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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 05 Jul 2020 at 01:33 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: "invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-07-02

Ito HC, Shiraishi H, Nakagawa M, et al (2020)

Combined impact of pesticides and other environmental stressors on animal diversity in irrigation ponds.

PloS one, 15(7):e0229052 pii:PONE-D-20-01257.

Rice paddy irrigation ponds can sustain surprisingly high taxonomic richness and make significant contributions to regional biodiversity. We evaluated the impacts of pesticides and other environmental stressors (including eutrophication, decreased macrophyte coverage, physical habitat destruction, and invasive alien species) on the taxonomic richness of freshwater animals in 21 irrigation ponds in Japan. We sampled a wide range of freshwater animals (reptiles, amphibians, fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, insects, annelids, bryozoans, and sponges) and surveyed environmental variables related to pesticide contamination and other stressors listed above. Statistical analyses comprised contraction of highly correlated environmental variables, best-subset model selection, stepwise model selection, and permutation tests. Results showed that: (i) probenazole (fungicide) was a significant stressor on fish (i.e., contamination with this compound had a significantly negative correlation with fish taxonomic richness), (ii) the interaction of BPMC (insecticide; also known as fenobucarb) and bluegill (invasive alien fish) was a significant stressor on a "large insect" category (Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, and Trichoptera), (iii) the interaction of BPMC and concrete bank protection was a significant stressor on an "invertebrate" category, (iv) the combined impacts of BPMC and the other stressors on the invertebrate and large insect categories resulted in an estimated mean loss of taxonomic richness by 15% and 77%, respectively, in comparison with a hypothetical pond with preferable conditions.

RevDate: 2020-07-02

da Silva Jorge S, T Satir (2020)

Framework and implementation of a fuzzy logic filter-an optimization strategy for the BWMS based on stakeholders' perspectives.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-020-09807-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (IMO 2018 Edition) was adopted in 2004 and came into force on 8 September 2017, aiming to introduce global regulations to control the transfer of potentially invasive species. Large efforts have been made by the maritime industry in creating reliable strategies for the installation of systems on board (Register 2014). Environmental considerations (INTERTANKO 2018) and optimization for the management systems (IMO 2017 Report) are factors broadly considered to tackle this matter. A consistent implementation strategy must be stated before the ballast water management system (BWMS) installation project starts-the management of stakeholders (e.g. ship owners, classification societies, administration, shipyards) is an important aspect of this process. This relies on their expertise, which in turn results in a high level of engagement and supports the implementation plan into the organizations. The creation of a framework for the optimization process, considering the implementation project of a BWMS on board of oil tankers, is the first part of this research. The use of fuzzy logic principles in the second part-as an evaluation instrument from a ranking obtained by multicriteria principles-sums up the aim of this paper, where the peculiarities about oil tankers' modelling will be discussed throughout the analysis of 2 optimization cases (Suezmax and Aframax).

RevDate: 2020-07-02

Khdiar MY, Barber PA, Hardy GES, et al (2020)

Association of Phytophthora with Declining Vegetation in an Urban Forest Environment.

Microorganisms, 8(7): pii:microorganisms8070973.

Urban forests consist of various environments from intensely managed spaces to conservation areas and are often reservoirs of a diverse range of invasive pathogens due to their introduction through the nursery trade. Pathogens are likely to persist because the urban forest contains a mixture of native and exotic plant species, and the environmental conditions are often less than ideal for the trees. To test the impact of different land management approaches on the Phytophthora community, 236 discrete soil and root samples were collected from declining trees in 91 parks and nature reserves in Joondalup, Western Australia (WA). Sampling targeted an extensive variety of declining native trees and shrubs, from families known to be susceptible to Phytophthora. A sub-sample was set aside and DNA extracted for metabarcoding using Phytophthora-specific primers; the remaining soil and root sample was baited for the isolation of Phytophthora. We considered the effect on the Phytophthora community of park class and area, soil family, and the change in canopy cover or health as determined through sequential measurements using remote sensing. Of the 236 samples, baiting techniques detected Phytophthora species from 24 samples (18 parks), while metabarcoding detected Phytophthora from 168 samples (64 parks). Overall, forty-four Phytophthora phylotypes were detected. Considering only sampling sites where Phytophthora was detected, species richness averaged 5.82 (range 1-21) for samples and 9.23 (range 2-24) for parks. Phytophthora multivora was the most frequently found species followed by P. arenaria, P. amnicola and P. cinnamomi. While park area and canopy cover had a significant effect on Phytophthora community the R2 values were very low, indicating they have had little effect in shaping the community. Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. multivora, the two most invasive species, often co-occurring (61% of samples); however, the communities with P. multivora were more common than those with P. cinnamomi, reflecting observations over the past decade of the increasing importance of P. multivora as a pathogen in the urban environment.

RevDate: 2020-07-02
CmpDate: 2020-07-02

Vancheva N, Bobeva A, Pehlivanov L, et al (2020)

Alien parasites on an alien fish species: monogeneans from the black bullhead Ameiurus melas (Siluriformes) in the Lake Srebarna Biosphere Reserve, Bulgaria, with the first record of Gyrodactylus nebulosus in the Palaearctic.

Parasitology research, 119(7):2105-2112.

Black bullhead Ameiurus melas (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes) is an alien fish species of North American origin, which has expanded its invasive geographical range in Europe. In 2017-2019, 32 black bullhead specimens from the Lake Srebarna Biosphere Reserve, Bulgaria, were examined for monogenean parasites. Two species of monogeneans were recorded and identified on the basis of morphological and molecular data: Ligictaluridus pricei (Ancyrocephalidae), with prevalence 100% and intensity 2-32 (mean 13.3 ± 6.8), and Gyrodactylus nebulosus (Gyrodactylidae), with prevalence 72.0% and intensity 1-15 (mean 7.4 ± 4.3). Partial 18S rDNA and the ITS1 region of L. pricei were sequenced. For G. nebulosus, sequenced genes included the partial 18S rDNA and the entire ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region as well as the mitochondrial COI gene. Both recorded monogenean species are specific parasites of North American ictalurid fishes and alien to Europe. The present study is the first record of L. pricei from Bulgaria and the first record of G. nebulosus from Europe and the Palaearctic Region.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Lam DK, SYW Sin (2020)

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in Rosy-faced and other lovebirds (Agapornis spp.) using next-generation sequencing.

Molecular biology reports pii:10.1007/s11033-020-05623-z [Epub ahead of print].

Agapornis are a group of small African parrots that are heavily traded around the world. They are invasive species in many places, but some of them are listed as Vulnerable or Near Threatened. However, the genetic tools for assessing inter-individual relationships, population structure, and genetic diversity of these birds are very limited. Therefore, we developed polymorphic microsatellite markers in A. roseicollis and tested the transferability on 5 lovebird species including A. personatus, A. nigrigenis, A. fischeri, A. pullarius, and A. canus, and two closely related outgroups (i.e. Bolbopsittacus lunulatus and Loriculus galgulus). We first performed whole-genome re-sequencing on five individuals of A. roseicollis to identify potential polymorphic loci. Out of 37 loci tested in 11 A. roseicollis, 27 loci were demonstrated to be polymorphic, with the number of the alleles ranging from 2 to 7 (mean = 3.963). The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.875 (mean = 0.481) and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.233 to 0.842 (mean = 0.642). Five loci (Agro-A13, p < 0.01; Agro-A15, p < 0.05; Agro-A43, p < 0.05, Agro-A65, p < 0.05; Agro-A67, p < 0.05) were detected to deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with the presence of null alleles suggested in locus Agro-A13 and Agro-A77. The exclusion powers for PE1 and PE2 are 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. The 27 novel polymorphic markers developed here will be useful for parentage and kinship assignment and population genetics study in Agapornis, and provide a tool for scientific research, captive breeding industry, and invasion and conservation management of these species.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Cuthbert RN, Wasserman RJ, Dalu T, et al (2020)

Influence of intra- and interspecific variation in predator-prey body size ratios on trophic interaction strengths.

Ecology and evolution, 10(12):5946-5962 pii:ECE36332.

Predation is a pervasive force that structures food webs and directly influences ecosystem functioning. The relative body sizes of predators and prey may be an important determinant of interaction strengths. However, studies quantifying the combined influence of intra- and interspecific variation in predator-prey body size ratios are lacking.We use a comparative functional response approach to examine interaction strengths between three size classes of invasive bluegill and largemouth bass toward three scaled size classes of their tilapia prey. We then quantify the influence of intra- and interspecific predator-prey body mass ratios on the scaling of attack rates and handling times.Type II functional responses were displayed by both predators across all predator and prey size classes. Largemouth bass consumed more than bluegill at small and intermediate predator size classes, while large predators of both species were more similar. Small prey were most vulnerable overall; however, differential attack rates among prey were emergent across predator sizes. For both bluegill and largemouth bass, small predators exhibited higher attack rates toward small and intermediate prey sizes, while larger predators exhibited greater attack rates toward large prey. Conversely, handling times increased with prey size, with small bluegill exhibiting particularly low feeding rates toward medium-large prey types. Attack rates for both predators peaked unimodally at intermediate predator-prey body mass ratios, while handling times generally shortened across increasing body mass ratios.We thus demonstrate effects of body size ratios on predator-prey interaction strengths between key fish species, with attack rates and handling times dependent on the relative sizes of predator-prey participants.Considerations for intra- and interspecific body size ratio effects are critical for predicting the strengths of interactions within ecosystems and may drive differential ecological impacts among invasive species as size ratios shift.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Rodrigues NT, Saranholi BH, Angeloni TA, et al (2020)

DNA mini-barcoding of leporids using noninvasive fecal DNA samples and its significance for monitoring an invasive species.

Ecology and evolution, 10(12):5219-5225 pii:ECE35863.

Introduced in South America at the end of the 19th century, the European hare population has expanded dramatically and now represents a risk to native Brazilian forest rabbits. Monitoring the invasive Lepus europaeus and its coexistence with native Sylvilagus brasiliensis is a challenge that can be efficiently addressed by the use of molecular tools. This work describes a set of primers useful for amplifying three mini-barcodes for the molecular identification of both invasive and native leporid species using degraded fecal DNA. In addition, tests in silico indicate that these mini-barcodes can successfully amplify the DNA sequences of a number of leporids. These mini-barcodes constitute a powerful tool for the monitoring and management of the invasive L. europaeus and the conservation of native rabbits.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Levin SC, Crandall RM, Pokoski T, et al (2020)

Phylogenetic and functional distinctiveness explain alien plant population responses to competition.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1930):20201070.

Several invasion hypotheses predict a positive association between phylogenetic and functional distinctiveness of aliens and their performance, leading to the idea that distinct aliens compete less with their resident communities. However, synthetic pattern relationships between distinctiveness and alien performance and direct tests of competition as the driving mechanism have not been forthcoming. This is likely because different patterns are observed at different spatial grains, because functional trait and phylogenetic information are often incomplete, and because of the need for competition experiments that measure demographic responses across a variety of alien species that vary in their distinctiveness. We conduct a competitor removal experiment and parameterize matrix population and integral projection models for 14 alien plant species. More novel aliens compete less strongly with co-occurring species in their community, but these results dissipate at a larger spatial grain of investigation. Further, we find that functional traits used in conjunction with phylogeny improve our ability to explain competitive responses. Our investigation shows that competition is an important mechanism underlying the differential success of alien species.

RevDate: 2020-07-01

Liu Y, Beaurepaire A, Rogers CW, et al (2020)

Gene Expression and Functional Analyses of Odorant Receptors in Small Hive Beetles (Aethina tumida).

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(13): pii:ijms21134582.

Olfaction is key to many insects. Odorant receptors (ORs) stand among the key chemosensory receptors mediating the detection of pheromones and kairomones. Small hive beetles (SHBs), Aethina tumida, are parasites of social bee colonies and olfactory cues are especially important for host finding. However, how interactions with their hosts may have shaped the evolution of ORs in the SHB remains poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we analyzed the evolution of SHB ORs through phylogenetic and positive selection analyses. We then tested the expression of selected OR genes in antennae, heads, and abdomens in four groups of adult SHBs: colony odor-experienced/-naive males and females. The results show that SHBs experienced both OR gene losses and duplications, thereby providing a first understanding of the evolution of SHB ORs. Additionally, three candidate ORs potentially involved in host finding and/or chemical communication were identified. Significantly different downregulations of ORs between the abdomens of male and female SHBs exposed to colony odors may reflect that these expression patterns might also reflect other internal events, e.g., oviposition. Altogether, these results provide novel insights into the evolution of SHB ORs and provide a valuable resource for analyzing the function of key genes, e.g., for developing biological control. These results will also help in understanding the chemosensory system in SHBs and other beetles.

RevDate: 2020-07-01
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Martignoni MM, Hart MM, Tyson RC, et al (2020)

Diversity within mutualist guilds promotes coexistence and reduces the risk of invasion from an alien mutualist.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1923):20192312.

Biodiversity is an important component of healthy ecosystems, and thus understanding the mechanisms behind species coexistence is critical in ecology and conservation biology. In particular, few studies have focused on the dynamics resulting from the co-occurrence of mutualistic and competitive interactions within a group of species. Here we build a mathematical model to study the dynamics of a guild of competitors who are also engaged in mutualistic interactions with a common partner. We show that coexistence as well as competitive exclusion can occur depending on the competition strength and on strength of the mutualistic interactions, and we formulate concrete criteria for predicting invasion success of an alien mutualist based on propagule pressure, alien traits (such as its resource exchange ability) and composition of the recipient community. We find that intra guild diversity promotes the coexistence of species that would otherwise competitively exclude each other, and makes a guild less vulnerable to invasion. Our results can serve as a useful framework to predict the consequences of species manipulation in mutualistic communities.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Eble JA, Daly-Engel TS, DiBattista JD, et al (2020)

Marine environmental DNA: Approaches, applications, and opportunities.

Advances in marine biology, 86(1):141-169.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used to document species distributions and habitat use in marine systems, with much of the recent effort focused on leveraging advances in next-generation DNA sequencing to assess and track biodiversity across taxonomic groups. Environmental DNA offers a number of important advantages over traditional survey techniques, including non-invasive sampling, sampling where traditional approaches are impractical or inefficient (e.g. deep oceans), reduced cost, and increased detection sensitivity. However, eDNA applications are currently limited because of an insufficient understanding of the influence of sample source, analytical approach, and marker type on eDNA detections. Because approaches vary considerably among eDNA studies, we present a summary of the current state of the field and emerging best practices. The impact of observed variation in rates of eDNA production, persistence, and transport are also discussed and future research needs are highlighted with the goal of expanding eDNA applications, including the development of statistical models to improve the predictability of eDNA detection and quantification.

RevDate: 2020-06-29

Sherpa S, Renaud J, Guéguen M, et al (2020)

Landscape does matter: disentangling founder effects from natural and human-aided post-introduction dispersal during an ongoing biological invasion.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental features impacting the spread of invasive species after introduction can be assessed using population genetic structure as a quantitative estimation of effective dispersal at the landscape scale. However, in the case of an ongoing biological invasion, deciphering whether genetic structure represents landscape connectivity or founder effects is particularly challenging. We examined the modes of dispersal (natural and human-aided) and the factors (landscape or founders history) shaping genetic structure in range edge invasive populations of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the region of Grenoble (Southeast France). Based on detailed occupancy-detection data and environmental variables (climatic, topographic, land-cover), we modelled A. albopictus potential suitable area and its expansion history since first introduction. The relative role of dispersal modes was estimated using biological dispersal capabilities and landscape genetics approaches using genome-wide SNP dataset. We demonstrate that both natural and human-aided dispersal have promoted the expansion of populations. Populations in diffuse urban areas, representing highly suitable habitat for A. albopictus, tend to disperse less, while roads facilitate long-distance dispersal. Yet demographic bottlenecks during introduction played a major role in shaping the genetic variability of these range edge populations. The present study is one of the few investigating the role of founder effects and ongoing expansion processes in shaping spatial patterns of genetic variation in an invasive species at the landscape scale. The combination of several dispersal modes and large proportions of continuous suitable habitats for A. albopictus promoted range filling of almost its entire potential distribution in the region of Grenoble only few years after introduction.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Li J, Yu Z, Choo S, et al (2020)

Chemico-Proteomics Reveal the Enhancement of Salt Tolerance in an Invasive Plant Species via H2S Signaling.

ACS omega, 5(24):14575-14585.

H2S is a small molecule known to have multiple signaling roles in animals. Recently, evidence shows that H2S also has signaling functions in plants; however, the role of H2S in invasive plants is unknown. Spartina alterniflora is a typical invasive species growing along the beaches of southern China. A physiological comparison proves that S. alterniflora is highly tolerant to salinity stress compared with the native species Cyperus malaccensis. To decipher the mechanism that enables S. alterniflora to withstand salinity stress, a chemico-proteomics analysis was performed to examine the salt stress response of the two species; an inhibitor experiment was additionally designed to investigate H2S signaling on salinity tolerance in S. alterniflora. A total of 86 proteins belonging to nine categories were identified and differentially expressed in S. alterniflora exposed to salt stress. Moreover, the expression level of enzymes responsible for the H2S biosynthesis was markedly upregulated, indicating the potential role of H2S signaling in the plant's response to salt stress. The results suggested that salt triggered l-CD enzyme activity and induced the production of H2S, therefore upregulating expression of the antioxidants ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, which mitigates damage from reactive nitrogen species. Additionally, H2S reduced the potassium efflux, thereby sustaining intracellular sodium/potassium ion homeostasis and enhancing S. alterniflora salt tolerance. These findings indicate that H2S plays an important role in the adaptation of S. alterniflora to saline environments, which provides greater insight into the function of H2S signaling in the adaptation of an invasive plant species.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Sharifdini M, Amin OM, Ashrafi K, et al (2020)

Helminthes in Feral Raccoon (Procyon lotor) as an Alien Species in Iran.

Iranian journal of parasitology, 15(2):240-247.

Background: The raccoon, Procyon lotor Linn. (Procyonidae) is native to North and Central America but has been introduced in several European and Asian countries including Japan, Germany and Iran. Objective of this study was to determine frequency of gastrointestinal and tissue helminthes from feral raccoons in Iran.

Methods: During 2015-2017, 30 feral raccoons including 12 males and 18 females were collected from Guilan Province, northern Iran (the only region in Iran where raccoons are found). The gastrointestinal tracts and tissues such as lung, liver and muscles were examined for presence of helminthes.

Results: Twenty raccoons (66.7%) were found infected with five intestinal helminth species. The prevalence of infection with Strongyloides procyonis Little, 1966 (Nematoda) was 63.3%, Plagiorchis koreanus Ogata, 1938 (Trematoda) (13.3%), Centrorhynchus sp. Lühe, 1911 (Acanthocephala) (10.0%), Camerostrongylus didelphis Wolfgang, 1951 (Nematoda) (3.3%), and Spirocerca lupi Rudolphi, 1809 (Nematoda) (3.3%). No larvae or adult worms were found in other tissues of the examined raccoons.

Conclusion: Most of the raccoons were infected with S. procyonis. The public health importance of zoonotic parasites transmittable through raccoons, the rapid control and decrease of raccoon populations and their distribution in Iran are also discussed.

RevDate: 2020-06-28

Yang QQ, He C, Liu GF, et al (2020)

Introgressive hybridization between two nonnative apple snails in China: widespread hybridization and homogenization in egg morphology.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Apple snails from the genus Pomacea have spread widely in paddy fields and other wetlands of southern China since their introduction in the 1980s. Pomacea spp. are commonly identified using mitochondrial COI sequences. However, sequencing the nuclear EF1α gene revealed genetic introgression between field populations of P. canaliculata and P. maculata, which produce surviving hybrids in laboratory crossbreeding experiments.

RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced 1054 EF1α clones to design specific primers and established a fast and accurate multiplex PCR method for genotyping EF1α. Combined with genotyping P. canaliculata and P. maculata based on COI sequences, we revealed the genetic introgression patterns of 30 Pomacea populations in China. Purebred and hybrid individuals of P. canaliculata were widely distributed, while pure maculata-EF1α type was detected only in a few individuals identified as P. canaliculata based on COI sequences. Each egg clutch had one to three genetic patterns, indicating multiple paternity or segregation in the progeny of hybrids. The higher percentages of hybrids in both wild populations and progeny than the homozygotes indicated a potential heterosis in the apple snail populations. Additionally, egg size and clutch size of the apple snails became homogeneous among the nonnative populations exhibiting introgression hybridization.

CONCLUSION: Our findings emphasize the value of apple snails as a model to study the mechanisms and impacts of introgressive hybridization on fitness traits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Chen L, Fang K, Dong XF, et al (2020)

Characterization of the fungal community in the canopy air of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora and its potential to cause plant diseases.

PloS one, 15(3):e0230822.

Airborne fungi and their ecological functions have been largely ignored in plant invasions. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to characterize the airborne fungi in the canopy air of the invasive weed Ageratina adenophora. Then, representative phytopathogenic strains were isolated from A. adenophora leaf spots and their virulence to A.adenophora as well as common native plants in the invaded range was tested. The fungal alpha diversities were not different between the sampling sites or between the high/low part of the canopy air, but fungal co-occurrences were less common in the high than in the low part of the canopy air. Interestingly, we found that the phytopathogenic Didymellaceae fungi co-occurred more frequently with themselves than with other fungi. Disease experiments indicated that all 5 Didymellaceae strains could infect A. adenophora as well as the 16 tested native plants and that there was large variation in the virulence and host range. Our data suggested that the diverse pathogens in the canopy air might be a disease infection source that weakens the competition of invasive weeds, a novel phenomenon that remains to be explored in other invasive plants.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Egan SL, Taylor CL, Austen JM, et al (2020)

Molecular identification of the Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi clade in black rats (Rattus rattus) from Australia.

Parasitology research, 119(5):1691-1696.

Invasive rodent species are known hosts for a diverse range of infectious microorganisms and have long been associated with the spread of disease globally. The present study describes molecular evidence for the presence of a Trypanosoma sp. from black rats (Rattus rattus) in northern Sydney, Australia. Sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus were obtained in two out of eleven (18%) blood samples with subsequent phylogenetic analysis confirming the identity within the Trypanosoma lewisi clade.

RevDate: 2020-06-30
CmpDate: 2020-06-30

Wesselmann M, Anton A, Duarte CM, et al (2020)

Tropical seagrass Halophila stipulacea shifts thermal tolerance during Mediterranean invasion.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1922):20193001.

Exotic species often face new environmental conditions that are different from those that they are adapted to. The tropical seagrass Halophila stipulacea is a Lessepsian migrant that colonized the Mediterranean Sea around 100 years ago, where at present the minimum seawater temperature is cooler than in its native range in the Red Sea. Here, we tested if the temperature range in which H. stipulacea can exist is conserved within the species or if the exotic populations have shifted their thermal breadth and optimum due to the cooler conditions in the Mediterranean. We did so by comparing the thermal niche (e.g. optimal temperatures, and upper and lower thermal limits) of native (Saudi Arabia in the Red Sea) and exotic (Greece and Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea) populations of H. stipulacea. We exposed plants to 12 temperature treatments ranging from 8 to 40°C for 7 days. At the end of the incubation period, we measured survival, rhizome elongation, shoot recruitment, net population growth and metabolic rates. Upper and lower lethal thermal thresholds (indicated by 50% plant mortality) were conserved across populations, but minimum and optimal temperatures for growth and oxygen production were lower for Mediterranean populations than for the Red Sea one. The displacement of the thermal niche of exotic populations towards the colder Mediterranean Sea regime could have occurred within 175 clonal generations.

RevDate: 2020-06-27

Ferrão-Filho AS, Pereira UJ, Vilar MCP, et al (2020)

Can small-bodied Daphnia control Raphidiopsis raciborskii in eutrophic tropical lakes? A mesocosm experiment.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-020-09737-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Raphidiopsis raciborskii is being considered an expanding, invasive species all over the world. It is a potentially toxin producer cyanobacterium and form blooms specially in (sub)tropical lakes, causing concern to public health. Thus, controlling such phenomena are of vital importance. To test the hypothesis that a tropical clone of Daphnia laevis is able to reduce the biomass of R. raciborskii, we performed a mesocosm experiment simulating a bloom of this cyanobacterium in field conditions and exposing it to ecologically relevant densities of daphniids. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that omnivorous fish would be able to exert a top-down effect on Daphnia, decreasing the effectiveness of this control. We used treatments with (10 and 20 Daphnia L-1) or without Daphnia and fish (3 per mesocosm). Daphnia was able to significantly reduce the biomass of R. raciborskii only at the highest density tested. Fish had low effect on Daphnia biomass, but it is suggested that nutrient recycling by fish might have contributed to the higher R. raciborskii biomass in fish treatments. This is the first evidence of Daphnia control over saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria in a tropical ecosystem.

RevDate: 2020-06-26

Pyšek P, Hulme PE, Simberloff D, et al (2020)

Scientists' warning on invasive alien species.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species - the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods - are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are exacerbating current invasions and facilitating new ones, thereby escalating the extent and impacts of invaders. Invasions have complex and often immense long-term direct and indirect impacts. In many cases, such impacts become apparent or problematic only when invaders are well established and have large ranges. Invasive alien species break down biogeographic realms, affect native species richness and abundance, increase the risk of native species extinction, affect the genetic composition of native populations, change native animal behaviour, alter phylogenetic diversity across communities, and modify trophic networks. Many invasive alien species also change ecosystem functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services by altering nutrient and contaminant cycling, hydrology, habitat structure, and disturbance regimes. These biodiversity and ecosystem impacts are accelerating and will increase further in the future. Scientific evidence has identified policy strategies to reduce future invasions, but these strategies are often insufficiently implemented. For some nations, notably Australia and New Zealand, biosecurity has become a national priority. There have been long-term successes, such as eradication of rats and cats on increasingly large islands and biological control of weeds across continental areas. However, in many countries, invasions receive little attention. Improved international cooperation is crucial to reduce the impacts of invasive alien species on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human livelihoods. Countries can strengthen their biosecurity regulations to implement and enforce more effective management strategies that should also address other global changes that interact with invasions.

RevDate: 2020-06-26
CmpDate: 2020-06-26

Uyan U, Oh CW, Tarkan AS, et al (2020)

Risk screening of the potential invasiveness of non-native marine fishes for South Korean coastal waters.

Marine pollution bulletin, 153:111018.

Risk screening tools are being increasingly used to identify the potential invasiveness and associated risks of non-native species. In this study, the Aquatic Species Invasiveness Screening Kit was used to evaluate the invasiveness risks of extant and horizon non-native marine fish species for the coastal waters of South Korea. In total, 57 marine fish species were screened and the threshold scores for the Basic Risk Assessment (BRA) and the BRA + Climate Change Assessment (BRA+CCA) (5.5 and 1.5, respectively) reliably distinguished those species carrying a high risk of invasiveness from those carrying a low to medium risk. For both the BRA and BRA+CCA, common lionfish Pterois miles was the highest-scoring species, followed by white perch Morone americana, red drum Sciaenops ocellatus, marbled spinefoot Siganus rivulatus and redcoat Sargocentron rubrum. The outcomes of this study will contribute to the management of non-native marine fish species for the conservation of the native ecosystems in the coastal waters of South Korea.

RevDate: 2020-06-26
CmpDate: 2020-06-26

Gleditsch JM, JH Sperry (2019)

Rapid morphological change of nonnative frugivores on the Hawaiian island of O'ahu.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 73(7):1456-1465.

Novel ecosystems have become widespread created, in part, by the global spread of species. The nonnative species in these environments can be under intense evolutionary pressures that cause rapid morphological change, which can then influence species interactions. In Hawaii, much of the native frugivore community is extinct, replaced by nonnative bird species. Here, we determined if the passerine species of the nonnative frugivore community on O'ahu have morphologically diverged from their native ranges. We compared a variety of traits, all important for frugivory, between museum specimens from the species' native ranges to wild individuals from O'ahu. All four species tested exhibited significant divergence ranging in magnitude from 2.3% to 13.0% difference in at least two traits. Using a method developed from quantitative genetics, we found evidence that a mixture of nonadaptive and adaptive processes worked in concert to create the observed patterns of divergence. Our results suggest that rapid morphological change is occurring and, based on the traits measured, that these changes may influence seed dispersal effectiveness. As these species are largely responsible for seed dispersal on the island, the rapid morphological change of these species can influence the stability and maintenance of plant communities on O'ahu.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Helsen K, Acharya KP, Graae BJ, et al (2020)

Earlier onset of flowering and increased reproductive allocation of an annual invasive plant in the north of its novel range.

Annals of botany pii:5862362 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It remains unclear whether invasive species can maintain both high biomass and reproductive output across their invaded range. Along latitudinal gradients, allocation theory predicts that faster flowering onset at high latitudes results in maturation at smaller size and thus reduced reproductive output. For annual invasive plants, more favourable environmental conditions at low latitudes likely result in stronger competition of co-occurring species, potentially driving selection for higher investment in vegetative biomass, while harsher climatic conditions and associated reproductive uncertainty at higher latitudes could reduce selection for vegetative biomass and increased selection for high reproductive investment (stress-gradient hypothesis). Combined, these drivers could result in increased or constant reproductive allocation with increasing latitude.

METHODS: We quantified life-history traits in the invasive annual plant Impatiens glandulifera along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. By growing two successive greenhouse generations, we assessed genetic differentiation in vegetative growth and reproductive output across six populations, and tested whether onset of flowering drives this divergence.

KEY RESULTS: Trait variation was mainly caused by genetic differentiation. As expected, flowering onset was progressively earlier in populations from higher latitudes. Plant height and vegetative biomass also decreased in populations from higher latitudes, as predicted by the allocation theory, but their variation was independent of the variation in flowering onset. Reproductive output remained constant across latitudes, resulting in increased reproductive allocation towards higher latitudes, supporting the stress-gradient hypothesis. We also observed trait genetic differentiation among populations that was independent of latitude.

CONCLUSIONS: We show that an annual invasive plant evolved several life-history traits across its invaded range in ca. 150 years. The evolution of vegetative and reproductive traits seems unconstrained by evolution of flowering onset. This genetic decoupling between vegetative and reproductive traits possibly contributes to the invasion success of this species.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Dzido J, Rolbiecki L, Izdebska JN, et al (2020)

Checklist of the parasites of European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) (Anguillidae) in Poland.

Biodiversity data journal, 8:e52346 pii:52346.

The present paper lists all parasite species of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), recorded in Poland, in both its saltwater and freshwater habitats. The list has been drawn up, based on data acquired since 1844. The majority of included parasite species are presented with fish infection parameters together with data on their developmental stages and occupied microhabitats, localities and dates of collection of the eels themselves. The database includes 62 parasite taxa (including 50 species, nine identified to the genus level and three to higher taxa), representing at least 47 genera and 39 families. The most frequently-noted parasites of the European eel are the cestode Bothriocephalus claviceps, the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, Camallanus lacustris and Raphidascaris acus and the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii. Four alien species have been noted from this host: A. crassus, the monogeneans Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and the acanthocephalan Paratenuisentis ambiguus. The present list includes both new host records and earlier records not included in previous lists of parasites of eels.

RevDate: 2020-06-25

Vega-Rúa A, Marconcini M, Madec Y, et al (2020)

Vector competence of Aedes albopictus populations for chikungunya virus is shaped by their demographic history.

Communications biology, 3(1):326 pii:10.1038/s42003-020-1046-6.

The mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most dangerous invasive species. Its worldwide spread has created health concerns as it is a major vector of arboviruses of public health significance such as chikungunya (CHIKV). Dynamics of different genetic backgrounds and admixture events may have impacted competence for CHIKV in adventive populations. Using microsatellites, we infer the genetic structure of populations across the expansion areas that we then associate with their competence for different CHIKV genotypes. Here we show that the demographic history of Ae. albopictus populations is a consequence of rapid complex patterns of historical lineage diversification and divergence that influenced their competence for CHIKV. The history of adventive populations is associated with CHIKV genotypes in a genotype-by-genotype interaction that impacts their vector competence. Thus, knowledge of the demographic history and vector competence of invasive mosquitoes is pivotal for assessing the risk of arbovirus outbreaks in newly colonized areas.

RevDate: 2020-06-25
CmpDate: 2020-06-25

Cabezas MP, Lasso-Alcalá OM, Xavier R, et al (2020)

First genetic record of the non-native muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Teleostei: Blenniidae) in the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America.

Journal of fish biology, 96(3):841-846.

In this study we sequenced two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear (18S rRNA) gene fragment of an introduced muzzled blenny (Omobranchus punctatus) specimen collected from the Orinoco Delta (Gulf of Paria estuary) in Venezuela. This is the first genetic data generated for this species' introduced range in Central and South America, suggesting an introduction from the Indian Ocean.

RevDate: 2020-06-25
CmpDate: 2020-06-25

McLeish J, Briers RA, Dodd JA, et al (2020)

First genetic evidence that invasive bullhead (Cottus L. 1758) in Scotland is of English origin and the difficulty of resolving the European Cottus species taxonomy.

Journal of fish biology, 96(3):617-630.

The European bullhead (Cottus gobio) is widely distributed across Europe, and within the UK is native to England and Wales, where it is protected under the Habitats Directive. In Scotland, however, the species is considered invasive and thriving populations are recorded in the Forth and Clyde river catchments, and the Ale Water in the Scottish Borders. The genetic identity of the Scottish populations has not been established. There is also debate about the status of the European bullhead and its validity as single species, a species complex with several unresolved species, or distinct different species in its European distribution range. There is therefore a need to determine the taxonomy and likely source of the novel Scottish populations. Genetic analyses using cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) mitochondrial DNA sequences were undertaken on specimens from the Forth and Clyde catchments, and combined with the results of morphological characteristics to provide a comprehensive assessment of the taxonomic classification for Scottish bullheads. There was considerable variation in morphological characteristics between populations within Scotland and a wider range of variability than previously recorded for English populations. Genetically the Scottish populations were very closely related to English specimens, supporting the hypothesis of introduction directly from England to Scotland. In terms of broader relationships, Scottish specimens are genetically more closely related to the ostensible species Chabot fluviatile Cottus perifretum, which has been suggested as one of a complex of species across Europe. Morphologically they exhibit characteristics on the spectrum between C. perifretum and C. gobio. There is an urgent need for the clarification of the taxonomy of Cottus sp(p). to avoid confusion in future publications, legislation and management practices relating to bullheads throughout the UK and Europe.

RevDate: 2020-06-25
CmpDate: 2020-06-25

Kadye WT, AJ Booth (2020)

Environmental niche patterns of native and non-native fishes within an invaded African river system.

Journal of fish biology, 96(5):1269-1277.

To test ecological niche theory, this study investigated the spatial patterns and the environmental niches of native and non-native fishes within the invaded Great Fish River system, South Africa. For the native fishes, there were contrasting environmental niche breadths that varied from being small to being large and overlapped for most species, except minnows that were restricted to headwater tributaries. In addition, there was high niche overlap in habitat association among fishes with similar distribution. It was therefore inferred that habitat filtering-driven spatial organisation was important in explaining native species distribution patterns. In comparison, most non-native fishes were found to have broad environmental niches and these fishes showed high tolerance to environmental conditions, which generally supported the niche opportunity hypothesis. The proliferation of multiple non-native fishes in the mainstem section suggest that they form a functional assemblage that is probably facilitated by the anthropogenic modification of flow regimes through inter-basin water transfer. Based on the distribution patterns observed in the study, it was inferred that there was a likelihood of negative interactions between native and non-native fishes. Such effects are likely to be exacerbated by altered flow regime that was likely to have negative implications for native ichthyofauna.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Phillips LM, Aitkenhead I, Janion-Scheepers C, et al (2020)

Basal tolerance but not plasticity gives invasive springtails the advantage in an assemblage setting.

Conservation physiology, 8(1):coaa049 pii:coaa049.

As global climates change, alien species are anticipated to have a growing advantage relative to their indigenous counterparts, mediated through consistent trait differences between the groups. These insights have largely been developed based on interspecific comparisons using multiple species examined from different locations. Whether such consistent physiological trait differences are present within assemblages is not well understood, especially for animals. Yet, it is at the assemblage level that interactions play out. Here, we examine whether physiological trait differences observed at the interspecific level are also applicable to assemblages. We focus on the Collembola, an important component of the soil fauna characterized by invasions globally, and five traits related to fitness: critical thermal maximum, minimum and range, desiccation resistance and egg development rate. We test the predictions that the alien component of a local assemblage has greater basal physiological tolerances or higher rates, and more pronounced phenotypic plasticity than the indigenous component. Basal critical thermal maximum, thermal tolerance range, desiccation resistance, optimum temperature for egg development, the rate of development at that optimum and the upper temperature limiting egg hatching success are all significantly higher, on average, for the alien than the indigenous components of the assemblage. Outcomes for critical thermal minimum are variable. No significant differences in phenotypic plasticity exist between the alien and indigenous components of the assemblage. These results are consistent with previous interspecific studies investigating basal thermal tolerance limits and development rates and their phenotypic plasticity, in arthropods, but are inconsistent with results from previous work on desiccation resistance. Thus, for the Collembola, the anticipated advantage of alien over indigenous species under warming and drying is likely to be manifest in local assemblages, globally.

RevDate: 2020-06-24

Luz R, Cordeiro R, Vilaverde J, et al (2020)

Cyanobacteria from freshwater lakes in the Azores archipelago, Portugal: data from long term phytoplankton monitoring.

Biodiversity data journal, 8:e51928 pii:51928.

Background: The Azores are oceanic islands located in the Northern Atlantic Ocean and are particularly rich in aquatic systems, ranging from freshwater, brackish, marine and thermal habitats. Due to the increase in local anthropogenic pressures and global warming, several azorean lakes began to reveal signs of eutrophication that led to the implementation of monitoring programmes and management strategies on the most impacted lakes. Later, the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) demanded the establishment of biomonitoring programmes for European freshwater ecosystems and the limited Azorean monitoring programmes were extended to a larger set of lakes. Since the establishment of the aquatic systems monitoring programme in the Azores archipelago, lakes have been regularly sampled, producing innumerous unpublished records of cyanobacteria that are difficult to access.

New information: Here we present the occurrences of cyanobacteria in Azorean lakes that result from 22 years of phytoplankton monitoring in a total of 1948 cyanobacteria occurrences from 968 phytoplankton sampling events on Azorean lakes done between 1996 and 2018 as part of regional inland aquatic ecosystems monitoring programmes. Forty two cyanobacteria taxa were identified in those events, 28 species and 14 at genus level. This information is crucial for conservation, biodiversity studies and lake management, as some of the cyanobacteria species present are bloom-forming and have the ability to produce toxins. This will also allow for the identification of invasive species and possible targeted control and mitigation programmes, according to the species present in the Azorean lakes.

RevDate: 2020-06-24
CmpDate: 2020-06-24

Collins CL, Burnett NP, Ramsey MJ, et al (2020)

Physiological responses to heat stress in an invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis depend on tidal habitat.

Marine environmental research, 154:104849.

Mussels are ecologically important organisms that can survive in subtidal and intertidal zones where they experience thermal stress. We know little about how mussels from different tidal habitats respond to thermal stress. We used the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from separate subtidal and intertidal populations to test whether heart rate and indicators of potential aerobic (citrate synthase activity) and anaerobic (cytosolic malate dehydrogenase activity) metabolic capacity are affected by increased temperatures while exposed to air or submerged in water. Subtidal mussels were affected by warming when submerged in water (decreased heart rate) but showed no effect in air. In contrast, intertidal mussels were affected by exposure to air (increased anaerobic capacity) but not by warming. Overall, physiological responses of mussels to thermal stress were dependent on their tidal habitat. These results highlight the importance of considering the natural habitat of mussels when assessing their responses to environmental challenges.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Rentería-Solís Z, Meyer-Kayser E, Obiegala A, et al (2020)

Cryptosporidium sp. skunk genotype in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) naturally infected with Baylisascaris procyonis from Central Germany.

Parasitology international pii:S1383-5769(20)30109-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan parasites of public health concern. They are one of the main causes of intestinal diseases in humans and animals. Contaminated water is among the main sources of infection for humans and mammals. Raccoons are an introduced species in Germany. They are anthropogenic adapters with a natural affinity for water bodies. We collected samples from wild raccoons in the Federal States of Saxony and Thuringia, Central Germany. Through molecular genotyping, we found Cryptosporidium sp. skunk genotype in one raccoon from Saxony (1/24) and in one animal from Thuringia (1/27). Both raccoons were also infected with the zoonotic nematode Baylisascaris procyonis. This is the first report of co-infection with these two parasites in raccoons from Germany. Our study highlights the potential of these animals as carriers of zoonotic pathogens. Since raccoons can thrive in human settlements, this study provides data that can be used as a baseline for preventive programs.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Price CJ, Banks PB, Brown S, et al (2020)

Invasive mammalian predators habituate to and generalize avian prey cues: a mechanism for conserving native prey.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive mammalian predators can cause the decline and extinction of vulnerable native species. Many invasive mammalian predators are dietary generalists that hunt a variety of prey. These predators often rely upon olfaction when foraging, particularly at night. Little is understood about how prey odor cues are used to inform foraging decisions. Prey cues can vary spatially and temporally in their association with prey and can either reveal the location of prey or lead to unsuccessful foraging. Here we examine how two wild-caught invasive mammalian bird predator species (European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus and ferrets Mustela putorius furo) respond to unrewarded bird odors over successive exposures, first demonstrating that the odors are perceptually different using house mice (Mus musculus) as a biological olfactometer. We aim to test if introduced predators categorize odor cues of similar prey together, a tactic that could increase foraging efficiency. We exposed house mice to the odors using a standard habituation/dishabituation test in a laboratory setting, and wild-caught European hedgehogs and ferrets in an outdoor enclosure using a similar procedure. Mice discriminated among all bird odors presented, showing more interest in chicken odor than quail or gull odor. Both predator species showed a decline in interest towards unrewarded prey odor (i.e., habituation), but only ferrets generalized their response from one unrewarded bird odor to another bird odor. Hedgehog responses to unrewarded bird odors were highly variable between individuals. Taken together, our results reveal interspecific and intraspecific differences in response to prey odors, which we argue are a consequence of different diet breadth, life and evolutionary histories, and the conditions in each experiment. Generalization of prey odors may have enabled some species of invasive predators to efficiently hunt a range of intraguild prey species, for example, ground-nesting shorebirds. Olfactory manipulation of predators may be a useful conservation tool for threatened prey if it reduces the conspicuousness of vulnerable prey.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Rothstein AP, Knapp RA, Bradburd G, et al (2020)

Stepping into the past to conserve the future: archived skin swabs from extant and extirpated populations inform genetic management of an endangered amphibian.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Moving animals on a landscape through translocations and reintroductions is an important management tool used in the recovery of endangered species, particularly for the maintenance of population genetic diversity and structure. Management of imperiled amphibian species rely heavily on translocations and reintroductions, especially for species that have been brought to the brink of extinction by habitat loss, introduced species, and disease. One striking example of amphibian declines and associated management efforts is in California's Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks with the mountain yellow-legged frog species complex (Rana sierrae/muscosa). Mountain yellow-legged frogs have been extirpated from more than 93% of their historic range, and limited knowledge of their population genetics has made long-term conservation planning difficult. To address this, we used 598 archived skin swabs from both extant and extirpated populations across 48 lake basins to generate a robust Illumina-based nuclear amplicon dataset. We found that samples grouped into three main genetic clusters, concordant with watershed boundaries. We also found evidence for historical gene flow across watershed boundaries with a north-to-south axis of migration. Finally, our results indicate that genetic diversity is not significantly different between populations with different disease histories. Our study offers specific management recommendations for imperiled mountain yellow-legged frogs and, more broadly, provides a population genetic framework for leveraging minimally invasive samples for the conservation of threatened species.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Haubrock PJ, Cuthbert RN, Veselý L, et al (2020)

Predatory functional responses under increasing temperatures of two life stages of an invasive gecko.

Scientific reports, 10(1):10119 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-67194-0.

The direct effects of temperature increases and differences among life-history might affect the impacts of native and invasive predators on recipient communities. Comparisons of functional responses can improve our understanding of underlying processes involved in altering species interaction strengths and may predict the effect of species invading new communities. Therefore, we investigated the functional responses of the mourning gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Duméril & Bibron, 1836) to explore how temperature, body-size and prey density alter gecko predatory impacts in ecosystems. We quantified the functional responses of juvenile and adult geckos in single-predator experiments at 20, 23 and 26 °C. Both displayed saturating Type-II functional responses, but juvenile functional responses and the novel Functional Response Ratio were positively affected by temperature as juvenile attack rates (a) increased as a function of increased temperature. Handling times (h) tended to shorten at higher temperature for both predator stages. We demonstrate that the effects of temperature on functional responses of geckos differ across ontogeny, perhaps reflecting life-history stages prioritising growth and maturation or body maintenance. This indicates that temperature-dependent gecko predatory impacts will be mediated by population demographics. We advocate further comparisons of functional responses to understand the invasiveness and future predatory impacts of geckos, and other invasive species globally, as temperatures change.

RevDate: 2020-06-23

Schratzberger M, PJ Somerfield (2020)

Effects of widespread human disturbances in the marine environment suggest a new agenda for meiofauna research is needed.

The Science of the total environment, 728:138435.

The response of an ecological community to a disturbance event, and its capacity to recover, are of major interest to ecologists, especially at a time of increasing frequencies and intensities of environmental change brought about by humans. Meiofauna, a group of small-sized organisms, are an abundant and ubiquitous component of seafloor communities that respond rapidly to environmental change. We summarise the available research on the response of metazoan meiofauna to the most widespread anthropogenic disturbances in the marine environment, including bottom fishing, the introduction of invasive species and anthropogenic climate change. We show that disturbance effects on habitats interact critically with effects on resident meiofauna species. Their responses are consistent with competitive replacement, where disparate disturbance effects on competing species drive shifts in dominance and intra- and interspecific interactions. The widespread replacement of habitat-specific ecological specialists by broadly-adapted ecological generalists and opportunists results in biotic and functional homogenisation of once disparate biotas. Anthropogenic disturbances may facilitate novel interactions among meiofauna species, and between meiofauna and other benthic organisms, but the number and breadth of these interactions is likely to be limited. Knowledge about the dependence of meiofauna species on their environment and on other benthic species has been growing. Future studies will be most meaningful if this knowledge is expanded alongside understanding the potential of locally adapted species to respond to shifts in environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Terblanche JS, AA Hoffmann (2020)

Validating measurements of acclimation for climate change adaptation.

Current opinion in insect science, 41:7-16 pii:S2214-5745(20)30051-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Acclimation and other forms of plasticity that can increase stress resistance feature strongly in discussions surrounding climate change impacts or vulnerability projections of insects and other ectotherms. There is interest in compiling databases for assessing the adequacy of acclimation for dealing with climate change. Here, we argue that the nature of acclimation is context dependent and therefore that estimates summarised across studies, especially those that have assayed stress using diverse methods, are limited in their utility when applied as a standardized metric or to a single general context such as average climate warming. Moreover, the dynamic nature of tolerances and acclimation drives important variation that is quickly obscured through many summary statistics or even in effect size analyses; retaining a strong focus on the temporal-level, population-level and treatment-level variance in forecasting climate change impacts on insects is essential. We summarise recent developments within the context of climate change and propose how future studies might validate the role of acclimation by integration across field studies and mechanistic modelling. Despite arguments to the contrary, to date no studies have convincingly demonstrated an important role for acclimation in recent climate change adaptation of insects. Paramount to these discussions is i) developing a strong conceptual framework for acclimation in the focal trait(s), ii) obtaining novel empirical data dissecting the fitness benefits and consequences of acclimation across diverse contexts and timescales, with iii) better coverage of under-represented geographic regions and taxa.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Pacífico EC, Efstathion CA, Filadelfo T, et al (2020)

Experimental removal of invasive Africanized honey bees increased breeding population size of the endangered Lear's macaw.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Invasive Africanized honey bees potentially compete with cavity-nesting birds in South America. However, the impacts caused by this competition and its conservation consequences to threatened species are poorly known. We quantified the presence of these bees and assessed its competition for cliff cavities used by nesting Lear's macaws Anodorhynchus leari, a globally endangered parrot endemic to the Caatinga biome of Brazil. We treated bee hives with permethrin by shooting them with a crossbow bolt which distributed the compound upon impact. When feasible, we removed the comb and applied an insecticide (fipronil) to deter bee recolonization. We subsequently surveyed the macaw breeding population to verify whether our treatment allowed for the nest recruitment in cavities previously occupied by bees.

RESULTS: We recorded >100 bee hives in the nesting cliffs. Hives outnumbered the macaw nests tenfold in two areas recently recolonized by the macaws. Cavities occupied by bees were significantly higher than those occupied by macaws, suggesting macaws may be forced to breed in lower cavities. None of the untreated bee-cavities (n = 50) were occupied by nesting macaws, while 15% of treated cavities (n = 52) were occupied within two years post treatment. Treated cavities occupied by macaws were significantly higher than those not occupied. Hive management was responsible for 71% of the macaw breeding population increase.

CONCLUSION: Experimental hive treatments were effective in restoring nesting resources lost due to bee infestation. An intensive and continued eradication program is recommended to enhance macaw's habitat restoration, facilitating its expansion into historical areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Infante-Izquierdo MD, Polo-Ávila A, Sanjosé I, et al (2020)

Effects of heavy metal pollution on germination and early seedling growth in native and invasive Spartina cordgrasses.

Marine pollution bulletin, 158:111376 pii:S0025-326X(20)30494-X [Epub ahead of print].

Seed germination and seedling establishment are the stages most sensitive to abiotic stress in the plant life cycle. We analyzed the effects of copper, zinc and nickel on seed germination and early seedling growth of native Spartina maritima and invasive S. densiflora from polluted and non-polluted estuaries. Germination percentages for either species were not affected by any metal at any tested concentration (up to 2000 μM). However, the increase in metal concentration had negative effects on S. densiflora seedlings. The primary effect was on radicle development, representing initial seedling emergence. Spartina densiflora seedlings emerging from seeds from Tinto Estuary, characterized by high bioavailable metal loads, showed higher tolerance to metals than those from less polluted Odiel and Piedras Estuaries. Comparing our results to metal concentrations in the field, we expect S. densiflora seedling development would be negatively impacted in the most metal-polluted areas in Odiel and Tinto Estuaries.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Curtis AN, ER Larson (2020)

No evidence that crayfish carcasses produce detectable environmental DNA (eDNA) in a stream enclosure experiment.

PeerJ, 8:e9333 pii:9333.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging tool for monitoring invasive and imperiled species, particularly at low densities. However, the factors that control eDNA production, transport, and persistence in aquatic systems remain poorly understood. For example, the extent to which carcasses produce detectable eDNA is unknown. If positive detections are associated with dead organisms, this could confound monitoring for imperiled or invasive species. Here, we present results from one of the first studies to examine carcass eDNA in situ by deploying carcasses of the invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in a stream enclosure experiment for 28 days. We predicted that carcasses would initially produce eDNA that would decline over time as carcasses decayed. Unsurprisingly, crayfish carcasses lost biomass over time, but at the conclusion of our experiment much of the carapace and chelae remained. However, no eDNA of P. clarkii was detected in any of our samples at the crayfish density (15 P. clarkii carcasses at ∼615 g of biomass initially), stream flow (520-20,319 L/s), or temperature (∼14-25 °C) at our site. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that these results were not the consequence of PCR inhibition in our field samples, poor performance of the eDNA assay for intraspecific genetic diversity within P. clarkii, or due to the preservation and extraction procedure used. Therefore, our results suggest that when crayfish are relatively rare, such as in cases of new invasive populations or endangered species, carcasses may not produce detectable eDNA. In such scenarios, positive detections from field studies may be more confidently attributed to the presence of live organisms. We recommend that future studies should explore how biomass, flow, and differences in system (lentic vs. lotic) influence the ability to detect eDNA from carcasses.

RevDate: 2020-06-22

Nicholson EG, Manzo S, Devereux Z, et al (2020)

Historical museum collections and contemporary population studies implicate roads and introduced predatory bullfrogs in the decline of western pond turtles.

PeerJ, 8:e9248 pii:9248.

The western pond turtle (WPT), recently separated into two paripatrically distributed species (Emys pallida and Emys marmorata), is experiencing significant reductions in its range and population size. In addition to habitat loss, two potential causes of decline are female-biased road mortality and high juvenile mortality from non-native predatory bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). However, quantitative analyses of these threats have never been conducted for either species of WPT. We used a combination of historical museum samples and published and unpublished field studies shared with us through personal communications with WPT field researchers (B. Shaffer, P. Scott, R. Fisher, C. Brown, R. Dagit, L. Patterson, T. Engstrom, 2019, personal communications) to quantify the effect of roads and bullfrogs on WPT populations along the west coast of the United States. Both species of WPT shift toward increasingly male biased museum collections over the last century, a trend consistent with increasing, female-biased road mortality. Recent WPT population studies revealed that road density and proximity were significantly associated with increasingly male-biased sex ratios, further suggesting female-biased road mortality. The mean body size of museum collections of E. marmorata, but not E. pallida, has increased over the last 100 years, consistent with reduced recruitment and aging populations that could be driven by invasive predators. Contemporary WPT population sites that co-occur with bullfrogs had significantly greater average body sizes than population sites without bullfrogs, suggesting strong bullfrog predation on small WPT hatchlings and juveniles. Overall, our findings indicate that both species of WPT face demographic challenges which would have been difficult to document without the use of both historical data from natural history collections and contemporary demographic field data. Although correlational, our analyses suggest that female-biased road mortality and predation on small turtles by non-native bullfrogs are occurring, and that conservation strategies reducing both may be important for WPT recovery.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Pelegrín M, Sáez-Tovar JA, Andreu-Rodríguez J, et al (2018)

Composting of the invasive species Arundo donax with sewage and agri-food sludge: Agronomic, economic and environmental aspects.

Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 78:730-740.

This work evaluates several co-composting scenarios based on the use of Arundo donax biomass (AD) as bulking agent for the co-composting of sewage sludge (MS) and agri-food sludge (AS), to manage these organic wastes and to produce balanced organic fertilizers by optimizing the process. For this, six piles were prepared in commercial composting conditions, using AD in a range of 40%-80% (on a dry weight basis). Physico-chemical and chemical parameters and the thermal behaviour were evaluated during the process, as were the physical and chemical parameters of the final composts. The proportion of AD in the mixtures has a significant effect on the development of the thermophilic stage of composting, showing the piles with higher proportion of AD a quicker organic matter degradation. In addition, the evolution of the thermal indices R1 and R2 was different depending on the origin of the sludge used, indicating an increase in the relative concentration of more recalcitrant materials in the piles prepared with AS. The estimation of the global warming potential showed that the use of higher proportion of AD in the composting mixture may be a strategy to mitigate the emission of greenhouse gases during the composting process. Moreover, the end-products obtained had an additional marketable value, with a balanced nutrient content and a good degree of maturity, which indicates the viability of the composting process as a method for the stabilization of these organic wastes.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Díaz-Barradas MC, Gallego-Fernández JB, M Zunzunegui (2020)

Plant response to water stress of native and non-native Oenothera drummondii populations.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 154:219-228 pii:S0981-9428(20)30276-X [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive plants can spread over climatically diverse areas. We explore the effects of drought on gas exchange and water relations on the invasive dune species Oenothera drummondii, using plants from four populations with different rainfall and temperatures regimes. Plant material was obtained germinating plants from one native and three non-native populations in a greenhouse. Drought stress was induced by withholding water. Responses to drought stressed plants were then compared to well-watered controls. Measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf traits were taken initially and every 10 days after water was withheld, until day 36 when plants were re-watered and recover capacity was measured. The effect of water stress was more evident in Fv/Fm and gas exchange variables. The results suggest that this species possess a mechanism of thermal dissipation of energy. Leaf relative water content was significant lower in drought stressed than control plants. At the end of withholding water period, stressed plants are separated from control plants along the axis I of the ordination analysis evidencing differences in functional traits. All plants recovered well after re-watering. Our results provide evidence for permanent differences in morphological traits and functional responses to drought stress among native and invasive populations of O. drummondii. Although we have only studied four populations, these results may provide evidence for the role of plasticity in contributing to the invasion success of this species.

RevDate: 2020-06-20

Liu C, Ye J, Lin Y, et al (2020)

Removal of Cadmium (II) using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) biochar alginate beads in aqueous solutions.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 264:114785.

Biochar produced from water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) has been demonstrated to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of certain heavy metals and as a means of control for this highly invasive species. This study involved examined the Cd2+ sorption dynamics of an alginate encapsulated water hyacinth biochar (BAC) generated at different temperatures and modified using ferric/ferrous sulfate (MBAC). The maximum Cd2+ sorption occurred at a pH of 6 and at a solution temperature of 37 °C. Sorption equilibria for the biochar-alginate capsule (BAC) and modified biochar-alginate capsule (MBAC) treatments fit both the Langmuir (R2 = 0.876 to 0.99) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.849 to 0.971) equations. Langmuir isotherms had a better fit than the Freundlich isotherms, with maximum sorption capacities ranging from 24.2 to 45.8 mg Cd2+ g-1. Larger KL values in Freundlich modeling suggest strong bonding of the BAC and MBAC sorbents to Cd2+, with values of KL in the MBAC treatments ranging between 31 and 178% greater than the BAC treatments. Cd2+ sorption followed pseudo first-order kinetics (R2 = 0.926 to 0.991) with greater efficiency of removal using treatments with biochar generated at temperatures >500 °C. Results from this study highlight the potential for biochar-alginate capsules derived from water hyacinth to be effective for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewaters.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Gong X, Chen Y, Wang T, et al (2020)

Double-edged effects of climate change on plant invasions: Ecological niche modeling global distributions of two invasive alien plants.

The Science of the total environment, 740:139933 pii:S0048-9697(20)33453-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The prediction of the potential distribution of invasive alien species is key for the control of their proliferation. This study developed ensemble niche models to explore the distribution patterns of Cecropia peltata and Ulex europaeus under baseline and future conditions, as well as the factors that regulate them. The models were based on occurrence records as well as climate, land-use and topography datasets. Climatic factors played a stronger role than land-use and topographical factors in their distribution patterns. Additionally, temperature seasonality and temperature annual range were the optimal predictor for the global distributions of C. peltata and U. europaeus, respectively. Under the baseline-RCP 8.5 scenario in 2070, significant increases in habitat suitability for C. peltata were generally detected in tropical regions, while for U. europaeus under the same condition, significant increases in habitat suitability were generally observed in west coast of South America and Europe, suggesting the impacts of climate changes on species distribution may be species specific. The contrast changes of suitable habitat areas for U. europaeus under the baseline-2.6 and 8.5 scenarios may suggest that the scenarios of climate changes may modify its distribution patterns and variations in suitable habitats. The double-edged effects of global warming on plant invasions may be a result of the scenario specific climate change and the species-specific responses to changes in climate. Our findings highlight the importance of climate change scenario specific and species-specific research on the impact of climate change on plant invasions.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Hardulak LA, Morinière J, Hausmann A, et al (2020)

DNA metabarcoding for biodiversity monitoring in a national park: screening for invasive and pest species.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

DNA metabarcoding was utilized for a large-scale, multi-year assessment of biodiversity in Malaise trap collections from the Bavarian Forest National Park (Germany, Bavaria). Principal Component Analysis of read count-based biodiversities revealed clustering in concordance with whether collection sites were located inside or outside of the National Park. Jaccard distance matrices of the presences of BINs at collection sites in the two survey years (2016 and 2018) were significantly correlated. Overall similar patterns in the presence of total arthropod BINs, as well as BINs belonging to four major arthropod orders across the study area, were observed in both survey years, and are also comparable with results of a previous study based on DNA barcoding of Sanger-sequenced specimens. A custom reference sequence library was assembled from publicly available data to screen for pest or invasive arthropods among the specimens or from the preservative ethanol. A single 98.6% match to the invasive bark beetle Ips duplicatus was detected in an ethanol sample. This species has not previously been detected in the National Park.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Clay TA, Joo R, Weimerskirch H, et al (2020)

Sex-specific effects of wind on the flight decisions of a sexually dimorphic soaring bird.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In a highly dynamic airspace, flying animals are predicted to adjust foraging behaviour to variable wind conditions to minimize movement costs. Sexual size dimorphism is widespread in wild animal populations, and for large soaring birds which rely on favourable winds for energy-efficient flight, differences in morphology, wing loading and associated flight capabilities may lead males and females to respond differently to wind. However, the interaction between wind and sex has not been comprehensively tested. We investigated, in a large sexually dimorphic seabird which predominantly uses dynamic soaring flight, whether flight decisions are modulated to variation in winds over extended foraging trips, and whether males and females differ. Using GPS loggers we tracked 385 incubation foraging trips of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans, for which males are c. 20% larger than females, from two major populations (Crozet and South Georgia). Hidden Markov models were used to characterize behavioural states-directed flight, area-restricted search (ARS) and resting-and model the probability of transitioning between states in response to wind speed and relative direction, and sex. Wind speed and relative direction were important predictors of state transitioning. Birds were much more likely to take off (i.e. switch from rest to flight) in stronger headwinds, and as wind speeds increased, to be in directed flight rather than ARS. Males from Crozet but not South Georgia experienced stronger winds than females, and males from both populations were more likely to take-off in windier conditions. Albatrosses appear to deploy an energy-saving strategy by modulating taking-off, their most energetically expensive behaviour, to favourable wind conditions. The behaviour of males, which have higher wing loading requiring faster speeds for gliding flight, was influenced to a greater degree by wind than females. As such, our results indicate that variation in flight performance drives sex differences in time-activity budgets and may lead the sexes to exploit regions with different wind regimes.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Sjodin BMF, Irvine RL, MA Russello (2020)

RapidRat: Development, validation and application of a genotyping-by-sequencing panel for rapid biosecurity and invasive species management.

PloS one, 15(6):e0234694 pii:PONE-D-20-00793.

Invasive alien species (IAS) are among the main causes of global biodiversity loss. Invasive brown (Rattus norvegicus) and black (R. rattus) rats, in particular, are leading drivers of extinction on islands, especially in the case of seabirds where >50% of all extinctions have been attributed to rat predation. Eradication is the primary form of invasive rat management, yet this strategy has resulted in a ~10-38% failure rate on islands globally. Genetic tools can help inform IAS management, but such applications to date have been largely reactive, time-consuming, and costly. Here, we developed a Genotyping-in-Thousands by sequencing (GT-seq) panel for rapid species identification and population assignment of invasive brown and black rats (RapidRat) in Haida Gwaii, an archipelago comprising ~150 islands off the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We constructed an optimized panel of 443 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using previously generated double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) genotypic data (27,686 SNPs) from brown (n = 295) and black rats (n = 241) sampled throughout Haida Gwaii. The informativeness of this panel for identifying individuals to species and island of origin was validated relative to the ddRAD results; in all comparisons, admixture coefficients and population assignments estimated using RapidRat were consistent. To demonstrate application, 20 individuals from novel invasions of three islands (Agglomerate, Hotspring, Ramsay) were genotyped using RapidRat, all of which were confidently assigned (>98.5% probability) to Faraday and Murchison Islands as putative source populations. These results indicated that a previous eradication on Hotspring Island was conducted at an inappropriate geographic scale; future management should expand the eradication unit to include neighboring islands to prevent re-invasion. Overall, we demonstrated that RapidRat is an effective tool for managing invasive rat populations in Haida Gwaii and provided a clear framework for GT-seq panel development for informing biodiversity conservation in other systems.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Ibabe A, Rayón F, Martinez JL, et al (2020)

Environmental DNA from plastic and textile marine litter detects exotic and nuisance species nearby ports.

PloS one, 15(6):e0228811 pii:PONE-D-19-21907.

Marine debris is currently a significant source of environmental and economic problems. Floating litter can be employed by marine organisms as a surface to attach to and use as spreading vector. Human activities are promoting the expansion of potentially harmful species into novel ecosystems, endangering autochthonous communities. In this project, more than 1,000 litter items were collected and classified from five beaches eastwards the port of Gijon, in Asturias, Spain. Next generation sequencing was employed to study biofouling communities attached to items of different materials. A dominance of DNA from Florideophyceae, Dinophyceae and Arthropoda was found, and four non-indigenous species (NIS) were identified. Results showed a clear preference of Florideophyceae and Bryozoa to attach on textile surfaces versus plastic ones. Considering that these taxa contain several highly invasive species described to date, these data emphasize the potential of textile marine debris as a vector for dispersal of NIS. Moreover, the closest beaches to the port contained a more similar biota profile than the farther ones, confirming that both plastic and textile marine litter can be vectors for species dispersal from ports.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Siya A, Kalule BJ, Ssentongo B, et al (2020)

Malaria patterns across altitudinal zones of Mount Elgon following intensified control and prevention programs in Uganda.

BMC infectious diseases, 20(1):425 pii:10.1186/s12879-020-05158-5.

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major tropical vector-borne disease of immense public health concern owing to its debilitating effects in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past 30 years, the high altitude areas in Eastern Africa have been reported to experience increased cases of malaria. Governments including that of the Republic of Uganda have responded through intensifying programs that can potentially minimize malaria transmission while reducing associated fatalities. However, malaria patterns following these intensified control and prevention interventions in the changing climate remains widely unexplored in East African highland regions. This study thus analyzed malaria patterns across altitudinal zones of Mount Elgon, Uganda.

METHODS: Times-series data on malaria cases (2011-2017) from five level III local health centers occurring across three altitudinal zones; low, mid and high altitude was utilized. Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation regression and Mann Kendall trend test were used to analyze malaria patterns. Vegetation attributes from the three altitudinal zones were analyzed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to determine the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was used to project malaria patterns for a 7 year period.

RESULTS: Malaria across the three zones declined over the study period. The hotspots for malaria were highly variable over time in all the three zones. Rainfall played a significant role in influencing malaria burdens across the three zones. Vegetation had a significant influence on malaria in the higher altitudes. Meanwhile, in the lower altitude, human population had a significant positive correlation with malaria cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite observed decline in malaria cases across the three altitudinal zones, the high altitude zone became a malaria hotspot as cases variably occurred in the zone. Rainfall played the biggest role in malaria trends. Human population appeared to influence malaria incidences in the low altitude areas partly due to population concentration in this zone. Malaria control interventions ought to be strengthened and strategically designed to achieve no malaria cases across all the altitudinal zones. Integration of climate information within malaria interventions can also strengthen eradication strategies of malaria in such differentiated altitudinal zones.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Kiswaga SAS, Mbwambo JR, Shirima D, et al (2020)

More widespread alien tree species do not have larger impacts on regeneration of native tree species in a tropical forest reserve.

Ecology and evolution, 10(11):5034-5044 pii:ECE36256.

There is insufficient information regarding the factors affecting the environmental impacts of alien species. In particular, little is known about whether there is any relationship between the invasiveness (establishment and spread) of an introduced species and its per capita impact. We experimentally assessed the relationship between the extent of spread of up to 29 alien plant species and their impact on recruitment of native tree species in Amani Botanical Garden, Tanzania. We also studied the effects of allelochemicals of selected alien on native plant species to assess potential mechanisms of impact. We found no relationship between the extent of spread of an alien tree species and their impact on seed germination, seedling survival, and seedling communities of native trees in their understory, and no indication that allelochemicals consistently explain their effects on recruitment of the studied species. These results suggest that extent of spread cannot be used as a proxy for impact. Hence, managers should continue assessing both the spread and the impact of alien species when prioritizing alien species for management.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

Dong H, Liu T, Liu Z, et al (2020)

Fate of the soil seed bank of giant ragweed and its significance in preventing and controlling its invasion in grasslands.

Ecology and evolution, 10(11):4854-4866 pii:ECE36238.

Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida, L. henceforth referred to as GR), an annual non-native invasive weed, may cause health problems and can reduce agricultural productivity. Chemical control of GR in grasslands may have irreversible side effects on herbs and livestock. In an attempt to propose a solution to the harmful effects of GR on grasslands, this study explores the fate of its soil seed bank (SSB) and considers the physical control of its SSB reduction. By studying GR distributed in grasslands of the Yili Valley, Xinjiang, China, we measured the spatial and temporal changes in seed density, seed germination, dormancy, and death. We analyzed seed germination, dormancy, and death following different storage periods. The study analyzed population characteristics over time, including seed fate, and examined physical control methods for reducing the SSB density. The SSB of GR occurs in the upper 0-15 cm of soil in grasslands. Seed density in the SSB decreased by 68.1% to 82.01% from the reproductive growth period to the senescence period. More than 98.7% of the seeds were rotten, eaten, germinated, dispersed, or died within one year after being produced. The seed germination rate of the SSB decreased with the number of years after invasion. When stored for 0.5 or 3.5 years, seed germination rates fell by 40%, during which time seed death rate increased by almost 40%. When GR was completely eradicated for two consecutive years, the SSB and population densities decreased by >99%. The vast majority of GR seeds germinated or died within one year; the germination rate decreased significantly if the seeds were stored dry at room temperature for a long time. Newly produced seeds are the main source of seeds in the SSB. Therefore, thoroughly eradicating GR plants for several years before the seeds can mature provides an effective control method in grasslands.

RevDate: 2020-06-19

McGoey BV, Hodgins KA, JR Stinchcombe (2020)

Parallel flowering time clines in native and introduced ragweed populations are likely due to adaptation.

Ecology and evolution, 10(11):4595-4608 pii:ECE36163.

As introduced species expand their ranges, they often encounter differences in climate which are often correlated with geography. For introduced species, encountering a geographically variable climate sometimes leads to the re-establishment of clines seen in the native range. However, clines can also be caused by neutral processes, and so it is important to gather additional evidence that population differentiation is the result of selection as opposed to nonadaptive processes. Here, we examine phenotypic and genetic differences in ragweed from the native (North America) and introduced (European) ranges. We used a common garden to assess phenotypic differentiation in size and flowering time in ragweed populations. We found significant parallel clines in flowering time in both North America and Europe. Height and branch number had significant clines in North America, and, while not statistically significant, the patterns in Europe were the same. We used SNP data to assess population structure in both ranges and to compare phenotypic differentiation to neutral genetic variation. We failed to detect significant patterns of isolation by distance, geographic patterns in population structure, or correlations between the major axes of SNP variation and phenotypes or latitude of origin. We conclude that the North American clines in size and the parallel clines seen for flowering time are most likely the result of adaptation.

RevDate: 2020-06-19
CmpDate: 2020-06-19

Poursanidis D, Kalogirou S, Azzurro E, et al (2020)

Habitat suitability, niche unfilling and the potential spread of Pterois miles in the Mediterranean Sea.

Marine pollution bulletin, 154:111054.

The common lionfish Pterois miles has rapidly spread across the eastern Mediterranean Sea. We compiled occurrence data from both native and invaded range under the framework of Species Distribution Modelling (SDM). Through a construction of an environmental suitability model and estimation of spread rates we investigated the lionfish climate niche in both its native and invaded domains, this latter represented by the Mediterranean region. Model projections allowed to identify suitable areas for lionfish establishment in the Mediterranean. Spread analysis suggested that a further geographical expansion in this basin could be completed within the next years. Our results did not provide evidence for niche expansion but highlighted a high degree of niche unfilling thus prospecting a likely spread of Mediterranean lionfish invasion beyond the predictions of current SDMs. These findings provide novel inputs to forecast the future geographical evolution of the lionfish in the Mediterranean Sea and asses the related risk of invasion.

RevDate: 2020-06-18

Kelly S, Fletcher RA, JN Barney (2020)

Intraspecific, ecotypic and home climate variation in photosynthetic traits of the widespread invasive grass Johnsongrass.

AoB PLANTS, 12(3):plaa015 pii:plaa015.

Despite their near ubiquity across global ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms contributing to the success of invasive plants remain largely unknown. In particular, ecophysiological traits, which are fundamental to plants' performance and response to their environment, are poorly understood with respect to geographic and climate space. We evaluated photosynthetic trait variation among populations, ecotypes and home climates (i.e. the climates from the locations they were collected) of the widespread and expanding invader Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). We found that populations vary in the maximum net photosynthetic flux and the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate, and that agricultural and non-agricultural ecotypes vary in apparent quantum yield and water-use efficiency (WUE). We also found that populations from warmer home climates had lower dark respiration rates, light compensation points and WUEs. As Johnsongrass expands across the USA the abiotic and biotic environments are driving variation in its genetics, phenotypes and its underlying physiology. Our study demonstrates the importance of evaluating physiological traits in invasive plants, especially as they relate to home climates.

RevDate: 2020-06-18

Dick MH, Waeschenbach A, Trott TJ, et al (2020)

Global Distribution and Variation of the Invasive Cheilostome Bryozoan Cribrilina mutabilis.

Zoological science, 37(3):217-231.

Viable populations of the cheilostome bryozoan Cribrilina mutabilis Ito, Onishi & Dick exist in the NW Pacific (Russian Far East and northern Japan), NE Atlantic (Scandinavia and Scotland), and NW Atlantic (Maine, USA). The first NE and NW Atlantic records are from Norway (2008) and Casco Bay, Maine, USA (2018), respectively, indicating a relatively recent introduction to the region. Mitochondrial COI gene sequences from North Atlantic populations (Sweden, Norway, and Maine) showed two haplotypes differing by one substitution, but differed from two haplotypes from Akkeshi, northern Japan, by 6-8 substitutions. North Atlantic populations differed morphologically from the Akkeshi population in that some zooids formed a suboral projection, and frontal zooids were more common. While C. mutabilis in northern Japan has been found only on natural or artificial eelgrass (Zostera marina), across its range it has been found on several species of algae, plastic panels and strips, several species of Zostera, and mollusc shells. Similar frequencies of heteromorphic zooids with differing degree of frontal wall calcification, i.e., R (rib)-, I (intermediate)-, and S (shield)-type zooids, in colonies on eelgrass at comparable times of the season and across populations suggest an innate response to seasonal environmental fluctuations, although zooid frequencies were different on non-eelgrass substrates. The increase in trans-Arctic shipping along the Northern Sea Route in recent decades, and previous documentation of C. mutabilis on ship hulls in the Sea of Japan, indicate a clear mechanism for anthropogenic introduction from the Far East to Europe in recent decades.

RevDate: 2020-06-18
CmpDate: 2020-06-18

Chaves LF, Friberg MD, K Moji (2020)

Synchrony of globally invasive Aedes spp. immature mosquitoes along an urban altitudinal gradient in their native range.

The Science of the total environment, 734:139365.

Mosquito-borne infections often have concerted peaks, or are synchronous, across landscapes. This phenomenon might be driven by vector responses to similar environmental conditions that synchronize their abundance. While adult mosquito populations can be synchronous over spatial scales ranging from a few meters to a few kilometers, little to nothing is known about immature mosquito synchrony, including its relationship with mosquito colonization and persistence in larval habitats. Here, we present results from a 2-yearlong synchrony study in co-occurring populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), Aedes (Stegomyia) flavopictus Yamada and Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald), three invasive mosquito species, along an urban altitudinal gradient in Japan. We found that Ae. albopictus was asynchronous while Ae. flavopictus and Ae. j. japonicus had synchrony that, respectively, tracked geographic and altitudinal patterns of temperature correlation. Spatially, Ae. albopictus was more persistent at hotter locations near urban land use, while Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. flavopictus increasingly persisted farther away from urban land. Temporally, Ae. albopicus and Ae. flavopictus decreased the proportion of colonized habitats following variable rainfall, while Ae. j. japonicus increased with vegetation growth and leptokurtic temperatures. Our results support the hypothesis that immature mosquito synchrony is autonomous from dispersal and driven by common environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2020-06-18
CmpDate: 2020-06-18

Lattos A, Giantsis IA, Karagiannis D, et al (2020)

First detection of the invasive Haplosporidian and Mycobacteria parasites hosting the endangered bivalve Pinna nobilis in Thermaikos Gulf, North Greece.

Marine environmental research, 155:104889.

Mycobacterium sp. and Haplosporidium pinnae constitute invasive parasite species of bivalves, reported for the first time in the present study in the Aegean Sea and Thermaikos Gulf, respectively. During the last years, the endangered fan mussel (Pinna nobilis) experienced several mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea that caused deaths to 90% or more of their populations and have been attributed to infections by these pathogens. In Greece, two mass mortality events have been recently reported, namely in the Gulf of Kalloni and in Limnos island. In the present study we investigated the presence of both pathogens in P. nobilis from these marine areas as well as from Thermaikos Gulf using both histopathological microscopy and molecular markers. The detected parasite DNA was further quantified in the three populations utilizing a real time qPCR. Histopathological results indicated the presence of a Mycobacterium species alongside with the existence of the Haplosporidian parasite, which was identified in all mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea. The parasite was present in different phases mostly on the digestive gland epithelium. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomy of the Haplosporidian parasite as the recently described Haplosporidium pinnae, whereas it failed to identify the Mycobacteria parasite at species level. While Mycobacterium sp. was detected in all examined specimens, H. pinnae was not detected in all diseased fan mussels. Interestingly, monitoring of P. nobilis population from Thermaikos Gulf, an estuary of extremely high importance for bivalve production, revealed the presence of both pathogens in a few specimens in higher quantity but with no symptoms of the disease. Besides, all the specimens from Thermaikos Gulf had inflammatory responses similarly to moribund specimens from mortality events.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Taitingfong RI (2020)

Islands as Laboratories: Indigenous Knowledge and Gene Drives in the Pacific.

Human biology, 91(3):179-188.

This article argues that the genetic engineering technology known as gene drive must be evaluated in the context of the historic and ongoing impacts of settler colonialism and military experimentation on indigenous lands and peoples. After defining gene drive and previewing some of the key ethical issues related to its use, the author compares the language used to justify Cold War-era nuclear testing in the Pacific with contemporary scholarship framing islands as ideal test sites for gene drive-modified organisms. In both cases, perceptions of islands as remote and isolated are mobilized to warrant their treatment as sites of experimentation for emerging technologies. Though gene drive may offer valuable interventions into issues affecting island communities (e.g., vector-borne disease and invasive species management), proposals to conduct the first open trials of gene drive on islands are complicit in a long history of injustice that has treated islands (and their residents) as dispensable to the risks and unintended consequences associated with experimentation. This article contends that ethical gene drive research cannot be achieved without the inclusion of indigenous peoples as key stakeholders and provides three recommendations to guide community engagement involving indigenous communities: centering indigenous self-determination, replacing the deficit model of engagement with a truly participatory model, and integrating indigenous knowledge and values in the research and decision-making processes related to gene drive.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Mikami OK, Takamatsu M, R Yarita (2020)

Repurposing a traditional Japanese method of pest control for wintering pine moths, Komo-trap, for use against summer and winter populations of fall webworms.

PeerJ, 8:e9244 pii:9244.

Background: The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), is a widespread invasive species. It is native to North America, ranging from southern Canada to northern Mexico. During and after the 1940s, this pest was accidentally introduced in many parts of Europe and Asia. It has now spread to more than 30 countries. The larvae feed on leaves of a wide range of tree species, including ones used as street trees in cities, causing an increase in urban management cost. Although several pest management methods have been employed, pest damage continues especially in newly invaded areas. In this study, we examined the effect and cost-effectiveness of the komo-trap, traditionally used in Japan to reduce the population of larvae of the pine moth Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). This trap, which is safe for people and ecosystems, has not yet been applied to trap the fall webworm.

Methods: In two seasons of 2017, we set komo-traps on street trees in Hakodate City, Japan. We counted the numbers of captured fall webworms compared with controls. We also monitored other species to evaluate any nontarget effects of the trap.

Results: One komo, the material cost of which is about 1.10 USD, captured 43.8 fall webworms on average in summer and 27.2 in the fall. The values were significantly larger than those of the controls, which were 0.07 in summer and 0.14 in winter. Bycatch of other species was minimal in summer, whereas in the fall one komo, on average, caught 10.7 woodlice Porcellio sp. or spp. (Isopoda: Porcellionidae).

Discussion: The komo-trap is effective in capturing fall webworm. The cost performance of the trap is very favorable, and the nontarget effects can be reduced by using the trap in summer only. The komo-trap would complement other control methods such as tree pruning. Because its cost is low, we recommend that the komo-trap be introduced as a larger-scale trial.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Camacho R, Steele S, Challenger S, et al (2020)

Status of coral reefs in Antigua & Barbuda: using data to inform management.

PeerJ, 8:e9236 pii:9236.

The nation of Antigua and Barbuda has experienced major degradation of its coral reef ecosystems over the past 40+ years. The primary drivers of this degradation are multiple and are highly linked to anthropogenic influences, including over-exploitation and poor management of marine resources. The effectiveness of management actions in marine protected areas (MPAs) has often been hampered by a lack of data to inform management recommendations. This was emphasized by The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Coral Reef Report Card which highlighted not only the lack of data collection in Antigua and Barbuda and other Caribbean nations, but also illustrated how spatially dispersed available datasets are. The government of Antigua and Barbuda recognized the need for a marine data collection program to better inform the designation and management of MPAs as a tool to improve the health of the marine ecosystems. The Atlantic Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) protocol has been identified as a means to address planning and management for marine areas. Three AGRRA surveys have been conducted in the years following the TNC 2016 report, in previously established managed areas: North East Marine Management Area (NEMMA) in 2017 and Nelson Dockyard National Park (NDNP) in 2019 as well as areas outlined for future management (Redonda in 2018). Our surveys were conducted to provide updated datasets to inform management for the aforementioned areas. While the results of these surveys mirror the underlying poor coral reef-health conditions, which have been shown to exist within the Caribbean region, they also highlight intra-site variation that exists within each survey location. This knowledge can be crucial in guiding management decisions in these marine areas, through zoning and other management prescriptions. Additionally, the marine surveys conducted around Redonda established useful marine baselines to aid in monitoring the island's recovery following removal of terrestrial invasive species. This article provides an overview of data collected using the AGRRA methodology in marine zones across Antigua and Barbuda which have current or future management prescriptions and provides recommendations to demonstrate the data's future utilization for marine conservation and management.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Ellrich JA, Yorisue T, K Momota (2020)

Limpet disturbance effects on barnacle recruitment are related to recruitment intensity but not recruit size.

PeerJ, 8:e9190 pii:9190.

Intertidal limpets are important grazers along rocky coastlines worldwide that not only control algae but also influence invertebrates such as common barnacles. For instance, grazing limpets ingest settling barnacle cyprid larvae (hereafter cyprids) and push cyprids and barnacle recruits off the substrate. Such limpet disturbance effects (LDEs) can limit barnacle recruitment, a key demographic variable affecting barnacle population establishment and persistence. In this study, we examined limpet (Lottia cassis) disturbance to barnacle (Chthamalus dalli, Balanus glandula) recruitment on the Pacific coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as information on limpet-barnacle interactions from this region is missing. We investigated, for the first time, whether barnacle size and recruitment intensity influence LDEs on barnacle recruitment. Small barnacles may be less susceptible to LDEs than larger barnacles, because small size may reduce the propbability of limpet disturbance. Moreover, recruitment intensity can influence LDEs, as high recruitment can compensate for LDEs on barnacle recruitment density. In Hokkaido, C. dalli cyprids are smaller than B. glandula cyprids, and C. dalli recruitment is higher than B. glandula recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that LDEs on C. dalli recruitment would be weaker than those on B. glandula recruitment. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a field experiment during which we manipulated limpet presence/absence on the interior surfaces of ring-shaped cages. After four weeks, we measured barnacle recruitment and recruit size on the interior surfaces of the cages and found negative LDEs on C. dalli and B. glandula recruitment and recruit size. As hypothesized, the LDEs on C. dalli recruitment were weaker than the LDEs on B. glandula recruitment. Additionally, C. dalli recruits were smaller than B. glandula recruits. However, the LDEs on C. dalli recruit size were as strong as the LDEs on B. glandula recruit size, indicating that the smaller C. dalli recruits are not less susceptible to LDEs than B. glandula recruits. Since C. dalli recruitment was higher than B. glandula recruitment, we propose that the higher C. dalli recruitment compensated for the LDEs on C. dalli recruitment. Our findings indicate that the detected differences in LDEs on barnacle recruitment are related to barnacle recruitment intensity but not recruit size.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Kong WL, Rui L, Ni H, et al (2020)

Antifungal Effects of Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Rahnella aquatilis JZ-GX1 Against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Liriodendron chinense × tulipifera.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:1114.

The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microorganisms for the biological control of plant diseases has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, the antifungal activity and identity of VOCs produced by Rahnella aquatilis JZ-GX1 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of pine were determined and analyzed. The effect of the VOCs on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the pathogen of Liriodendron chinense × tulipifera black spot, was determined by a joined-petri dish fumigation method. An in vitro leaf inoculation method was used to determine the fumigation effect of the VOCs on Liriodendron black spot. VOCs with antifungal activity were collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the VOCs secreted by JZ-GX1 inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested pathogen. The VOCs destroyed the morphology of the mycelium, significantly increased the permeability of the cell membrane and downregulated the expression of pathogenicity-related genes during mycelial infection, thus inhibiting the expansion of anthracnose disease spots in leaves. In the volatile compound profile, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethyl methyl ether significantly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of C. gloeosporioides. This work provides a new strategy for the research and application of microorganisms and bioactive compounds to control plant anthracnose.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Spor A, Camargo ARO, Bru D, et al (2020)

Habitat Disturbances Modulate the Barrier Effect of Resident Soil Microbiota on Listeria monocytogenes Invasion Success.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:927.

Microbial communities are continuously exposed to the arrival of alien species. In complex environments such as soil, the success of invasion depends on the characteristics of the habitat, especially the diversity and structure of the residing bacterial communities. While most data available on microbial invasion relies on experiments run under constant conditions, the fate of invading species when the habitat faces disturbances has not yet been addressed. Here, we designed experiments to assess the consequences of habitat disturbance on the success of ongoing microbial invasion. We investigated (i) if disturbance-induced alterations in resident microbial communities could mitigate or facilitate invasion of Listeria monocytogenes, (ii) if disturbance itself could either improve or reduce the invader's fitness and (iii) if the invading species alters the structure of indigenous microbial communities. Our data show that environmental disturbances affect invasion patterns of L. monocytogenes in soils. Intriguingly, successful invasion was recorded in a regimen of disturbances that triggered small changes in microbial community structure while maintaining high bacterial diversity. On the opposite, dramatic decline of the invader was recorded when disturbance resulted in emergence of specific communities albeit concomitant with a diversity loss. This suggests that community composition is more important than its diversity when it comes to prevent the establishment of an invading species. Finally, shifts in bacterial communities during the disturbance event were strengthened by the presence of the invader indicating a major impact of invasion on microbial diversity when the habitat faces disturbance.

RevDate: 2020-06-17

Skubel SA, Su X, Poulev A, et al (2020)

Metabolomic differences between invasive alien plants from native and invaded habitats.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9749 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66477-w.

Globalization facilitated the spread of invasive alien species (IAS), undermining the stability of the world's ecosystems. We investigated the metabolomic profiles of three IAS species: Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) Datura stramonium (Solanaceae), and Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae), comparing metabolites of individual plants in their native habitats (USA), to their invasive counterparts growing in and around Kruger National Park (South Africa, ZA). Metabolomic samples were collected using RApid Metabolome Extraction and Storage (RAMES) technology, which immobilizes phytochemicals on glass fiber disks, reducing compound degradation, allowing long-term, storage and simplifying biochemical analysis. Metabolomic differences were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) of samples eluted from RAMES disks. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of metabolomes of individual plants allowed statistical separation of species, native and invasive populations of each species, and some populations on the same continent. Invasive populations of all species were more phytochemically diverse than their native counterparts, and their metabolomic profiles were statistically distinguishable from their native relatives. These data may elucidate the mechanisms of successful invasion and rapid adaptive evolution of IAS. Moreover, RAMES technology combined with PLS-DA statistical analysis may allow taxonomic identification of species and, possibly, populations within each species.

RevDate: 2020-06-17
CmpDate: 2020-06-17

Lear L, Hesse E, Shea K, et al (2020)

Disentangling the mechanisms underpinning disturbance-mediated invasion.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1919):20192415.

Disturbances can play a major role in biological invasions: by destroying biomass, they alter habitat and resource abundances. Previous field studies suggest that disturbance-mediated invader success is a consequence of resource influxes, but the importance of other potential covarying causes, notably the opening up of habitats, have yet to be directly tested. Using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, we determined the relative importance of disturbance-mediated habitat opening and resource influxes, plus any interaction between them, for invader success of two ecologically distinct morphotypes. Resource addition increased invasibility, while habitat opening had little impact and did not interact with resource addition. Both invaders behaved similarly, despite occupying different ecological niches in the microcosms. Treatment also affected the composition of the resident population, which further affected invader success. Our results provide experimental support for the observation that resource input is a key mechanism through which disturbance increases invasibility.

RevDate: 2020-06-16

Trible W, McKenzie SK, DJC Kronauer (2020)

Globally invasive populations of the clonal raider ant are derived from Bangladesh.

Biology letters, 16(6):20200105.

Identifying the native range of invasive species is useful to understand their evolution and natural history, as well as to develop new methods to control potentially harmful introduced organisms. The clonal raider ant, Ooceraea biroi, is an introduced species and an increasingly important social insect model organism, but its native range remains unknown. Here, we report a new series of O. biroi collections from Bangladesh, Singapore, Vietnam and China. We use a molecular phylogeny constructed with five gene fragments from 27 samples to determine that invasive lineages of O. biroi originated in Bangladesh. These lineages may have spread from Bangladesh via the historically significant Bay of Bengal shipping ports. Ooceraea biroi shares multiple features of its biology with other introduced ants, including parthenogenesis, retention of heterozygosity and presence of multiple egg-layers in the colony. Using laboratory rearing and microsatellite markers, we show that colonies collected from disturbed habitat in Bangladesh have these traits in common with colonies from the invasive range. Ancestral populations with sexual reproduction in primary habitats either remain to be discovered or have gone extinct. Our findings advance our understanding of the global spread of the clonal raider ant and highlight a suite of general traits that make certain ants prone to becoming invasive.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Loewen CJG, Strecker AL, Gilbert B, et al (2020)

Climate warming moderates the impacts of introduced sportfish on multiple dimensions of prey biodiversity.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Human-assisted introductions of exotic species are a leading cause of anthropogenic change in biodiversity; however, context dependencies and interactions with co-occurring stressors impede our ability to predict their ecological impacts. The legacy of historical sportfish stocking in mountainous regions of western North America creates a unique, natural quasi-experiment to investigate factors moderating invasion impacts on native communities across broad geographic and environmental gradients. Here, we synthesize fish stocking records and zooplankton relative abundance for 685 mountain lakes and ponds in the Cascade and Canadian Rocky Mountain Ranges, to reveal the effects of predatory sportfish introduction on multiple taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic dimensions of prey biodiversity. We demonstrate an innovative analytical approach, combining exploratory random forest machine learning with confirmatory multigroup analysis using multivariate partial least-squares structural equation models, to generate and test hypotheses concerning environmental moderation of stocking impacts. We discovered distinct effects of stocking across different dimensions of diversity, including negligible (nonsignificant) impacts on local taxonomic richness (i.e. alpha diversity) and trophic structure, in contrast to significant declines in compositional uniqueness (i.e. beta diversity) and body size. Further, we found that stocking impacts were moderated by cross-scale interactions with climate and climate-related land-cover variables (e.g. factors linked to treeline position and glaciers). Interactions with physical morphometric and lithological factors were generally of lesser importance, though catchment slope and habitat size constraints were relevant in certain dimensions. Finally, applying space-for-time substitution, a strong antagonistic (i.e. dampening) interaction between sportfish predation and warmer temperatures suggests redundancy of their size-selective effects, meaning that warming will lessen the consequences of introductions in the future and stocked lakes may be less impacted by subsequent warming. While both stressors drive biotic homogenization, our results have important implications for fisheries managers weighing the costs/benefits of stocking-or removing established non-native populations-under a rapidly changing climate.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Weijola V, Vahtera V, Koch A, et al (2020)

Taxonomy of Micronesian monitors (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanus): endemic status of new species argues for caution in pursuing eradication plans.

Royal Society open science, 7(5):200092.

In the light of recent phylogenetic studies, we re-assess the taxonomy and biogeography of the Varanus populations distributed in the Micronesian islands of Palau, the Western Carolines and the Marianas. Whether these populations are of natural origin or human introductions has long been contentious, but no study has fully resolved that question. Here, we present molecular and morphological evidence that monitor lizards of the Varanus indicus Group reached both Palau and the Mariana Islands sometime in the late Pleistocene and subsequently differentiated into two separate species endemic to each geographical region. One species is confined to the Mariana Islands, and for these populations, we revalidate the name V. tsukamotoi Kishida, 1929. The other species has a disjunct distribution in Palau, the Western Carolines and Sarigan Island in the Northern Marianas and is herein described as V. bennetti sp. nov. Both species are most closely allied to each other, V. lirungensis and V. rainerguentheri, suggesting that colonization of Micronesia took place from the Moluccas. We discuss the biogeographic distributions of both species in the light of the likely colonization mechanism and previous arguments for human introduction, and we argue that bounties for Palauan populations are ill-advised and plans for eradication of some other populations must first demonstrate that they are, in fact, introduced and not native.

RevDate: 2020-06-15

Fischer SM, Beck M, Herborg LM, et al (2020)

A hybrid gravity and route choice model to assess vector traffic in large-scale road networks.

Royal Society open science, 7(5):191858.

Human traffic along roads can be a major vector for infectious diseases and invasive species. Though most road traffic is local, a small number of long-distance trips can suffice to move an invasion or disease front forward. Therefore, understanding how many agents travel over long distances and which routes they choose is key to successful management of diseases and invasions. Stochastic gravity models have been used to estimate the distribution of trips between origins and destinations of agents. However, in large-scale systems, it is hard to collect the data required to fit these models, as the number of long-distance travellers is small, and origins and destinations can have multiple access points. Therefore, gravity models often provide only relative measures of the agent flow. Furthermore, gravity models yield no insights into which roads agents use. We resolve these issues by combining a stochastic gravity model with a stochastic route choice model. Our hybrid model can be fitted to survey data collected at roads that are used by many long-distance travellers. This decreases the sampling effort, allows us to obtain absolute predictions of both vector pressure and pathways, and permits rigorous model validation. After introducing our approach in general terms, we demonstrate its benefits by applying it to the potential invasion of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.) to the Canadian province British Columbia. The model yields an R2-value of 0.73 for variance-corrected agent counts at survey locations.

RevDate: 2020-06-15
CmpDate: 2020-06-15

Ding PY, Mao KQ, Li HY, et al (2020)

[Breeding-system comparison between alien invasive Solanum rostratum and its non-invasive congener S. americanum].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 31(4):1106-1112.

Solanum rostratum is a severely invasive alien plant species in China. Using four S. rostratum populations and non-invasive congener S. americanum, we conducted a common garden experiment to compare their breeding systems. No significant difference in average seed set between the two species under open pollination and supplementary pollination conditions. However, under the bagged self-pollination condition, S. rostratum had significantly lower average seed set (29.5%) than S. americanum (47.0%). No fertile seeds were detected in the emasculation treatments for both species, suggesting no autonomous apomixis in them. S. rostratum had a lower average autofertility index (0.38) than S. americanum (0.64). S. rostratum had higher average pollen limitation index (0.29) and average pollinator's contribution index (0.49) than S. americanum (0.08 and 0.31, respectively). S. rostratum was found in 12 provinces of China and in 3835 locations globally, which were lower than S. americanum with 18 Chinese provinces and 10897 locations globally. The invasive alien S. rostratum had lower self-compatibility than the non-invasive alien S. americanum. Thus, the invasiveness of those two species was not significantly correlated with their self-compatibility, but positively correlated with their distribution range.

RevDate: 2020-06-16
CmpDate: 2020-06-16

Svetlichny L, Hubareva E, Khanaychenko A, et al (2019)

Response to salinity and temperature changes in the alien Asian copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus introduced in the Black Sea.

Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology, 331(8):416-426.

The salinity tolerance and the effect of temperature were studied on the behavior and motor activity of the nonindigenous Indo-Pacific calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus, first found in Sevastopol Bay (Black Sea) in autumn 2016. According to the index of median lethal salinity (LS50), the salinity tolerance range of adult P. marinus collected at 18.0 psu in November 2016 and subsequently reared in the laboratory amounted to 5.0-44.0 psu, independently of the acclimation regime. Females of P. marinus collected in December 2016 at 12.0°C became torpid at 8.0°C, a value typical of winter-spring Black Sea coastal areas. An increase in temperature from 8.0°C to 27.0°C led to an increase in the beat frequency of mouth appendages, swimming speed, and time spent cruising. However, at the same high temperature, the mean cruising speed in the feeding-current feeder P. marinus was 2-fold lower than that of the native, similarly sized cruise feeder Pseudocalanus elongatus. On the contrary, mouthpart beat frequency while cruising was 2-fold higher reaching 80 Hz, due to the creation of feeding currents in P. marinus. The results of our experiments confirm the euryhaline character of P. marinus, and point to an apparent ability to survive cold temperatures in a torpid state. This suggests the possibility of entering an overwintering stage to survive the adverse cold winter-spring environmental conditions of the Black Sea, similarly to the recent thermophilic Indo-Pacific invader Oithona davisae which established a successful population in the same area.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Porras MF, López-Londoño T, Rost J, et al (2020)

A Method for a Long-Term Marking of Spotted Lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) Using a Stable Isotope of Nitrogen.

Environmental entomology pii:5854823 [Epub ahead of print].

Developing a lifelong marking method for Lycorma delicatula (White, 1845) is crucial to investigate ecological processes. Here we validate a marking method using stable isotope enrichment (15N) of host plants to track spotted lanternfly (SLF), an invasive species causing economic damage on grapes, hardwood forest and landscape tree species. To validate this method, we first determined the isotope dosage to be sprayed on the host plants and subsequently detected in SLF. Second, we examined whether 15N mark remains detectable from the nymphal to adult stage. We demonstrated that two stable isotope dosages applied to the host plants were assimilated by the insect and equally detectable in the exoskeleton, wings, and mature eggs ready to be oviposited. This safe and reliable method can be used to examine fundamental processes of the biology and ecology of SLF that range from dietary resources and resource allocation to food-web structure and dispersal patterns.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Nault BA, Iglesias LE, Harding RS, et al (2020)

Managing Allium Leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae): An Emerging Pest of Allium Crops in North America.

Journal of economic entomology pii:5856907 [Epub ahead of print].

Allium leafminer, Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew, is the newest invasive pest of allium crops in North America. Larvae initially feed in the upper canopy before mining toward the base of the plant to pupate. Crop loss occurs when larvae destroy vascular tissue, facilitating infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens that cause rot. Contamination also occurs when larvae and pupae are present at harvest. In response to this invasion, efficacy of 14 insecticide active ingredients applied via foliar sprays, transplant treatments, and drip chemigation was evaluated for managing P. gymnostoma. Multiple field studies were conducted in onions, leeks, and scallions in Pennsylvania and New York, United States in 2018 and 2019. The highest and most consistent levels of P. gymnostoma control occurred using foliar applications of dinotefuran, cyantraniliprole and spinetoram (84-89% reduction in damage; 95% reduction in P. gymnostoma densities). Despite the success of dinotefuran and cyantraniliprole applied as foliar sprays, neither was effective in controlling P. gymnostoma when administered via drip chemigation. Other foliar-applied insecticides that significantly reduced densities of P. gymnostoma in one or two experiments included abamectin, acetamiprid, cyromazine, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl, and spinosad. Active ingredients that never controlled P. gymnostoma included azadirachtin, kaolin clay, pyrethrin, and spirotetramat. Spinosad applied to bare-root and plug-tray transplants immediately before transplanting reduced P. gymnostoma damage in the field by >90%. Implications of using these insecticides and application strategies are discussed within the context of developing a sustainable IPM program.

RevDate: 2020-06-13

Baker AM, DA Potter (2020)

Invasive paper wasp turns urban pollinator gardens into ecological traps for monarch butterfly larvae.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9553 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66621-6.

Invasive species can be particularly disruptive when they intersect with organisms of conservation concern. Stabilizing the declining eastern migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) is projected to require extensive habitat restoration across multiple land use sectors including metropolitan areas. Numerous conservation programs encourage urban citizens to plant gardens with milkweeds, the obligate larval host plants of the monarch. Here, we show that predation by Polistes dominula, an invasive paper wasp that is particularly abundant in urban settings, can turn such sites into ecological traps for monarch larvae. Polistes dominula was the predominant paper wasp seen foraging in central Kentucky pollinator gardens. In 120 observed encounters with monarch larvae on milkweeds in gardens, most second to fourth instars were killed, whereas most fifth instars escaped by thrashing or dropping. The wasps bit and carried off second instars whole, whereas third and fourth instar kills were first gutted, then processed and carried away piecemeal. Predation on sentinel larvae was much higher in urban gardens than in rural settings. The wasps exploited ornamental butterfly "hibernation boxes" in pollinator gardens as nesting habitat. Polistes dominula is an under-recognized predator that may diminish the urban sector's contributions to monarch habitat restoration.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Wei J, Zhang J, Lu Q, et al (2020)

Genomic basis of environmental adaptation in the leathery sea squirt (Styela clava).

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Tunicates occupy the evolutionary position at the boundary of invertebrates and vertebrates. It exhibits adaptation to broad environmental conditions and is distributed globally. Despite hundreds of years of embryogenesis studies, the genetic basis of the invasive habits of ascidians remains largely unknown. The leathery sea squirt, Styela clava, is an important invasive species. We used the chromosomal-level genome and transcriptome of S. clava to explore its genomic- and molecular-network-based mechanisms of adaptation to environments. Compared with Ciona intestinalis type A (C. robusta), the size of the S. clava genome was expanded by 2-fold, although the gene number was comparable. An increase in transposon number and variation in dominant types were identified as potential expansion mechanisms. In the S. clava genome, the number of genes encoding the heat-shock protein 70 family and members of the complement system was expanded significantly, and cold-shock protein genes were transferred horizontally into the S. clava genome from bacteria. The expanded gene families potentially play roles in the adaptation of S. clava to its environments. The loss of key genes in the galactan synthesis pathway might explain the distinct tunic structure and hardness compared with the ascidian Ciona species. We demonstrated further that the integrated thyroid hormone pathway participated in the regulation of larval metamorphosis that provides S. clava with two opportunities for adapting to their environment. Thus, our report of the chromosomal-level leathery sea squirt genome provides a comprehensive genomic basis for the understanding of environmental adaptation in tunicates.

RevDate: 2020-06-12

Ma HM, Qin CX, Wang XQ, et al (2020)

[Establishing potential habitats of Mytilopsis sallei with Maxent niche model].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 31(4):1357-1364.

Mytilopsis sallei, an invasive alien species, has strong reproductive ability and high adaptability. It can severely endanger biodiversity of intertidal ecosystem after invasion. The intertidal zones and oyster breeding areas in some coastal areas of Guangdong Province have been severely invaded by M. sallei. To examine the potential habitat of M. sallei in China, we established a potential habitat prediction model of M. sallei using Maxent and ArcGIS method for China and global scales. The model was verified by the method of receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis and field investigation. The results showed that M. sallei could distribute with high probabili-ty in the area between North and South America, South India in Asia, Sri Lanka, the south coast of the Yangtze River in China, and in Van Dimen Bay of the southern hemisphere. In China, M. sallei mainly distributed in coastal provinces south of Shanghai. The main environmental factors affecting the suitable distribution areas for M. sallei were water vapor pressure, temperature, and solar radiation. After ROC detection, the AUC values of both the training and testing sets were 0.996, indicating that the prediction reached an excellent level. Our results provide theoretical basis for the risk assessment and management of M. sallei, and complement the potential habitat prediction of invasive species in China.

RevDate: 2020-06-12
CmpDate: 2020-06-12

Waller LP, Allen WJ, Barratt BIP, et al (2020)

Biotic interactions drive ecosystem responses to exotic plant invaders.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 368(6494):967-972.

Ecosystem process rates typically increase after plant invasion, but the extent to which this is driven by (i) changes in productivity, (ii) exotic species' traits, or (iii) novel (non-coevolved) biotic interactions has never been quantified. We created communities varying in exotic plant dominance, plant traits, soil biota, and invertebrate herbivores and measured indicators of carbon cycling. Interactions with soil biota and herbivores were the strongest drivers of exotic plant effects, particularly on measures of soil carbon turnover. Moreover, plant traits related to growth and nutrient acquisition explained differences in the ways that exotic plants interacted with novel biota compared with natives. We conclude that novel biological interactions with exotic species are a more important driver of ecosystem transformation than was previously recognized.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Gattás F, Espinosa M, Babay P, et al (2020)

Invasive species versus pollutants: Potential of Limnoperna fortunei to degrade glyphosate-based commercial formulations.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 201:110794 pii:S0147-6513(20)30633-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The intensive use of glyphosate in industrial agriculture may lead to freshwater contamination, encouraging studies of its toxic effect on non-target aquatic organisms. Glyphosate-based commercial formulations contain adjuvants, making them even more toxic than the active ingredient (a.i.) itself. The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is a freshwater invasive species which has been found to increase glyphosate dissipation in water and to accelerate eutrophication. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of L. fortunei to reduce the concentration of glyphosate in two commercial formulations, Roundup Max® and Glifosato Atanor®. Results were compared with the decay of the a.i. alone and in presence of mussels. Evasive response and toxicity tests were performed in a first set of trials to analyze the response of L. fortunei exposed to Roundup Max® and Glifosato Atanor®. Subsequently, we conducted a 21-day degradation experiment in 2.6-L microcosms applying the following treatments: 6 mg L-1 of technical-grade glyphosate (G), Glifosato Atanor® (A), Roundup Max® (R), 20 mussels in dechlorinated tap water (M), and the combination of mussels and herbicide either in the technical-grade (MG) or formulated form (MA and MR) (all by triplicate). Samples were collected at days 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21. No significant differences in glyphosate decay were found between treatments with mussels (MG: 2.03 ± 0.40 mg L-1; MA: 1.60 ± 0.32 mg L-1; MR: 1.81 ± 0.21 mg L-1), between glyphosate as a.i. and the commercial formulations, and between the commercial formulations, suggesting that the adjuvants did not affect the degrading potential of L. fortunei. In addition to the acceleration of glyphosate dissipation in water, there was an increase in the concentration of dissolved nutrients in water (N-NH4+ and P-PO43-) even higher than that caused by the filtering activity of the mussels, probably resulting from stress or from the degradation of glyphosate and adjuvants. We believe that a larger bioavailability of these nutrients due to glyphosate metabolization mediated by mussels would accelerate eutrophication processes in natural water bodies. The approach used here, where L. fortunei was exposed to two commercial formulations actually used in agricultural practices, sheds light on the potential impact of glyphosate decay on water bodies invaded by this species.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Elizalde L, Arbetman M, Arnan X, et al (2020)

The ecosystem services provided by social insects: traits, management tools and knowledge gaps.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Social insects, i.e. ants, bees, wasps and termites, are key components of ecological communities, and are important ecosystem services (ESs) providers. Here, we review the literature in order to (i) analyse the particular traits of social insects that make them good suppliers of ESs; (ii) compile and assess management strategies that improve the services provided by social insects; and (iii) detect gaps in our knowledge about the services that social insects provide. Social insects provide at least 10 ESs; however, many of them are poorly understood or valued. Relevant traits of social insects include high biomass and numerical abundance, a diversity of mutualistic associations, the ability to build important biogenic structures, versatile production of chemical defences, the simultaneous delivery of several ESs, the presence of castes and division of labour, efficient communication and cooperation, the capacity to store food, and a long lifespan. All these characteristics enhance social insects as ES providers, highlighting their potential, constancy and efficiency as suppliers of these services. In turn, many of these traits make social insects stress tolerant and easy to manage, so increasing the ESs they provide. We emphasise the need for a conservation approach to the management of the services, as well as the potential use of social insects to help restore habitats degraded by human activities. In addition, we stress the need to evaluate both services and disservices in an integrated way, because some species of social insects are among the most problematic invasive species and native pests. Finally, we propose two areas of research that will lead to a greater and more efficient use of social insects as ES providers, and to a greater appreciation of them by producers and decision-makers.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Potocka M, Krzemińska E, Gromadka R, et al (2020)

Molecular identification of Trichocera maculipennis, an invasive fly species in the Maritime Antarctic.

Molecular biology reports pii:10.1007/s11033-020-05566-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Trichocera maculipennis, an invasive Diptera, was described for the first time in Antarctica in 2006 in a sewage system of one of the scientific stations on King George Island, South Shetland Islands, and started to increase its distribution within the island. To date, only taxonomical description of this species, based on morphological data has been available, as there were no molecular data recorded. In the present study, we present two methods of molecular identification of this species-based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S) genes. An appropriate and easy-to-use assay for proper and fast identification of invasive species is a key requirement for further management decisions, especially in such a fragile environment as found in terrestrial Antarctica.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Teem JL, Alphey L, Descamps S, et al (2020)

Genetic Biocontrol for Invasive Species.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 8:452.

Invasive species are increasingly affecting agriculture, food, fisheries, and forestry resources throughout the world. As a result of global trade, invasive species are often introduced into new environments where they become established and cause harm to human health, agriculture, and the environment. Prevention of new introductions is a high priority for addressing the harm caused by invasive species, but unfortunately efforts to prevent new introductions do not address the economic harm that is presently manifested where invasive species have already become established. Genetic biocontrol can be defined as the release of organisms with genetic methods designed to disrupt the reproduction of invasive populations. While these methods offer the potential to control or even eradicate invasive species, there is a need to ensure that genetic biocontrol methods can be deployed in a way that minimizes potential harm to the environment. This review provides an overview of the state of genetic biocontrol, focusing on several approaches that were the subject of presentations at the Genetic Biocontrol for Invasive Species Workshop in Tarragona, Spain, March 31st, 2019, a workshop sponsored by the OECD's Co-operative Research Program on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems. The review considers four different approaches to genetic biocontrol for invasive species; sterile-release, YY Males, Trojan Female Technique, and gene drive. The different approaches will be compared with respect to the efficiency each affords as a genetic biocontrol tool, the practical utility and cost/benefits associated with implementation of the approach, and the regulatory considerations that will need to be addressed for each. The opinions expressed and arguments employed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its Member countries.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Javed Q, Sun J, Azeem A, et al (2020)

Competitive ability and plasticity of Wedelia trilobata (L.) under wetland hydrological variations.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9431 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66385-z.

Growth behavior of different species under different habitats can be studied by comparing the production of biomass, plasticity index and relative competitive interaction. However, these functional traits of invasive species received rare consideration for determining the invasion success of invasive species at wetlands. Here, we examined the effect of water depth at 5 cm and 15 cm (static and fluctuated) with different nutrient concentrations (full-strength (n1), 1/4-strength (n2) and 1/8-strength (n3) Hoagland solution) on functional traits of invasive Wedelia trilobata and its congener native Wedelia chinensis under mono and mixed culture. Water depth of 5 cm with any of the nutrient treatments (n1, n2 and n3) significantly restrained the photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) of both W. trilobata and W. chinensis. While, increase in the water depth to 15 cm with low nutrient treatment (n3) reduced more of biomass of W. chinensis under mixed culture. However, relative competition interaction (RCI) was recorded positive for W. trilobata and seemingly W. trilobata benefited more from RCI under high-fluctuated water depth at 15 cm in mixed culture. Therefore, higher PNUE, more competitive ability and higher plasticity may contribute to the invasiveness of W. trilobata in wetlands.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Oke AO, Oladigbolu AA, Kunta M, et al (2020)

First report of the occurrence of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), an invasive species in Nigeria, West Africa.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9418 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66380-4.

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP; Diaphorina citri) is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) that is associated with the devastating Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening disease). This pest of Asian origin has spread into the Americas and more recently into a few countries in East Africa. During recent surveys, suspect ACP adults and nymphs were recorded for the first time infesting citrus trees in southwest Nigeria. Morphological identification and DNA barcoding confirmed the samples to be D. citri. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that the ACP recorded in Nigeria clustered with other taxa in the previously identified B1 clade that consists of populations from different continents. The presence of the endosymbionts Ca. Carsonella ruddii and Ca. Profftella armatura in ACP from Nigeria was also confirmed by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The ACP individuals were assayed for the presence of CLaf, CLam and CLas by qPCR, but none of the insects tested positive for any of the Liberibacters. The prolific nature of ACP and the tropical climate prevailing in the citrus-producing areas of Nigeria and other West African countries may favor its rapid spread and population increase, thus posing a grave threat to the sustainability of citriculture in these countries.

RevDate: 2020-06-11

Schäfer L, A Herz (2020)

Suitability of European Trichogramma Species as Biocontrol Agents against the Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta absoluta.

Insects, 11(6): pii:insects11060357.

The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, originally from South America, is an invasive species threatening European tomato crops. Since various insecticides have become ineffective in controlling T. absoluta, effective and environmentally friendly alternatives are needed. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be an effective means of reducing this pest. Thus, the aim of our study was to identify promising candidates of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological control of T. absoluta in Europe. We assessed the efficiency of nine European Trichogramma species and compared them to Trichogramma achaeae, as this species is already commercially available. Firstly, we verified species identity of the 10 rearing strains using molecular and morphological methods. Then, host acceptance, host preference (T. absoluta vs. rearing host Sitotroga cerealella eggs) and host searching capacity were tested under laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that T. nerudai, T. pintoi and T. cacoeciae achieved a similar level of parasitism on potted tomato plants as T. achaeae. For the next step, these promising strains should be tested under greenhouse conditions.

RevDate: 2020-06-11
CmpDate: 2020-06-11

Qiao H, Liu W, Zhang Y, et al (2019)

Genetic admixture accelerates invasion via provisioning rapid adaptive evolution.

Molecular ecology, 28(17):4012-4027.

Genetic admixture, the intraspecific hybridization among divergent introduced sources, can immediately facilitate colonization via hybrid vigor and profoundly enhance invasion via contributing novel genetic variation to adaption. As hybrid vigor is short-lived, provisioning adaptation is anticipated to be the dominant and long-term profit of genetic admixture, but the evidence for this is rare. We employed the 30 years' geographic-scale invasion of the salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, as an evolutionary experiment and evaluated the consequences of genetic admixture by combining the reciprocal transplant experiment with quantitative and population genetic surveys. Consistent with the documentation, we found that the invasive populations in China had multiple origins from the southern Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico in the US. Interbreeding among these multiple sources generated a "hybrid swarm" that spread throughout the coast of China. In the northern and mid-latitude China, natural selection greatly enhanced fecundity, plant height and shoot regeneration compared to the native populations. Furthermore, genetic admixture appeared to have broken the negative correlation between plant height and shoot regeneration, which was genetically-based in the native range, and have facilitated the evolution of super competitive genotypes in the invasive range. In contrast to the evolved northern and mid-latitude populations, the southern invasive populations showed slight increase of plant height and shoot regeneration compared to the native populations, possibly reflecting the heterotic effect of the intraspecific hybridization. Therefore, our study suggests a critical role of genetic admixture in accelerating the geographic invasion via provisioning rapid adaptive evolution.

RevDate: 2020-06-10

Hughes AC, Lechner AM, Chitov A, et al (2020)

Horizon Scan of the Belt and Road Initiative.

Trends in ecology & evolution, 35(7):583-593.

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) represents the largest infrastructure and development project in human history, and presents risks and opportunities for ecosystems, economies, and communities. Some risks (habitat fragmentation, roadkill) are obvious, however, many of the BRI's largest challenges for development and conservation are not obvious and require extensive consideration to identify. In this first BRI Horizon Scan, we identify 11 frontier issues that may have large environmental and social impacts but are not yet recognised. More generally, the BRI will increase China's participation in international environmental governance. Thus, new cooperative modes of governance are needed to balance geopolitical, societal, and environmental interests. Upgrading and standardising global environmental standards is essential to safeguard ecological systems and human societies.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Cassini MH (2020)

A review of the critics of invasion biology.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Herein, I review existing criticisms of the field of invasion biology. Firstly, I identifiy problems of conceptual weaknesses, including disagreements regarding: (i) definitions of invasive, impact, and pristine conditions, and (ii) ecological assumptions such as species equilibrium, niche saturation, and climax communities. Secondly, I discuss methodological problems include the misuse of correlations, biases in impact reviews and risk assessment, and difficulties in predicting the effects of species introductions or eradications. Finally, I analyse the social conflict regarding invasive species management and differences in moral and philosophical foundations. I discuss the recent emergence of alternatives to traditional invasion biology approaches, including the concept of novel ecosystems, conciliation biology, and compassionate conservation. Understanding different value systems will be the first step to reconciling the different perspectives related to this controversial topic.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Pozebon H, Marques RP, Padilha G, et al (2020)

Arthropod Invasions Versus Soybean Production in Brazil: A Review.

Journal of economic entomology pii:5855049 [Epub ahead of print].

Soybean production in Brazil has been markedly affected by invasions of non-native arthropod species that feed on the crop, severely impacting biodiversity, food security, health, and economic development. Data on soybean production losses and increase in insecticide usage over the last two decades have not been explored in association with past invasion events, and the dynamics underlying the recent blitz of invasive species into Brazil remain largely unclear. We provide a review of arthropod invasions in the Brazilian soybean agroecosystem since 1990, indicating that the introductions of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are likely correlated with periods of increase in insecticide usage for soybean production. Using these three cases as examples, we review factors that could lead to increased likelihood of future invasions by particular pests, outlining four possible criteria to evaluate potential invasiveness of non-native arthropods: likelihood of entry, likelihood of establishment, biological features of the species, and availability of control measures. Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Aphis glycines (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhynca) are examples of highly damaging soybean pests, related to one or more of these factors, that could be introduced into Brazil over the next years and which could lead to problematic scenarios. Melanagromyza sojae (Zehnter) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) also meets these criteria and has successfully invaded and colonized Brazilian soybean fields in recent years. Our review identifies current issues within soybean pest management in Brazil and highlights the need to adopt management measures to offset future costs and minimize lost revenue.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Liu X, Blackburn TM, Song T, et al (2020)

Animal invaders threaten protected areas worldwide.

Nature communications, 11(1):2892 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-16719-2.

Protected areas are the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. However, alien species invasion is an increasing threat to biodiversity, and the extent to which protected areas worldwide are resistant to incursions of alien species remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate establishment by 894 terrestrial alien animals from 11 taxonomic groups including vertebrates and invertebrates across 199,957 protected areas at the global scale. We find that <10% of protected areas are home to any of the alien animals, but there is at least one established population within 10-100 km of the boundaries of 89%-99% of protected areas, while >95% of protected areas are environmentally suitable for establishment. Higher alien richness is observed in IUCN category-II national parks supposedly with stricter protection, and in larger protected areas with higher human footprint and more recent designation. Our results demonstrate that protected areas provide important protection from biological invasions, but invasions may become an increasingly dominant problem in the near future.

RevDate: 2020-06-09

Matula R, Řepka R, Šebesta J, et al (2020)

Resprouting trees drive understory vegetation dynamics following logging in a temperate forest.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9231 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-65367-5.

Removal of canopy trees by logging causes shifts in herbaceous diversity and increases invasibility of the forest understory. However, disturbed (cut) trees of many species do not die but resprout from remaining parts. Because sprouts develop vigorously immediately after disturbances, we hypothesized that sprouts of logged trees offset the changes in species richness and invasibility of the herbaceous layer by eliminating the rise in the resource availability during the time before regeneration from seeds develops. To test this, we analyzed data on herbaceous vegetation and sprout biomass collected in a broadleaved temperate forest in the Czech Republic before and for 6 years after logging. Sprouts that were produced by most of the stumps of logged trees offset large rises in species richness and cover of herbaceous plants and the resource availability that followed logging, but they affected the alien plants more significantly than the native plants. The sprouting canopy effectually eliminated most of the alien species that colonized the forest following a logging event. These findings indicate that in forests dominated by tree species with resprouting ability, sprouts drive the early post-disturbance dynamics of the herbaceous layer. By offsetting the post-disturbance vegetation shifts, resprouting supports forest resilience.

RevDate: 2020-06-09
CmpDate: 2020-06-09

Godwin J, Serr M, Barnhill-Dilling SK, et al (2019)

Rodent gene drives for conservation: opportunities and data needs.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1914):20191606.

Invasive rodents impact biodiversity, human health and food security worldwide. The biodiversity impacts are particularly significant on islands, which are the primary sites of vertebrate extinctions and where we are reaching the limits of current control technologies. Gene drives may represent an effective approach to this challenge, but knowledge gaps remain in a number of areas. This paper is focused on what is currently known about natural and developing synthetic gene drive systems in mice, some key areas where key knowledge gaps exist, findings in a variety of disciplines relevant to those gaps and a brief consideration of how engagement at the regulatory, stakeholder and community levels can accompany and contribute to this effort. Our primary species focus is the house mouse, Mus musculus, as a genetic model system that is also an important invasive pest. Our primary application focus is the development of gene drive systems intended to reduce reproduction and potentially eliminate invasive rodents from islands. Gene drive technologies in rodents have the potential to produce significant benefits for biodiversity conservation, human health and food security. A broad-based, multidisciplinary approach is necessary to assess this potential in a transparent, effective and responsible manner.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Crocetta F, Tanduo V, Osca D, et al (2020)

The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae) reappears in the northern Adriatic Sea: Another intrusion attempt or the trace of an overlooked population?.

Marine pollution bulletin, 156:111221.

Eriocheir sinensis is included among the 100 most invasive aquatic invertebrates due to its colonization history and the impacts to biodiversity and economy in the newly invaded environments. Despite of that, its attempts of colonization of the Mediterranean basin seem to have failed so far. In this paper, we summarize the status and the distribution of the species in the Mediterranean and report a further finding from the northern Adriatic Sea, confirmed through an integrative taxonomy approach. We finally discuss the vectors of introduction that may be at the basis of the present record, highlighting the unexplored possibility that an undetected population is already thriving in the area. Whatever of the hypotheses done here is true, the Adriatic Sea could be a new perfect house for this invader, suggesting that more attention should be paid by stakeholders in preventing rather than in remediating possible impacts.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Cerri J, Chiesa S, Bolognini L, et al (2020)

Using online questionnaires to assess marine bio-invasions: A demonstration with recreational fishers and the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1986) along three Mediterranean countries.

Marine pollution bulletin, 156:111209.

Marine bioinvasions require integrating monitoring tools with other complementary strategies. In this study, we collected information about the invasive alien crab Callinectes sapidus in Italy, Croatia and Montenegro, by means of online questionnaires administered to recreational fishers (n = 797). Our records matched the current distribution of the species: C. sapidus resulted far more common in the Adriatic/Ionian than in the Tyrrhenian/Ligurian sector. Most respondents rated the species as 'occasional' or 'rare'. Moreover, the more C. sapidus was considered to be abundant, the more fishers tended to perceive it as a negative disturbance over fisheries and the environment. Our findings suggest that C. sapidus is more common than previously thought in most of the study area, and it could have reached the levels of a true invasions in the south-eastern Adriatic Sea. This experience demonstrates that online questionnaires can be appropriate tools to effectively engage stakeholders in alien species monitoring.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Hoddle MS, Hoddle CD, I Milosavljević (2020)

How Far Can Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Fly?.

Journal of economic entomology pii:5854158 [Epub ahead of print].

The palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.), was first recorded in San Diego County, CA in 2011 and breeding populations were recovered from infested Canary Islands date palms, Phoenix canariensis, in San Ysidro, San Diego County, in 2015. This palm pest presents a significant threat to California's edible date industry as Phoenix dactylifera is a recorded host for this weevil. The flight capabilities of R. palmarum are unknown which limits understanding of rates of natural dispersal. In response to this knowledge deficit, 24-h flight mill trials were conducted with field-collected male and female weevils. A total of 87 weevils (49 females and 38 males) were used in experiments, ~6% failed to fly >1 km in 24 h and were excluded from analyses. Of those 82 weevils flying >1 km in 24 h, the average distance flown by males and females was ~41 and ~53 km, respectively. Approximately 10% of females flew >100 km in 24 h, with two (~4%) females flying >140 km. The maximum recorded distance flown by a male weevil was 95 km. Flight activity was predominantly diurnal and flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of ~18% while non-flying control weevils lost ~13% body weight in 24 h. The combined flight distances for male and female weevils exhibited a heavy-tailed platykurtic distribution. Flight mill data for R. palmarum are compared to similarly collected flight mill data for two other species of invasive palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) and Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer).

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Paronyan L, Babayan L, Manucharyan A, et al (2020)

The mosquitoes of Armenia: review of knowledge and results of a field survey with first report of Aedes albopictus.

Parasite (Paris, France), 27:42.

BACKGROUND: In 2016, a field study was implemented in all Armenian provinces in order to update knowledge on the presence and distribution of both native and invasive mosquito species. Larvae and adult mosquitoes were sampled and identified on the basis of their morphology. Supplementary field surveys were performed in 2017-2018.

RESULTS: Between June 20 and July 12, 2016, 117 localities were visited. A total number of 197 sampling units were checked, of which 143 (73%) were positive for mosquitoes (with 1-6 species per sampling unit). A total number of 4157 mosquito specimens were identified to species or species complex level. Ten species represent first records for Armenia: Aedes albopictus, Ae. annulipes, Ae. cataphylla, Ae. cinereus/geminus (probably Ae. cinereus), Ae. flavescens, Anopheles plumbeus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex martinii, Cx. torrentium and Culiseta subochrea. The invasive species Ae. albopictus was recorded in a single locality (Bagratashen) at the border point with Georgia, along the main road Tbilisi-Yerevan. This species was further recorded in 2017 and 2018, demonstrating its establishment and spread in north Armenia. These surveys confirm the presence of vectors of malaria parasites (in particular An. sacharovi) and West Nile virus (Cx. pipiens).

CONCLUSION: The knowledge of the Armenian mosquito fauna is extended to a list of 28 species. The record of Aedes albopictus, an important potential vector of many arboviruses, has important implications for public health.

RevDate: 2020-06-08

Goodenberger JS, Gopalakrishnan S, HA Klaiber (2020)

Spread externalities and the implications of heterogeneous ecological capacity constraints.

Journal of environmental management, 270:110813 pii:S0301-4797(20)30744-1 [Epub ahead of print].

We develop a spatial-dynamic model of resource management in the presence of externalities, such as the spread of harmful invasive species, and show that ecological capacity constraints influence optimal management strategies across space. We use integer-programming methods to solve for optimal control strategies in both homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes. Using the spread of gypsy moths as an application, our results show that optimal levels of control vary over space in landscapes with heterogeneous capacity constraints. Optimal outcomes depend on the marginal costs and damages associated with the externality and the emergence of spread externalities from relative differences in population levels between adjacent patches. In models with high degrees of heterogeneity, we show that a naïve policy assuming homogeneous carrying capacity results in a significantly higher welfare losses from the externality.

RevDate: 2020-06-07

Goto D, Dunlop ES, Young JD, et al (2020)

Shifting trophic control of fishery-ecosystem dynamics following biological invasions.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing human population size and mobility have accelerated the translocation of nonnative species globally, which has become a major threat to conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species can disrupt species interactions of the recipient ecosystem, triggering systemwide events, and amplify or dampen effects of existing pressures. We show how two pervasive intercontinental invasive consumers in North American lakes, dreissenids (filter-feeding mussels) and Bythotrephes (carnivorous zooplankton), nonlinearly modify consumer-resource dynamics and undermine management interventions to rebuild cold-water predatory fish biomass. Synthesizing 30 years (1986-2015) of lake-wide monitoring data with a dynamic mass-balance food-web model (consisting of 61 species and trophic groups), we reconstructed historical food-web dynamics of Lake Simcoe, a large, temperate lake in Ontario, Canada that has shifted from a turbid to clear- water state. We then analyzed patterns of biomass fluctuations of three recreationally harvested, ecologically connected populations; Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush, a piscivore), Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis, a benthivore), and Cisco (C. artedi, a planktivore) before and after the invasions by testing hypotheses on their delayed recoveries under management interventions-predator manipulations (fishery removal and stocking) and nutrient-load (phosphorus) reduction. Analyses suggest that fishery harvest primarily regulated early recovery trajectories of the piscivore and planktivore, weakening top-down control prior to the establishment of the invasive consumers. By contrast, the benthivore biomass patterns were shaped, in part, by the invasive mussels (via diet shift), independently of management actions. Although improved water quality (with reduced hypoxia in deeper water) and, in turn, higher macrophyte production are projected to expand the predation refuge for young fish, intensified planktivory (by Bythotrephes) and herbivory (by dreissenids) have triggered shifts in community composition (from pelagic to demersal dominance). These system-wide shifts, in turn, have substantially diminished ecosystem productivity, thereby shrinking fishery yields. Novel consumers can rewire food webs, disrupt energy flows, and suppress predator recoveries, underscoring the need to account for altered ecological reality in sustainably managing fishery resources in invaded ecosystems.

RevDate: 2020-06-07

Abelando M, Bobinac M, JC Fiore (2020)

Assessment of the efficiency of controls to prevent biologic invasions at the San Lorenzo Port, Argentina.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 192(7):420 pii:10.1007/s10661-020-08359-2.

The problem created by invasive non-native species through ships' ballast water has caused the International Maritime Organization (IMO), through the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention and many countries to develop their own laws to prevent their introduction. One of the most important non-native species in Argentina, the golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), causes a significant economic impact on the Plata Basin. Argentina has a great amount of maritime and fluvial ports that receive ships from different regions of the world. Particularly, the San Lorenzo-San Martín Port Complex (here termed SLOR), placed in the terminal portion of the Paraná Basin, receives ocean ships with great loading capacity, which increases the possibility of invasions and the need of an adequate environmental management. This work proposes to estimate the potential vulnerability of SLOR port, in relation with the origin of the ballast water and its volume. For this purpose, an adaptation of the risk assessment model of the GloBallast Program was used. The results suggest that SLOR has important similarities with different fluvial ports of the world, especially in Brazil and China. However the amount of ships coming from the nearest estuary waters, where the diversity of invasive species has major effects, is also important. This article provides the necessary information to conduct the efforts through surveys and enforcement regulations, and could be the foundation for future research using global data that could provide basic information for other fluvial ports with similar features.

RevDate: 2020-06-08
CmpDate: 2020-06-08

Aryani N, Suharman I, Azrita A, et al (2019)

Diversity and distribution of fish fauna of upstream and downstream areas at Koto Panjang Reservoir, Riau Province, Indonesia.

F1000Research, 8:1435.

Background: The capture fishery sectors in the river and reservoir play an important role in the Indonesian economy through increased income and diversification of livelihoods. The present study was conducted to ascertain fish diversity and their distribution pattern in the upstream and downstream areas of Koto Panjang Reservoir, Riau Province-Indonesia. Methods: Fish samples were collected for a period of 12 months using a variety of fish nets at four sites; Koto Mesjid (KM) and Batu Bersurat (BB), located in the upstream area of Koto Panjang Reservoir and Rantau Berangin (RB) and Kuok (KK), located in the downstream area of Koto Panjang Reservoir. Data obtained were analyzed using standard taxonomic keys based on morphometric characters. Results: A total of 44 species belonging 19 families and 33 genera were recorded in the study area. Alpha diversity indices showed that fish diversity in this area was quite high (Shannon's index = 2.10 and Simpson-D = 0.21) and evenness was low (evenness H/S =0.19). The fish in KM and BB sites (upstream) were from eight and 11 families, respectively. In RB and KK sites (downstream), fish were from 16 and 15 families, respectively. In KM, BB, RB and KK sites, the dominant family was Cyprinidae, comprising 33.45%, 50.95%, 43.04% and 39.35% of all fish caught at each site, respectively. Exotic species, especially Nile tilapia, were 20.15%, 14.11%, 5.62%, and 5.34%, respectively. Some differences were also noted between the upstream and downstream reservoirs, with a slight increase in exotic species in the upstream reservoir over the study period (from 11.39% vs. 34.66%), corresponding to decrease of native species (from 88.61% vs. 65.34%). Conclusions: The diversity and distribution of fish fauna were varied in upstream and downstream areas of Koto Panjang Reservoir. The exotic species were found to be dominant in the upstream reservoir areas.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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