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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 13 Jul 2019 at 01:42 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: "invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Anglès d'Auriac MB, Strand DA, Mjelde M, et al (2019)

Detection of an invasive aquatic plant in natural water bodies using environmental DNA.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219700 pii:PONE-D-19-07540.

The ability to detect founding populations of invasive species or rare species with low number of individuals is important for aquatic ecosystem management. Traditional approaches use historical data, knowledge of the species' ecology and time-consuming surveys. Within the past decade, environmental DNA (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful additional tracking tool. While much work has been done with animals, comparatively very little has been done with aquatic plants. Here we investigated the transportation and seasonal changes in eDNA concentrations for an invasive aquatic species, Elodea canadensis, in Norway. A specific probe assay was developed using chloroplast DNA to study the fate of the targeted eDNA through space and time. The spatial study used a known source of Elodea canadensis within Lake Nordbytjern 400 m away from the lake outlet flowing into the stream Tveia. The rate of disappearance of E. canadensis eDNA was an order of magnitude loss over about 230 m in the lake and 1550 m in the stream. The time series study was performed monthly from May to October in lake Steinsfjorden harbouring E. canadensis, showing that eDNA concentrations varied by up to three orders of magnitude, peaking during fall. In both studies, the presence of suspended clay or turbidity for some samples did not hamper eDNA analysis. This study shows how efficient eDNA tools may be for tracking aquatic plants in the environment and provides key spatial and temporal information on the fate of eDNA.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Kiehnau EL, LJ Weider (2019)

Phototactic behavior of native Daphnia in the presence of chemical cues from a non-native predator Bythotrephes.

Oecologia pii:10.1007/s00442-019-04461-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Chemical cues are used by many taxa to communicate within and among species. Behavioral defenses induced by predator cues are a mechanism by which prey species resist or avoid predator attack. This study examined the egg bank of native Daphnia species in a lake that has been invaded by Bythotrephes longimanus, an invertebrate zooplanktivore native to northern-central Europe and Asia (initial invasion 1994, population boom in 2009). Daphnia resting eggs from both pre- and post-B. longimanus invasion lake sediments were hatched and established as isofemale clonal lines. Phototactic behavior (a proxy for vertical migration behavior) was assessed in the presence and absence of B. longimanus cue. This was done to evaluate the hypothesis that the heavy predation imposed by B. longimanus would have been selected for Daphnia clones that are more negatively phototactic in the presence of B. longimanus cue, because B. longimanus is a visual predator. The behavior of the clones derived from pre-B. longimanus era resting eggs was not significantly different from the behavior of the clones from the post-B. longimanus era and exposure to predator cue did not affect the phototactic response of the clones. There was a significant difference in the phototactic behavior of the three Daphnia species tested (Daphnia ambigua, Daphnia mendotae, and Daphnia pulicaria). These results suggest that predation by B. longimanus is not the main factor that is influencing the phototactic behavior of Daphnia in the lake. Other factors such as fish predation may be playing a more significant role in this system.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Salinas ZA, Babini MS, Grenat PR, et al (2019)

Effect of parasitism of Lernaea cyprinacea on tadpoles of the invasive species Lithobates catesbeianus.

Heliyon, 5(6):e01834 pii:e01834.

The introduction of invasive species is one of the greatest threats currently faced by natural ecosystems, causing ecological imbalances between native populations and transmission of a variety of diseases. We reported the interaction between two exotic species given by the parasitic infestation of the copepod Lernaea cyprinacea in the early stages of the development of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus in the central area of Argentina. In this paper we analysed the leukocyte profile of parasitized and non-parasitized tadpoles of L. catesbeianus with L. cyprinacea and their body condition (BC) as biomarkers of the health status of organisms. A total of 27 tadpoles of L. catesbeianus were analysed (12 non-parasitized and 15 parasitized). The lower BC recorded in parasitized organisms show a lower health status in these tadpoles, which could be affecting the metamorphosis and therefore impact at the population level. Leukocyte response of L. catesbeianus tadpoles to the parasitism of L. cyprinacea was found. Mature and immature lymphocyte frequencies and hematocrit were higher in parasitized compared to non-parasitized tadpoles, which is a typical response to the presence of parasites. However, eosinophils and monocytes were recorded at high frequencies in not parasitized tadpoles, which could be due to the important role played by these leucocytes in the metamorphosis of frogs. The results of this study constitute a first antecedent on leukocyte profile in aquatic stages of anurans during an ectoparasitosis and its possible implications for environmental health. The parasitism of L. cyprinacea influences the biology of the American bullfrog at both the individual and population levels. Parasitized individuals are not killed directly by the parasite, but they can create conditions for secondary infections, growth retardation, behavioral changes and, ultimately, reduce populations.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Gu X, Zhao Y, Su Y, et al (2019)

A transcriptional and functional analysis of heat hardening in two invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta.

Evolutionary applications, 12(6):1147-1163 pii:EVA12793.

Many insects have the capacity to increase their resistance to high temperatures by undergoing heat hardening at nonlethal temperatures. Although this response is well established, its molecular underpinnings have only been investigated in a few species where it seems to relate at least partly to the expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) genes. Here, we studied the mechanism of hardening and associated transcription responses in larvae of two invasive fruit fly species in China, Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta. Both species showed hardening which increased resistance to 45°C, although the more widespread B. dorsalis hardened better at higher temperatures compared to B. correcta which hardened better at lower temperatures. Transcriptional analyses highlighted expression changes in a number of genes representing different biochemical pathways, but these changes and pathways were inconsistent between the two species. Overall B. dorsalis showed expression changes in more genes than B. correcta. Hsp genes tended to be upregulated at a hardening temperature of 38°C in both species, while at 35°C many Hsp genes tended to be upregulated in B. correcta but not B. dorsalis. One candidate gene (the small heat shock protein gene, Hsp23) with a particularly high level of upregulation was investigated functionally using RNA interference (RNAi). We found that RNAi may be more efficient in B. dorsalis, in which suppression of the expression of this gene removed the hardening response, whereas in B. correcta RNAi did not decrease the hardening response. The different patterns of gene expression in these two species at the two hardening temperatures highlight the diverse mechanisms underlying hardening even in closely related species. These results may provide target genes for future control efforts against such pest species.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Guzzetti L, Galimberti A, Bruni I, et al (2017)

Bioprospecting on invasive plant species to prevent seed dispersal.

Scientific reports, 7(1):13799.

ABSRACT: The most anthropized regions of the world are characterized by an impressive abundance of invasive plants, which alter local biodiversity and ecosystem services. An alternative strategy to manage these species could be based on the exploitation of their fruits in a framework of bioprospecting to obtain high-added value compounds or phytocomplexes that are useful for humans. Here we tested this hypothesis on three invasive plants (Lonicera japonica Thunb., Phytolacca americana L., and Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the Po plain (northern Italy) which bear fruits that are highly consumed by frugivorous birds and therefore dispersed over large distances. Our biochemical analyses revealed that unripe fruit shows high antioxidant properties due to the presence of several classes of polyphenols, which have a high benchmark value on the market. Fruit collection for phytochemical extraction could really prevent seed dispersal mediated by frugivorous animals and produce economic gains to support local management actions.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Jan PL, Lehnen L, Besnard AL, et al (2019)

Range expansion is associated with increased survival and fecundity in a long-lived bat species.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1906):20190384.

The speed and dynamics of range expansions shape species distributions and community composition. Despite the critical impact of population growth rates for range expansion, they are neglected in existing empirical studies, which focus on the investigation of selected life-history traits. Here, we present an approach based on non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture data for the estimation of adult survival, fecundity and juvenile survival, which determine population growth. We demonstrate the reliability of our method with simulated data, and use it to investigate life-history changes associated with range expansion in 35 colonies of the bat species Rhinolophus hipposideros. Comparing the demographic parameters inferred for 19 of those colonies which belong to an expanding population with those inferred for the remaining 16 colonies from a non-expanding population reveals that range expansion is associated with higher net reproduction. Juvenile survival was the main driver of the observed reproduction increase in this long-lived bat species with low per capita annual reproductive output. The higher average growth rate in the expanding population was not associated with a trade-off between increased reproduction and survival, suggesting that the observed increase in reproduction stems from a higher resource acquisition in the expanding population. Environmental conditions in the novel habitat hence seem to have an important influence on range expansion dynamics, and warrant further investigation for the management of range expansion in both native and invasive species.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Pascoe EL, Marcantonio M, Caminade C, et al (2019)

Modeling Potential Habitat for Amblyomma Tick Species in California.

Insects, 10(7): pii:insects10070201.

The Amblyomma genus of ticks comprises species that are aggressive human biters and vectors of pathogens. Numerous species in the genus are undergoing rapid range expansion. Amblyomma ticks have occasionally been introduced into California, but as yet, no established populations have been reported in the state. Because California has high ecological diversity and is a transport hub for potentially parasitized humans and animals, the risk of future Amblyomma establishment may be high. We used ecological niche modeling to predict areas in California suitable for four tick species that pose high risk to humans: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma mixtum. We collected presence data in the Americas for each species from the published literature and online databases. Twenty-three climatic and ecological variables were used in a MaxEnt algorithm to predict the distribution of each species. The minimum temperature of the coldest month was an important predictor for all four species due to high mortality of Amblyomma at low temperatures. Areas in California appear to be ecologically suitable for A. americanum, A. maculatum, and A. cajennense, but not A. mixtum. These findings could inform targeted surveillance prior to an invasion event, to allow mitigation actions to be quickly implemented.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Wepprich T, Adrion JR, Ries L, et al (2019)

Butterfly abundance declines over 20 years of systematic monitoring in Ohio, USA.

PloS one, 14(7):e0216270 pii:PONE-D-19-10894.

Severe insect declines make headlines, but they are rarely based on systematic monitoring outside of Europe. We estimate the rate of change in total butterfly abundance and the population trends for 81 species using 21 years of systematic monitoring in Ohio, USA. Total abundance is declining at 2% per year, resulting in a cumulative 33% reduction in butterfly abundance. Three times as many species have negative population trends compared to positive trends. The rate of total decline and the proportion of species in decline mirror those documented in three comparable long-term European monitoring programs. Multiple environmental changes such as climate change, habitat degradation, and agricultural practices may contribute to these declines in Ohio and shift the makeup of the butterfly community by benefiting some species over others. Our analysis of life-history traits associated with population trends shows an impact of climate change, as species with northern distributions and fewer annual generations declined more rapidly. However, even common and invasive species associated with human-dominated landscapes are declining, suggesting widespread environmental causes for these trends. Declines in common species, although they may not be close to extinction, will have an outsized impact on the ecosystem services provided by insects. These results from the most extensive, systematic insect monitoring program in North America demonstrate an ongoing defaunation in butterflies that on an annual scale might be imperceptible, but cumulatively has reduced butterfly numbers by a third over 20 years.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Xue Q, Xiang Y, Wu XQ, et al (2019)

Bacterial Communities and Virulence Associated with Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Different Pinus spp.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(13): pii:ijms20133342.

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, is a destructive threat to pine forests. The role of bacteria associated with B. xylophilus in pine wilt disease has attracted widespread attention. This study investigated variation in bacterial communities and the virulence of surface-sterilized B. xylophilus from different Pinus spp. The predominant culturable bacteria of nematodes from different pines were Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas. Biolog EcoPlate analysis showed that metabolic diversity of bacteria in B. xylophilus from P. massoniana was the highest, followed by P. thunbergii and P. densiflora. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that bacterial diversity and community structure in nematodes from the different pine species varied, and the dominant bacteria were Stenotrophomonas and Elizabethkingia. The virulence determination of B. xylophilus showed that the nematodes from P. massoniana had the greatest virulence, followed by the nematodes from P. thunbergii and P. densiflora. After the nematodes were inoculated onto P. thunbergii, the relative abundance of the predominant bacteria changed greatly, and some new bacterial species emerged. Meanwhile, the virulence of all the nematode isolates increased after passage through P. thunbergii. These inferred that some bacteria associated with B. xylophilus isolated from different pine species might be helpful to adjust the PWN's parasitic adaptability.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Yang RM (2019)

Mechanisms of soil organic carbon storage response to Spartina alterniflora invasion and climate change.

The Science of the total environment, 690:7-15 pii:S0048-9697(19)33046-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal wetlands have been identified as vital global carbon (C) sinks; however, soil C sequestration in these ecosystems is susceptible to impacts of non-native species invasion and climate change worldwide. Although their potential impacts on soil organic C (SOC) storage have been reported in previous literature, the well-established mechanisms that control SOC storage response, especially in relation to soil depths, is still limited. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a structural equation model (SEM) to identify mechanisms that account for SOC changes in topsoil (0-0.3 m) and subsoil (0.3-0.6 m) on coastal wetland of the East China Sea, where SOC in both depths increased with exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion. In the initial model, we hypothesized that there were a set of direct and indirect effects of the invasion, climate, and soil physicochemical properties on SOC storage. By evaluating the interactions of these factors, we found relatively complex patterns that vary with depth. For topsoil, the invasion had not only direct effects on SOC storage, but also indirect effects through mediating effects of soil water content (SWC) that was linked to fine soil fractions. For subsoil, the invasion was indirectly related to SOC storage through mediating effects of SOC in topsoil, SWC, and salinity. SOC in subsoil was also affected by temperature. Our results highlight that the response of SOC storage to the invasion and climate change results from the interacting effects of climate-plant-soil system.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Towers IR, JM Dwyer (2018)

Regional climate and local-scale biotic acceptance explain native-exotic richness relationships in Australian annual plant communities.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 285(1886):.

Native and exotic species richness is expected to be negatively related at small spatial scales where individuals interact, and positive at larger spatial scales as a greater variety of habitats are sampled. However, a range of native-exotic richness relationships (NERRs) have been reported, including positive at small scales and negative at larger scales. We present a hierarchical metacommunity framework to explain how contrasting NERRs may emerge across scales and study systems, and then apply this framework to NERRs in an invaded winter annual plant system in southwest Western Australia. We analysed NERRs at increasing spatial scales from neighbourhoods (0.09 m2) to communities (225 m2) to metacommunities (greater than 10 ha) within a multilevel structural equation model. In contrast to many previous studies, native and exotic richness were positively related at the neighbourhood scale and were not significantly associated at larger scales. Heterogeneity in soil surface properties was weakly, but positively, associated with native and exotic richness at the community scale. Metacommunity exotic richness increased strongly with regional temperature and moisture availability, but relationships for native richness were negative and much weaker. Thus, we show that neutral NERRs can emerge at larger scales owing to differential climatic filtering of native and exotic species pools.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Koch MA, Michling F, Walther A, et al (2017)

Early-Mid Pleistocene genetic differentiation and range expansions as exemplified by invasive Eurasian Bunias orientalis (Brassicaceae) indicates the Caucasus as key region.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16764.

Turkish Warty cabbage, Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) is a perennial herb known for its 250 years of invasion history into Europe and worldwide temperate regions. Putative centers of origin were debated to be located in Turkey, the Caucasus or Eastern Europe. Based on the genetic variation from the nuclear and plastid genomes, we identified two major gene pools in the Caucasian-Irano-Turanian region and close to the Northern Caucasus, respectively. These gene pools are old and started to diverge and expand approximately 930 kya in the Caucasus. Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles favoured later expansion of a European gene pool 230 kya, which was effectively separated from the Caucasian-Irano-Turanian gene pool. Although the European gene pool is genetically less diverse, it has largely served as source for colonization of Western and Northern Europe in modern times with rare observations of genetic contributions from the Caucasian-Irano-Turanian gene pool such as in North-East America. This study largely utilized herbarium material to take advantage of a biodiversity treasure trove providing biological material and also giving access to detailed collection information.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Osten-Sacken N, Heddergott M, Schleimer A, et al (2018)

Similar yet different: co-analysis of the genetic diversity and structure of an invasive nematode parasite and its invasive mammalian host.

International journal for parasitology, 48(3-4):233-243.

Animal parasitic nematodes can cause serious diseases and their emergence in new areas can be an issue of major concern for biodiversity conservation and human health. Their ability to adapt to new environments and hosts is likely to be affected by their degree of genetic diversity, with gene flow between distinct populations counteracting genetic drift and increasing effective population size. The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis), a gastrointestinal parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), has increased its global geographic range after being translocated with its host. The raccoon has been introduced multiple times to Germany, but not all its populations are infected with the parasite. While fewer introduced individuals may have led to reduced diversity in the parasite, admixture between different founder populations may have counteracted genetic drift and bottlenecks. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the roundworm and its raccoon host at the intersection of distinct raccoon populations infected with B. procyonis. We found evidence for two parasite clusters resulting from independent introductions. Both clusters exhibited an extremely low genetic diversity, suggesting small founding populations subjected to inbreeding and genetic drift with no, or very limited, genetic influx from population admixture. Comparison of the population genetic structures of both host and parasite suggested that the parasite spread to an uninfected raccoon founder population. On the other hand, an almost perfect match between cluster boundaries also suggested that the population genetic structure of B. procyonis has remained stable since its introduction, mirroring that of its raccoon host.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Diagne C, Galan M, Tamisier L, et al (2017)

Ecological and sanitary impacts of bacterial communities associated to biological invasions in African commensal rodent communities.

Scientific reports, 7(1):14995.

Changes in host-parasite ecological interactions during biological invasion events may affect both the outcome of invasions and the dynamics of exotic and/or endemic infections. We tested these hypotheses, by investigating ongoing house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) and black rat (Rattus rattus) invasions in Senegal (West Africa). We used a 16S gene rRNA amplicon sequencing approach to study potentially zoonotic bacterial communities in invasive and native rodents sampled along two well-defined independent invasion routes. We found that individual host factors (body mass and sex) were important drivers of these bacterial infections in rodents. We observed that the bacterial communities varied along invasion routes and differed between invasive and native rodents, with native rodents displaying higher overall bacterial diversity than invasive rodents. Differences in prevalence levels for some bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) provided support for ecological processes connecting parasitism and invasion success. Finally, our results indicated that rodent invasions may lead to the introduction of exotic bacterial genera and/or to changes in the prevalence of endemic ones. This study illustrates the difficulty of predicting the relationship between biodiversity and disease risks, and advocate for public health prevention strategies based on global pathogen surveillance followed by accurate characterization of potential zoonotic agents.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Suehiro W, Hyodo F, Tanaka HO, et al (2017)

Radiocarbon analysis reveals expanded diet breadth associates with the invasion of a predatory ant.

Scientific reports, 7(1):15016.

Invasions are ecologically destructive and can threaten biodiversity. Trophic flexibility has been proposed as a mechanism facilitating invasion, with more flexible species better able to invade. The termite hunting needle ant Brachyponera chinensis was introduced from East Asia to the United States where it disrupts native ecosystems. We show that B. chinensis has expanded dietary breadth without shifting trophic position in its introduced range. Transect sampling of ants and termites revealed a negative correlation between the abundance of B. chinensis and the abundance of other ants in introduced populations, but this pattern was not as strong in the native range. Both termite and B. chinensis abundance were higher in the introduced range than in native range. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis revealed that B. chinensis has significantly younger 'diet age', the time lag between carbon fixation by photosynthesis and its use by the consumer, in the introduced range than in the native range, while stable isotope analyses showed no change. These results suggest that in the introduced range B. chinensis remains a termite predator but also feeds on other consumer invertebrates with younger diet ages such as herbivorous insects. Radiocarbon analysis allowed us to elucidate cryptic dietary change associated with invasion success.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Mihalca AD, Păstrav IR, Sándor AD, et al (2019)

First report of the dog louse fly Hippobosca longipennis in Romania.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Hippobosca longipennis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), the dog fly or dog louse fly, is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite of wild and domestic carnivores in Africa and the Middle East. Outside its typically known geographic range, H. longipennis has been reported occasionally on mainly domestic dogs in Asia and southern Europe, and infrequently in other areas (central Europe and the U.S.A.). This paper presents the first report of H. longipennis in Romania and the second record of Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), a potentially invasive species. Hippobosca longipennis was found on domestic dogs in two regions of the country (northern Romania in Maramures and southwestern Romania in Dobrogea) and on two road-killed wildcats in Maramures. Lipoptena fortisetosa was found on domestic dogs in Maramures. In both species identification was based on morphology and confirmed by barcoding of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. It is not clear for how long H. longipennis has been present in central Europe, nor if it was introduced (via the movement of domestic dogs or import of exotic carnivores) or present historically (Holocene remnants). This paper discusses the possible origins of H. longipennis in central Europe as its current distribution in the area is sparse and patchy.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Russo L, Vaudo AD, Fisher CJ, et al (2019)

Bee community preference for an invasive thistle associated with higher pollen protein content.

Oecologia pii:10.1007/s00442-019-04462-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Non-native plant species reliant on insect pollination must attract novel pollinators in their introduced habitat to reproduce. Indeed, pollination services provided by resident floral visitors may contribute to the spread of non-native species, which may then affect the pollination services received by native plants. To determine the mechanisms by which an invasive thistle attracts pollinators in its introduced range, and whether its presence changes the pollinator visitation to native plant species, we compared bee visitation to native plants in the presence or absence of the invader. We experimentally tested the effect of a thistle invasion into a native plant community. We found that the non-native thistle was the most attractive of the plant species to visiting bee species. However, there was no effect of experimental treatment (presence of thistle) on bee abundance or visitation rate (bees per unit floral area per sample) to native plant species. Across 68 bee and 6 plant species, we found a significant correlation between pollen protein content and bee abundance and visitation rate. Thistle pollen also had a similar protein:lipid ratio to legumes, which correlated with bumble bee visitation. The high protein content of the thistle pollen, as compared to four native asters, may allow it to attract pollinators in novel ecosystems, and potentially contribute to its success as an invader. At the same time, this high protein pollen may act as a novel resource to pollinators in the thistle's invaded range.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Leza M, Herrera C, Marques A, et al (2019)

The impact of the invasive species Vespa velutina on honeybees: A new approach based on oxidative stress.

The Science of the total environment, 689:709-715 pii:S0048-9697(19)33083-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Honeybees have an essential role in ecosystems pollinating wild flowers and cultivated crops, representing an important cultural and economic benefit for humans. Honeybee populations are decreasing over the last decade, due to multifactorial causes. The aim of this field study was to investigate the effects of the presence of the invasive species Vespa velutina, a bee predator, in oxidative stress parameters of honeybee workers. To achieve this objective, positive or negative apiaries for the presence of the V. velutina were selected. Five honeybees from six hives of each apiary were sampled in spring, summer and autumn, analysing a total of 233 samples. Analysis of mRNA expression of oxidative stress-related genes, catalase enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation were performed. An increase in sod2, tpx3, trxR1, gtpx1, gstS1, coxI, cytC and if2mt genes expression, as well as a raise in catalase activity and lipid peroxidation were observed in V. velutina positive samples. Thus, here we present a new methodology to analyze the impact of the predation pressure of the invasive species V. velutina on honeybees under field conditions. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study indicate the negative impact of the presence of the yellow-legged hornet on honeybees' health and the activation of their antioxidant system to protect them against this biotic stressor. Moreover, the redox status they present could increase the susceptibility of honeybees, essential insects that currently receive many inputs of different stresses, to another stressor.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Cuthbert RN, Dalu T, Mutshekwa T, et al (2019)

Leaf inputs from invasive and native plants drive differential mosquito abundances.

The Science of the total environment, 689:652-654 pii:S0048-9697(19)33044-X [Epub ahead of print].

Ecological impacts of invasive alien species can be unpredictable and simultaneously span multiple habitat types and taxonomic groups. Invasive alien plants can have particularly severe impacts, and plant inputs into aquatic environments can profoundly alter community composition of invertebrates, such as mosquitoes. Here, we examine larval mosquito colonisation of aquatic containers treated with leaves from four different terrestrial plants: the invasive tickberry Lantana camara, invasive guava Psidium guajava, native sycamore fig Ficus sycomorus and native silver cluster-leaf Terminalia sericea. Larval mosquito abundances differed significantly accordingly to leaf treatment, whilst no mosquitoes colonised leaf-free controls. Leaf litter from the invasive L. camara, invasive P. guajava and native F. sycomorus drove significant increases in mosquito abundances relative to native T. sericea. We demonstrate the importance of plant identity for larval mosquito proliferations in aquatic habitats, with changes in plant community composition following terrestrial plant invasions potentially resulting in increased mosquito abundances. In turn, this may have implications for the vectoring of mosquito-borne disease.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Ballardini M, Ferretti S, Chiaranz G, et al (2019)

First report of the invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) and of its establishment in Liguria, northwest Italy.

Parasites & vectors, 12(1):334 pii:10.1186/s13071-019-3589-2.

BACKGROUND: Invasive mosquito species (IMS) of the genus Aedes are a cause of increasing concern in Europe owing to their ability to vector important human viral diseases. Entomological surveillance to early detect alien mosquito and flavivirus circulation in Liguria, northwest Italy, has been carried out since 2011.

RESULTS: The invasive species Aedes koreicus was first detected in Genoa in September 2015, when a male specimen was caught near the international airport; species identity was confirmed by genetic analysis. Over the next three years, 86 more adult specimens were trapped at sites throughout the city, accounting for 0.50% of all mosquitoes and 1.04% of Aedes sp. mosquitoes trapped in Genova in the four-year period 2015-2018. So far, no other monitored sites in Liguria have revealed the presence of this species. Ovitraps at two sites became positive for the species in July-August 2017. All female Ae. koreicus pools analysed were negative in biomolecular assays for Flavivirus.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of Ae. koreicus in Genoa constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the species in northwest Italy and in a Mediterranean port city. The species appears to be established; trapping and climatic data support survival of Ae. koreicus in the area through three consecutive winters. Monitoring of adult mosquitoes detected the species two years before its discovery with ovitraps; trapping for adult specimens appears to be a more effective tool for the early detection of IMS. The airport (located near the commercial port area) and the flower market are the most probable sites of introduction; however, the exact time and place of arrival of this IMS in Liguria remain unknown. Based on morphological and genetic data, a common origin for most of the Ae. koreicus populations established in Europe is suspected. So far, no control measures have been adopted in Genoa and the species will probably colonize an even wider area in the next few years.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Łukowski A, Janek W, Baraniak E, et al (2019)

Changing Host Plants Causes Structural Differences in the Parasitoid Complex of the Monophagous Moth Yponomeuta evonymella, but Does Not Improve Survival Rate.

Insects, 10(7): pii:insects10070197.

Recently in Poland, cases of host expansion have frequently been observed in the typically monophagous bird-cherry ermine moth (Yponomeuta evonymella), which has moved from its native host plant, bird cherry (Prunus padus), to a new, widely distributed plant that is invasive in Europe, black cherry (P.serotina). We attempted to verify the reasons behind this host change in the context of the enemy-free space hypothesis by focusing on parasitoids attacking larval Y. evonymella on one of three host plant variants: The primary host, P. padus; initially P. padus and later P. serotina (P. padus/P. serotina); or the new host, P. serotina. This experiment investigated if changing the host plant could be beneficial to Y. evonymella in terms of escaping from harmful parasitoids and improving survival rate. We identified nine species of parasitoids that attack larval Y. evonymella, and we found that the number of parasitoid species showed a downward trend from the primary host plant to the P. padus/P. serotina combination to the new host plant alone. We observed a significant difference among variants in relation to the percentage of cocoons killed by specific parasitoids, but no effects of non-specific parasitoids or other factors. Total mortality did not significantly differ (ca. 37%) among larval rearing variants. Changing the host plant caused differences in the structure of the parasitoid complex of Y. evonymella but did not improve its survival rate. This study does not indicate that the host expansion of Y. evonymella is associated with the enemy-free space hypothesis; we therefore discuss alternative scenarios that may be more likely.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Adebayo AA, Zhan A, Bailey SA, et al (2014)

Domestic ships as a potential pathway of nonindigenous species from the Saint Lawrence River to the Great Lakes.

Biological invasions, 16(4):793-801.

Ballast water moved by transoceanic vessels has been recognized globally as a predominant vector for the introduction of aquatic nonindigenous species (NIS). In contrast, domestic ships operating within confined geographic areas have been viewed as low risk for invasions, and are exempt from regulation in consequence. We examined if the St. Lawrence River could serve as a source of NIS for the Laurentian Great Lakes by surveying ballast water carried by domestic vessels and comparing biological composition in predominant St. Lawrence River-Great Lakes port-pairs in order to determine the likelihood that NIS could be transported to, and survive in, the Great Lakes. Thirteen potential invaders were sampled from ballast water, while 26 taxa sampled from St. Lawrence River ports are not reported from the Great Lakes. The majority of NIS recorded in samples are marine species with low potential for survival in the Great Lakes, however two euryhaline species (copepod Oithona similis, and amphipod Gammarus palustris) and two taxa reported from brackish waters (copepod Microsetella norvegica and decapod Cancer irroratus) may pose a risk for invasion. In addition, four marine NIS were collected in freshwater samples indicating that at least a subset of marine species have potential as new invaders to the Great Lakes. Based on results from this study, the ports of Montreal, Sorel, Tracy and Trois Rivières appear to pose the highest risk for new ballast-mediated NIS from the St. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Sun W, Zeng CR, Yue D, et al (2019)

Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatotoxicity induced by Ageratina adenophora in mice.

Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B, 20(8):693-698.

Ageratina adenophora is a noxious plant and it is known to cause acute asthma, diarrhea, depilation, and even death in livestock (Zhu et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2017). A. adenophora grows near roadsides and degraded land worldwide (He et al., 2015b). In the areas where it grows, A. adenophora is an invasive species that inhibits the growth of local plants and causes poisoning in animals that come in contact with it (Nie et al., 2012). In China, these plants can be found in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and other southwestern areas (He et al., 2015a) and they have become a dominant species in these local regions. It threatens the native biodiversity and ecosystem in the invaded areas and causes serious economic losses (Wang et al., 2017). It has been reported that A. adenophora can grow in the northeast direction at a speed of 20 km per year in China (Guo et al., 2009). Because of the damage caused by A. adenophora, it ranks among the earliest alien invasive plant species in China (Wang et al., 2017).

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Newete SW, Allem SM, Venter N, et al (2019)

Tamarix efficiency in salt excretion and physiological tolerance to salt-induced stress in South Africa.

International journal of phytoremediation [Epub ahead of print].

This study, investigated the salt excretion efficiency and the level of the physiological response to salt-induced stresses between the native and exotic Tamarix species as well as their hybrids (Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix ramosissima and Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix usneoides). Ten potted plants from each of the five taxa were exposed to salt at a concentration of 3% (w/w) (180 mM) for 3 weeks. Measurements of electro-conductivity (EC), physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water pressure and plant growth were taken from salt-treated and control plants. The EC in the exotic T. chinensis significantly increased by >30% compared with all other Tamarix taxa, suggesting that it is the most effective taxon for phytoremediation. Although there was no significant difference in plant growth between T. chinensis and T. usneoides, they both showed a significantly greater plant growth than the other taxa. However, the plant physiological parameters indicated that T. usneoides was less stressed by the salt exposure than the T. chinensis and the others. Thus, considering the T. usneoides greater tolerance to salt-induced and/water stresses and the strict environmental regulations of planting exotic Tamarix, the native Tamarix remains the preferred plant of choice for phytoremediation in South Africa.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Parker C, Bernaola L, Lee BW, et al (2019)

Entomology in the 21st Century: Tackling Insect Invasions, Promoting Advancements in Technology, and Using Effective Science Communication-2018 Student Debates.

Journal of insect science (Online), 19(4):.

The 2018 student debates of the Entomological Society of America were held at the Joint Annual Meeting for the Entomological Societies of America, Canada, and British Columbia in Vancouver, BC. Three unbiased introductory speakers and six debate teams discussed and debated topics under the theme 'Entomology in the 21st Century: Tackling Insect Invasions, Promoting Advancements in Technology, and Using Effective Science Communication'. This year's debate topics included: 1) What is the most harmful invasive insect species in the world? 2) How can scientists diffuse the stigma or scare factor surrounding issues that become controversial such as genetically modified organisms, agricultural biotechnological developments, or pesticide chemicals? 3) What new/emerging technologies have the potential to revolutionize entomology (other than Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)? Introductory speakers and debate teams spent approximately 9 mo preparing their statements and arguments and had the opportunity to share this at the Joint Annual Meeting with an engaged audience.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Trujillo-González A, Becker JA, KS Hutson (2018)

Parasite Dispersal From the Ornamental Goldfish Trade.

Advances in parasitology, 100:239-281.

Goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, are immensely popular ornamental cyprinid fish, traded in more than 100 countries. For more than 500 years, human translocation has facilitated the spread of goldfish globally, which has enabled numerous and repeated introductions of parasite taxa that infect them. The parasite fauna assemblage of goldfish is generally well documented, but few studies provide evidence of parasite coinvasion following the release of goldfish. This review provides a comprehensive synopsis of parasites that infect goldfish in farmed, aquarium-held, native, and invasive populations globally and summarises evidence for the cointroduction and coinvasion of goldfish parasites. More than 113 species infect goldfish in their native range, of which 26 species have probably coinvaded with the international trade of goldfish. Of these, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora: Ichthyophthiriidae), Argulus japonicus (Crustacea: Argulidae), Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea: Ergasilidae), Dactylogyrus anchoratus, Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus formosus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) are common to invasive goldfish populations in more than four countries and are considered a high risk of continued spread. Coinvasive parasites include species with direct and complex life cycles, which have successfully colonised new environments through utilisation of either new native hosts or suitable invasive hosts. Specifically, I. multifiliis, A. japonicus and L. cyprinacea can cause harm to farmed freshwater fish species and are important parasites to consider for biosecurity. These species may threaten other aquatic animal industries given their low host specificity and adaptable life histories. Future attention to biosecurity, management and border detection methods could limit the continued spread of exotic parasites from the ornamental trade of goldfish.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Hyldgaard B, Lambertini C, H Brix (2017)

Phylogeography reveals a potential cryptic invasion in the Southern Hemisphere of Ceratophyllum demersum, New Zealand's worst invasive macrophyte.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16569.

Ceratophyllum demersum (common hornwort) is presently considered the worst invasive submerged aquatic macrophyte in New Zealand. We explored the global phylogeographic pattern of the species, based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA, in order to identify the origin of the invasive populations in New Zealand and to clarify if there were multiple introductions. The phylogeographic study identified geographically differentiated gene pools in North America, tropical Asia, Australia, and South Africa, likely native to these regions, and a recent dispersal event of a Eurasian-related haplotype to North America, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. At least two different invasive genotypes of this Eurasian-related haplotype have been found in New Zealand. One genotype is closely related to genotypes in Australia and South Africa, while we could not trace the closest relatives of the other genotype within our C. demersum sample set. Contrasting spectra of genetic distances in New Zealand and in a region within the native range (Denmark), suggest that the invasive population was founded by vegetative reproduction, seen as low genetic distances among genotypes. We also discovered the introduction of the same Eurasian-related haplotype in Australia and South Africa and that a cryptic invasion may be occurring in these continents.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Ju RT, Gao L, Wei SJ, et al (2017)

Spring warming increases the abundance of an invasive specialist insect: links to phenology and life history.

Scientific reports, 7(1):14805.

Under global warming, shifts in phenological synchrony between insects and host plants (i.e., changes in the relative timing of the interaction) may reduce resource availability to specialist insects. Some specialists, however, can flexibly track the shifts in host-plant phenology, allowing them to obtain sufficient resources and therefore to benefit from rising temperatures. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on the life history of an invasive, specialist lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) and on the leaf expansion of its host plant (Platanus × acerifolia) in two spring seasons under field conditions in Shanghai, China. We found that a 2 °C increase in mean air temperature advanced the timing of the expansion of host leaves and of the activities of overwintering adult insects in both years but did not disrupt their synchrony. Warming also directly increased the reproduction of overwintering adults and enhanced the development and survival of their offspring. These results indicate that C. ciliata can well track the earlier emergence of available resources in response to springtime warming. Such plasticity, combined with the direct effects of rising temperatures, may increase the insect's population size and outbreak potential in eastern China under climate warming.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Hansson SV, Sonke J, Galop D, et al (2017)

Transfer of marine mercury to mountain lakes.

Scientific reports, 7(1):12719.

Stocking is a worldwide activity on geographical and historical scales. The rate of non-native fish introductions have more than doubled over the last decades yet the effect on natural ecosystems, in the scope of biologically mediated transport and biomagnification of Hg and Hg-isotopes, is unknown. Using geochemistry (THg) and stable isotopes (N, Sr and Hg), we evaluate natal origin and trophic position of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), as well as mercury biomagnification trends and potential pollution sources to three high-altitude lakes. Farmed trout show Hg-isotope signatures similar to marine biota whereas wild trout shows Hg-isotope signatures typical of fresh water lakes. Stocked trout initially show Hg-isotope signatures similar to marine biota. As the stocked trout age and shifts diet to a higher trophic level, THg concentrations increase and the marine Hg isotope signatures, induced via farm fish feed, shift to locally produced MeHg with lower δ202Hg and higher Δ199Hg. We conclude that stocking acts a humanly induced biovector that transfers marine Hg to freshwater ecosystems, which is seen in the Hg-isotopic signature up to five years after stocking events occurred. This points to the need of further investigations of the role of stocking in MeHg exposure to freshwater ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Bentur Y, Altunin S, Levdov I, et al (2018)

The clinical effects of the venomous Lessepsian migrant fish Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787) in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 56(5):327-331.

CONTEXT: Plotosus lineatus is a venomous fish that has migrated from the Indo-Pacific region to the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrant). Its presence in the Mediterranean Sea was first recorded in 2002 and was observed in growing schools. Its spines contain toxins with lytic, hemolytic and edematous activities.

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the injuries caused by Plotosus lineatus in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

METHODS: A prospective observational case series of consultations provided by a national Poison Center pertaining to Plotosus lineatus from 2007 to 2016. Demographic and clinical data and method of fish identification were retrieved from the medical toxicological records, and described.

RESULTS: Eighty four cases were included; the main findings are: median age 35 (range 3-80) years, 91.7% males, 51.2% fishermen, 78.6% palm injuries, 94% and 4.8% were mildly and moderately injured, respectively. Main local manifestations included pain, puncture wound, swelling, and erythema (90.5%, 70.2%, 33.3%, and 16.7%, respectively). Systemic signs were minor and infrequent (≤7.1%), including hypertension, tachycardia, vomiting, chills, and weakness. Management included wound disinfection, immersion in hot water, tetanus prophylaxis, and analgesics. No patient required hospital admission. The fish was identified mostly by the victim with the aid of the Poison Center (mainly by typical description, and a picture), and some by marine biologists.

CONCLUSIONS: Plotosus lineatus is a new fish in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea. It affects fishermen handling fishing nets, and beach hikers stepping on or holding it. Injuries caused by its spines usually result in minor effects; pain may be intense. Treatment includes disinfection, analgesics, and antitetanus and antibiotics as needed. No lethal cases were recorded, unlike exposure of animals to the venom of the Indo-Pacific species; reason is unclear. Our series illustrates the consequences of manmade disruption of ecosystem resulting in invasion of toxic species to a new environment, affecting human health.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Beuzelin JM, VanWeelden MT, Soto-Adames FN, et al (2019)

Effect of Sugarcane Cultivar and Foliar Insecticide Treatment on Infestations of the Invasive Sugarcane Thrips, Fulmekiola serrata (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Florida.

Journal of economic entomology pii:5527365 [Epub ahead of print].

Fulmekiola serrata (Kobus) was observed infesting sugarcane, Saccharum spp. hybrids, in the United States for the first time in January 2017 in Florida. Field studies were conducted to determine F. serrata infestation levels on popular sugarcane cultivars and to determine the efficacy of foliar insecticide treatments that could be used for management. Cultivar evaluations comparing six and five commercial cultivars representing >46% of the sugarcane production area in Florida were conducted in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Fulmekiola serrata infestation levels did not differ among cultivars in 2017. However, infestation levels on CP 00-1101 were greater than on CP 96-1252 grown on organic soils, and infestation levels on CP 96-1252 were greater than on CPCL 97-2730 grown on mineral soils in 2018. Three insecticide evaluations, two in 2017 and one in 2018, were conducted. The pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, which is registered for use on sugarcane, was consistently associated with the greatest decreases in F. serrata infestation levels. The neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, as well as the butenolide flupyradifurone, decreased infestation levels but to a lesser extent than did lambda-cyhalothrin. The spinosyn spinetoram was associated with the lowest decreases in F. serrata infestation levels. Our results supported short-term F. serrata management recommendations: Popular Florida sugarcane cultivars should be considered equally susceptible to F. serrata until additional evaluations are conducted and F. serrata outbreaks can be treated with lambda-cyhalothrin when infestations stress the crop beyond acceptable levels.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Villazana J, A Alyokhin (2019)

Tolerance of Immature Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) to Cold Temperatures Above and Below Freezing Point.

Journal of economic entomology pii:5527364 [Epub ahead of print].

Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.), consume decaying organic materials at the larval stage and can be used for recycling a variety of biogenic wastes into value-added products. Black soldier flies are normally found in subtropical and warm temperate regions. Cold temperatures may prevent their establishment in colder areas, thus alleviating a concern of their becoming an invasive species. Potentially, cold temperatures can also be used to manipulate the rate of black soldier fly development, which may be needed for timing certain life stages for mass-production needs. In the present study, immature black soldier flies were highly susceptible to freezing. Their survivorship decreased as time spent at -12°C increased from 10 to 60 min. Only ca. 2% of eggs, <1% of larvae, and no pupae survived after 60 min of exposure. Chilling at 4°C also had a significant negative effect that became more pronounced as duration of exposure increased from 24 to 72 h. Only ca. 2% of eggs and second instars and ca. 23% of pupae survived after 72 h. In the same time, >80% of third instars and >90% of fifth instars were still alive following 72 h of exposure. Chilling fifth instars resulted in smaller adults but freezing them for 48 h resulted in bigger adults. Based on these results, black soldier fly is unlikely to establish in areas with long periods of subfreezing winter temperatures. Low temperatures may be used to manipulate development of the late instars, but at a cost of higher mortality.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Rose JP, Wademan C, Weir S, et al (2019)

Traditional trapping methods outperform eDNA sampling for introduced semi-aquatic snakes.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219244 pii:PONE-D-18-34493.

Given limited resources for managing invasive species, traditional survey methods may not be feasible to implement at a regional scale. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has proven to be an effective method for detecting some invasive species, but comparisons between the detection probability of eDNA and traditional survey methods using modern occupancy modeling methods are rare. We developed a qPCR assay to detect two species of watersnake (Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon) introduced to California, USA, and we compared the efficacy of eDNA and aquatic trapping. We tested 3-9 water samples each from 30 sites near the known range of N. fasciata, and 61 sites near the known range of N. sipedon. We also deployed aquatic funnel traps at a subset of sites for each species. We detected N. fasciata eDNA in three of nine water samples from just one site, but captured N. fasciata in traps at three of ten sites. We detected N. sipedon eDNA in five of six water samples from one site, which was also the only site of nine at which this species was captured in traps. Traditional trapping surveys had a higher probability of detecting watersnakes than eDNA surveys, and both survey methods had higher detection probability for N. sipedon than N. fasciata. Occupancy models that integrated both trapping and eDNA surveys estimated that 5 sites (95% Credible Interval: 4-10) of 91 were occupied by watersnakes (both species combined), although snakes were only detected at four sites (three for N. fasciata, one for N. sipedon). Our study shows that despite the many successes of eDNA surveys, traditional sampling methods can have higher detection probability for some species. We recommend those tasked with managing species invasions explicitly compare eDNA and traditional survey methods in an occupancy framework to inform their choice of the best method for detecting nascent populations.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Salinitro M, Alessandrini A, Zappi A, et al (2019)

Impact of climate change and urban development on the flora of a southern European city: analysis of biodiversity change over a 120-year period.

Scientific reports, 9(1):9464 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46005-1.

Ecological studies in cities are not only aimed at investigating floristic diversity, but also represent informative test cases for understanding ecological system dynamics and responses to urban and climate changes since cities represent microcosms of environmental changes happening globally. The city of Bologna was selected as a case study since two specific and complete studies have been carried out in a 120-years timespan, one in 1894 and one in 2018. Since 1894, a large increase occurred in the number of taxa (families from 41 to 101, species from 176 to 477) and alien species (from 22 to 144), with a 65% total species turnover. The comparison of species life forms pointed out a noticeable recent expansion of phanerophytes and geophytes at the expense of therophytes and hemicryptophytes. The correlation between urbanistic features and plant richness indicated that the main factor affecting plant richness is the presence of green spaces (parks, tree lines, flowerbeds, etc.). Analysis of variation in Ellenberg's indicator values over the last 120 years evidenced a shift toward shade-tolerant species, mainly connected to the increased presence of parks and trees within the city. Climate change and the presence of artificially irrigated areas within the city has led to an increase in both hygrophilous and drought-resistant species. In particular, the temperature index showed a significantly higher amount of macrothermal species in accordance with a warmer climate and the urban heat island effect.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Barral A (2019)

Invasive species like it hot.

Nature plants pii:10.1038/s41477-019-0483-z [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Beechler BR, Boersma KS, Buss PE, et al (2019)

Bovine tuberculosis disturbs parasite functional trait composition in African buffalo.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1903674116 [Epub ahead of print].

Novel parasites can have wide-ranging impacts, not only on host populations, but also on the resident parasite community. Historically, impacts of novel parasites have been assessed by examining pairwise interactions between parasite species. However, parasite communities are complex networks of interacting species. Here we used multivariate taxonomic and trait-based approaches to determine how parasite community composition changed when African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) acquired an emerging disease, bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Both taxonomic and functional parasite richness increased significantly in animals that acquired BTB than in those that did not. Thus, the presence of BTB seems to catalyze extraordinary shifts in community composition. There were no differences in overall parasite taxonomic composition between infected and uninfected individuals, however. The trait-based analysis revealed an increase in direct-transmitted, quickly replicating parasites following BTB infection. This study demonstrates that trait-based approaches provide insight into parasite community dynamics in the context of emerging infections.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

David M, Magaletti E, Kraus R, et al (2019)

Vulnerability to bioinvasions: Current status, risk assessment and management of ballast water through A regional approach - The Adriatic Sea.

The United Nations recognised the transfer of invasive species across natural barriers as one of the greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas. The BWM Convention sets the global standards on ballast water management (BWM) requirements, while recognising that regional and local specifics have to be considered for its effective implementation. In the Adriatic Sea cross-border activities were conducted to provide for essential information/data and tools to support a regionally coordinated implementation of the BWM Convention. This special issue contains 18 publications that include results and recommendations from studying the ballast water and management issues through sampling of ballast water on vessels, risk assessment for exemptions and BWM, biological and chemical port baseline surveys and monitoring conducted in ports along the Adriatic Sea coast, oceanographic conditions, ballast water sediment issues and their management in ports, and the implementation options of the BWM Convention through the Adriatic States' environmental law and institutions cooperation. Essential data and tools to support a regional approach in the implementation of the BWM Convention were provided, and are therefore available to the administrations of the Adriatic countries to enable protection of the Adriatic Sea environment, human health property and resources from negative impacts of ballast water being discharged in the area. Data, approaches and tools provided here may be helpful in any other region to support an effective BWM Convention implementation.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Tabanca N, Masi M, Epsky ND, et al (2019)

Laboratory Evaluation of Natural and Synthetic Aromatic Compounds as Potential Attractants for Male Mediterranean fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(13): pii:molecules24132409.

Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, is one of the most serious agricultural pests worldwide responsible for significant reduction in fruit and vegetable yields. Eradication is expensive and often not feasible. Current control methods include the application of conventional insecticides, leading to pesticide resistance and unwanted environmental effects. The aim of this study was to identify potential new attractants for incorporation into more environmentally sound management programs for C. capitata. In initial binary choice bioassays against control, a series of naturally occurring plant and fungal aromatic compounds and their related analogs were screened, identifying phenyllactic acid (7), estragole (24), o-eugenol (21), and 2-allylphenol (23) as promising attractants for male C. capitata. Subsequent binary choice tests evaluated five semisynthetic derivatives prepared from 2-allylphenol, but none of these were as attractive as 2-allylphenol. In binary choice bioassays with the four most attractive compounds, males were more attracted to o-eugenol (21) than to estragole (24), 2-allylphenol (23), or phenyllactic acid (7). In addition, electroantennography (EAG) was used to quantify antennal olfactory responses to the individual compounds (1-29), and the strongest EAG responses were elicited by 1-allyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (11), estragole (24), 4-allyltoluene (14), trans-anethole (9), o-eugenol (21), and 2-allylphenol (23). The compounds evaluated in the current investigation provide insight into chemical structure-function relationships and help direct future efforts in the development of improved attractants for the detection and control of invasive C. capitata.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Bian C, Li J, Lin X, et al (2019)

Whole Genome Sequencing of the Blue Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) Provides a Valuable Genetic Resource for Biomedical Research on Tilapias.

Marine drugs, 17(7): pii:md17070386.

Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) has been an economically important fish in Asian countries. It can grow and reproduce in both freshwater and brackish water conditions, whereas it is also considered as a significant invasive species around the world. This species has been widely used as the hybridization parent(s) for tilapia breeding with a major aim to produce novel strains. However, available genomic resources are still limited for this important tilapia species. Here, we for the first time sequenced and assembled a draft genome for a seawater cultured blue tilapia (0.92 Gb), with 97.8% completeness and a scaffold N50 of 1.1 Mb, which suggests a relatively high quality of this genome assembly. We also predicted 23,117 protein-coding genes in the blue tilapia genome. Comparisons of predicted antimicrobial peptides between the blue tilapia and its close relative Nile tilapia proved that these immunological genes are highly similar with a genome-wide scattering distribution. As a valuable genetic resource, our blue tilapia genome assembly will benefit for biomedical researches and practical molecular breeding for high resistance to various diseases, which have been a critical problem in the aquaculture of tilapias.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Kopeć D, Zakrzewska A, Halladin-Dąbrowska A, et al (2019)

Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroscopy to Accurately Monitor Invasive and Expansive Herb Plants: Limitations and Requirements of the Method.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 19(13): pii:s19132871.

Remote sensing (RS) is currently regarded as one of the standard tools used for mapping invasive and expansive plants for scientific purposes and it is increasingly widely used in nature conservation management. The applicability of RS methods is determined by its limitations and requirements. One of the most important limitations is the species percentage cover at which the classification result is correct and useful for nature conservation. The primary objective, carried out in 2017 in three areas of Poland, was to determine the minimum percentage cover from which it is possible to identify a target species by RS methods. A secondary objective of this research, related to the requirements of the method, was to optimize the set of training polygons for a target species in terms of the number of polygons and abundance percentage cover of the target species. Our method has to be easy to use, effective, and applicable, therefore the analysis was carried out using the basic set of rasters-the first 30 channels after the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation (the mosaic of hyperspectral data from HySpex sensors with spectral range 0.4-2.5 µm) and commonly used Random Forest algorithm. The analysis used airborne hyperspectral data with a spatial resolution of 1 m to perform classification of one invasive and three expansive plants-two grasses and two large perennials. On-ground training and validation data sets were collected simultaneously with airborne data collection. When testing different classification scenarios, only the set of training polygons for a target species was changed. Classification results were evaluated based on three methods: accuracy measures (Kappa and F1), true-positive pixels in subclasses with different species cover and compatibility with field mapping. The classification results indicate that to classify the target plant species at the accepted level, the training dataset should contain polygons with a species cover ranging from 80-100%. Training performed only using polygons with a species characterized by a variable, but lower, cover (20-70%) and missing samples in the 80-100% range, led to a map which was not acceptable because of a high overestimation of target species. We achieved effective identification of species in areas where the species cover is above 50%, considering that ecosystems are heterogeneous. The results of these studies developed a methodology of field data acquisition and the necessity of synchronization in the acquisition of airborne data, and training and validation of on-ground sampling.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Epstein G, DA Smale (2018)

Environmental and ecological factors influencing the spillover of the non-native kelp, Undaria pinnatifida, from marinas into natural rocky reef communities.

Biological invasions, 20(4):1049-1072.

The non-native kelp, Undaria pinnatifida, is considered one of the world's worst invasive species. The northeast Atlantic is a hotspot of Undaria invasion, yet there is limited knowledge on its invasion dynamics. In the UK its distribution is strongly associated with artificial structures, primarily marina and harbour pontoons, with relatively few records of Undaria on natural substrates. Here, the southwest UK is used as a case region, to explicitly link Undaria distribution-abundance patterns in artificial marina habitats with those in natural rocky reef habitats. Using a mixture of in situ recording and video survey techniques, Undaria was found at all thirteen marina sites surveyed; but in only 17 of 35 rocky reef sites, all of which were in 2 of the 5 larger systems surveyed (Plymouth Sound and Torbay). The distribution-abundance patterns of Undaria at reef sites were analysed using zero-inflated models. The probability of finding Undaria on rocky reef increased with increasing proximity to marinas with high abundances of Undaria. Total propagule pressure from marinas also increased the probability of occurrence, and was positively related to Undaria abundance and cover at reef sites. Increases in the cover of native kelps, Laminaria spp., and wave exposure at reef sites were linked to a reduced probability of Undaria occurrence, and lower abundance and cover. Identifying high risk areas, natural boundaries and factors affecting the spread and abundance of non-native species in natural habitats is key to future management prioritisation. Where Undaria is confined to artificial substrates management may be deemed a low priority. However, the results of this study suggest that controlling the abundance and propagule pressure in artificial habitats may limit, to some extent, the spillover of Undaria into natural rocky reef habitats, where it has the potential to interact with and influence native communities.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Shogren CJ, TD Paine (2019)

Identification of the Klambothrips myopori (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Predator Complex in California.

Environmental entomology pii:5526718 [Epub ahead of print].

To identify the predator complex of the invasive thrips, Klambothrips myopori, on its ornamental host plant Myoporum laetum, field surveys were conducted at three sites in southern California over the period of 1 y. Five insect orders and five spider families were represented in the survey. Although the most abundant groups differed among collection sites, syrphid larvae, anthocorids, Chrysoperla spp., Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae), and one spider family (Salticidae) were all collected at each site. Based on the field surveys, Orius spp. and Chrysoperla spp. were identified as possible key natural enemies of K. myopori. Laboratory studies were then conducted to determine the consumption rates of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) at constant densities of K. myopori and to define the functional responses of the predators. Both predators consumed more second-instar larvae than other prey stages. Orius insidious displayed a type II functional response, while C. rufilabris displayed both type II and type III depending on prey stage. Generally speaking, O. insidiosus and C. rufilabris consumed a higher proportion of prey at lower pest densities, implying that in an augmentative control program using these commercially available natural enemies, predators could be released early in the year when host plants begin to flush and thrips populations are low to suppress population growth.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Vega A, L Castro (2019)

Impact of climate change on insect-human interactions.

Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update the influence of the global climate change on Hymenoptera venom allergy.

RECENT FINDINGS: Climate change facilitates biological invasions of hymenopteran species and plays a role in the impact of introduced species relevant for human health. It contributes to a rise in the incidence of sting injuries and allergy reactions across the world.

SUMMARY: Global climate change has contributed to the expansion and the redistribution of allergenic insect species, increasing the number of allergy cases caused by stinging insects worldwide. Imported insects are trending species in systemic reactions for multiple stings or hymenopteran venom allergy. They represent a threat for humans and a challenge for the allergists.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Yang Q, Umina PA, Rašić G, et al (2019)

Origin of resistance to pyrethroids in the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) in Australia: repeated local evolution and migration.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Halotydeus destructor is a major pest of crops and pastures across southern parts of Australia. This invasive mite has been chemically controlled for over 50 years, but resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates is developing. Understanding processes behind the emerging resistance is important for effective management efforts. We undertook a ddRAD pool-sequencing approach to analyse genome-wide SNP variation in H. destructor population samples at two scales: local resistance across a set of fields, and regional resistance across their Australian range, along with toxicology bioassays to screen for pyrethroid resistance.

RESULTS: Spatial patterns of genomic variation and resistance at a local scale indicated genetic similarity among samples were more closely correlated with distance along roads and fence-lines than with straight-line geographic distance. This pattern was particularly strong in resistant samples, which were also more related than the susceptible samples, suggesting local spread of resistance within an area after it emerged. In contrast, regional data suggests resistance has repeatedly emerged within parts of Australia. Our de novo annotation of the H. destructor draft genome sequence and Bayesian analysis identified several candidate loci strongly associated with population-level resistance to pyrethroids, located in genomic regions that code for transmembrane transport and signalling proteins which have been previously linked to insecticide resistance in other arthropods.

CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight multiple independent evolutionary events leading to resistance in H. destructor, and demonstrate the utility and cost-effectiveness of a cross-population, genome-wide association study to reveal processes underlying adaptive evolution in a non-model invasive species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-30

Rumbold DG, IA Bartoszek (2019)

Mercury Concentrations in Invasive Burmese Pythons (Python bivitattus) of Southwest Florida.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology pii:10.1007/s00128-019-02670-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We determined mercury (Hg) concentrations in various tissues of Burmese pythons (Python bivitattus; n = 227) caught in southwest Florida from 2012-2018 as part of a program to control this invasive species. Mercury ranged as high as 4.86 mg/kg in liver tissue from a snake that was 4.7 m long but overall averaged 0.12 ± 0.19 mg/kg in tail tips (n = 123). These levels were relatively low as compared to concentrations reported in pythons from Everglades National Park, a recognized Hg hotspot. These results show that snakes, particularly watersnakes, present another opportunity to biomonitor Hg at the aquatic-terrestrial interface. Although capturing snakes presents obvious challenges, which differ from sampling other taxa typically used in monitoring programs, taking advantage of this program to control an invasive species was cost effective and alleviated concerns about sampling and possibly reducing native snake populations.

RevDate: 2019-06-28

Mankad A, Kennedy U, L Carter (2019)

Biological control of pests and a social model of animal welfare.

Journal of environmental management, 247:313-322 pii:S0301-4797(19)30881-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This paper considers the sociocultural implications of biological pest control that sit at the cusp of managing an invasive species for conservation or productivity (i.e. a 'natural enemy') and socially driven 'manipulating life' arguments. We consider the role of perceived humaneness or, more accurately, animal welfare as it relates to managing invasive species from a scientific and social perspective. In order to highlight and articulate particular nuances and standards across different pest control contexts, we use three case examples (feral cats, wild rabbits, and invasive cane toads) and explore where biological pest control and animal welfare interests intersect. The paper summarises key scientific welfare concerns and then extends the literature to also examine key social characteristics of each pest management scenario, including lay perceptions of animal welfare, the sociocultural context that pests exist within, and overarching psychological factors contributing to public sentiment, including perceived risks. The subsequent descriptive model presented is useful in articulating core sociocultural beliefs relative to each case and how these antecedent associations and attitudes about an animal influence subsequent beliefs about a pest management strategy and ultimately acceptance of the management approach. The model can inform invasive species management policies and highlight key sociocultural factors likely to influence public responses. The model also informs interdisciplinary science designed to develop acceptable and socially responsible biocontrol strategies that consider public perceptions of animal welfare and cultural appropriateness.

RevDate: 2019-06-28

Wu H, J Ding (2019)

Global Change Sharpens the Double-Edged Sword Effect of Aquatic Alien Plants in China and Beyond.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:787.

Many alien aquatic plants are deliberately introduced because they have economic, ornamental, or environmental values; however, they may also negatively affect aquatic ecosystems, by blocking rivers, restricting aquatic animals and plants by decreasing dissolved oxygen, and reducing native biodiversity. These positive and/or negative ecological effects may be enhanced under global change. Here, we examine the impacts of global change on aquatic alien plant introduction and/or invasions by reviewing their introduction pathways, distributions, and ecological effects. We focus on how climate change, aquatic environmental pollution, and China's rapid economic growth in recent decades affect their uses and invasiveness in China. Among 55 species of alien aquatic plants in China, 10 species are invasive, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxeroides, and Pistia stratiotes. Most of these invaders were intentionally introduced and dispersed across the country but are now widely distributed and invasive. Under climate warming, many species have expanded their distributions to areas where it was originally too cold for their survival. Thus, these species are (and will be) considered to be beneficial plants in aquaculture and for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems (for water purification) across larger areas. However, for potential invasive species, climate warming is (and will be) increasing their invasion risk in more areas. In addition, nitrogen deposition and phosphorus inputs may also alter the status of some alien species. Furthermore, climate warming has shifted the interactions between alien aquatic plants and herbivores, thus impacting their future spreads. Under climate change, more precipitation in North China and more frequent flooding in South China will increase the uncertainties of ecological effects of alien aquatic plants in these regions. We also predict that, under the continuing booming economy in China, more and more alien aquatic plants will be used for aquatic landscaping and water purification. In conclusion, our study indicates that both human activities under rapid economic growth and climate change can either increase the potential uses of alien aquatic plants or make the aquatic invaders worse in China and other areas in the world. These findings are critical for future risk assessment of aquatic plant introduction and aquatic ecosystem restoration.

RevDate: 2019-06-27
CmpDate: 2019-06-27

Lane SE, Hollings T, Hayes KR, et al (2018)

Risk factors for fouling biomass: evidence from small vessels in Australia.

Biofouling, 34(9):1032-1045.

Invasive non-indigenous species (NIS) are a threat to marine biodiversity and marine reliant industries. Recreational vessels are recognised as an important vector of NIS translocation, particularly domestically. This paper reports on a novel application of multilevel modelling and multiple imputation in order to quantify the relationship between biofouling biomass (wet weight) and the vessel-level characteristics of recreational and fishing vessels. It was found that the number of days since the vessel was last cleaned strongly related to the biofouling biomass, yet differed dependent on vessel type. Similarly, the median number of trips undertaken was related to the biofouling biomass, and varied according to the type of antifouling paint (AF) used. No relationship was found between vessel size and biofouling biomass per sample unit. To reduce the spread of NIS, vessel owners should use an AF paint suitable to their vessel's operational profile, and follow a maintenance schedule according to the paint manufacturer's specifications.

RevDate: 2019-06-27

Chester M (2019)

The makings of higher-order polyploids. A commentary on 'The story of promiscuous crucifers: origin and genome evolution of an invasive species, Cardamine occulta (Brassicaceae), and its relatives'.

Annals of botany pii:5521947 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-06-27

Yang ML, Rice E, Leimbach-Maus H, et al (2019)

Identification and characterization of Gypsophila paniculata color morphs in Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, MI, USA.

PeerJ, 7:e7100 pii:7100.

Background: Gypsophila paniculata (baby's breath) is an invasive species found throughout much of the northwest United States and western Canada. Recently, plants exhibiting a different color morphology were identified within the coastal dunes along eastern Lake Michigan. The common baby's breath (G. paniculata) typically produces stems that are purple in color (purple morph), while the atypical morph has stems that are green-yellow (green-yellow morph). The purpose of this study was to characterize these newly identified morphs and determine if they are genetically distinct species from the common baby's breath in order to assess whether alternative management strategies should be employed to control these populations.

Methods: We sequenced two chloroplast regions, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL), and maturase K (matK), and one nuclear region, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), from the purple morphs and green-yellow morphs collected from Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, MI, USA (SBDNL). Sequences were aligned to reference sequences from other Gypsophila species obtained from the Barcode of Life Database and GenBank databases. We also collected seeds from wild purple morph and wild green-yellow morph plants in SBDNL. We grew the seeds in a common garden setting and characterized the proportion of green-yellow individuals produced from the two color morphs after 5-months of growth.

Results: Phylogenetic analyses based upon rbcL, matK, and ITS2 regions suggest that the two color morphs are not distinct species and they both belong to G. paniculata. Seeds collected from wild green-yellow morphs produced a significantly higher proportion of green-yellow individuals compared to the number produced by seeds collected from wild purple morphs. However, seeds collected from both color morphs produced more purple morphs than green-yellow morphs.

Discussion: Based upon these results, we propose that the two color morphs are variants of G. paniculata. Given the significant difference in the number of green-yellow morphs produced from the seeds of each morph type, we also suggest that this color difference has some genetic basis. We propose that current management continue to treat the two color morphs in a similar manner in terms of removal to prevent the further spread of this species.

RevDate: 2019-06-26

Plantamp C, Henri H, Andrieux T, et al (2019)

Phenotypic plasticity in the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii: activity rhythms and gene expression in response to temperature.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:jeb.199398 [Epub ahead of print].

Phenotypic plasticity may contribute to the invasive success of an alien species in a new environment. A higher plastic species may survive and reproduce in more diverse environments, thereby supporting establishment and colonization. We focused on plasticity in the circadian rhythm of activity, which can favour species coexistence in invasion, for the invasive species Drosophila suzukii, which is expected to be a weaker direct competitor than other Drosophila species of the resident community. We compared between the invasive D. suzukii and the resident D. melanogaster the circadian rhythms of the locomotor activity in adults and the expression of clock genes in response to temperature. We showed that D. suzukii is active in a narrower range of temperatures than D. melanogaster and that the activities of both species overlap during the day, regardless of the temperature. Both species are diurnal and exhibit rhythmic activity at dawn and dusk, with a much lower activity at dawn for D. suzukii females. Our results showed that the timeless and clock genes are good candidates to explain the plastic response that is observed in relation to temperature. Overall, our results suggest that thermal phenotypic plasticity in D. suzukii activity is not sufficient to explain the invasive success of D. suzukii and calls for testing other hypotheses, such as the release of competitors and/or predators.

RevDate: 2019-06-26

Garcia RA, S Clusella-Trullas (2019)

Thermal landscape change as a driver of ectotherm responses to plant invasions.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1905):20191020.

A growing body of research demonstrates the impacts of invasive alien plants on native animals, but few studies consider thermal effects as a driver of the responses of native organisms. As invasive alien plants establish and alter the composition and arrangement of plant communities, the thermal landscapes available to ectotherms also change. Our study reviews the research undertaken to date on the thermal effects of alien plant invasions on native reptiles, amphibians, insects and arachnids. The 37 studies published between 1970 and early 2019 portray an overall detrimental effect of invasive plants on thermal landscapes, ectothermic individuals' performance and species abundance, diversity and composition. With a case study of a lizard species, we illustrate the use of thermal ecology tools in plant invasion research and test the generality of alien plant effects: changes in thermoregulation behaviour in invaded landscapes varied depending on the level of invasion and lizard traits. Together, the literature review and case study show that thermal effects of alien plants on ectotherms can be substantial albeit context-dependent. Further research should cover multiple combinations of native/invasive plant growth forms, invasion stages and ectotherm traits. More attention is also needed to test causality along the chain of effects from thermal landscapes to individuals, populations and communities.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Li XJ, Wu MF, Ma J, et al (2019)

Prediction of migratory routes of the invasive fall armyworm in eastern China using a trajectory analytical approach.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The fall armyworm (FAW), an invasive pest from the Americas, is rapidly spreading through the Old World, and has recently invaded the Indochinese Peninsula and southern China. In the Americas, FAW migrates from winter-breeding areas in the south into summer-breeding areas throughout North America where it is a major pest of corn. Asian populations are also likely to evolve migrations into the corn-producing regions of eastern China, where they will pose a serious threat to food security.

RESULTS: To evaluate the invasion risk in eastern China, the rate of expansion and future migratory range was modelled by a trajectory simulation approach, combined with flight behaviour and meteorological data. Our results predict that FAW will migrate from its new year-round breeding regions into the two main corn-producing regions of eastern China (Huang-Huai-Hai Summer Corn and Northeast Spring Corn Regions), via two pathways. The western pathway originates in Myanmar and Yunnan, and FAW will take four migration steps (i.e. four generations) to reach the Huang-Huai-Hai Region by July. Migration along the eastern pathway from Indochina and southern China progresses faster, with FAW reaching the Huang-Huai-Hai Region in three steps by June and reaching the Northeast Spring Region in July.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that there is a high risk that FAW will invade the major corn-producing areas of eastern China via two migration pathways, and cause significant impacts to agricultural productivity. Information on migration pathways and timings can be used to inform integrated pest management strategies for this emerging pest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Bebber DP, Field E, Gui H, et al (2019)

Many unreported crop pests and pathogens are probably already present.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity, food security and ecosystem function. Such incursions present challenges to agriculture where invasive species cause significant crop damage and require major economic investment to control production losses. Pest risk analysis (PRA) is key to prioritize agricultural biosecurity efforts, but is hampered by incomplete knowledge of current crop pest and pathogen distributions. Here, we develop predictive models of current pest distributions and test these models using new observations at subnational resolution. We apply generalized linear models (GLM) to estimate presence probabilities for 1,739 crop pests in the CABI pest distribution database. We test model predictions for 100 unobserved pest occurrences in the People's Republic of China (PRC), against observations of these pests abstracted from the Chinese literature. This resource has hitherto been omitted from databases on global pest distributions. Finally, we predict occurrences of all unobserved pests globally. Presence probability increases with host presence, presence in neighbouring regions, per capita GDP and global prevalence. Presence probability decreases with mean distance from coast and known host number per pest. The models are good predictors of pest presence in provinces of the PRC, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of 0.75-0.76. Large numbers of currently unobserved, but probably present pests (defined here as unreported pests with a predicted presence probability >0.75), are predicted in China, India, southern Brazil and some countries of the former USSR. We show that GLMs can predict presences of pseudoabsent pests at subnational resolution. The Chinese literature has been largely inaccessible to Western academia but contains important information that can support PRA. Prior studies have often assumed that unreported pests in a global distribution database represent a true absence. Our analysis provides a method for quantifying pseudoabsences to enable improved PRA and species distribution modelling.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Selechnik D, Richardson MF, Shine R, et al (2019)

Immune and environment-driven gene expression during invasion: An eco-immunological application of RNA-Seq.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6708-6721 pii:ECE35249.

Host-pathogen associations change rapidly during a biological invasion and are predicted to impose strong selection on immune function. It has been proposed that the invader may experience an abrupt reduction in pathogen-mediated selection ("enemy release"), thereby favoring decreased investment into "costly" immune responses. Across plants and animals, there is mixed support for this prediction. Pathogens are not the only form of selection imposed on invaders; differences in abiotic environmental conditions between native and introduced ranges are also expected to drive rapid evolution. Here, we use RNA-Seq to assess the expression patterns of immune and environmentally associated genes in the cane toad (Rhinella marina) across its invasive Australian range. Transcripts encoding mediators of costly immune responses (inflammation, cytotoxicity) showed a curvilinear relationship with invasion history, with highest expression in toads from oldest and newest colonized areas. This pattern is surprising given theoretical expectations of density dynamics in invasive species and may be because density influences both intraspecific competition and parasite transmission, generating conflicting effects on the strength of immune responses. Alternatively, this expression pattern may be the result of other evolutionary forces, such as spatial sorting and genetic drift, working simultaneously with natural selection. Our findings do not support predictions about immune function based on the enemy release hypothesis and suggest instead that the effects of enemy release are difficult to isolate in wild populations, especially in the absence of information regarding parasite and pathogen infection. Additionally, expression patterns of genes underlying putatively environmentally associated traits are consistent with previous genetic studies, providing further support that Australian cane toads have adapted to novel abiotic challenges.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Gonthier J, Papach A, Straub L, et al (2019)

Bees and flowers: How to feed an invasive beetle species.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6422-6432 pii:ECE35217.

Invasive species may exploit a wide range of food sources, thereby fostering their success and hampering mitigation, but the actual degree of opportunism is often unknown. The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, is a parasite of honeybee colonies endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. SHBs have now spread on all habitable continents and can also infest colonies of other social bees. To date, the possible role of solitary bee nests as alternative hosts is unknown. Similarly, flowers as possible alternative food sources are not well understood. Here, we show that SHBs can complete an entire life cycle in association with nests of solitary bees Megachile rotundata. The data also show that flowers can serve as alternative food sources. These results support the opportunistic nature of this invasive species, thereby generating further obstacles for mitigation efforts in the field. It also suggests that SHB invasions may result in more serious consequences for endemic bee fauna than previously thought. This provides further motivation to slow down the global spread of this pest, and to improve its management in areas, where it is established.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Lishawa SC, Lawrence BA, Albert DA, et al (2019)

Invasive species removal increases species and phylogenetic diversity of wetland plant communities.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6231-6244 pii:ECE35188.

Plant invasions result in biodiversity losses and altered ecological functions, though quantifying loss of multiple ecosystem functions presents a research challenge. Plant phylogenetic diversity correlates with a range of ecosystem functions and can be used as a proxy for ecosystem multifunctionality. Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands are ideal systems for testing invasive species management effects because they support diverse biological communities, provide numerous ecosystem services, and are increasingly dominated by invasive macrophytes. Invasive cattails are among the most widespread and abundant of these taxa. We conducted a three-year study in two Great Lakes wetlands, testing the effects of a gradient of cattail removal intensities (mowing, harvest, complete biomass removal) within two vegetation zones (emergent marsh and wet meadow) on plant taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity. To evaluate native plant recovery potential, we paired this with a seed bank emergence study that quantified diversity metrics in each zone under experimentally manipulated hydroperiods. Pretreatment, we found that wetland zones had distinct plant community composition. Wet meadow seed banks had greater taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity than emergent marsh seed banks, and high-water treatments tended to inhibit diversity by reducing germination. Aboveground harvesting of cattails and their litter increased phylogenetic diversity and species richness in both zones, more than doubling richness compared to unmanipulated controls. In the wet meadow, harvesting shifted the community toward an early successional state, favoring seed bank germination from early seral species, whereas emergent marsh complete removal treatments shifted the community toward an aquatic condition, favoring floating-leaved plants. Removing cattails and their litter increased taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity across water levels, a key environmental gradient, thereby potentially increasing the multifunctionality of these ecosystems. Killing invasive wetland macrophytes but leaving their biomass in situ does not address their underlying mechanism of dominance and is less effective than more intensive treatments that also remove their litter.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Sodhi DS, Livingstone SW, Carboni M, et al (2019)

Plant invasion alters trait composition and diversity across habitats.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6199-6210 pii:ECE35130.

Increased globalization has accelerated the movement of species around the world. Many of these nonnative species have the potential to profoundly alter ecosystems. The mechanisms underpinning this impact are often poorly understood, and traits are often overlooked when trying to understand and predict the impacts of species invasions on communities. We conducted an observational field experiment in Canada's first National Urban Park, where we collected trait data for seven different functional traits (height, stem width, specific leaf area, leaf percent nitrogen, and leaf percent carbon) across an abundance gradient of the invasive Vincetoxicum rossicum in open meadow and understory habitats. We assessed invasion impacts on communities, and associated mechanisms, by examining three complementary functional trait measures: community-weighted mean, range of trait values, and species' distances to the invader in trait space. We found that V. rossicum invasion significantly altered the functional structure of herbaceous plant communities. In both habitats V. rossicum changed the community-weighted means, causing invaded communities to become increasingly similar in their functional structure. In addition, V. rossicum also reduced the trait ranges for a majority of traits indicating that species are being deterministically excluded in invaded communities. Further, we observed different trends in the meadow and understory habitats: In the understory, resident species that were more similar to V. rossicum in multivariate trait space were excluded more, however this was not the case in the meadow habitat. This suggests that V. rossicum alters communities uniquely in each habitat, in part by creating a filter in which only certain resident species are able to persist. This filtering process causes a nonrandom reduction in species' abundances, which in turn would be expected to alter how the invaded ecosystems function. Using trait-based frameworks leads to better understanding and prediction of invasion impacts. This novel framework can also be used in restoration practices to understand how invasion impacts communities and to reassemble communities after invasive species management.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Louppe V, Leroy B, Herrel A, et al (2019)

Current and future climatic regions favourable for a globally introduced wild carnivore, the raccoon Procyon lotor.

Scientific reports, 9(1):9174 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-45713-y.

Invasive species are considered as one of the major threats to biodiversity and represent a major challenge in the conservation of natural ecosystems, in preventing damage to agricultural production, and human health risks. Environmental Niche Modelling has emerged as a powerful tool to predict the patterns of range expansion of non-native species and to direct effective strategies for managing biological invasions. The raccoon, Procyon lotor, is a wild mesocarnivore presenting a high adaptability and showing successful introduced populations worldwide. Here, we modelled the current and future climatically favourable areas for the raccoon using two protocols, based on data sets filtrated in geographic and environmental spaces. Projections from these models show extensive current favourable geographical areas covering extensive regions of temperate biomes. Moreover, predictions for 2050 reveals extensive new favourable areas north of the current favourable regions. However, the results of the two modeling approaches differ in the extent of predicted favourable spaces. Protocols using geographically filtered data present more conservative forecasts, while protocol using environmental filtration presents forecasts across greater areas. Given the biological characteristics and the ecological requirements of a generalist carnivore such as the raccoon, the latter forecasts appears more relevant and should be privileged in the development of conservation plans for ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Bonacic C, Almuna R, JT Ibarra (2019)

Biodiversity Conservation Requires Management of Feral Domestic Animals.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(19)30154-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The proliferation of feral domestic animals (FDAs) has been favored by human-induced landscape changes, a world population becoming increasingly urban, and by inappropriate management of domestic animals. Here, we describe the impact of FDAs and the opposing views in societies that affect the decision-making process and management actions. We provide general recommendations for the participatory management of this emerging threat to biodiversity and rural ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Olivares-Ferretti P, Hernandez K, Peredo-Parada M, et al (2019)

Polyphenols obtained from Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmith altered the viability and proliferation of salmonids cells lines SHK-1 and CHSE-214.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 211:141-147.

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmidt, also referred to as Didymo, is an invasive diatom that forms nuisance mats. Since it was first reported in our country in approximately 2010, Didymo has expanded and colonized different rivers in the Zona Austral region of Chile. Its biology and effects on ecosystems are still being studied because Didymo is an invasive algal mat that forms in a range of systems from oligotrophic austral rivers to more subtropical systems. We aimed to evaluate the viability of two salmonid cell lines, CHSE-214 and SHK-1 (somatic and embryonic cell lines, respectively), in dilutions of river water alone and in river water contaminated with Didymo or polyphenols extracted from Didymo under controlled conditions. We developed an artificial river system (2 aquariums/replicate) from five different rivers from the central area (Bio-Bio) and Patagonia area (Futaleufú) of Chile to maintain Didymo in the benthic phase. The Didymo populations were maintained for six months in the water from the rivers, after which samples were obtained. Following the extraction of polyphenols from the Didymo samples maintained in the artificial rivers, toxicity assays (10 assays) were performed to determine cell viability. Our results indicated that the CHSE-214 cells were highly sensitive to increasing concentrations of Didymo extracts. We observed a 50% reduction in cell viability after 24 h of exposure to a 0.01 V/V dilution, and this treatment further reduced the proliferative capacity by 70% after 120 h. The SHK-1 cells were less responsive, showing only a 20% decrease in viability at 24 h and a lower cell proliferation rate (45%) after 120 h, which remained higher than that of the CHSE-214 cells. We conclude that certain cell types are sensitive to Didymo in rivers, suggesting that there are chronic effects on several aquatic species following exposure to these diatom substances. These effects should be further studied using this laboratory model to understand the full impact of Didymo on river ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Gutiérrez Y, Bacca T, Zambrano LS, et al (2019)

Trade-off and adaptive cost in a multiple-resistant strain of the invasive potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora.

Pest management science, 75(6):1655-1662.

BACKGROUND: Resistance to pesticides is an evolutionary process that entails, in most cases, substantial consequences to the biology of the resistant populations. In this study we focus on the life history traits of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora, an invasive and voracious pest for which resistance to pyrethroid insecticides was recently reported. Marginally resistant and multiple-resistant populations were selected from eight sampled localities in Colombia; the use of a fully susceptible population was not possible since none was recognized in the laboratory or field. The multiple-resistant Siachoque population exhibited a 42-fold resistance to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, and low levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, a trend observed in six of the eight tested populations. This population also exhibits 24-fold resistance to permethrin. The marginally resistant population of Gualmatán showed 4-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos.

RESULTS: The multiple-resistant population exhibited a 3.8-day shorter developmental time than the susceptible population, but with higher larval mortality. The peak of egg-laying was delayed in the resistant population in 9 days and the population growth rate was lower than that of the susceptible population.

CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that the short developmental time of the multiple-resistant population may be an adaptation to minimize exposure to insecticides, which are applied to the soil. This adaptation is likely to require the surviving adults to compensate for the smaller nutrient amounts accumulated by the larvae in investing part of its adult life in securing the necessary resources for late-life egg production. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Tang J, Li J, Lu H, et al (2019)

Potential distribution of an invasive pest, Euplatypus parallelus, in China as predicted by Maxent.

Pest management science, 75(6):1630-1637.

BACKGROUND: Euplatypus parallelus is a highly polyphagous invasive pest native to Central and South America. In recent years it has invaded many countries in Africa and Asia and resulted in considerable economic loss. In China it has been reported to have invaded Taiwan, and been also recorded in Hainan Province. Until now there has been no invasion into the mainland. In order to better manage this invasive pest, here we predicted the suitable area of E. parallelus in China by the Maxent model.

RESULTS: The Maxent model predicted the potential distribution of E. parallelus with a test AUC value of 0.962 and a training AUC value of 0.978. Temperature seasonality (Bio_04), annual temperature range (Bio_07), annual precipitation (Bio_12) and mean temperature of the coldest quarter (Bio_11) were the strongest predictors of E. parallelus distribution with 32.1%, 19.8%, 15% and 10.4% contributions, respectively. The potential suitable area for E. parallelus was mainly distributed in the southeastern coast, the southwestern border, and Taiwan and Hainan provinces in China, and the highly suitable areas were located in the northern coast of Hainan Province and the southwestern coast of Taiwan Province. This pest prefers a stable, warm and rainy climate, which indicates that tropics and subtropics would be its ideal area.

CONCLUSION: Euplatypus parallelus has invaded Hainan and Taiwan in China. Measures should be taken to prevent it from spreading on these two islands. Moreover, strict quarantine, biological study and control measures are necessary to block its spread, invasion and damage, especially in these climate-suitable areas. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Lu X, He M, Ding J, et al (2018)

Latitudinal variation in soil biota: testing the biotic interaction hypothesis with an invasive plant and a native congener.

The ISME journal, 12(12):2811-2822.

Soil biota community structure can change with latitude, but the effects of changes on native plants, invasive plants, and their herbivores remain unclear. Here, we examined latitudinal variation in the soil biota community associated with the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides and its native congener A. sessilis, and the effects of soil biota community variation on these plants and the beetle Agasicles hygrophila. We characterized the soil bacterial and fungal communities and root-knot nematodes of plant rhizospheres collected from 22 °N to 36.6 °N in China. Soil biota community structure changed with latitude as a function of climate and soil properties. Root-knot nematode abundance and potential soil fungal pathogen diversity (classified with FUNGuild) decreased with latitude, apparently due to higher soil pH and lower temperatures. A greenhouse experiment and lab bioassay showed native plant mass, seed production, and mass of beetles fed native foliage increased with soil collection latitude. However, there were no latitudinal patterns for the invasive plant. These results suggest that invasive and native plants and, consequently, their herbivores have different responses to latitudinal changes in soil-borne enemies, potentially creating spatial variation in enemy release or biotic resistance. This highlights the importance of linking above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions to explore the role of soil biota in non-native plant invasions with a biogeographic approach.

RevDate: 2019-06-26
CmpDate: 2019-06-26

Wen P, Cheng YN, Dong SH, et al (2017)

The sex pheromone of a globally invasive honey bee predator, the Asian eusocial hornet, Vespa velutina.

Scientific reports, 7(1):12956.

The Asian hornet, Vespa velutina, is an invasive, globally-distributed predator of European honey bees and other insects. To better under its reproductive biology and to find a specific, effective, and low-impact control method for this species, we identified and tested the key compounds in V. velutina sex pheromone. Virgin gynes (reproductive females) produced this sex pheromone in the sixth intersegmental sternal glands of their abdomens. The active compounds were 4-oxo-octanoic acid (4-OOA, 10.4 μg bee-1) and 4-oxo-decanoic acid (4-ODA, 13.3 μg bee-1) at a 0.78 ratio of 4-OOA/4-ODA. We synthesized these compounds and showed that male antennae were highly sensitive to them. Moreover, males were only strongly attracted to a 4-OOA/4-ODA blend at the natural ratio produced by gynes. These results provide the first demonstration of an effective way to lure V. velutina males, and the first chemical identification of a sex pheromone in the eusocial hornets.

RevDate: 2019-06-24

Nunez-Mir GC, Guo Q, Rejmánek M, et al (2019)

Predicting invasiveness of exotic woody species using a traits-based framework.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Identifying potentially invasive species and preventing their introduction and establishment are of critical importance in invasion ecology and land management. Although an extensive body of research has been dedicated to identifying traits that confer invasiveness, our current knowledge is still often inconclusive due to limitations in geographic extent and/or scope of traits analyzed. Here, using a comprehensive set of 45 traits, we performed a case study of invasive traits displayed by exotic woody plants in the United States (U.S.) by comparing 63 invasive and 794 non-invasive exotic woody plant species naturalized across the country. We found that invasive woody species often bear the following two key traits: vegetative reproduction and long-distance seed dispersal (via water, birds or mammals). Boosted classification tree models based on these traits accurately predicted species invasiveness (86% accuracy on average). Presented findings provide a generalized understanding of the relative importance of functional traits in identifying potentially invasive woody species in the U.S. The knowledge generated in this study can be used to improve current classification systems of non-native woody plants used by various U.S. governmental agencies and land managers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-24

Dobelmann J, Alexander A, Baty JW, et al (2019)

The association between mitochondrial genetic variation and reduced colony fitness in an invasive wasp.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the mitochondrion's long recognised role in energy production, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation commonly found in natural populations was assumed to be effectively neutral. However, variation in mtDNA has now been increasingly linked to phenotypic variation in life-history traits and fitness. We examined whether the relative fitness in native and invasive common wasp (Vespula vulgaris) populations in Belgium and New Zealand (NZ), respectively, can be linked to mtDNA variation. Social wasp colonies in NZ were smaller with comparatively fewer queen cells, indicating a reduced relative fitness in the invaded range. Interestingly, queen cells in this population were significantly larger leading to larger queen offspring. By sequencing 1872 bp of the mitochondrial genome we determined mitochondrial haplotypes and detected reduced genetic diversity in NZ. Three common haplotypes in NZ frequently produced many queens, whereas the four rare haplotypes produced significantly fewer or no queens. The entire mitochondrial genome for each of these haplotypes was sequenced to identify polymorphisms associated with fitness reduction. We found 16 variable sites, however, no non-synonymous mutation that was clearly causing impaired mitochondrial function was detected. We discuss how detected variants may alter secondary structures, gene expression or mito-nuclear interactions, or could be associated with nuclear-encoded variation. Whatever the ultimate mechanism, we show reduced fitness and mtDNA variation in an invasive wasp population as well as specific mtDNA variants associated with fitness variation within this population. Ours is one of only a few studies that confirm fitness impacts of mtDNA variation in wild non-model populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-24

Esch EH, Lipson D, EE Cleland (2019)

Invasion and drought alter phenological sensitivity and synergistically lower ecosystem production.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and shifting species composition have influenced ecosystem-scale phenology worldwide. For instance, invasive plant species have greater vegetation phenological sensitivity to climate change than native plant species in some regions, and hence invasion could modify how ecosystem carbon gain responds to increased drought frequencies expected with climate change. Results from a four-year drought experiment show that invasion reduced ecosystem potential for carbon gain via increased sensitivity to reduced rainfall. Using canopy greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) as a proxy for potential ecosystem carbon gain we show that areas invaded by herbaceous species had up to a 70% reduction in maximum NDVI under severe drought conditions as compared to areas dominated by native shrubs. Phenological differences between herbaceous- and shrub- dominated vegetation contributed to this reduction in potential ecosystem carbon gain because invaded areas had delayed green-up, especially under drought conditions, while shrubs senescence was accelerated by drought. Hence, invasion by herbaceous species and increased drought frequencies are likely to act synergistically to reduce ecosystem capacity for carbon gain in this system. Our findings suggest that predicting ecosystem responses to future climate change could be improved by projecting of the spread of invasive species and accounting for phenological variation between native and invading species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-24

Joyce PWS, Cuthbert RN, Kregting L, et al (2019)

Stay clean: direct steam exposure to manage biofouling risks.

Marine pollution bulletin, 142:465-469.

Biofouling by marine organisms can result in a variety of negative environmental and economic consequences, with decontamination procedures remaining problematic, costly and labour-intensive. Here, we examined the efficacy of direct steam exposure to induce mortality of selected biofouling species: Mytilus edulis; Magallana gigas; Semibalanus balanoides; Fucus vesiculosus; and an Ulva sp. Total mortality occurred at 60-sec of steam exposure for M. edulis and juvenile M. gigas, at 30-sec for S. balanoides, while 300-sec was required for adult M. gigas. Application of steam reduced the biomass of F. vesiculosus and significantly reduced Ulva sp. biomass, with complete degradation being observed for Ulva sp. following 120-sec of exposure. Accordingly, it appears that steam exposure can cause mortality of biofouling organisms through thermal shock. Although preliminary, our novel and promising results suggest that steam applications could potentially be used to decontaminate niche areas and equipment.

RevDate: 2019-06-24

Lattuada M, Albrecht C, T Wilke (2019)

Differential impact of anthropogenic pressures on Caspian Sea ecoregions.

Marine pollution bulletin, 142:274-281.

Over the past decades, overall ecological conditions in the Caspian Sea have deteriorated. However, a comprehensive understanding of lake-wide spatial differences in anthropogenic pressures is lacking and the biological consequences of human impacts are poorly understood. This paper therefore aims at assessing the individual and combined effects of critical anthropogenic pressures on the Caspian Sea ecoregions. First, cumulative pressure scores were calculated with a cumulative environmental assessment (CEA) analysis. Then, the individual contribution of anthropogenic pressures was quantified. Finally, ecoregion-specific differences were assessed. The analyses show that both cumulative and individual pressure scores are unevenly distributed across the Caspian Sea. The most important individual pressures are invasive species, chemical pollution and poaching. This uneven distribution of pressure scores across Caspian Sea ecoregions creates new challenges for future conservation strategies, as different ecoregions usually require different conservation measures.

RevDate: 2019-06-23

Plank MJ, Stringer N, Lamoureaux SL, et al (2019)

Limiting Effect of Self-Shading on the Height of Tradescantia fluminensis Mats.

Bulletin of mathematical biology pii:10.1007/s11538-019-00631-y [Epub ahead of print].

Tradescantia fluminensis is an invasive plant species in New Zealand, Australia and parts of the USA. It reproduces vegetatively and can grow to form dense mats up to 60 cm deep. Growth is limited by available light, and shading is one of the few effective methods of control. In this paper, we develop a dynamic model of a vertical cross section of a T. fluminensis mat, capturing vertical variation in its biomass and internal light intensity. We measure both variables at different heights in experimental mats of the species and use these data to parameterize the model. The model produces realistic vertical biomass and light intensity profiles. We show that the mat grows to a steady-state biomass that depends only on: (i) the light absorption coefficient, which we estimate from experimental data and (ii) the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration rate. This steady state undergoes a transcritical bifurcation; when the ambient light intensity falls below a critical level, the biomass shrinks to zero and the mat cannot survive.

RevDate: 2019-06-24
CmpDate: 2019-06-24

Arredondo TM, Marchini GL, MB Cruzan (2018)

Evidence for human-mediated range expansion and gene flow in an invasive grass.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 285(1882):.

Cities and adjacent regions represent foci of intense human activity and provide unique opportunities for studying human-mediated dispersal and gene flow. We examined the effect of landscape features on gene flow in the invasive grass Brachypodium sylvaticum across an urban-rural interface at the edge of its expanding range. We used genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism surveys of individuals from 22 locations. Resistance surfaces were created for each landscape feature, using ResistanceGA to optimize resistance parameters. Our Structure analysis identified three distinct clusters, and diversity analyses support the existence of at least three local introductions. Multiple regression on distance matrices showed no evidence that development, roads, canopy cover or agriculture had a significant influence on genetic distance in B. sylvaticum Geographical distance was a mediocre predictor of genetic distance and reflected geographical clustering. The model of rivers acting as a conduit explained a large portion of variation in genetic distance, but the lack of evidence of directional gene flow eliminated hydrochory as a dispersal mechanism. These results and observations of the distribution of populations in disturbed sites indicate that the influence of rivers on patterns of dispersal of B. sylvaticum probably reflects seed dispersal due to human recreational activity.

RevDate: 2019-06-24
CmpDate: 2019-06-24

Pantoja PO, Paine CET, M Vallejo-Marín (2018)

Natural selection and outbreeding depression suggest adaptive differentiation in the invasive range of a clonal plant.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 285(1882):.

Analyses of phenotypic selection and demography in field populations are powerful ways to establishing the potential role of natural selection in shaping evolution during biological invasions. Here we use experimental F2 crosses between native and introduced populations of Mimulus guttatus to estimate the pattern of natural selection in part of its introduced range, and to seek evidence of outbreeding depression of colonists. The F2s combined the genome of an introduced population with the genome of either native or introduced populations. We found that the introduced × introduced cross had the fastest population growth rate owing to increased winter survival, clonality and seed production. Our analysis also revealed that selection through sexual fitness favoured large floral displays, large vegetative and flower size, lateral spread and early flowering. Our results indicate a source-of-origin effect, consistent with outbreeding depression exposed by mating between introduced and native populations. Our findings suggest that well-established non-native populations may pay a high fitness cost during subsequent bouts of admixture with native populations, and reveal that processes such as local adaptation in the invasive range can mediate the fitness consequences of admixture.

RevDate: 2019-06-22

Wickham P, Singh L, Pandey P, et al (2019)

Development of extraction and detection method for fluridone in water and sediment by HPLC-UV.

AMB Express, 9(1):90 pii:10.1186/s13568-019-0807-4.

Fluridone is widely used as a herbicide for controlling invasive aquatic plants such as hydrilla in surface water bodies. When applied on surface waters fluridone can attach to bed sediment, requiring rigorous extraction methods prior to analysis. Currently, very limited information exists in terms of fluridone residue detection in delta sediment. In this study, we researched fluridone detection in both water and sediment. To extract fluridone from sediment, here we have tested two extraction methods: (1) a rotavapor method (RM); and (2) a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method (QM). The extraction results of RM were compared with those of QM. To quantify fluridone concentrations in extracts, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV detector was used. HPLC separation was achieved using an Allure C18 5 µm 150 × 4.6 mm column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (60:40, v/v). The UV detector was operated at 237 nm. The method was tested and validated using a series of water and sediment samples taken from Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California. The average recovery of fluridone was 73% and 78% using RM and QM respectively. The proposed method can be used for testing fluridone in water and sediment samples.

RevDate: 2019-06-22

He J, Dai Q, Qi Y, et al (2019)

Bacterial nucleobases synergistically induce larval settlement and metamorphosis in the invasive mussel Mytilopsis sallei.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.01039-19 [Epub ahead of print].

Marine bacterial biofilms have long been recognized as potential inducers of larval settlement and metamorphosis in marine invertebrates, but few chemical cues from bacteria have been identified. Here, we show that larval settlement and metamorphosis of an invasive fouling mussel Mytilopsis sallei could be induced by biofilms of bacteria isolated from its adult shells and other substrates from the natural environment. One of the strains isolated, Vibrio owensii MS-9 showed strong inducing activity which was attributed to the release of a mixture of nucleobases, including uracil, thymine, xanthine, hypoxanthine and guanine into seawater. In particular the synergistic effect of hypoxanthine and guanine was sufficient for the inducing activity of V. owensii MS-9. The presence of two or three other nucleobases could enhance to some extent, the activity of the mixture of hypoxanthine and guanine. Furthermore, we determined that bacteria producing higher concentrations of nucleobases were more likely to induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of M. sallei The present study demonstrates that bacterial nucleobases play an important role in larval settlement and metamorphosis of marine invertebrates. This provides new insights into our understanding of the role of environmental bacteria in the colonization and aggregation of invasive fouling organisms, and of the metabolites used as chemical mediators in cross-kingdom communication within aquatic systems.Importance Invasive species are an increasingly serious problem globally. In aquatic ecosystems, invasive dreissenid mussels are well-known ecological and economic pests because they appear to effortlessly invade new environments and foul submerged structures with high-density aggregations. To efficiently control the exotic mussel recruitment and colonization, the need to investigate the mechanisms of substrates selection for larval settlement and metamorphosis is apparent. Our work is one of very few to experimentally demonstrate that compounds produced by environmental bacteria play an important role in larval settlement and metamorphosis in marine invertebrates. Additionally, this study demonstrates that bacterial nucleobases can be used as chemical mediators in cross-kingdom communication within aquatic systems, which will enhance our understanding of how microbes induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of dreissenid mussels, and furthermore, may allow the development of new methods for application in antifouling.

RevDate: 2019-06-21

Herlihy AT, Sifneos JC, Lomnicky GA, et al (2019)

The response of wetland quality indicators to human disturbance indicators across the United States.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 191(Suppl 1):296 pii:10.1007/s10661-019-7323-5.

We analyzed data from 1138 wetland sites across the conterminous United States (US) as part of the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) to investigate the response of indicators of wetland quality to indicators of human disturbance at regional and continental scales. The strength and nature of these relationships in wetlands have rarely been examined over large regions, due to the paucity of large-scale datasets. Wetland response indicators were a multimetric index of vegetation condition (VMMI), percent relative cover of alien plant species, soil lead and phosphorus, and water column total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Site-level disturbance indices were generated from field observations of disturbance types within a circular 140-m radius area around the sample point. Summary indices were calculated representing disturbances for ditching, damming, filling/erosion, hardening, vegetation replacement, and vegetation removal. Landscape-level disturbance associated with agricultural and urban land cover, roads, and human population were based on GIS data layers quantified in 200, 500, and 1000-m circular buffers around each sample point. Among these three buffer sizes, the landscape disturbance indicators were highly correlated and had similar relationships with the response indictors. Consequently, only the 1000-m buffer data were used for subsequent analyses. Disturbance-response models built using only landscape- or only site-level disturbance variables generally explained a small portion of the variance in the response variables (R2 < 0.2), whereas models using both types of disturbance data were better at predicting wetland responses. The VMMI was the response variable with the strongest relationship to the disturbances assessed in the NWCA (national model R2 = 0.251). National multiple regression models for the soil and water chemistry and percent alien cover responses to disturbance indices were not significant. The generally low percentage of significant models and the wide variation in predictor variables suggests that stressor-response relationships vary considerably across the diversity of wetland types and landscape settings found across the conterminous US. Logistic regression modeling was more informative, resulting in significant national and regional models predicting site presence/absence of alien species and/or the concentration of lead in wetland soils above background.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Cano-Rocabayera O, de Sostoa A, Coll L, et al (2019)

Managing small, highly prolific invasive aquatic species: Exploring an ecosystem approach for the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

The Science of the total environment, 673:594-604.

Invasive exotic species threaten native biodiversity worldwide and their management is on the agenda of an increasing number of countries. We explored the potential of an ecosystem approach for the natural control of Gambusia holbrooki, which is among the most pernicious and widely distributed fish invaders. Individual-based linear mixed models were used to identify the ecosystem factors (conspecific density, environment and piscivorous birds) that most influenced life-history variation in male and female G. holbrooki (N = 654). All traits (body condition, growth, length, gonad weight, offspring size and number, real and potential fertility) were associated with at least one ecosystem factor from the 18 water bodies surveyed in north-eastern Spain. Models for female reproductive traits had the highest fit (R2 = 0.89) and those for body condition in both sexes the lowest (0.12). The life history of G. holbrooki was mostly affected by its density; increasing offspring number at the expense of offspring size at the sites with the highest fish density. Weaker effects on G. holbrooki life history were observed for the abundance of piscivorous birds and water-quality conditions, including turbidity and nutrient concentrations. Although effects were not consistent between traits, outputs supported that G. holbrooki has a wide tolerance to changes in water quality. Therefore, actions based solely on environmental changes within the range tested probably will fail in reducing the proliferation of G. holbrooki, especially if its body condition improved at the most naturalised sites. Overall, this study suggests that the management of G. holbrooki using ecologically sound treatments is likely to be very difficult in stagnant waters. Preventing new introductions and direct removal once established are the most appropriate actions for the management of this small, highly prolific fish invader.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Sun H, Jiang J, Cui L, et al (2019)

Soil organic carbon stabilization mechanisms in a subtropical mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems.

The Science of the total environment, 673:502-510.

Mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems are one of the most productive ecosystems in terrestrial ecosystems, playing an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. The anaerobic condition in coastal wetland usually impedes the decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the intrinsic stabilization mechanisms of SOC other than environmental factors are poorly understood in coastal wetland. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of mineral association and chemical compounds in maintaining the stabilization of SOC in the mangrove/salt marsh ecotone, and how the microbial community is involved in the stabilization. From NMR spectroscopy, we found that the SOC molecular structure of Spartina. alterniflora soils is simpler than that in mangrove forest, indicating an increased SOC decomposition with invasion of S. alterniflora. On the contrary, the molecular structure of SOC in mangrove forest was dominated by recalcitrant aromatic C. Meanwhile, the larger fractions of silt/clay content in S. alterniflora and the transitional community were corresponding to higher percentage of mineral organic carbon (MOC), which suggest that the SOC in S. alterniflora vegetated soil was mainly protected by the mineral association. The transitional community contained highest MOC content probably due to both physical protection of mineral association and recalcitrant C input from adjacent mangroves. We also found that the fraction of SOC and its chemical structure of functional groups were associated with microbial communities. This study revealed the occurrence of different SOC stabilization mechanisms between mangroves and salt marshes. The knowledge gained may help to make predictions about future SOC dynamics as the different stabilization processes may response to climate change or human activities differently.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Rondoni G, Ielo F, Ricci C, et al (2017)

Behavioural and physiological responses to prey-related cues reflect higher competitiveness of invasive vs. native ladybirds.

Scientific reports, 7(1):3716.

Understanding the traits that might be linked with biological invasions represents a great challenge for preventing non-target effects on local biodiversity. In predatory insects, the ability to exploit habitats for oviposition and the physiological response to prey availability differs between species. Those species that respond more readily to environmental changes may confer to their offspring a competitive advantage over other species. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the invasive Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) makes better use of information from a plant-prey (Vicia faba - Aphis fabae) system compared to the native Oenopia conglobata. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays revealed that both species used olfactory cues from the system, but H. axyridis exhibited a more complete response. This species was also attracted by plants previously infested by aphids, indicating the capacity to exploit volatile synomones induced in plants by aphid attack. Oocyte resorption was investigated when different olfactory stimuli were provided under prey shortage and the readiness of new oogenesis was measured when prey was available again. H. axyridis exhibited higher plasticity in oogenesis related to the presence/absence of plant-aphid volatiles. Our results support the hypothesis that H. axyridis is more reactive than O. conglobata to olfactory cues from the plant-prey system.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Falaschi M, Manenti R, Thuiller W, et al (2019)

Continental-scale determinants of population trends in European amphibians and reptiles.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

The continuous decline of biodiversity is determined by the complex and joint effects of multiple environmental drivers. Still, a large part of past global change studies reporting and explaining biodiversity trends have focused on a single driver. Therefore, we are often unable to attribute biodiversity changes to different drivers, since a multi-variable design is required to disentangle joint effects and interactions. In this work, we used a meta-regression within a Bayesian framework to analyze 843 time-series of population abundance from seventeen European amphibian and reptile species over the last 45 years. We investigated the relative effects of climate change, alien species, habitat availability, and habitat change in driving trends of population abundance over time, and evaluated how the importance of these factors differs across species. A large number of populations (54%) declined, but differences between species were strong, with some species showing positive trends. Populations declined more often in areas with a high number of alien species, and in areas where climate change has caused loss of suitability. Habitat features showed small variation over the last 25 years, with an average loss of suitable habitat of 0.1% / year per population. Still, a strong interaction between habitat availability and the richness of alien species indicated that the negative impact of alien species was particularly strong for populations living in landscapes with less suitable habitat. Furthermore, when excluding the two commonest species, habitat loss was the main correlate of negative population trends for the remaining species. By analyzing trends for multiple species across a broad spatial scale, we identify alien species, climate change, and habitat changes as the major drivers of European amphibian and reptile decline. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Krabbe BA, Arnan X, Lannes P, et al (2019)

Using nutritional geometry to define the fundamental macronutrient niche of the widespread invasive ant Monomorium pharaonis.

PloS one, 14(6):e0218764 pii:PONE-D-19-08722.

The emerging field of nutritional geometry (NG) provides powerful new approaches to test whether and how organisms prioritize specific nutritional blends when consuming chemically complex foods. NG approaches can thus help move beyond food-level estimates of diet breadth to predict invasive success, for instance by revealing narrow nutritional niches if broad diets are actually composed of nutritionally similar foods. We used two NG paradigms to provide different, but complementary insights into nutrient regulation strategies and test a hypothesis of extreme nutritional generalism in colony propagules of the globally distributed invasive ant Monomorium pharaonis. First, in two dimensions (protein:carbohydrates; P:C), M. pharaonis colonies consistently defended a slightly carbohydrate-biased intake target, while using a generalist equal-distance strategy of collectively overharvesting both protein and carbohydrates to reach this target when confined to imbalanced P:C diets. Second, a recently developed right-angled mixture triangle method enabled us to define the fundamental niche breadth in three dimensions (protein:carbohydrates:lipid, P:C:L). We found that colonies navigated the P:C:L landscape, in part, to mediate a tradeoff between worker survival (maximized on high-carbohydrate diets) and brood production (maximized on high-protein diets). Colonies further appeared unable to avoid this tradeoff by consuming extra lipids when the other nutrients were limiting. Colonies also did not rely on nutrient regulation inside their nests, as they did not hoard or scatter fractions of harvested diets to adjust the nutritional blends they consumed. These complementary NG approaches highlight that even the most successful invasive species with broad fundamental macronutrient niches must navigate complex multidimensional nutritional landscapes to acquire limiting macronutrients and overcome developmental constraints as small propagules.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Ryo M, Jeschke JM, Rillig MC, et al (2019)

Machine learning with the hierarchy-of-hypotheses (HoH) approach discovers novel pattern in studies on biological invasions.

Research synthesis methods [Epub ahead of print].

Research synthesis on simple yet general hypotheses and ideas is challenging in scientific disciplines studying highly context-dependent systems such as medical, social, and biological sciences. This study shows that machine learning, equation-free statistical modeling of artificial intelligence, is a promising synthesis tool for discovering novel patterns and the source of controversy in a general hypothesis. We apply a decision tree algorithm, assuming that evidence from various contexts can be adequately integrated in a hierarchically nested structure. As a case study, we analyzed 163 articles that studied a prominent hypothesis in invasion biology, the enemy release hypothesis. We explored if any of nine attributes that classify each study can differentiate conclusions, as classification problem. Results corroborated that machine learning can be useful for research synthesis, as the algorithm could detect patterns that had been already focused in previous narrative reviews. Compared with the previous synthesis study that assessed the same evidence collection based on experts' judgement, the algorithm has newly proposed that the studies focusing on Asian regions mostly supported the hypothesis, suggesting that more detailed investigations in these regions can enhance our understanding of the hypothesis. We suggest that machine learning algorithms can be a promising synthesis tool especially where studies (i) reformulate a general hypothesis from different perspectives, (ii) use different methods or variables, or (iii) report insufficient information for conducting meta-analyses.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Tognetti PM, Mazia N, G Ibáñez (2019)

Seed local adaptation and seedling plasticity account for Gleditsia triacanthos tree invasion across biomes.

Annals of botany pii:5512448 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phenotypic plasticity and local adaption can contribute to the success of invasive species. While the former is an environmentally induced trait, the latter involves a selection process to filter the best genotype for a location. We examined the evidence for phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation for seed and seedling traits of the invasive tree Gleditsia triacanthos, with three origins distributed along an approx. 10° latitude gradient across three biomes.

METHODS: In sub-tropical forests, dry woodlands and secondary temperate grasslands in Argentina, we harvested seeds from clusters of neighbouring trees (i.e. families) distributed within 15-20 km in each origin (biome). We manipulated the environmental conditions relevant to each biome, assuming that propagule availability did not represent an ecological barrier. In growth chambers, we evaluated seed imbibition and seed germination under different light, temperature and water potential. In a 2 year common garden, we evaluated the impact of resident vegetation removal on seedling survival and growth.

KEY RESULTS: Mean time to complete seed imbibition differed among origins; seeds from temperate grasslands reached full imbibition before seeds from dry woodlands and sub-tropical forests. Germination was always >70 %, but was differentially affected by water potential, and light quantity (dark-light) and quality (red-far red) among origins, suggesting local adaptation. In the common garden, vegetation removal rather than origin negatively affected seedling survival and enhanced seedling growth. Vegetation removal increased basal diameter, leaves per plant and spine number, and reduced the height:basal diameter ratio.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that local adaptation in seed germination traits and plastic changes in seedling allometry (e.g. height:diameter) may allow this tree to respond over the short and long term to changes in environmental conditions, and to contribute to shape G. triacanthos as a successful woody invader. Overall, our study revealed how local adaptation and plasticity can explain different aspects of tree invasion capacity across biomes.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Srėbalienė G, Olenin S, Minchin D, et al (2019)

A comparison of impact and risk assessment methods based on the IMO Guidelines and EU invasive alien species risk assessment frameworks.

PeerJ, 7:e6965 pii:6965.

A comparative analysis of two risk assessment (RA) frameworks developed to support the implementation of the international Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) and European Regulation on Invasive Alien Species (IAS) was performed. This analysis revealed both differences and similarities between the IMO Risk Assessment Guidelines (IMO, 2007) and EU Regulation supplement on RA of IAS (EU, 2018) in RA approaches, key principles, RA components and categories of IAS impacts recommended for assessment. The results of this analysis were used to produce a common procedure for the evaluation of the bioinvasion risk and impact assessment methods intended to support international, regional and/or national policy on IAS. The procedure includes a scoring scheme to assess compliance with the key principles, RA components and categories of bioinvasion impacts taken into account by the methods. In these methods the categories of impacts on human health and economy are underrepresented comparing with impacts on environment.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Redding DW, Pigot AL, Dyer EE, et al (2019)

Location-level processes drive the establishment of alien bird populations worldwide.

Nature pii:10.1038/s41586-019-1292-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Human-mediated translocation of species to areas beyond their natural distribution (which results in 'alien' populations1) is a key signature of the Anthropocene2, and is a primary global driver of biodiversity loss and environmental change3. Stemming the tide of invasions requires understanding why some species fail to establish alien populations, and others succeed. To achieve this, we need to integrate the effects of features of the introduction site, the species introduced and the specific introduction event. Determining which, if any, location-level factors affect the success of establishment has proven difficult, owing to the multiple spatial, temporal and phylogenetic axes along which environmental variation may influence population survival. Here we apply Bayesian hierarchical regression analysis to a global spatially and temporally explicit database of introduction events of alien birds4 to show that environmental conditions at the introduction location, notably climatic suitability and the presence of other groups of alien species, are the primary determinants of successful establishment. Species-level traits and the size of the founding population (propagule pressure) exert secondary, but important, effects on success. Thus, current trajectories of anthropogenic environmental change will most probably facilitate future incursions by alien species, but predicting future invasions will require the integration of multiple location-, species- and event-level characteristics.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Lin CJ, Wang L, GSK Wolkowicz (2018)

An Alternative Formulation for a Distributed Delayed Logistic Equation.

Bulletin of mathematical biology, 80(7):1713-1735.

We study an alternative single species logistic distributed delay differential equation (DDE) with decay-consistent delay in growth. Population oscillation is rarely observed in nature, in contrast to the outcomes of the classical logistic DDE. In the alternative discrete delay model proposed by Arino et al. (J Theor Biol 241(1):109-119, 2006), oscillatory behavior is excluded. This study adapts their idea of the decay-consistent delay and generalizes their model. We establish a threshold for survival and extinction: In the former case, it is confirmed using Lyapunov functionals that the population approaches the delay modified carrying capacity; in the later case the extinction is proved by the fluctuation lemma. We further use adaptive dynamics to conclude that the evolutionary trend is to make the mean delay in growth as short as possible. This confirms Hutchinson's conjecture (Hutchinson in Ann N Y Acad Sci 50(4):221-246, 1948) and fits biological evidence.

RevDate: 2019-06-19

Kroth N, Cozzer GD, de Carvalho G, et al (2019)

Oviposition preferences of the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Culicidae): an urban environment bioassay.

Bulletin of entomological research pii:S000748531900021X [Epub ahead of print].

The establishment of an invasive species depends on reproductive success and dispersion capability in the new environment. One of the striking examples of invasion in urban environments is the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Culicidae). The success of this species is primarily attributed to its ability to colonize urban environments, and some of the important adaptive strategies associated with this ability is the preference for humans as a blood source and intense occupation of residential (indoor) environments. This study evaluated the effects of location (indoor vs. outdoor) and water nutrient level (% organic matter) on the oviposition preference of A. aegypti in an urban environment. We used oviposition choice experiments to evaluate mosquito oviposition in containers holding 1:1 vs 1:0 ratios of water: organic matter placed indoors and outdoors. Eggs were sampled once per week for nine weeks. Our results revealed a strong oviposition preference for outdoor containers, with a significant preference for containers with higher concentrations of organic matter during the fifth to ninth weeks. However, mosquitoes occupying indoor environments did not prefer to lay eggs in containers with lower levels of organic matter. A better understanding of the preferences of A. aegypti regarding the nutrient level and location of oviposition containers can increase our understanding of the behavioral factors allowing mosquitoes to utilize anthropogenic environments.

RevDate: 2019-06-19

Kapantaidaki DE, Evangelou VI, Morrison WR, et al (2019)

Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Genetic Diversity in North America and Europe.

Insects, 10(6): pii:insects10060174.

The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive species in North America and Europe that damages many different host plants. Substantial work has been conducted on the genetic diversity and invasion pathways of H. halys in some of the countries where it has been found, based on mitochondrial sequences. The main objective of the present study was to further explore the genetic diversity of invasive populations of H. halys exploiting both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. We used two molecular markers: the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene, an ideal standardized molecular marker for distinguishing closely related species, and the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1), because only a few sequences of H. halys exist to this point in global databases. We used specimens from eight populations from Greece, Italy, Canada, and the US. Among the 14 haplotypes retrieved based on the mtCOI gene, two of them (H162-H163) were detected for the first time. These two haplotypes were found in specimens from Canada, Italy, and the US. Concerning the ITS1 region, 24 haplotypes were identified, with 15 being unique for a sampled population. In Greece and the US, 14 and 12 haplotypes were found, respectively, with 7 and 6 of them being unique for Greece and the US, respectively. Our analysis of the nuclear genes of H. halys indicates high genetic diversity of the invading populations in North America and Europe.

RevDate: 2019-06-19
CmpDate: 2019-06-19

Marris E (2019)

Drones unleashed against invasive rats in the Galapagos.

Nature, 565(7741):543-544.

RevDate: 2019-06-18

Neumann KM, N Pinter-Wollman (2019)

Collective responses to heterospecifics emerge from individual differences in aggression.

Behavioral ecology : official journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, 30(3):801-808.

Variation in individual behavior among group members impacts collective outcomes. The ability of both individuals and groups to outcompete others can determine access to resources. The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, dominates resources and displaces native species. To determine how access to resources by groups of L. humile is impacted by their behavioral composition, we first determined that L. humile workers consistently vary in aggressive behavior. We then asked if variation in aggression within a group influences the group's ability to access a resource in the presence of cues of a native species, Tapinoma sessile. We found that the behavioral composition of L. humile groups impacted the groups' collective response to cues of T. sessile. Group behavior was the result of mostly additive, rather than synergistic, combinations of the behaviors of the group members. The behavior of groups that contained 50% highly aggressive and 50% low-aggression individuals was similar to the average of the behaviors of groups of all highly aggressive and groups of all low-aggression individuals. Uncovering the mechanisms that allow social invasive species to dominate the ecological communities they invade can inform the mitigation of invasion.

RevDate: 2019-06-18

Donnelly A, R Yu (2019)

Temperate deciduous shrub phenology: the overlooked forest layer.

International journal of biometeorology pii:10.1007/s00484-019-01743-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Temperate deciduous shrub phenology plays a pivotal role in forest ecology by regulating the timing of suitable habitat and food of a range of organisms as well as influencing the timing and duration of the carbon uptake period especially in early spring and late autumn when trees are leafless. However, given the overwhelming influence of canopy trees on forest ecosystem functioning, shrubs are often ignored in ecosystem modeling. Isolating the shrub contribution to C flux or satellite-derived forest phenology is challenging. In addition, since shrubs are more likely to be invasive than trees, future changes to shrub species composition are likely, with consequent implications for both over- and understory species composition and ecosystem functioning. Surprisingly, given their multifaceted role, our review revealed that studies on temperate deciduous shrub phenology are limited with the majority focusing on managing invasive shrubs in USA forests. In addition, results of some studies using a large number of species from a range of geographical locations suggested that, in general, invasive shrubs leafed out earlier and retained leaves longer than native species. However, this may not be directly applicable to local conditions with a smaller range of locally adapted species. Therefore, in order to fully understand the role of shrub phenology in temperate deciduous forests, in terms of invasive species, response to climate change and subsequent influence on C balance it will be necessary to establish phenological monitoring sites in which both tree and shrub phenology are recorded concurrently across a range of geographical locations.

RevDate: 2019-06-18

McLeod LJ, DW Hine (2019)

Using Audience Segmentation to Understand Nonparticipation in Invasive Mammal Management in Australia.

Environmental management pii:10.1007/s00267-019-01176-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive mammals threaten agriculture, biodiversity, and community health. Yet many landholders fail to engage in control activities recommended by experts. We surveyed a representative sample of 731 Western Australian rural landholders. The survey assessed landholders' participation in a range of activities to control invasive mammals, as well as their capabilities, opportunities, and motivation for engaging in such activities. We found that over half of our respondents had not participated in any individual or group activities to control invasive mammals during the previous 12 months. Using latent profile analysis, we identified six homogeneous subgroups of nonparticipating landholders, each with their distinct psycho-graphic profiles: Unaware, Unskilled, and Unmotivated, Aware but Unskilled and Doubtful, Unskilled and Time Poor, Disinterested, Skilled but Dismissive, and Capable but Unmotivated. Our results indicate that engagement specialists should not treat nonparticipating landholders as a single homogeneous group. Nonparticipators differ considerably in terms of their capabilities, opportunities, and motivations, and require targeted engagement strategies informed by these differences.

RevDate: 2019-06-18

Martinez KA, Fridley JD, Oguchi R, et al (2019)

Functional shifts in leaves of woody invaders of deciduous forests between their home and away ranges.

Tree physiology pii:5519699 [Epub ahead of print].

Temperate forests are widely invaded by shade-tolerant shrubs and trees, including those of Eastern North America (ENA). However, it remains unknown whether these invaders are 'pre-adapted' for success in their new ranges due to unique aspects of their evolutionary history, or whether selection due to enemy release or other post-introduction processes have driven rapid evolution in the invaded range. We sampled leaf traits of populations of woody understory invaders across light gradients in their native range in Japan and in their invaded ENA range to examine potential phenotypic shifts related to carbon gain and nitrogen use between ranges. We also measured leaf traits in three co-occurring ENA native shrub species. In their invaded range, invaders invested significantly less in leaf chlorophyll content (both per unit leaf mass and area) compared to native range populations of the same species, yet maintained similar rates of photosynthesis in low light. In addition, compared to ENA natives, ENA invaders displayed greater trait variation in response to increasing light availability (forest edges, gaps), giving them a potential advantage over ENA natives in a variety of light conditions. We conclude that, for this group of species, newly evolved phenotypes in the invaded range are more important than preadaptation for their success as shade-tolerant forest invaders.

RevDate: 2019-06-18

Jacobus LM, Macadam CR, M Sartori (2019)

Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and Their Contributions to Ecosystem Services.

Insects, 10(6): pii:insects10060170.

This work is intended as a general and concise overview of Ephemeroptera biology, diversity, and services provided to humans and other parts of our global array of freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The Ephemeroptera, or mayflies, are a small but diverse order of amphinotic insects associated with liquid freshwater worldwide. They are nearly cosmopolitan, except for Antarctica and some very remote islands. The existence of the subimago stage is unique among extant insects. Though the winged stages do not have functional mouthparts or digestive systems, the larval, or nymphal, stages have a variety of feeding approaches-including, but not limited to, collector-gatherers, filterers, scrapers, and active predators-with each supported by a diversity of morphological and behavioral adaptations. Mayflies provide direct and indirect services to humans and other parts of both freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. In terms of cultural services, they have provided inspiration to musicians, poets, and other writers, as well as being the namesakes of various water- and aircraft. They are commemorated by festivals worldwide. Mayflies are especially important to fishing. Mayflies contribute to the provisioning services of ecosystems in that they are utilized as food by human cultures worldwide (having one of the highest protein contents of any edible insect), as laboratory organisms, and as a potential source of antitumor molecules. They provide regulatory services through their cleaning of freshwater. They provide many essential supporting services for ecosystems such as bioturbation, bioirrigation, decomposition, nutrition for many kinds of non-human animals, nutrient cycling and spiraling in freshwaters, nutrient cycling between aquatic and terrestrial systems, habitat for other organisms, and serving as indicators of ecosystem health. About 20% of mayfly species worldwide might have a threatened conservation status due to influences from pollution, invasive alien species, habitat loss and degradation, and climate change. Even mitigation of negative influences has benefits and tradeoffs, as, in several cases, sustainable energy production negatively impacts mayflies.

RevDate: 2019-06-18
CmpDate: 2019-06-18

Schoener E, Zittra C, Weiss S, et al (2019)

Monitoring of alien mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria.

Parasitology research, 118(5):1633-1638.

Systematic, continuous mosquito surveillance is considered the most reliable tool to predict the spread and establishment of alien mosquito species such as the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), Japanese bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus), and the transmission risk of mosquito-borne arboviruses to humans. Only single individuals of Ae. albopictus have been found in Austria so far. However, it is likely that the species will be able to establish populations in the future due to global trade and traffic as well as increasing temperatures in the course of global climate change. In summer 2017, a project surveilling the oviposition of newly introduced Aedes mosquitoes, using ovitraps, was set up by means of citizen scientists and researchers and was performed in six federal provinces of Austria-Tyrol, Carinthia, Vienna, Lower Austria, Styria, and Burgenland. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were identified in Tyrol during the months August and September, while Ae. japonicus was found in Lower Austria, Styria, and Burgenland. In Vienna and Carinthia, all ovitraps were negative for Aedes eggs; however, Ae. japonicus was found for the first time in Vienna in July 2017 during routine sampling of adult mosquitoes. With this project, we demonstrated the benefits of citizen scientists for ovitrap-based mosquito surveillance. The finding of Ae. albopictus eggs in Northern Tyrol is not yet a proof of the establishment of a self-sustaining population, although it indicates the ongoing introduction of this species along main traffic routes from Italy, where this mosquito is well established. The risk of establishment of the tiger mosquito in the Lower Inn Valley is therefore a given and informing the public about preventive measures to hinder and delay this development is highly recommended.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Rendon D, Hamby KA, Arsenault-Benoit AL, et al (2019)

Mulching as a cultural control strategy for Drosophila suzukii in blueberry.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fruit growers largely depend on chemical control to reduce populations of the economically damaging invasive fly, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Drosophila suzukii is susceptible to high temperatures and low humidity; therefore, it may be possible to implement cultural control practices that create microclimates unfavorable for its development and survival. In addition to other fruit production benefits, in-row mulches may impede the development of D. suzukii immatures when larvae leave the fruit to pupate in the soil. This study compared the effects of different mulches (black polypropylene fabric weedmats, sawdust, and wood chips) on temperature and relative humidity (RH), and on adult emergence of D. suzukii from larvae in blueberries and pupae, both above and below the ground surface in blueberry plantings (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

RESULTS: Across regions, both lower larval survival and longer periods with high suboptimal temperatures occurred above the ground in comparison to buried below the ground, regardless of mulch type. Fewer D. suzukii adults emerged from larvae on weedmat mulch at one site, but there was no effect of mulch type on temperature, RH, or D. suzukii emergence at most sites. The relationships between temperature, RH, and the emergence of adults from larvae and pupae varied by region. Natural infestation by D. suzukii in blueberries was lower over weedmat compared to wood-based mulches at one site. Greenhouse experiments showed that larvae burrowed to pupate underneath sawdust mulch, but were unable to pupate underneath a weedmat mulch.

CONCLUSIONS: Although weedmats may not modify temperatures or RH enough to consistently affect D. suzukii emergence, they can reduce field suitability for D. suzukii by providing a barrier that prevents larvae from reaching favorable pupation microhabitats underground. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Zhang Z, M van Kleunen (2019)

Common alien plants are more competitive than rare natives but not than common natives.

Success of alien plants is often attributed to high competitive ability. However, not all aliens become dominant, and not all natives are vulnerable to competitive exclusion. Here, we quantified competitive outcomes and their determinants, using response-surface experiments, in 48 pairs of native and naturalised alien annuals that are common or rare in Germany. Overall, aliens were not more competitive than natives. However, common aliens (invasive) were, despite strong limitation by intraspecific competition, more competitive than rare natives. This is because alien species had higher intrinsic growth rates than natives, and common species had higher intrinsic growth rates than rare ones. Strength of interspecific competition was not related to status or commonness. Our work highlights the importance of including commonness in understanding invasion success. It suggests that variation among species in intrinsic growth rates is more important in competitive outcomes than inter- or intraspecific competition, and thus contributes to invasion success and rarity.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Hayward MW, Callen A, Allen BL, et al (2019)

Should the Compassionate Tail Wag the Conservation Dog?.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Compassionate conservation focuses on 4 tenets: first, do no harm; individuals matter; inclusivity of individual animals; and peaceful coexistence between humans and animals. Recently, compassionate conservation has been promoted as an alternative to conventional conservation philosophy. We believe examples presented by compassionate conservationists are deliberately or arbitrarily chosen to focus on mammals; inherently not compassionate; and offer ineffective conservation solutions. Compassionate conservation arbitrarily focuses on charismatic species, notably large predators and megaherbivores. The philosophy is not compassionate when it leaves invasive predators in the environment to cause harm to vastly more individuals of native species or uses the fear of harm by apex predators to terrorize mesopredators. Hindering the control of exotic species (megafauna, predators) in situ will not improve the conservation condition of the majority of biodiversity even if compassionate conservationists do no harm to individuals of the exotic species. The positions taken by so-called compassionate conservationists on particular species and on conservation actions could be extended to hinder other forms of conservation, including translocations, conservation fencing, and fertility control. Animal welfare is incredibly important to conservation, but ironically compassionate conservation does not offer the best welfare outcomes to animals and is often ineffective in achieving conservation goals. Consequently, compassionate conservation may threaten public and governmental support for conservation because of the general publics' limited understanding of conservation problems. Article impact statement: Compassionate conservation has an arbitrary focus on mammals, lacks compassion, and offers ineffective conservation solutions This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Rodríguez-Rey M, Consuegra S, Börger L, et al (2019)

Improving Species Distribution Modelling of freshwater invasive species for management applications.

PloS one, 14(6):e0217896 pii:PONE-D-18-16185.

Freshwater ecosystems rank among the most endangered ecosystems in the world and are under increasing threat from aquatic invasive species (AIS). Understanding the range expansion of AIS is key for mitigating their impacts. Most approaches rely on Species Distribution Models (SDMs) to predict the expansion of AIS, using mainly environmental variables, yet ignore the role of human activities in favouring the introduction and range expansion of AIS. In this study, we use five SDM algorithms (independently and in ensemble) and two accuracy measures (TSS, AUC), combined with a null modelling approach, to assess the predictive performance of the models and to quantify which predictors (environmental and anthropogenic from the native and introduced regions) best explain the distribution of nine freshwater invasive species (including fish, arthropods, molluscs, amphibians and reptiles) in a large island (Great Britain), and which species characteristics affect model performance. Our results show that the distribution of invasive species is difficult to predict by SDMs, even in cases when TSS and AUC model accuracy values are high. Our study strongly advocates the use of null models for testing SDMs performance and the inclusion of information from the native area and a variety of both human-related and environmental predictors for a more accurate modelling of the range expansion of AIS. Otherwise, models that only include climatic variables, or rely only on standard accuracy measures or a single algorithm, might result in mismanagement of AIS.

RevDate: 2019-06-17

Sunday J, Bennett JM, Calosi P, et al (2019)

Thermal tolerance patterns across latitude and elevation.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 374(1778):20190036.

Linking variation in species' traits to large-scale environmental gradients can lend insight into the evolutionary processes that have shaped functional diversity and future responses to environmental change. Here, we ask how heat and cold tolerance vary as a function of latitude, elevation and climate extremes, using an extensive global dataset of ectotherm and endotherm thermal tolerance limits, while accounting for methodological variation in acclimation temperature, ramping rate and duration of exposure among studies. We show that previously reported relationships between thermal limits and latitude in ectotherms are robust to variation in methods. Heat tolerance of terrestrial ectotherms declined marginally towards higher latitudes and did not vary with elevation, whereas heat tolerance of freshwater and marine ectotherms declined more steeply with latitude. By contrast, cold tolerance limits declined steeply with latitude in marine, intertidal, freshwater and terrestrial ectotherms, and towards higher elevations on land. In all realms, both upper and lower thermal tolerance limits increased with extreme daily temperature, suggesting that different experienced climate extremes across realms explain the patterns, as predicted under the Climate Extremes Hypothesis. Statistically accounting for methodological variation in acclimation temperature, ramping rate and exposure duration improved model fits, and increased slopes with extreme ambient temperature. Our results suggest that fundamentally different patterns of thermal limits found among the earth's realms may be largely explained by differences in episodic thermal extremes among realms, updating global macrophysiological 'rules'. This article is part of the theme issue 'Physiological diversity, biodiversity patterns and global climate change: testing key hypotheses involving temperature and oxygen'.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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