sponge H. (Halichoclona) vansoesti, which may lead to new lead compounds with biotechnological applications in the pharmaceutical field.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Doré G, Barloy D, F Barloy-Hubler (2024)

De Novo Hybrid Assembly Unveils Multi-Chromosomal Mitochondrial Genomes in Ludwigia Species, Highlighting Genomic Recombination, Gene Transfer, and RNA Editing Events.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(13): pii:ijms25137283.

Biological invasions have been identified as the fifth cause of biodiversity loss, and their subsequent dispersal represents a major ecological challenge. The aquatic invasive species Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Lgh) and Ludwigia peploides subsp. montevidensis (Lpm) are largely distributed in aquatic environments in North America and in Europe. However, they also present worrying terrestrial forms that are able to colonize wet meadows. To comprehend the mechanisms of the terrestrial adaptation of Lgh and Lpm, it is necessary to develop their genomic resources, which are currently poorly documented. We performed de novo assembly of the mitogenomes of Lgh and Lpm through hybrid assemblies, combining short reads (SR) and/or long reads (LR) before annotating both mitogenomes. We successfully assembled the mitogenomes of Lgh and Lpm into two circular molecules each, resulting in a combined total length of 711,578 bp and 722,518 bp, respectively. Notably, both the Lgh and Lpm molecules contained plastome-origin sequences, comprising 7.8% of the mitochondrial genome length. Additionally, we identified recombinations that were mediated by large repeats, suggesting the presence of multiple alternative conformations. In conclusion, our study presents the first high-quality mitogenomes of Lpm and Lgh, which are the only ones in the Myrtales order found as two circular molecules.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Paliwal A, Mhelezi M, Galgallo D, et al (2024)

Utilizing Artificial Intelligence and Remote Sensing to Detect Prosopis juliflora Invasion: Environmental Drivers and Community Insights in Rangelands of Kenya.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(13): pii:plants13131868.

The remarkable adaptability and rapid proliferation of Prosopis juliflora have led to its invasive status in the rangelands of Kenya, detrimentally impacting native vegetation and biodiversity. Exacerbated by human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, and land degradation, these conditions make the spread and management of this species a critical ecological concern. This study assesses the effectiveness of artificial intelligence (AI) and remote sensing in monitoring the invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo County, Kenya. We investigated the environmental drivers, including weather conditions, land cover, and biophysical attributes, that influence its distinction from native vegetation. By analyzing data on the presence and absence of Prosopis juliflora, coupled with datasets on weather, land cover, and elevation, we identified key factors facilitating its detection. Our findings highlight the Decision Tree/Random Forest classifier as the most effective, achieving a 95% accuracy rate in instance classification. Key variables such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for February, precipitation, land cover type, and elevation were significant in the accurate identification of Prosopis juliflora. Community insights reveal varied perspectives on the impact of Prosopis juliflora, with differing views based on professional experiences with the species. Integrating these technological advancements with local knowledge, this research contributes to developing sustainable management practices tailored to the unique ecological and social challenges posed by this invasive species. Our results highlight the contribution of advanced technologies for environmental management and conservation within rangeland ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Curt MD, Sánchez G, Aguado PL, et al (2024)

Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennel as an Alien Weed in Central Spain: A Case Study.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(13): pii:plants13131859.

Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell is a species with invasive behavior outside of its native range of distribution (America), linked mainly to aquatic habitats. This annual species has been acknowledged as a weed in rice paddies in Europe and Asia. Due to the impacts of this invasive plant, some authors have even listed this species as a global invader. The present work focused on spontaneous plant species occurring in seedlings of Typha domingensis Pers. grown in central Spain for the establishment of constructed wetlands. Weed inventory revealed the presence of L. dubia as a dominant spontaneous species in this crop environment. A suite of mesocosm experiments were designed to study the population density of L. dubia versus that of the other dominant plant species, and to determine traits associated with its weedy potential. The results showed that L. dubia presents competitive attributes such as morphological variability, early flowering, long seeding time, short growth cycle, small and light seeds and a high seed production and germination rate (25 °C), meaning a high reproductive capacity in a cycle of about three months for plant growth in non-limiting conditions. The data obtained from this work provide a basis for understanding the weedy potential of L. dubia, and for management decisions of a potentially invasive species, which has been little investigated in Europe.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Guo Y, Shao M, Guan P, et al (2024)

Co-Invasion of Congeneric Invasive Plants Adopts Different Strategies Depending on Their Origins.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(13): pii:plants13131807.

Plant communities may be co-invaded by invasive plants, sometimes even by congeneric invasive plants (CIPs). Despite the growing understanding of co-invasion in the environment, little is known about how CIP interactions and mechanisms regulate co-invasion. Darwin's naturalisation conundrum predicts that the coexistence of closely related species is difficult due to their structural and behavioural similarities. Nevertheless, communities containing closely related species are more susceptible to being invaded because close relatives may favour similar environments; therefore, this hypothesis should be followed in the co-invasion of CIPs. To explore whether the phylogenetic relatedness and origins of invasive species to CIPs can promote or hinder co-invasion, we conducted a controlled interaction and soil-legacy greenhouse experiment to quantify the growth response of invasive plants and their congeners. We consistently found that CIPs of identical origin were more likely to co-invade compared to CIPs of distinct origins. CIPs of distinct origins exhibited an antagonistic effect on co-invasion by allelopathy. Invasive plant-conditioned soil was more conducive to the growth of CIPs of identical origin than CIPs of distinct origins. Our results revealed the different effects of invader-invader phylogenetic relatedness on co-invader success and impact, suggesting the operation of different mechanisms across co-invasion.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Li Y, Wang G, Geng Y, et al (2024)

Variation in Seed Morphological Traits Affects the Dispersal Strategies of Chromolaena odorata Following Invasion.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(13): pii:plants13131747.

Seed germination and dispersal have an important impact on the establishment and spread of invasive plants. Understanding the extent of intraspecific seed trait variations can enhance our understanding of how invasive plants respond to environmental change after introduction and help predict the dynamic of invasive species under future environmental conditions. However, less attention has been given to the variation in seed traits within species as opposed to among species. We compared seed production, seed morphological traits, dispersal ability, and seedling performance of Chromolaena odorata from 10 introduced populations in Asia and 12 native populations in America in a common garden. The results showed that range (introduced vs. native) and climate affected these traits. Compared with the native population, the introduced populations had higher seed numbers per capitula, lighter seeds, and higher potential dispersal ability seeds (lower terminal velocity) but lower germination rates and seedling lengths. Climatic clines in seed numbers per capitula and pappus length were observed; however, the clines in pappus length differed between the introduced and native populations. Trait covariation patterns were also different between both ranges. In the native populations, there was a trade-off between seed numbers per capitula and seed mass, while this relationship was not found for the introduced populations. These results indicate that C. odorata alters the ecological strategy of seed following invasion, which facilitates its establishment and fast dispersal and contributes to successful invasion in the introduced ranges.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Poljuha D, Sladonja B, Uzelac Božac M, et al (2024)

The Invasive Alien Plant Solidago canadensis: Phytochemical Composition, Ecosystem Service Potential, and Application in Bioeconomy.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(13): pii:plants13131745.

Solidago canadensis L. (Canadian goldenrod) is a widely distributed invasive herb from the Asteraceae family. It contains compounds that can change the soil structure and its nutritional components and thus affect indigenous species' growth, germination, and survival. Consequently, it can pose a major ecological threat to biodiversity. On the other hand, many studies show that this species, due to its chemical properties, can be used for many positive purposes in pharmacy, agriculture, medicine, cosmetic industry, etc. S. canadensis contains a diverse array of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Many studies have discussed the invasiveness of S. canadensis, and several chemical and genetic differences between this plant in native and introduced environments have been discovered. Previous ecological and environmental evaluations of the potential of S. canadensis as an ecosystem services provider have come out with four promising groups of its products: active extracts, essential oil, fuel, and others. Although identified, there is a need for detailed validation and prioritisation of ecosystem services. This article aims to overview the S. canadensis invasive features, emphasising chemical characterisation and its potential for providing ecosystem services. Moreover, it identifies scenarios and proposes a methodology for estimating S. canadensis use in bioeconomy.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Trotta G, Vuerich M, Pellegrini E, et al (2024)

Containing alien plants in coastal dunes: Evidence from a soil manipulation experiment.

Journal of environmental management, 366:121780 pii:S0301-4797(24)01766-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasion is recognised as one of the major threats to biodiversity, particularly in disturbance-prone ecosystems such as costal dunes. Many studies have associated alien plant invasion of dune ecosystem to human disturbances, but less is known about the role of soil properties in invasion after disturbance. Soil properties are crucial filters during plant succession and soil-related changes in the initial stage of species colonization might shape the final success of the invaders. We performed a manipulative experiment aimed at elucidating the effects of soil properties on plant colonization processes in highly invaded dune systems, as a proxy for plausible management actions to curb the success of exotic plant species over native ones, which was measured through species richness and abundance. In a barrier island of the Marano and Grado lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea, we mechanically removed all the native and alien vegetation present in the back dune (also known as secondary dune), triggering a new ecological succession and further altered, for the following three months, soil properties by adding salt, nitrogen, and organic matter in a full factorial design with randomized blocks. The soil treatments reduced the overall species richness and abundance of alien plants. Further, soil treatment interactions strongly shaped community evenness and species richness. Soil salinity had a positive effect on native cover while decreasing the overall number of alien species, especially in soil with added organic matter. Our findings suggest that soil salinity, and its interplay with organic matter, might significantly reduce the initial success of alien species propagule pressure (i.e. alien plant germination), with likely implications for the trajectories of future plant communities. This study highlights that alien plant containment should be focused on early stages of succession, giving new perspective on future environmental management actions for dune restoration and conservation.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Michelan G, Cavalcanti LD, Lehun AL, et al (2024)

Temporal change in the parasite community of an invasive fish Trachelyopterus galeatus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) in a neotropical floodplain.

Parasitology research, 123(7):270.

The construction of dams and hydroelectric plants affects biodiversity in aquatic environments and can facilitate the invasion of species. Few studies assess the long-term response of parasite fauna under these events. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in the endoparasite composition of the invasive catfish Trachelyopterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River over a 27-year study period. A total of 79 fish were collected in period 1 (1993) and 31 in period 2 (2019/2020) at the same sampling points, and the endoparasites were located in the gastrointestinal system using a stereomicroscope. It was found that the development of the fish and the composition of their endoparasitic fauna changed over time. In the second period, the fish presented smaller values for mass (g) and standard length (cm) when compared to period 1. It was found that three species of endoparasites were found per period, but although the richness was the same, the composition differed, and only one digenean (Microrchis oligovitellum Lunaschi, 1987 (Trematoda: Paramphistomidae)) was shared. The Porto Primavera Dam was built upstream of the site between the sampling periods (1999) and caused a number of environmental changes, possibly being the main factor responsible for changes in components of the parasite community. Anthropic modification to an environment can cause loss of diversity and loss of ecological interactions. Through our results, we emphasize the importance of including parasite fauna in studies that assess environmental impacts.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Wiederhecker A, Cardoso Ferreira M, Barbosa Rodrigues S, et al (2024)

Ten years of directing seeding restoration in the Brazilian savanna: Lessons learned and the way forward.

Journal of environmental management, 365:121576.

Savannas and grasslands have lost almost 50% of their original cover worldwide. Therefore, the development of methods and information on open-canopy ecosystem restoration is urgent for the inclusion of these ecosystems into global and regional priorities. In the Brazilian savanna, the most diverse savanna in the world, restoration efforts focused on open ecosystems have been virtually absent, but have increased in the last 10 years. Such efforts are frequently threatened by invasive exotic grasses (IEG) that invade and dominate areas excluding native species, oftentimes aided by altered soil conditions. Long-term studies of savanna restoration trajectories are rare. In this study, we surveyed 22 savanna restoration areas established two to ten years before the study with similar restoration methods to assess their current status. We show that the current restoration methods are successful in establishing native species and allowing species turnover but they are threatened by IEG. Restoration success varies and is affected by soil conditions, IEG landscape cover and post-sowing weeding. Despite that, the simultaneous introduction of different plant functional groups allows turnover from fast to slow-growing plants. Establishing savanna native species is possible at an operational scale with current knowledge and techniques. However, native species establishment fails to prevent IEG reinfestation, which needs to be managed in restoration efforts in the Brazilian savanna.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Montaldi A, Iamonico D, Del Vico E, et al (2024)

Green infrastructure design for the containment of biological invasions. Insights from a peri-urban case study in Rome, Italy.

Journal of environmental management, 365:121555.

Secondary shrublands and transitional woodland/shrub formations are recognised to be particularly susceptible to plant invasions, one of the main global threats to biodiversity, especially in dynamic peri-urban landscapes. Urban fringes are in fact often the place for the sprawl of artificial surfaces, fragmentation of habitats, and complex land transitions (including both agriculture intensification and abandonment), which in turn increase propagule pressure of exotic species over residual semi-natural ecosystems. Within this framework, the present study was aimed at analysing i) how landscape composition and configuration affect the richness of woody exotic species in shrubland and transitional woodland/shrub patches, and ii) how this threat can be addressed by means of green infrastructure design in a peri-urban case study (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy). Accordingly, the occurrence of exotic plants was recorded with field surveys and then integrated with landscape analyses, both at patch level and over a 250 m buffer area around each patch. Thus, the effect of landscape features on exotic plant richness was investigated with Generalised Linear Models, and the best model identified (pseudo R-square = 0.62) for inferring invasibility of shrublands throughout the study area. Finally, a Green Infrastructure (GI) to contain biological invasion was planned, based on inferred priority sites for intervention and respective, site-tailored, actions. The latter included not only the removal of invasive woody alien plants, but also reforestation and planting of native trees for containment of dispersal and subsequent establishment. Even though specifically developed for the study site, and consistent with local government needs, the proposed approach represents a pilot planning process that might be applied to other peri-urban regions for the combined containment of biological invasions and sustainable development of peripheral complex landscapes.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Jofré-Madariaga D, Aguilera Moya MA, Alves-de-Souza C, et al (2024)

Non-indigenous species and their realized niche in tidepools along the South-East Pacific coast.

Marine environmental research, 199:106541.

Non-indigenous species (NIS) have the potential to colonize and become established in a wide range of coastal habitats. Species with broad environmental tolerances can quickly adapt to local conditions and expand their niches along environmental gradients, and even colonize habitats with extreme abiotic conditions. Here we report and document the distribution of eight marine NIS (four seaweed and four invertebrate species) found in tidepools along a 3000 km latitudinal gradient along the Pacific coast of Chile (18.4°S to 41.9°S). The seaweed NIS Codium fragile, Capreolia implexa, Schottera nicaeensis and Mastocarpus latissimus were mostly distributed towards high latitudes (i.e., more southerly locations), where temperatures in tidepools were low. The invertebrate NIS Anemonia alicemartinae, Ciona robusta, Bugula neritina and Bugulina flabellata were more common towards low latitudes, where high temperatures were registered in the tidepools. Across the intertidal gradient, seaweed NIS were mostly found in pools in the mid and low intertidal zone, while invertebrate NIS occurred mostly in pools from the mid and upper intertidal zones. The realized niche spaces of NIS (based on the Outlying Mean Index, OMI) in the study area were mainly influenced by environmental conditions of temperature and salinity (along the latitudinal and intertidal gradients), while other tidepool characteristics (depth, surface area, exposition, and complexity) only had minor effects. Five of the eight NIS exhibited a realized niche space coinciding with the average tidepool environmental conditions, while marginal niches were occupied by species with affinities for specific temperatures and salinities along the latitudinal and intertidal gradients. Our results indicate that physiological tolerances to environmental factors play a fundamental role in the distribution of seaweed and invertebrate NIS in tidepools along the Chilean coast. This study confirms that tidepools offer suitable conditions for some seaweed and invertebrate NIS, potentially facilitating their invasion into new natural habitats.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Beer MA, Trumbo DR, Rautsaw RM, et al (2024)

Spatial variation in genomic signatures of local adaptation during the cane toad invasion of Australia.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Adaptive evolution can facilitate species' range expansions across environmentally heterogeneous landscapes. However, serial founder effects can limit the efficacy of selection, and the evolution of increased dispersal during range expansions may result in gene flow swamping local adaptation. Here, we study how genetic drift, gene flow and selection interact during the cane toad's (Rhinella marina) invasion across the heterogeneous landscape of Australia. Following its introduction in 1935, the cane toad colonised eastern Australia and established several stable range edges. The ongoing, more rapid range expansion in north-central Australia has occurred concomitant with an evolved increase in dispersal capacity. Using reduced representation genomic data of Australian cane toads from the expansion front and from two areas of their established range, we test the hypothesis that high gene flow constrains local adaptation at the expansion front relative to established areas. Genetic analyses indicate the three study areas are genetically distinct but show similar levels of allelic richness, heterozygosity and inbreeding. Markedly higher gene flow or recency of colonisation at the expansion front have likely hindered local adaptation at the time of sampling, as indicated by reduced slopes of genetic-environment associations (GEAs) estimated using a novel application of geographically weighted regression that accounts for allele surfing; GEA slopes are significantly steeper in established parts of the range. Our work bolsters evidence supporting adaptation of invasive species post-introduction and adds novel evidence for differing strengths of evolutionary forces among geographic areas with different invasion histories.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Briscoe Runquist R, DA Moeller (2024)

Isolation by environment and its consequences for range shifts with global change: Landscape genomics of the invasive plant common tansy.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species are a growing global economic and ecological problem. However, it is not well understood how environmental factors mediate invasive range expansion. In this study, we investigated the recent and rapid range expansion of common tansy across environmental gradients in Minnesota, USA. We densely sampled individuals across the expanding range and performed reduced representation sequencing to generate a dataset of 3071 polymorphic loci for 176 individuals. We used non-spatial and spatially explicit analyses to determine the relative influences of geographic distance and environmental variation on patterns of genomic variation. We found no evidence for isolation by distance but strong evidence for isolation by environment, indicating that environmental factors may have modulated patterns of range expansion. Land use classification and soils were particularly important variables related to population structure although they operated on different spatial scales; land use classification was related to broad-scale patterns and soils were related to fine-scale patterns. All analyses indicated a distinctive genetic cluster in the most recently invaded portion of the range. Individuals from the far northwestern range margin were separated from the remainder of the range by reduced migration, which was associated with environmental resistance. This portion of the range was invaded primarily in the last 15 years. Ecological niche models also indicated that this cluster was associated with the expansion of the niche. While invasion is often assumed to be primarily influenced by dispersal limitation, our results suggest that ongoing invasion and range shifts with climate change may be strongly affected by environmental heterogeneity.

RevDate: 2024-07-11

Richardson CJ, NE Flanagan (2024)

Water quality and wetland vegetation responses to water level variations in a university stormwater reuse reservoir: Nature-based approaches to campus water sustainability.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04765-X [Epub ahead of print].

In response to climate-driven water shortages, Duke University in 2014 constructed a water reuse reservoir and wetland complex (Pond) to capture urban stormwater and recycle water to provide campus cooling and reduce downstream loading of nutrients and sediment into Jordan Lake, a regional water supply. We postulated that even with significant water level changes due to withdrawals, the Pond would function to reduce downstream nutrients and sediment once wetland plants became established in the littoral zone. Throughout the project (2015-2021), baseflow nutrient concentrations downstream decreased, with Unfiltered Total Nitrogen (UTN) falling by 44 % and Unfiltered Total Phosphorus (UTP) by 50 %. Storm mean concentrations decreased by 31 % for UTN, 54 % for UTP, and 72 % for Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The annual reductions in mass fluxes (UTN, UTP, and TSS) were between 58 and 85 % across a range of storm intensities. Regardless of water level, temperature, pH, and oxygen concentrations downstream were not significantly changed. Between 2015 and 2020, a littoral survey of planted and naturally introduced species showed that wetter years resulted in a greater number of species across a gradient of three inundation zones (i.e., moist, wet, and aquatic). Conversely, dryer years resulted in fewer species across overlapping zones. The dominant plants that successfully colonized the Pond are all obligate wetland species despite the Pond's highly variable water depths and periods of inundation. The final plant populations were dominated by invasive native species supporting the self-design theory of plant succession as nearly half of the original planted species died. The reuse Pond design (pond-wetland complex) showed the capability of using stormwater runoff for campus cooling while improving water quality services and providing habitat for wetland plants. Thus, campuses with watershed runoff capture capability should consider a nature-based recycling approach as part of their water sustainability program.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Seok S, Mogi M, Y Lee (2024)

Resolving confusion in the native distribution of Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Journal of medical entomology, 61(4):1077-1080.

Recent studies on invasive Aedes koreicus (Edwards 1917) have been conducted to elucidate the source population introduced to Europe. However, current information about the native range of Ae. koreicus is not consistent. The purpose of this study is to resolve confusion in the native distribution of Ae. koreicus by reviewing available literature from the first description of the species in its native range in 1917 to the first invasion in Europe in 2008. Aedes koreicus have been recorded in China, Japan, Korea, and eastern Russia. The 2 existing records of Ae. koreicus from Hokkaido, Japan, however, is likely due to the misidentification of 2 different morphologically similar species, Ae. koreicoides (Sasa, Kano & Hayashi 1950) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald 1901). Upon re-examination of published records, we conclude that the native distribution of Ae. koreicus is confined to continental eastern Asian regions, specifically China, Korea, and eastern Russia.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Abdelhafiz I, Gerth S, Claussen J, et al (2024)

Radioactivity and GMO-Free Sterile Insect Technology for the Sustainable Control of the Invasive Pest Drosophila suzukii.

Advanced biology, 8(7):e2400100.

Drosophila suzukii (D. suzukii), commonly known as the spotted wing drosophila, is a highly invasive crop pest that is difficult to control using chemical insecticides. To address the urgent need for alternative and more sustainable control strategies, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is improved, which involves the release of sterilized male insects to mate with fertile conspecifics, thereby reducing the size of the pest population in the subsequent generation. The three critical aspects that influence the success of SIT programs in D. suzukii are addressed. First, an accurate and nondestructive method is established to determine the sex of individual insects based on the differential weight of male and female pupae. Second, conditions for X-ray sterilization are systematically tested and an optimal dose (90 kV/40 Gy) is identified that ensures the efficient production of sterile D. suzukii for release. Finally, the inherent thermosensitivity of D. suzukii males is exploited to develop a temperature-based sterilization technique, offering an alternative or additional SIT method for this pest. These advances will contribute to the development of a comprehensive and effective strategy for the management of D. suzukii populations, reducing their impact on agriculture and helping to safeguard crop yields.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Fausett E, Kirstein OD, Bellman S, et al (2024)

Surveillance and detection of Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) in protected areas from Georgia, USA.

Journal of medical entomology, 61(4):1071-1076.

The invasion of the Asian longhorned tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann, into the United States poses a significant ecological, veterinarian, and public health threat. We conducted a comprehensive tick survey using standard tick flagging protocol for collection over 3 field seasons, March-August, and 56 surveyed sites to identify the presence of H. longicornis in the native ecosystem and prove its establishment according to USDA criteria. Of the total 56 state parks and wildlife management areas (WMA) surveyed, only one was found to be invaded by H. longicornis; detection of H. longicornis occurred at Buck Shoals Wildlife Management area in White County, GA. This site is maintained by the state of Georgia, has no agricultural animals present, and hosts a large white-tailed deer population. After the initial detection of H. longicornis in 2022, an additional field season occurred in 2023, where H. longicornis was confirmed as established based on USDA criteria. The increase in H. longicornis populations from 2021 to 2023 at Buck Shoals WMA points to the rapid spread of this tick within the environment. Our findings provide evidence of the rapid establishment of H. longicornis in the southern edge of suitability for this tick and within the native ecosystem beyond farmlands and private land.

RevDate: 2024-07-11

Lancaster ER, Brady DC, M Frederich (2024)

In Hot Water: Current Thermal Threshold Methods Unlikely to Predict Invasive Species Shifts in NW Atlantic.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:7712483 [Epub ahead of print].

As global temperatures continue to rise, accurate predicted species distribution models will be important for forecasting the movement of range-shifting species. These predictions rely on measurements of organismal thermal tolerance, which can be measured using classical threshold concepts such as Arrhenius Break Temperatures and Critical Thermal Temperatures, or through ecologically relevant measurements-such as the temperature at which reproduction and growth occur. Many species, including invasive species, exhibit thermal plasticity, so these thresholds may change based on ambient temperature, life stage, and measurement techniques. Here, we review thermal thresholds for 15 invertebrate species invasive to the Gulf of Maine. The high degree of variability within a species and between applied conceptual frameworks suggests that modeling the future distribution of these species in all ecosystems, but especially in the rapidly warming Northwest Atlantic and Gulf of Maine, will be challenging. While each of these measurement techniques are valid, we suggest contextualization and integration of threshold measurements for accurate modeling.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Bijl H, Schally G, Márton M, et al (2024)

From invaders to residents: The golden jackal (Canis aureus) expansion in Hungary since the mid-1990s.

PloS one, 19(7):e0306489 pii:PONE-D-24-14826.

The golden jackal has rapidly expanded across Europe in recent decades and was one of the first to reappear in Hungary. Using hunting bag data from the National Game Management Database from 1995 to 2021, we examined the spatial expansion of the species and its population dynamics. Our findings reveal an exponential increase in the golden jackal population since the mid-1990s, with an average annual growth rate of 40% in the hunting bag and an occupancy of 86% of the country. The average speed of the range expansion was 536.9 km2 year-1 until 2007 and increased to an average of 5,289.1 km2 year-1 during the second part of the expansion process. The density of shot golden jackals also shows an increasing trend with a substantial presence of outliers, indicating that nearly 10% of the hunting bag demonstrates exceptionally high numbers, particularly in southwestern Hungary. The spread originated in the southwest and extended towards the northeast and northwest. However, the increase of the hunting bag slowed down and the expansion rate has decreased in the previous two years, leading us to anticipate that the golden jackal population will stabilize soon, as the expansion has reached its maximum in Hungary. This indicates that from the initial settlement to the stabilization of the population, the time span can be two to three decades.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Ansai E, Nitta M, Saito T, et al (2024)

The first intermediate host of the invasive frog trematode Glypthelmins quieta in Japan.

Diseases of aquatic organisms, 159:9-14.

Glypthelmins quieta is a frog trematode native to North and Central America. This trematode was recently detected in Japan in the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus, which was introduced from North America to Japan. As the first intermediate host of G. quieta, typically a snail, has not yet been identified in Japan, we conducted a snail survey in eastern Japan to screen for an intermediate host using DNA barcoding based on the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1. We sampled 3 different snail species, Orientogalba ollula, Physella acuta, and Sinotaia quadrata histrica (157 individuals in total), and only the freshwater snail Physella acuta, which is also believed to have been introduced from North America to Japan, had sporocysts of G. quieta in its hepatopancreas. The introduction of the intermediate and definitive hosts from North America may have facilitated the invasion of G. quieta into Japan.

RevDate: 2024-07-11

Albuja-Quintana M, Rivas-Torres G, Rojas López KE, et al (2024)

Preliminary insights of the genetic diversity and invasion pathways of Cedrela odorata in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11723.

Cedrela odorata is considered the second most invasive tree species of the Galapagos Islands. Although it is listed in CITES Appendix II and there are population losses in mainland Ecuador, in Galapagos it is paradoxically a species of concern due to its invasive potential. Genetic studies can shed light on the invasion history of introduced species causing effects on unique ecosystems like the Galapagos. We analyzed nine microsatellite markers in C. odorata individuals from Galapagos and mainland Ecuador to describe the genetic diversity and population structure of C. odorata in the Galapagos and to explore the origin and invasion history of this species. The genetic diversity found for C. odorata in Galapagos (H e = 0.55) was lower than reported in the mainland (H e = 0.81), but higher than other invasive insular plant species, which could indicate multiple introductions. Our results suggest that Ecuador's northern Coastal region is the most likely origin of the Galapagos C. odorata, although further genomic studies, like Whole Genome Sequencing, Rad-Seq, and/or Whole Genome SNP analyses, are needed to confirm this finding. Moreover, according to our proposed pathway scenarios, C. odorata was first introduced to San Cristobal and/or Santa Cruz from mainland Ecuador. After these initial introductions, C. odorata appears to have arrived to Isabela and Floreana from either San Cristobal or Santa Cruz. Here, we report the first genetic study of C. odorata in the Galapagos and the first attempt to unravel the invasion history of this species. The information obtained in this research could support management and control strategies to lessen the impact that C. odorata has on the islands' local flora and fauna.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Fuad MMH, Tichopád T, Ondračková M, et al (2024)

Trematode Diplostomum pseudospathaceum inducing differential immune gene expression in sexual and gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio): parasites facilitating the coexistence of two reproductive forms of the invasive species.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1392569.

INTRODUCTION: Parasite-mediated selection is considered one of the potential mechanisms contributing to the coexistence of asexual-sexual complexes. Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), an invasive fish species in Europe, often forms populations composed of gynogenetic and sexual specimens.

METHODS: The experimental infection was induced in gynogenetic and sexual gibel carp using eye-fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum (Trematoda), and the transcriptome profile of the spleen as a major immune organ in fish was analyzed to reveal the differentially expressed immunity-associated genes related to D. pseudospathaceum infection differing between gynogenetic and sexual gibel carp.

RESULTS: High parasite infection was found in gynogenetic fish when compared to genetically diverse sexuals. Although metacercariae of D. pseudospathaceum are situated in an immune-privileged organ, our results show that eye trematodes may induce a host immune response. We found differential gene expression induced by eye-fluke infection, with various impacts on gynogenetic and sexual hosts, documenting for the majority of DEGs upregulation in sexuals, and downregulation in asexuals. Differences in gene regulation between gynogenetic and sexual gibel carp were evidenced in many immunity-associated genes. GO analyses revealed the importance of genes assigned to the GO terms: immune function, the Notch signaling pathway, MAP kinase tyrosine/threonine/phosphatase activity, and chemokine receptor activity. KEGG analyses revealed the importance of the genes involved in 12 immunity-associated pathways - specifically, FoxO signaling, adipocytokine signaling, TGF-beta signaling, apoptosis, Notch signaling, C-type lectin receptor signaling, efferocytosis, intestinal immune network for IgA production, insulin signaling, virion - human immunodeficiency virus, Toll-like receptor signaling, and phosphatidylinositol signaling system.

DISCUSSION: Our study indicates the limited potential of asexual fish to cope with higher parasite infection (likely a loss of capacity to induce an effective immune response) and highlights the important role of molecular mechanisms associated with immunity for the coexistence of gynogenetic and sexual gibel carp, potentially contributing to its invasiveness.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Waddle AW, Clulow S, Aquilina A, et al (2024)

Hotspot shelters stimulate frog resistance to chytridiomycosis.

Nature, 631(8020):344-349.

Many threats to biodiversity cannot be eliminated; for example, invasive pathogens may be ubiquitous. Chytridiomycosis is a fungal disease that has spread worldwide, driving at least 90 amphibian species to extinction, and severely affecting hundreds of others[1-4]. Once the disease spreads to a new environment, it is likely to become a permanent part of that ecosystem. To enable coexistence with chytridiomycosis in the field, we devised an intervention that exploits host defences and pathogen vulnerabilities. Here we show that sunlight-heated artificial refugia attract endangered frogs and enable body temperatures high enough to clear infections, and that having recovered in this way, frogs are subsequently resistant to chytridiomycosis even under cool conditions that are optimal for fungal growth. Our results provide a simple, inexpensive and widely applicable strategy to buffer frogs against chytridiomycosis in nature. The refugia are immediately useful for the endangered species we tested and will have broader utility for amphibian species with similar ecologies. Furthermore, our concept could be applied to other wildlife diseases in which differences in host and pathogen physiologies can be exploited. The refugia are made from cheap and readily available materials and therefore could be rapidly adopted by wildlife managers and the public. In summary, habitat protection alone cannot protect species that are affected by invasive diseases, but simple manipulations to microhabitat structure could spell the difference between the extinction and the persistence of endangered amphibians.

RevDate: 2024-07-09

Jeong KY, JW Park (2024)

Neglected but Clinically Relevant Allergens in Korea.

Current allergy and asthma reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergy diagnostics and immunotherapeutics in Asia heavily rely on imported products from Western countries, raising concerns about the accuracy and efficacy of these products for the management of Asian allergy patients.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advancements in allergen research have led to the identification and characterization of novel allergens from indigenous Korean species. While some allergens share homology with well-known allergens, others lack counterparts in imported allergen extracts. Classifying regional allergens in Asia into three categories based on their cross-reactivity with imported allergens offers valuable insights. Highly cross-reactive allergens, such as oak allergens Que m 1 from Quercus mongolica and Que ac 1 from Q. acutissima, can be effectively substituted with the imported allergens. Allergens with partial cross-reactivity, like the Asian needle ant allergen Pac c 3 (Antigen 5), permit limited diagnostic value by the currently available products. Unique allergens, including the Japanese hop allergen Hum j 6 (pectin methylesterase inhibitor) and the silkworm pupa allergen Bomb m 4 (30 kDa hemolymph lipoprotein) lack alternatives in the available product list. Greater attention is needed, particularly for species listed as ecologically invasive in Western regions. Additionally, allergens from domestic fruits and vegetables causing pollen food allergy syndrome require characterization for the development of improved diagnostics.

RevDate: 2024-07-09

Zhang J, Wang L, Yang Y, et al (2024)

Counteractive effects of predator invasion and habitat destruction on predator-prey systems.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11646.

Alien species invasion and habitat destruction are among the primary threats to native animal communities, particularly for native predator-prey systems. However, when predator invasion and habitat destruction co-occur, it remains unclear whether their respective threats to native systems compensate each other or accumulate, as well as how these effects respond to the different characteristics of predator invasion and habitat destruction. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit simulation model with one prey species and one predator species and exposed it to invasive predators and habitat destruction with different properties. The results revealed the following insights: (1) Habitat destruction can compensate threats to native predator-prey systems from global predator invasion only when native predators possess predation capability similar to those of the invaders. In other scenarios, cumulative effects arise from predator invasion and habitat destruction. (2) Low levels of habitat destruction occurring at a faster rate, in conjunction with a substantial number of global invasive predators being present, can better compensate their respective threats to native predator-prey systems than the other scenarios. These findings provide valuable insights into situations where habitat destruction and alien species invasion coincide. They raise the question of whether we can leverage the interaction between them to reduce threats to biodiversity.

RevDate: 2024-07-08

Prestes JG, Carneiro L, Miiller NOR, et al (2024)

A systematic review of invasive non-native freshwater bivalves.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

The introduction of invasive species has become an increasing environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems due to the high economic and ecological impacts it has generated. This systematic review covers publications from 2010 to 2020, focusing on non-native invasive freshwater bivalves, a particularly relevant and widespread introduced taxonomic group in fresh waters. We collected information on the most studied species, the main objectives of the studies, their geographical location, study duration, and type of research. Furthermore, we focused on assessing the levels of ecological evidence presented, the type of interactions of non-native bivalves with other organisms and the classification of their impacts. A total of 397 publications were retrieved. The studies addressed a total of 17 species of non-native freshwater bivalves; however, most publications focused on the species Corbicula fluminea and Dreissena polymorpha, which are recognised for their widespread distribution and extensive negative impacts. Many other non-native invasive bivalve species have been poorly studied. A high geographical bias was also present, with a considerable lack of studies in developing countries. The most frequent studies had shorter temporal periods, smaller spatial extents, and more observational data, were field-based, and usually evaluated possible ecological impacts at the individual and population levels. There were 94 publications documenting discernible impacts according to the Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT). However, 41 of these publications did not provide sufficient data to determine an impact. The most common effects of invasive bivalves on ecosystems were structural alterations, and chemical and physical changes, which are anticipated due to their role as ecosystem engineers. Despite a considerable number of studies in the field and advances in our understanding of some species over the past decade, long-term data and large-scale studies are still needed to understand better the impacts, particularly at the community and ecosystem levels and in less-studied geographic regions. The widespread distribution of several non-native freshwater bivalves, their ongoing introductions, and high ecological and economic impacts demand continued research. Systematic reviews such as this are essential for identifying knowledge gaps and guiding future research to enable a more complete understanding of the ecological implications of invasive bivalves, and the development of effective management strategies.

RevDate: 2024-07-07

Flood PJ, Loftus WF, JC Trexler (2024)

Do community changes persist after irruptive population dynamics? A case study from an invasive species boom and bust.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Irruptive or boom-and-bust population dynamics, also known as 'outbreaks', are an important phenomenon that has been noted in biological invasions at least since Charles Elton's classic book was published in 1958. Community-level consequences of irruptive dynamics are poorly documented and invasive species provide excellent systems for their study. African Jewelfish (Rubricatochromis letourneuxi, "jewelfish") are omnivores that demonstrate opportunistic carnivory, first reported in Florida in the 1960s and in Everglades National Park (ENP) in 2000. Twelve years after invasion in ENP, jewelfish underwent a 25-fold increase in density in one year. By 2016, jewelfish represented 25-50% of fish biomass. Using a 43-year fish community dataset at two sites (1978-2021), and a 25-year dataset of fish and invertebrate communities from the same drainage (1996-2021), with additional spatial coverage, we quantified differences in fish and invertebrate communities during different phases of invasion. During jewelfish boom, abundant, native cyprinodontiform fishes decreased in density and drove changes in community structure as measured by similarity of relativized abundance. Density of two species declined by > 70%, while four declined by 50-62%. Following the jewelfish bust, some species recovered to pre-boom densities while others did not. Diversity of recovery times produced altered community structure that lagged for at least four years after the jewelfish population declined. Community structure is an index of ecological functions such as resilience, productivity, and species interaction webs; therefore, these results demonstrate that irruptive population dynamics can alter ecological functions of ecosystems mediated by community structure for years following that population's decline.

RevDate: 2024-07-07

Neokye EO, Wang X, Thakur KK, et al (2024)

Climate change impacts on oyster aquaculture - Part II: Impact assessment and adaptation measures.

Environmental research, 259:119535 pii:S0013-9351(24)01440-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The oyster aquaculture sector plays a major role in food security, providing a sustainable way to obtain food and livelihood for coastal and Island nations. Oysters are one of the preferred choices by aquaculturists because of their resilience to harsh climatic conditions. Nonetheless, climate change will continue to pose threats to its culture. Climate-induced hazards such as floods, storms, disease, and invasive species are some of the key factors limiting oyster production globally. A thriving aquaculture industry needs optimal conditions to maximize exploitation. Here, we continue with the review of the impacts of climate change on oyster aquaculture at the global scale, highlighting climate vulnerability assessment. We also propose a framework for modeling oyster responses to future climate scenarios. Furthermore, we explore the health implications of infected oysters on consumer's health. We also identify knowledge gaps and challenges for sustainable oyster production. Additionally, we document mitigation and adaptation measures and future research directions.

RevDate: 2024-07-06

Tchamba JJ, Catarino S, Duarte MC, et al (2024)

Ethnobotany in Angola: The contribution of late 19th century christian missionaries to the knowledge of medicinal wild plants.

Journal of ethnopharmacology, 334:118511 pii:S0378-8741(24)00810-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Angola has an extraordinary plant diversity and a great ethnobotanical potential. However, there is a general lack of information about the first botanical explorations in the country and their contribution to the knowledge of the medicinal flora.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The main aim of this study was to unveil the ethnobotanical legacy of José Maria Antunes and Eugène Dekindt, priests of the first Catholic mission in Huíla (Angola) and shed light on their contribution to the knowledge of medicinal wild plants of the country, including information on the uses, plant parts used, and preparation methods documented in the late 19th century. The findings are discussed considering recent ethnobotanical studies to offer a more comprehensive understanding of the historical and traditional uses of plants in Angola over the last two centuries.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the information available in manuscripts and on the study of botanical collections preserved in herbaria of Portugal and Angola, we extracted relevant information about the species used in traditional medicine by the rural population of Huíla, the health conditions treated, and the mode of preparation and application.

RESULTS: Our results revealed that Antunes and Dekindt conducted the first ethnobotanical study in Huíla, and documented a large number of medicinal wild plants. From these, we report 191 medicinal species, including 25 endemic and four introduced species, belonging to 56 plant families and 146 genera. Fabaceae family presents the highest richness of medicinal plants (39 taxa), followed by Rubiaceae (13), Asteraceae (10), and Apocynaceae (9). The illnesses reported were classified into 15 different categories, with the highest number of species (49) corresponding to unspecific conditions, such as general pains, chills, and fever. Thirty-seven species were reported for respiratory diseases, 31 for musculoskeletal problems, and 30 for digestive issues. Leaves were the most used plant part for medicinal purposes (84 species). Infusion was the most frequently described preparation method (40 species), followed by maceration (24 species), and powdering (36 species).

CONCLUSIONS: The legacy of Antunes and Dekindt's work improves our understanding of Angola's botanical richness and traditional uses of plant resources. Our findings highlight the presence of unique medicinal resources in Angola, especially among endemic species, which hold the potential to improve the quality of life of rural communities. Moreover, our research underscores the lack of knowledge of medicinal species, emphasizing the risk of losing valuable historical information.

RevDate: 2024-07-05

Ruiz-Velasco S, Ros M, Navarro-Barranco C, et al (2024)

Is the invasive Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 displacing its resident congener Caprella equilibra Say, 1818 in marinas of the South Iberian Peninsula? A long-term spatio-temporal approach.

Marine pollution bulletin, 205:116661 pii:S0025-326X(24)00638-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Although marine invasions are increasingly a matter of concern, the impact of invasive species in the ecosystem and their ability to replace native taxa is still little understood. Data from 2011 to 2021 in marinas of the Southern Iberian Peninsula supported that the invasive amphipod Caprella scaura is replacing the resident Caprella equilibra over time. Six marinas where C. equilibra was abundant in 2011 and C. scaura was absent, are now dominated by C. scaura. Although this displacement is more evident in Mediterranean shores than in Atlantic coasts, it is very variable between marinas. The spreading of the invasive species in marinas of the Alboran Sea mainly occurred from 2011 to 2017, preventing C. equilibra from regaining its former distribution. The ultimate factors responsible for the displacement, such as the aggressive behaviour of C. scaura, environmental influences or physiological performance in a global warming context, should be further investigated experimentally.

RevDate: 2024-07-06

Perin PP, Arias-Pacheco CA, Andrade LO, et al (2024)

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in invasive wild boars (Sus scrofa) and hunting dogs from Brazil.

International journal for parasitology. Parasites and wildlife, 24:100951.

The wild boar, an impactful invasive species in Brazil, is subject to population control activities, which often include the use of hunting dogs. Hunters commonly consume wild boar meat, which is also used to feed their dogs, posing a risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans and both T. gondii and Neospora caninum for dogs. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infection in wild boars (n = 127) and hunting dogs (n = 73) from São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Paraná states. We employed histopathological, serological (indirect fluorescent antibody test), and molecular techniques (endpoint polymerase chain reaction). Histopathology slides of wild boar tissue (central nervous system, heart, skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lymph nodes, and thyroid) sections revealed no T. gondii or N. caninum cysts (0/47). Antibodies anti-T. gondii were detected in 35/108 (32.4%) and anti-N. caninum in 45/108 (41.7%) wild boars. Only 2/18 (11.1%) wild boar tissue homogenate samples tested positive for T. gondii on endpoint PCR. Hunting dogs showed antibodies against T. gondii in 62/73 (85%) and against N. caninum in 31/73 (42%). The presence of antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum in wild boars and hunting dogs, along with T. gondii DNA detection in wild boars, indicates the circulation of these parasites. Educating hunters on preventing these foodborne diseases, including zoonotic risks, is crucial.

RevDate: 2024-07-05

Li H, Liang X, Peng Y, et al (2024)

Novel Mito-Nuclear Combinations Facilitate the Global Invasion of a Major Agricultural Crop Pest.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

A fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in biological invasions is crucial to developing effective risk assessment and control measures against invasive species. The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a highly invasive pest that has rapidly spread from its native Americas into much of the Eastern Hemisphere, with a highly homogeneous nuclear genetic background. However, the exact mechanism behind its rapid introduction and propagation remains unclear. Here, a systematic investigation is conducted into the population dynamics of FAW in China from 2019 to 2021 and found that FAW individuals carrying "rice" mitochondria (FAW-mR) are more prevalent (>98%) than that with "corn" mitochondria (FAW-mC) at the initial stage of the invasion and in newly-occupied non-overwintering areas. Further fitness experiments show that the two hybrid-strains of FAW exhibit different adaptions in the new environment in China, and this may have been facilitated by amino acid changes in mitochondrial-encoded proteins. FAW-mR used increases energy metabolism, faster wing-beat frequencies, and lower wing loadings to drive greater flight performance and subsequent rapid colonization of new habitats. In contrast, FAW-mC individuals adapt with more relaxed mitochondria and shuttle energetics into maternal investment, observed as faster development rate and higher fecundity. The presence of two different mitochondria types within FAW has the potential to significantly expand the range of damage and enhance competitive advantage. Overall, the study describes a novel invasion mechanism displayed by the FAW population that facilitates its expansion and establishment in new environments.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-04

Kim S, Lee CW, Park HJ, et al (2024)

UAV telephotography elucidates floristic variability and beta diversity of island cliffs under grazing interventions.

Scientific reports, 14(1):15465.

Cliffs contain one of the least known plant communities, which has been overlooked in biodiversity assessments due to the inherent inaccessibility. Our study adopted the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with the telephoto camera to remotely clarify floristic variability across unreachable cliffs. Studied cliffs comprised 17 coastal and 13 inland cliffs in Gageodo of South Korea, among which 9 and 5 cliffs were grazed by the introduced cliff-dwelling goats. The UAV telephotography showed 154 and 166 plant species from coastal and inland cliffs, respectively. Inland cliffs contained more vascular plant species (P < 0.001), increased proportions of fern and woody species (P < 0.05), and decreased proportion of herbaceous species (P < 0.001) than coastal cliffs. It was also found that coastal and inland cliffs differed in the species composition (P < 0.001) rather than taxonomic beta diversity (P = 0.29). Furthermore, grazed coastal cliffs featured the elevated proportions of alien and annual herb species than ungrazed coastal cliffs (P < 0.05). This suggests that coastal cliffs might not be totally immune to grazing if the introduced herbivores are able to access cliff microhabitats; therefore, such anthropogenic introduction of cliff-dwelling herbivores should be excluded to conserve the native cliff plant communities.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Canright VR, Piaggio AJ, JC Beasley (2024)

Invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa) diets on barrier islands in the southeastern United States.

Pest management science, 80(8):3901-3911.

BACKGROUND: Biological invasions are a leading cause of reductions in global biodiversity. Islands are particularly sensitive to invasions, which often result in cascading impacts throughout island communities. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are globally invasive and pose threats to numerous taxa and ecosystems, particularly for islands where they have contributed to declines of many endemic species. However, the impacts of wild pig diet on the flora and fauna remain understudied in many island systems.

RESULTS: We used DNA metabarcoding of wild pig fecal samples to quantify the seasonal diet composition of wild pigs on three barrier islands in the southeastern United States. Wild pigs exhibited a diverse diet dominated by plants, but also including marine and terrestrial animals. The diet composition of plants varied seasonally and between islands. Consumption of invertebrates also changed seasonally, with a shift to coastal invertebrates, particularly crabs, in spring and summer. Vertebrates were found in <10% of samples, but spanned broad taxa including amphibians, fish, mammals, and reptiles. Species consumed by wild pigs indicate that wild pigs use a variety of habitats within barrier islands for foraging, including maritime forests, saltmarshes, and beaches.

CONCLUSIONS: An observed shift to beach foraging during sea turtle nesting season suggests wild pigs have potential to hinder nesting success on islands without established management programs. These findings provide insight into the diverse diets of wild pigs on barrier islands and highlight the need for removal of wild pigs from sensitive island ecosystems because of their potential impacts to native plant and animal communities. © 2024 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-07-03

Lizama-Schmeisser N, de Castro ES, Espinoza-Carniglia M, et al (2024)

Are Rattus rattus fleas invasive? Evaluation of flea communities in invasive and native rodents in Chile.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Co-invasion, characterized by the simultaneous introduction of hosts and parasites with the latter establishing themselves in native hosts, is a phenomenon of ecological concern. Rattus rattus, a notorious invasive species, has driven the extinction and displacement of numerous avian and mammalian species and serves as a key vector for diseases affecting both humans and wildlife. Among the parasites hosted by R. rattus are fleas, which exhibit obligate parasitic behaviour, a generalist nature and high prevalence, increasing the likelihood of flea invasion. Simultaneously, invasive species can serve as hosts for native parasites, leading to potential amplification or dilution of parasite populations in the environment. In Chile, R. rattus has been present since the 17th century because of the arrival of the Spanish colonizers through the ports and has spread throughout urban, rural and wild Chilean territories. This study aims to evaluate whether co-invasion of native fleas of invasive rats occurs on native rodents in Chile and to determine whether black rats have acquired flea native to Chile during their invasion. For this, we captured 1132 rodents from 26 localities (20° S-53° S). Rattus rattus was found coexisting with 11 native rodent species and two species of introduced rodents. Among the native rodents, Abrothrix olivacea and Oligoryzomys longicaudatus exhibited more extensive sympatry with R. rattus. We identified 14 flea species associated with R. rattus, of which only three were native to rats: Xenopsylla cheopis, Leptopsylla segnis and Nosopsyllus fasciatus. These three species presented a higher parasite load in black rats compared to native fleas. Leptopsylla segnis and N. fasciatus were also found associated with native rodent species that cohabit with R. rattus. The remaining species associated with R. rattus were fleas of native rodents, although they were less abundant compared to those associated with native rodents, except for Neotyphloceras pardinasi and Sphinctopsylla ares. Although there has been evidence of flea transmission from rats to native species, the prevalence and abundance were relatively low. Therefore, it cannot be definitively concluded that these fleas have established themselves in native rodent populations, and hence, they cannot be classified as invasive fleas. This study underscores R. rattus' adaptability to diverse environmental and geographical conditions in Chile, including its capacity to acquire fleas from native rodents. This aspect has critical implications for public health, potentially facilitating the spread of pathogens across various habitats where these rats are found.

RevDate: 2024-07-04
CmpDate: 2024-07-04

Nagy DU, Thoma AE, Al-Gharaibeh M, et al (2024)

Among-population variation in drought responses is consistent across life stages but not between native and non-native ranges.

The New phytologist, 243(3):922-935.

Understanding how widespread species adapt to variation in abiotic conditions across their ranges is fundamental to ecology. Insight may come from studying how among-population variation (APV) in the common garden corresponds with the environmental conditions of source populations. However, there are no such studies comparing native vs non-native populations across multiple life stages. We examined APV in the performance and functional traits of 59 Conyza canadensis populations, in response to drought, across large aridity gradients in the native (North America) and non-native (Eurasia) ranges in three experiments. Our treatment (dry vs wet) was applied at the recruitment, juvenile, and adult life stages. We found contrasting patterns of APV in drought responses between the two ranges. In the native range, plant performance was less reduced by drought in populations from xeric than mesic habitats, but such relationship was not apparent for non-native populations. These range-specific patterns were consistent across the life stages. The weak adaptive responses of non-native populations indicate that they can become highly abundant even without complete local adaptation to abiotic environments and suggest that long-established invaders may still be evolving to the abiotic environment. These findings may explain lag times in invasions and raise concern about future expansions.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-03

Sousa R, Nogueira JG, J Padilha (2024)

Moving from the species to the population level in biological invasions.

Global change biology, 30(7):e17396.

RevDate: 2024-07-03

Shelly TE, Fezza TJ, RM Martin (2024)

Field longevity of methyl eugenol and cue-lure plugs and associated insecticidal strips: captures of Bactrocera dorsalis and Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

Environmental entomology pii:7704521 [Epub ahead of print].

Certain species of true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) cause tremendous damage to commercially important fruits and vegetables, and many countries operate continuous trapping programs which rely on male-specific lures such as trimedlure (TML), methyl eugenol (ME), and cue-lure (CL). Traditionally, these attractants have been applied as liquids to cotton wicks inside traps, although this results in high evaporative loss of the lure. Slow-release, polymeric plugs have been widely adopted for TML, but such devices are not widely used for ME or CL. Recent data, however, suggest that ME and CL plugs may be attractive for as long as 12 wk in the field. The present study investigates whether ME and CL plugs weathered for 18 or 24 wk are effective in capturing males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. For B. dorsalis, 6 g ME plugs were as effective as the control treatment (fresh liquid on a wick) after 12 wk of weathering but not after 18 or 24 wk. For Z. cucurbitae, 3 g CL plugs were as effective as the control treatment (fresh CL plugs) after 12 and 18 wk of weathering but not after 24 wk. The residual content and release rate of the 2 lures were also measured over time, but, with the exception of the residual content of ME, we did not find a direct correlation between these parameters and numbers of flies captured.

RevDate: 2024-07-03

Wilson S, Thorne MS, Johnson MA, et al (2024)

Prosapia bicincta (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) abundance, plant associations, and impacts on groundcover in Hawai'i Island rangelands.

Environmental entomology pii:7704522 [Epub ahead of print].

The twolined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say), is a major economic pest of forage grass and turfgrass. Prosapia bicincta was first detected in rangelands on Hawai'i Island in 2016 and has since spread to an estimated 72,000 ha in the North and South Kona districts. This study aimed to quantify P. bicincta abundance, plant associations, and impacts on groundcover over time. Monthly surveys of P. bicincta nymphs and adults were conducted from February 2018 to September 2022 along 17 established 100-m transects at 4 ranches located in Kona, Hawai'i Island, spanning an elevation gradient from 519 to 1,874 m above sea level (a.s.l.). Monitoring revealed P. bicincta occurs from 519 to 1,679 m a.s.l., primarily in Kikuyu grass (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.)) Morrone (Poales: Poaceae) pastures. Peaks in P. bicincta abundance coincided with the wet season, with most activity occurring from April to October and little to no activity between November and March. Mid elevation (1,000-1,300 m) transects had significantly higher mean P. bicincta abundance (126 nymphs/m2) relative to low (500-999 m) (64 nymphs/m2) and high elevations (>1,300 m) (20 nymphs/m2). Sites with the highest abundance of P. bicincta were also associated with the greatest decrease in mean grass cover (30%) and were replaced by forbs, bare ground, and shrubs. Grasses accounted for 72% of the total P. bicincta detections, with the remaining plants comprised of legumes (16%), sedges (6%), and forbs (6%). Twenty new P. bicincta plant associations were found. This information will help improve the effectiveness of management to suppress populations below economic thresholds.

RevDate: 2024-07-03
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Young L, E VanderWerf (2024)

A review of predator exclusion fencing to create mainland islands in Hawai'i.

PeerJ, 12:e17694.

BACKGROUND: Invasive species are the primary threat to island ecosystems globally and are responsible for approximately two-thirds of all island species extinctions in the past 400 years. Non-native mammals-primarily rats, cats, mongooses, goats, sheep, and pigs-have had devastating impacts on at-risk species and are major factors in population declines and extinctions in Hawai'i. With the development of fencing technology that can exclude all mammalian predators, the focus for some locations in Hawai'i shifted from predator control to local eradication.

METHODS: This article describes all existing and planned full predator exclusion fences in Hawai'i by documenting the size and design of each fence, the outcomes the predator eradications, maintenance issues at each fence, and the resulting native species responses.

RESULTS: Twelve predator exclusion fences were constructed in the Hawaiian Islands from 2011-2023 and six more were planned or under construction; all were for the protection of native seabirds and waterbirds. Fences ranged in length from 304-4,877 m and enclosed 1.2-640 ha. One-third of the 18 fences were peninsula-style with open ends; the remaining two-thirds of the fences were complete enclosures. The purpose of twelve of the fences (67%) was to protect existing bird populations, and six (33%) were initiated for mitigation required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Of the six mitigation fences, 83% were for the social attraction of seabirds and one fence was for translocation of seabirds; none of the mitigation fences protected existing bird populations. Rats and mice were present in every predator exclusion fence site; mice were eradicated from five of six sites (83%) where they were targeted and rats (three species) were eradicated from eight of 11 sites (72%). Mongoose, cats, pigs, and deer were eradicated from every site where they were targeted. Predator incursions occurred in every fence. Rat and mouse incursions were in many cases chronic or complete reinvasions, but cat and mongoose incursions were occasional and depended on fence type (i.e., enclosed vs. peninsula). The advent of predator exclusion fencing has resulted in great gains for protecting existing seabirds and waterbirds, which demonstrated dramatic increases in reproductive success and colony growth. With threats from invasive species expected to increase in the future, predator exclusion fencing will become an increasingly important tool in protecting island species.

RevDate: 2024-07-02

Paton AJ, Brook BW, JC Buettel (2024)

A non-invasive approach to measuring body dimensions of wildlife with camera traps: A felid field trial.

Ecology and evolution, 14(7):e11612.

Dimensions of body size are an important measurement in animal ecology, although they can be difficult to obtain due to the effort and cost associated with the invasive nature of these measurements. We avoid these limitations by using camera trap images to derive dimensions of animal size. To obtain measurements of object dimensions using this method, the size of the object in pixels, the focal length of the camera, and the distance to that object must be known. We describe a novel approach of obtaining the distance to the object through the creation of a portable distance marker, which, when photographed, creates a "reference image" to determine the position of the animal within an image. This method allows for the retrospective analysis of existing datasets and eliminates the need for permanent in-field distance markers. We tested the accuracy of this methodology under controlled conditions with objects of known size resembling Felis catus, our study species, validating the legitimacy of our method of size estimation. We then apply our method to measure feral cat body size using images collected in Tasmania, Australia. The precision of our methodology was evaluated by comparing size estimates across individual cats, revealing consistent and reliable results. The average height (front paw to shoulder) of the feral cats sampled was 25.25 cm (CI = 24.4, 26.1) and the average length (base of tail to nose) was 47.48 cm (CI = 46.0, 48.9), suggesting wild feral cats in our study area are no larger than their domestic counterparts. Given the success of its application within our study, we call for further trails with this method across a variety of species.

RevDate: 2024-07-02
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Liu Q (2024)

[Biological threats to global malaria elimination Ⅳ Emergence of invasive vector species].

Zhongguo xue xi chong bing fang zhi za zhi = Chinese journal of schistosomiasis control, 36(3):247-250.

Driven by international exchanges and climate changes, the invasion and spread of vector Anopheles mosquitoes posed a new challenge to achieving global malaria elimination. Taking the invasion of An. stephensi to exacerbate the malaria epidemic in Africa as an example, this article summarizes the current situation of global Anopheles invasion, and estimates the potential risk of vector Anopheles mosquitoes to unravel the difficulties and challenges in the global malaria elimination program, so as to provide insights into improved early earning and precision control of vector Anopheles mosquito invasion across the world.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Yokota SC, Broeckling C, A H S Seshadri (2024)

Pollen foraging preferences in honey bees and the nutrient profiles of the pollen.

Scientific reports, 14(1):15028.

Honey bees are important insect pollinators that provide critical pollination services to fruit and nut crops in the US. They face challenges likely due to pressures associated with agricultural intensification related habitat loss. To better understand this, pollen preferences of foraging bees and the nutritional profile of pollen brought into hives by foraging bees in crop fields and nut orchards can provide valuable information. We trained bees to forage on bee-collected pollen from hives placed for pollination services in almond orchards, sunflower fields, or mixed species from inter-row plantings. Using bees trained to a certain kind of hive pollen, we applied a binary scoring system, to test preferences of these preconditioned foragers. We also performed metabolomic analyses of the hive pollen used for training and testing to elucidate their nutritional content. Irrespective of preconditioning, bees collected all the available choice pollen types, predominantly choosing hive-collected mixed species pollen (MSP), followed by almond orchard pollen. The hive-collected MSP was chemically diverse, richest in cholesterol, vitamins, and phytochemicals quercetin, kaempferol, coumarin, and quinine, but was not consistently high for essential amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although diversity in chemical profiles may not directly relate to plant species diversity, our results suggest that foragers collect a variety of pollen types when available reiterating the importance of diverse floral resources.

RevDate: 2024-07-01

Rigby LC, Hall MD, Monro K, et al (2024)

Evolution of "invasion syndrome" in invasive goldenrod is not constrained by genetic trade-offs.

Evolutionary applications, 17(7):e13734.

A suite of plant traits is thought to make weed populations highly invasive, including vigorous growth and reproduction, superior competitive ability, and high dispersal ability. Using a breeding design and a common garden experiment, we tested whether such an "invasion syndrome" has evolved in an invasive range of Solidago altissima, and whether the evolution is likely to be genetically constrained. We found an overall shift in invasive phenotypes between native North American and invasive Japanese populations. The invasive populations were taller and produced more leaves, suggesting a superior ability to exploit limited resources. The populations also produced more allelopathic compounds that can suppress competitor growth. Finally, invasive populations produced more seeds, which are smaller and are released from a greater height, indicating a potential for superior dispersal ability than the native populations. Quantitative genetics analyses found a large amount of additive genetic variation in most focal traits across native and invasive populations, with no systematic differences in its magnitude between the ranges. Genetic covariances among three traits representing invasion strategies (leaf mass, polyacetylene concentration and seed size) were small. The R metric, which measures the effect of genetic covariances on the rate of adaptation, indicated that the covariance neither constrains nor accelerates concerted evolution of these traits. The results suggest that the invasion syndrome in S. altissima has evolved in the novel range due to ample additive genetic variation, and relatively free from genetic trade-offs.

RevDate: 2024-07-01

De Jesus CE, Harman MEA, Sutton A, et al (2024)

Spatially limited pathogen pollution in an invasive tick and host system.

Biological invasions, 26(7):2037-2047.

UNLABELLED: Expansion of global commerce has facilitated pathogen pollution via the transportation and translocation of invasive species and their associated parasites and pathogens. In Florida, imported cane toads (Rhinella horribilis) were accidentally and intentionally released on multiple occasions. Early populations were found to be infested with the invasive tick, Amblyomma rotundatum, yet it is unknown if these ticks dispersed with their hosts as cane toads spread throughout much of the state. The objectives of our investigation were to (1) determine if there are fewer tick infestations on toads at the periphery than at the core of their distribution as predicted by founder effect events, and (2) identify if ticks were infected with exotic pathogens. We captured toads from 10 populations across Florida. We collected ticks, vent tissue, and tick attachment site tissue from each toad, then tested samples for bacteria in the genus, Rickettsia. We found that 3/10 populations had toads that were infested with A. rotundatum, and infested individuals were in the earliest introduced populations at the core of their distribution. Pathogen testing confirmed Rickettisa bellii in ticks, but not in toad tissues. Haplotype networks could not clearly distinguish if R. bellii in Florida was more closely related to North or South American strains, but host-tick associations suggest that the pathogen was exotic to Florida. Our investigation demonstrated that an invasive species facilitated the introduction of parasites and pathogens into Florida, yet the invasive tick species encountered limitations to dispersal on this host species.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10530-024-03291-9.

RevDate: 2024-07-01

Messerly AE, Mularo AJ, Longo AV, et al (2024)

Physiological and behavioral responses to novel saline conditions in an invasive treefrog.

Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Salinity can be an environmental stressor for anurans, as their highly permeable skin makes them prone to osmotic stress when exposed to saline conditions. However, certain anuran species have colonized areas near saltwater habitats, suggesting an ability to acclimate to saline conditions. Here, we evaluated physiological and behavioral responses to saline conditions in adult Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis), an invasive anuran found throughout Florida. To examine their response to salinity, adult frogs were maintained in two treatments simulating a freshwater (0.5 ppt) or brackish (8.0 ppt) environment for 6 weeks. To assess their physiological response to this potential stressor, all frogs were submerged in a brackish solution to quantify individual weight change every 2 weeks. We found that frogs maintained in brackish solution lost more weight at Weeks 2 and 6 when compared to Week 0, suggesting that salinity may be an environmental stressor for Cuban treefrogs. Yet, the weight change at Week 4 was similar to the pre-exposure period, which may indicate that constant exposure to salinity may alter their physiological response to saline conditions. To supplement the physiological analyses, we investigated avoidance behavior toward saline conditions by offering individuals a choice between freshwater or brackish environments. Our results showed that Cuban treefrogs chose freshwater environments more frequently and may thus avoid saline ones. This study reveals that salinity may induce plastic and avoidance responses in Cuban treefrogs, potentially allowing them to expand their range into areas typically stressful for most anurans.

RevDate: 2024-07-01

Su X, Shi G, Zhong J, et al (2024)

The implementation of robotic dogs in automatic detection and surveillance of red imported fire ant nests.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), scientifically known as Solenopsis invicta, is a destructive invasive species causing considerable harm to ecosystems and generating substantial economic costs globally. Traditional methods for RIFA nests detection are labor-intensive and may not be scalable to larger field areas. This study aimed to develop an innovative surveillance system that leverages artificial intelligence (AI) and robotic dogs to automate the detection and geolocation of RIFA nests, thereby improving monitoring and control strategies.

RESULTS: The designed surveillance system, through integrating the CyberDog robotic platform with a YOLOX AI model, demonstrated RIFA nest detection precision rates of >90%. The YOLOX model was trained on a dataset containing 1118 images and achieved a final precision rate of 0.95, with an inference time of 20.16 ms per image, indicating real-time operational suitability. Field tests revealed that the CyberDog system identified three times more nests than trained human inspectors, with significantly lower rates of missed detections and false positives.

CONCLUSION: The findings underscore the potential of AI-driven robotic systems in advancing pest management. The CyberDog/YOLOX system not only matched human inspectors in speed, but also exceeded them in accuracy and efficiency. This study's results are significant as they highlight how technology can be harnessed to address biological invasions, offering a more effective, ecologically friendly, and scalable solution for RIFA detection. The successful implementation of this system could pave the way for broader applications in environmental monitoring and pest control, ultimately contributing to the preservation of biodiversity and economic stability. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-06-29

Williams GL, JS Brewer (2024)

Naturally diverse plant communities do not resist invasion by the strong competitor, Microstegium vimineum.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Theory predicts and empirical studies have shown that ecologically manipulated communities with high species diversity are resistant to invasion, but do these predictions and results hold true when applied to highly competitive invaders in natural communities? Few studies of diversity-mediated invasion resistance have measured both invasion resistance and invader impact in the same study.

METHODS: We used a two-year field experiment to test: (1) diversity-mediated competitive resistance to patch expansion by the grass, Microstegium vimineum; and (2) the competitive effect of M. vimineum on resident plant diversity. We examined responses of M. vimineum to two native plant density-reduction treatments that had opposite effects on species diversity: (1) reducing species richness via the removal of rare species; and (2) reducing dominance by reducing the density of the dominant resident species. We examined the effects of M. vimineum reduction by pre-emergent herbicide on resident diversity in the second year of the study.

RESULTS: Neither rare species removal nor dominant species reduction significantly increased M. vimineum density (relative growth rate). The pre-emergent herbicide dramatically reduced M. vimineum in year 2 of the study, but not most resident plants, which were perennials and indirectly benefited from the herbicide at a more productive site, presumably due to reduced competition from M. vimineum.

CONCLUSIONS: Diversity-mediated resistance did not effectively deter invasion by a highly competitive invader. In the case of M. vimineum and at more productive sites, it would appear that nearly complete removal of this invader is necessary to preserve plant species diversity.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-07-01

Hoffmann D, Fabres B, FP de Araújo-Hoffmann (2024)

Angry birds: Mate aggression in Arundinicola leucocephala males triggered by potential invaders.

Ecology, 105(7):e4332.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-07-01

Berson JD, Edwards PB, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, et al (2024)

Deliberately introduced dung beetles in Australia: 12 years of occurrence and abundance records from 2001 to 2022.

Ecology, 105(7):e4328.

Since 1968, the Australian Dung Beetle Project has carried out field releases of 43 deliberately introduced dung beetle species for the biological control of livestock dung and dung-breeding pests. Of these, 23 species are known to have become established. For most of these species, sufficient time has elapsed for population expansion to fill the extent of their potential geographic range through both natural and human-assisted dispersal. Consequently, over the last 20 years, extensive efforts have been made to quantify the current distribution of these introduced dung beetles, as well as the seasonal and spatial variation in their activity levels. Much of these data and their associated metadata have remained unpublished, and they have not previously been synthesized into a cohesive dataset. Here, we collate and report data from the three largest dung beetle monitoring projects from 2001 to 2022. Together, these projects encompass data collected from across Australia, and include records for all 23 species of established dung beetles introduced for biocontrol purposes. In total, these data include 22,718 presence records and 213,538 absence records collected during 10,272 sampling events at 546 locations. Most presence records (97%) include abundance data. In total, 1,752,807 dung beetles were identified as part of these data. The distributional occurrence and abundance data can be used to explore questions such as factors influencing dung beetle species distributions, dung beetle biocontrol, and insect-mediated ecosystem services. These data are provided under a CC-BY-NC 4.0 license and users are encouraged to cite this data paper when using the data.

RevDate: 2024-06-28

North HL, Fu Z, Metz R, et al (2024)

Rapid adaptation and interspecific introgression in the North American crop pest Helicoverpa zea.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:7701045 [Epub ahead of print].

Insect crop pests threaten global food security. This threat is amplified through the spread of non-native species and through adaptation of native pests to control measures. Adaptations such as pesticide resistance can result from selection on variation within a population, or through gene flow from another population. We investigate these processes in an economically important noctuid crop pest, Helicoverpa zea, which has evolved resistance to a wide range of pesticides. Its sister species Helicoverpa armigera, first detected as an invasive species in Brazil in 2013, introduced the pyrethroid resistance gene CYP337B3 to South American H. zea via adaptive introgression. To understand whether this could contribute to pesticide resistance in North America, we sequenced 237 H. zea genomes across 10 sample sites. We report H. armigera introgression into the North American H. zea population. Two individuals sampled in Texas in 2019 carry H. armigera haplotypes in a 4Mbp region containing CYP337B3. Next, we identify signatures of selection in the panmictic population of non-admixed H. zea, identifying a selective sweep at a second cytochrome P450 gene: CYP333B3. We estimate that its derived allele conferred a ∼5% fitness advantage and show that this estimate explains independently observed rare nonsynonymous CYP333B3 mutations approaching fixation over a ∼20-year period. We also detect putative signatures of selection at a kinesin gene associated with Bt resistance. Overall, we document two mechanisms of rapid adaptation: the introduction of fitness-enhancing alleles through interspecific introgression, and selection on intraspecific variation.

RevDate: 2024-06-29
CmpDate: 2024-06-29

Zhang J, Mao D, Liu J, et al (2024)

Spartina alterniflora invasion benefits blue carbon sequestration in China.

Science bulletin, 69(12):1991-2000.

Spartina alterniflora has rapidly and extensively encroached on China's coastline over the past decades. Among the coastal areas invaded by S. alterniflora, at most 93% are mudflats. However, the effect of S. alterniflora invasion on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of coastal mudflats has not been systematically studied on a national scale. Here, we quantified the nationwide changes in SOC stocks in coastal mudflats associated with S. alterniflora invasion between 1990 and 2020. We found that S. alterniflora invasion significantly enhanced SOC stocks in coastal China. Nonetheless, the benefit of S. alterniflora invasion of coastal SOC stock may be weakened by continuing human intervention. We found that S. alterniflora invading mudflats added 2.3 Tg SOC stocks to China's coastal blue carbon, while 1.78 Tg SOC stocks were lost mainly due to human activities, resulted in a net SOC stock gain of 0.52 Tg C. These findings overturned the traditionally thought that S. alterniflora invasion would reduce ecosystem services by highlighting that the historical invasion of S. alterniflora has broadly and consistently enhanced blue carbon stock in coastal China.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Mokotjomela TM, Nelufule T, Scott Z, et al (2024)

The invasion threat of the emerging alien cactus Cylindropuntia pallida (Rosa), F.M. Knuth in South Africa and the potential for control using herbicides.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 196(7):673.

The emerging alien cactus Cylindropuntia pallida (Rose) F.M. Knuth originates from northern Mexico and introduced into South Africa in 1940s as an ornamental plant. Multiple populations of C. pallida have been detected in various areas of South Africa. C. pallida has effective propagule dispersal and rapid recruitment making it a likely key future invader, and thus, is a target for eradication in South Africa. To eradicate C. pallida populations, a foliar spray (i.e. using a 2% concentration of herbicide with fluroxypyr and triclopyr) has been applied to plants in nine populations, with population sizes ranging between 535 and 2701 plants and populations covering areas of 100 -1000 ha. The aims of the study were to investigate the efficacy of the foliar spray method used to eradicate C. pallida; to investigate the impacts of C. pallida invasions on native vegetation integrity; to apply species distribution models (SDMs) to identify suitable climates for C. pallida in South Africa; and to document the biomes vulnerable to the negative impact of C. pallida in South Africa. Results show that foliar spray killed many C. pallida plants (mean percentage of dead plants ± SE, 83.3 ± 6.4; n = 9; range, 70-96%), with adult plants taking about 2 months to die completely. The efficacy of the herbicide was not affected by plant size or the concentration of the herbicide used. The invaded site had significantly greater vegetation cover which persisted across winter compared to the uninvaded site, but the latter site's vegetation cover significantly dropped in winter. Also, the invaded site had lower plant species diversity than the uninvaded site and was dominated by species in the Poaceae and Asteraceae plant families. Additionally, a normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) analysis shows that the uninvaded site has higher vegetation cover and health than the invaded site wherein a notable decline in vegetation health was observed between 2019 and 2022. A large area (> 15 million hectares) was predicted to be suitable for invasion by C. pallida in provinces with arid and warm temperate climates - the fynbos and grassland biomes are the most vulnerable. Because of the observed negative impacts, high environmental compatibility, and high cost of clearing large infestations, we advocate for considering the biocontrol method for effectively managing C. pallida invasion in South Africa.

RevDate: 2024-06-28

D'Amen M, Bonora N, E Azzurro (2024)

Exploring the impact of temporal resolution on detecting shifts in the invasive species niche: Insights from Lessepsian fishes.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we estimate the niche overlap between native and invaded ranges of 36 Lessepsian fish, focusing on how this estimate might vary in relation to the temporal resolution of sea surface temperature and salinity, which are the main niche axes determining their distribution. Specifically, we wanted to address the following questions: (i) Does the choice of temporal averaging method of variables influence the estimation of niche overlap for individual variables? (ii) Does this temporal resolution effect persist when conducting bivariate niche estimations? Niches overlap was estimated by calculating two indices and these analyses were repeated at two temporal resolutions, matching observations to the classic 'multidecadal' average of environmental conditions and to the corresponding annual average of records. Results are compared with verify whether differences can be detected in the magnitude of niche commonality measured at annual or multidecadal temporal resolution. The findings show that the temporal resolution of the data significantly influences estimates of overlap in the thermal niche. Specifically, our analysis indicates a considerable disparity between native and invasive niche regions for most species, particularly when evaluated over multidecadal periods compared with matching occurrence data to the annual mean values of years the occurrence was observed, that is matching occurrence data to a common average of 'present' conditions or to the annual mean values of years of observation. In particular, the largest overlaps between native and invaded niches occur along the salinity axis, regardless of temporal resolution. When considering both temperature and salinity together, the results remain unaffected by the temporal resolution of the environmental data. Almost 30% of the species show a different niche in their introduced range, and for the other species, the overlap between native and invaded ranges was reduced with respect to the univariate analyses.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Cornelissen B, Ellis JD, Gort G, et al (2024)

The small hive beetle's capacity to disperse over long distances by flight.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14859.

The spread of invasive species often follows a jump-dispersal pattern. While jumps are typically fostered by humans, local dispersal can occur due to the specific traits of a species, which are often poorly understood. This holds true for small hive beetles (Aethina tumida), which are parasites of social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa. They have become a widespread invasive species. In 2017, a mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted in six replicates (A-F) using laboratory reared, dye-fed adults (N = 15,690). Honey bee colonies were used to attract flying small hive beetles at fixed spatial intervals from a central release point. Small hive beetles were recaptured (N = 770) at a maximum distance of 3.2 km after 24 h and 12 km after 1 week. Most small hive beetles were collected closest to the release point at 0 m (76%, replicate A) and 50 m (52%, replicates B to F). Temperature and wind deviation had significant effects on dispersal, with more small hive beetles being recaptured when temperatures were high (GLMM: slope = 0.99, SE = 0.17, Z = 5.72, P < 0.001) and confirming the role of wind for odour modulated dispersal of flying insects (GLMM: slope = - 0.39, SE = 0.14, Z = - 2.90, P = 0.004). Our findings show that the small hive beetles is capable of long-distance flights, and highlights the need to understand species specific traits to be considered for monitoring and mitigation efforts regarding invasive alien species.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Lustenhouwer N, Chaubet TMR, Melen MK, et al (2024)

Plant-soil interactions during the native and exotic range expansion of an annual plant.

Journal of evolutionary biology, 37(6):653-664.

Range expansions, whether they are biological invasions or climate change-mediated range shifts, may have profound ecological and evolutionary consequences for plant-soil interactions. Range-expanding plants encounter soil biota with which they have a limited coevolutionary history, especially when introduced to a new continent. Past studies have found mixed results on whether plants experience positive or negative soil feedback interactions in their novel range, and these effects often change over time. One important theoretical explanation is that plants locally adapt to the soil pathogens and mutualists in their novel range. We tested this hypothesis in Dittrichia graveolens, an annual plant that is both expanding its European native range, initially coinciding with climate warming, and rapidly invading California after human introduction. In parallel greenhouse experiments on both continents, we used plant genotypes and soils from 5 locations at the core and edge of each range to compare plant growth in soil inhabited by D. graveolens and nearby control microsites as a measure of plant-soil feedback. Plant-soil interactions were highly idiosyncratic across each range. On average, plant-soil feedbacks were more positive in the native range than in the exotic range. In line with the strongly heterogeneous pattern of soil responses along our biogeographic gradients, we found no evidence for evolutionary differentiation between plant genotypes from the core to the edge of either range. Our results suggest that the evolution of plant-soil interactions during range expansion may be more strongly driven by local evolutionary dynamics varying across the range than by large-scale biogeographic shifts.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Preece EP, Otten TG, Cooke J, et al (2024)

Microcystin in the benthic food-web of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04398-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Harmful cyanobacteria blooms are a growing threat in estuarine waters as upstream blooms are exported into coastal environments. Cyanobacteria can produce potent toxins, one of which-hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs)-can persist and accumulate within the food web. Filter-feeding invertebrates may biomagnify toxins up to 100× ambient concentrations. As such, bivalves can be used as an environmentally relevant and highly sensitive sentinel for MC monitoring. To date there has been little research on cyanotoxin bioaccumulation in estuaries. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) aquatic food web has undergone a profound change in response to widespread colonization of aquatic invasive species such as Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) in the freshwater portion of the Delta. These clams are prolific-blanketing areas of the Delta at densities up to 1000 clams/m[2] and are directly implicated in the pelagic organism decline of threatened and endangered fishes. We hypothesized that Asian clams accumulate MCs which may act as an additional stressor to the food web and MCs would seasonally be in exceedance of public health advisory levels. MCs accumulation in Delta Asian clams and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) were studied over a two-year period. ELISA and LC-MS analytical methods were used to measure free and protein-bound MCs in clam and crayfish tissues. We describe an improved MC extraction method for use when analyzing these taxa by LC-MS. MCs were found to accumulate in Asian clams across all months and at all study sites, with seasonal maxima occurring during the summer. Although MC concentrations rarely exceeded public health advisory levels, the persistence of MCs year-round still poses a chronic risk to consumers. Crayfish at times also accumulated high concentrations of MCs. Our results highlight the utility of shellfish as sentinel organisms for monitoring in estuarine areas.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Regan T, Hori TS, TP Bean (2024)

Genome Report: A chromosome-scale Mytilus edulis genome assembly for aquaculture, marine ecology and evolution.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:7700256 [Epub ahead of print].

The smooth-shelled blue mussel, Mytilus edulis is part of the Mytilus species complex, encompassing at least three putative species: M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus. These three species occur on both sides of the Atlantic and hybridize in nature, and both M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis are important aquaculture species. They are also invasive species in many parts of the world. Here, we present a chromosome-level assembly of Mytilus edulis. We used a combination of PacBio sequencing and Dovetail's Omni-C technology to generate an assembly with 14 long scaffolds containing 94% of the predicted length of the M. edulis genome (1.6 out of 1.7 Gb). Assembly statistics were total length 1.65 Gb, N50 = 116 Mb, L50 = 7 and, L90 = 13. BUSCO analysis showed 92.55% eukaryote BUSCOs identified. AB-Initio annotation using RNA-seq from mantle, gills, muscle and foot predicted 47,128 genes. These gene models were combined with IsoSeq validation resulting in 45,379 full CDS protein sequences and 129,708 isoforms. Using GBS and shotgun sequencing, we also sequenced several eastern Canadian populations of Mytilus to characterize single-nucleotide as well as structural variance. This high-quality genome for M. edulis provides a platform to develop tools that can be used in breeding, molecular ecology and evolution to address questions of both commercial and environmental perspectives.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Marino C, Journiac L, Liu C, et al (2024)

The anthropocene biogeography of alien birds on islands: Drivers of their functional and phylogenetic diversities.

Ecology letters, 27(6):e14465.

A branch of island biogeography has emerged to explain alien species diversity in the light of the biogeographic and anthropogenic context, yet overlooking the functional and phylogenetic facets. Evaluating alien and native birds of 407 oceanic islands worldwide, we built structural equation models to assess the direct and indirect influence of biotic, geographic, and anthropogenic contexts on alien functional diversity (FD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We found that alien taxonomic richness was the main predictor of both diversities. Anthropogenic factors, including colonization pressure, associated with classic biogeographical variables also strongly influenced alien FD and PD. Specifically, habitat modification and human connectivity markedly drove alien FD, especially when controlled by taxonomic richness, whereas the human population size, gross domestic product, and native PD were crucial at explaining alien PD. Our findings suggest that humans not only shape taxonomic richness but also other facets of alien diversity in a complex way.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Brasseur S, Santonja M, Rébufa C, et al (2024)

Can allelopathic potentialities of Mediterranean plant species reduce the spread of invasive plant species, Acacia dealbata and Ailanthus altissima?.

Ecology and evolution, 14(6):e11499 pii:ECE311499.

Beyond ecological and health impacts, invasive alien plant species can generate indirect and direct costs, notably through reduced agricultural yields, restoration, and management of the invaded environment. Acacia dealbata and Ailanthus altissima are invasive plant species that cause particularly significant damage to the railway network in the Mediterranean area. The allelopathic properties of Mediterranean plant species could be used as nature-based solutions to slow down the spread of such invasive plant species along railway borders. In this context, a mesocosm experiment was set-up: (i) to test the potential allelopathic effects of Cistus ladanifer, Cistus albidus, and Cotinus coggygria leaf aqueous extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of A. dealbata and A. altissima; (ii) to evaluate whether these effects depend on the extract dose; and finally, (iii) to estimate whether these effects are modified by soil amendment. Leaf aqueous extracts of the three native plant species showed negative effects on both seed germination and seedling growth of the two invasive species. Our results show that the presence of allelochemicals induces a delay in seed germination (e.g., A. dealbata germination lasted up to 269% longer in the presence of high-dose leaf aqueous extracts of C. coggygria), which can lead to a decrease in individual recruitment. They also highlight a decrease in seedling growth (e.g., high-dose C. coggygria leaf aqueous extracts induced a 26% decrease in A. dealbata radicle growth), which can alter the competitiveness of invasive species for resource access. Our results also highlight that compost addition limits the inhibitory effect of native Mediterranean plants on the germination of invasive alien plants, suggesting that soil organic matter content can counteract allelopathic effects on invasive alien plants. Thus, our findings revealed that the allelopathic potential of certain Mediterranean plant species could be a useful tool to manage invasive plant species.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Bald L, Gottwald J, Hillen J, et al (2024)

The devil is in the detail: Environmental variables frequently used for habitat suitability modeling lack information for forest-dwelling bats in Germany.

Ecology and evolution, 14(6):e11571 pii:ECE311571.

In response to the pressing challenges of the ongoing biodiversity crisis, the protection of endangered species and their habitats, as well as the monitoring of invasive species are crucial. Habitat suitability modeling (HSM) is often treated as the silver bullet to address these challenges, commonly relying on generic variables sourced from widely available datasets. However, for species with high habitat requirements, or for modeling the suitability of habitats within the geographic range of a species, variables at a coarse level of detail may fall short. Consequently, there is potential value in considering the incorporation of more targeted data, which may extend beyond readily available land cover and climate datasets. In this study, we investigate the impact of incorporating targeted land cover variables (specifically tree species composition) and vertical structure information (derived from LiDAR data) on HSM outcomes for three forest specialist bat species (Barbastella barbastellus, Myotis bechsteinii, and Plecotus auritus) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, compared to commonly utilized environmental variables, such as generic land-cover classifications (e.g., Corine Land Cover) and climate variables (e.g., Bioclim). The integration of targeted variables enhanced the performance of habitat suitability models for all three bat species. Furthermore, our results showed a high difference in the distribution maps that resulted from using different levels of detail in environmental variables. This underscores the importance of making the effort to generate the appropriate variables, rather than simply relying on commonly used ones, and the necessity of exercising caution when using habitat models as a tool to inform conservation strategies and spatial planning efforts.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Shen L, LaRue E, Fei S, et al (2024)

Spatial prediction of plant invasion using a hybrid of machine learning and geostatistical method.

Ecology and evolution, 14(6):e11605 pii:ECE311605.

Modeling ecological patterns and processes often involve large-scale and complex high-dimensional spatial data. Due to the nonlinearity and multicollinearity of ecological data, traditional geostatistical methods have faced great challenges in model accuracy. As machine learning has increased our ability to construct models on big data, the main focus of the study is to propose the use of statistical models that hybridize machine learning and spatial interpolation methods to cope with increasingly large-scale and complex ecological data. Here, two machine learning algorithms, boosted regression tree (BRT) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), were combined with ordinary kriging (OK) to model plant invasions across the eastern United States. The accuracies of the hybrid models and conventional models were evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation. Based on an invasive plants dataset of 15 ecoregions across the eastern United States, the results showed that the hybrid algorithms were significantly better at predicting plant invasion when compared to commonly used algorithms in terms of RMSE and paired-samples t-test (with the p-value < .0001). Besides, the additional aspect of the combined algorithms is to have the ability to select influential variables associated with the establishment of invasive cover, which cannot be achieved by conventional geostatistics. Higher accuracy in the prediction of large-scale biological invasions improves our understanding of the ecological conditions that lead to the establishment and spread of plants into novel habitats across spatial scales. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the hybrid BRTOK and LASOK that can be used to analyze large-scale and high-dimensional spatial datasets, and it has offered an optional source of models for spatial interpolation of ecology properties. It will also provide a better basis for management decisions in early-detection modeling of invasive species.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Jolma ERE, Born-Torrijos A, Heesterbeek H, et al (2024)

Warming effects on the life cycles of two parasitic copepods with different invasion histories.

Ecology and evolution, 14(6):e11485 pii:ECE311485.

Climate change may exacerbate the impact of invasive parasites from warmer climates through pre-existing temperature adaptations. We investigated temperature impacts on two closely related marine parasitic copepod species that share the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as host: Mytilicola orientalis has invaded the system from a warmer climate <20 years ago, whereas its established congener Mytilicola intestinalis has had >90 years to adapt. In laboratory experiments with temperatures 10-26°C, covering current and future temperatures as well as heat waves, the development of both life cycle stages of both species accelerated with increasing temperature. In the parasitic stages, the growth of the established invader increased evenly from 10°C to 22°C, whereas the recent invader barely grew at all at 10°C and grew faster already at 18°C. In contrast, temperature had little effect on the transition success between life cycle stages. However, the highest temperature (26°C) limited the egg development success of the established invader and the host entry success of both species, whereas the infection success of the established invader increased at 18°C and 22°C. In general, our experiments indicate that the main effect of temperature on both species is through development speed and not life cycle stage transition success. Based on regional long-term temperature data and predictions, the numbers of completed life cycles per year will increase for both parasites. The established invader seems better adapted for low current temperatures (around 10°C), whereas the more recent invader barely develops at these temperatures but can cope in high temperatures (around 26°C). Hence, pre-existing temperature adaptations of the recent invader may allow the species to better cope with heat waves.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Gerber R, Pearson JJ, Wepener V, et al (2024)

Distribution, abundance, population structures, and potential impacts of the invasive snail, Tarebia granifera in aquatic ecosystems of north-eastern South Africa.

Ecology and evolution, 14(6):e11544 pii:ECE311544.

Aquatic ecosystems globally have been invaded by molluscs. Tarebia granifera is a highly successful invader, often becoming the dominant aquatic invertebrate species in an invaded ecosystem. Resultingly, it has been suggested that T. granifera may have severe negative impacts on these invaded ecosystems. Limited information is available regarding the population structures and densities of T. granifera, particularly in invaded countries such as South Africa, and information on this could assist in developing management and control strategies for this invasive species. The present study aimed to assess the current distribution, densities, and population structures of T. granifera in invaded habitats on the Limpopo and Phongolo River systems in South Africa. This was accomplished by collecting aquatic molluscs from sites across these systems. Water quality parameters were measured at each site and water samples were collected for chemical nutrient analyses. The density of snails was determined for each site and the population size and structure as well as birth rate was calculated for T. granifera. Tarebia granifera was found to be the dominant molluscan species in habitats where it was present and all size classes from newborn to mature adults were found throughout at some of the highest densities globally. Worryingly, native molluscan species, were often absent or in much lower densities than reported in literature at sites where T. granifera was present, suggesting a negative effect on the native molluscan density and diversity. Contrary to most previous studies, there were no significant correlations between T. granifera and the selected water quality parameters. Higher densities and newborn recruitment of T. granifera were observed in the spring than in autumn, likely in response to shifts in environmental conditions. This study provides crucial insights into the population structure, densities, and impacts of T. granifera in invaded habitats, particularly for relatively newly invaded regions such as southern Africa.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Abrantes J, Bertagnoli S, Cavadini P, et al (2024)

Comment on Shah et al. Genetic Characteristics and Phylogeographic Dynamics of Lagoviruses, 1988-2021. Viruses 2023, 15, 815.

Viruses, 16(6): pii:v16060927.

Shah and colleagues [...].

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Peng Y, Tang Y, Li D, et al (2024)

The Growth-Promoting and Colonization of the Pine Endophytic Pseudomonas abietaniphila for Pine Wilt Disease Control.

Microorganisms, 12(6): pii:microorganisms12061089.

In this study, we focused on evaluating the impact of Pseudomonas abietaniphila BHJ04 on the growth of Pinus massoniana seedlings and its biocontrol efficacy against pine wilt disease (PWD). Additionally, the colonization dynamics of P. abietaniphila BHJ04 on P. massoniana were examined. The growth promotion experiment showed that P. abietaniphila BHJ04 significantly promoted the growth of the branches and roots of P. massoniana. Pot control experiments indicated that strain BHJ04 significantly inhibited the spread of PWD. There were significant changes in the expression of several genes related to pine wood nematode defense in P. massoniana, including chitinase, nicotinamide synthetase, and triangular tetrapeptide-like superfamily protein isoform 9. Furthermore, our results revealed significant upregulation of genes associated with the water stress response (dehydration-responsive proteins), genetic material replication (DNA/RNA polymerase superfamily proteins), cell wall hydrolase, and detoxification (cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase superfamily genes) in the self-regulation of P. massoniana. Colonization experiments demonstrated that strain BHJ04 can colonize the roots, shoots, and leaves of P. massoniana, and the colonization amount on the leaves was the greatest, reaching 160,000 on the 15th day. However, colonization of the stems lasted longer, with the highest level of colonization observed after 45 d. This study provides a preliminary exploration of the growth-promoting and disease-preventing mechanisms of P. abietaniphila BHJ04 and its ability to colonize pines, thus providing a new biocontrol microbial resource for the biological control of plant diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Christova PK (2024)

Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora hydropathica from Clade 9 Associated with Alder Decline in Bulgaria.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 14(6): pii:life14060720.

A number of Phytophthora species have been identified as destructive plant pathogens and invasive species. They have the potential to affect a wide range of host plants and cause diseases in agricultural and forest ecosystems. Two Phytophthora species from rhizosphere soil samples collected from declining Alnus glutinosa in Bulgaria were isolated in the autumn of 2022. They were identified as Phytophthora polonica and Phytophthora hydropathica according to the DNA sequence analysis of the ITS region, as well as their morphological and physiological characteristics. The pathogenicity of both species to common and gray alder was evaluated by the inoculation of detached leaves and cuttings. Experimental data proved that P. polonica and P. hydropathica are able to cause leaf necrosis not only on A. glutinosa from which they were derived, but also on A. incana. No significant deference in the aggressiveness of the studied isolates from both Phytophthora species against the two tested plants was observed. Therefore, P. polonica and P. hydropathica were determined as potential threats for alder ecosystems in the country. This is the first report for the isolation of P. polonica in Bulgaria and represents the most southeastern point of the species distribution in Europe.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Gargano M, Colosimo G, Garizio L, et al (2024)

Locating Nesting Sites for Critically Endangered Galápagos Pink Land Iguanas (Conolophus marthae).

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(12): pii:ani14121835.

Invasive alien species control is recognized worldwide as a priority action to preserve global biodiversity. However, a lack of general life history knowledge for threatened species can impede the effectiveness of conservation actions. Galápagos pink land iguanas (Conolophus marthae) are endemic to Wolf Volcano, Galápagos, Ecuador. These iguanas are threatened by invasive alien species, particularly feral cats, that may affect their small population size. To guarantee the long-term survival of C. marthae, the Galápagos National Park Directorate is considering, along with an ongoing campaign of feral cat control, the implementation of a head-start program. However, the success of this management strategy necessarily relies on the identification of pink iguana nesting grounds, which were still unknown at the onset of this study. We modeled the movement patterns of male and female iguanas during the reproductive season, using location data collected from custom-made remote tracking devices installed on adult pink iguanas in April 2021. We first calculated for each individual the vector of distances from its starting location, which was defined as net displacement. We then used net displacement as the response variable in a generalized additive mixed model with day of the year as the predictor. Based on the hypothesis that males and females may behaviorally differ after mating, we looked for female-specific migratory behavior suggesting females were moving toward nesting areas. The results obtained confirmed our hypothesis, as females exhibited a distinct migratory behavior, reaching a small plateau area inside of Wolf Volcano's caldera and ca. 400 m below the volcano's northern rim. Moreover, once inside the caldera, females displayed a more aggregated distribution pattern. The movement data obtained allowed Galápagos National Park rangers to locate individual pink iguana nests and subsequently to sight and collect the first observed hatchlings of the species. This work constitutes a necessary baseline to perform dedicated studies of pink iguana nests and emerging hatchling iguanas, which is an essential step toward the development of an effective head-start program.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Goulder KD, WH Wong (2024)

Chemical Treatments on Invasive Bivalve, Corbicula fluminea.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(12): pii:ani14121789.

The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea is a native aquatic species in Eastern Asia and Africa but has become one of the ecologically and economically harmful invasive species in aquatic ecosystems in Europe, North America, and South America. Due to their natural characteristics as a hermaphroditic species with a high fecundity and dispersal capacity, Asian clams are extremely difficult to eradicate once they have infiltrated a waterbody. This is an emerging issue for states in the Northeastern United States, as Asian clams expand their range farther North due to climate change. There has been extensive research conducted to develop chemical treatments for reactively controlling invasive mollusc populations and proactively preventing their further spread. However, treatments are mostly targeted toward biofouling bivalves in industrial settings. A comprehensive review of Asian clam chemical treatments used in natural open-water systems was performed to evaluate molluscicides and identify the toxicity ranges of emerging treatments that maximize Asian clam mortality and minimize the negative impact on water quality and non-target species. The potential chemical applications in Asian clam control and management are summarized in this report to assist resource managers and practitioners in invasive Asian clam management.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )