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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Dec 2022 at 01:46 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-12-07

Piczak ML, Brooks JL, Boston C, et al (2023)

Spatial ecology of non-native common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Ontario with implications for management.

Aquatic sciences, 85(1):20.

UNLABELLED: Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, are a non-native species that established within the Laurentian Great Lakes more than a century ago and are abundant in some locations. Common carp have negatively impacted freshwater ecosystems, including in the Great Lakes, by increasing turbidity and uprooting vegetation through foraging and/or spawning activities. Knowledge of spatial ecology is necessary to effectively manage non-native species and aid in the development of remediation strategies. The aim of this study was to examine the spatial ecology of common carp across multiple spatial scales within Lake Ontario using passive acoustic telemetry. First, Residency Index (RI), as a metric for habitat preference, was calculated for common carp in Toronto Harbour (TH) and Hamilton Harbour (HH). Linear mixed modelling revealed that season, as well as the interaction between season and physical habitat conditions significantly affected RI. Specifically, during spring and summer common carp had significantly higher RI at sites with increased submerged aquatic vegetation, which could be associated with spawning activities. All common carp tagged in HH were resident, compared to half of individuals tagged in TH. Larger individuals tagged in TH were more likely to be absent from the array during summer. Non-resident common carp tagged at TH made extensive movements in spring and summer along the nearshore of Lake Ontario and were detected throughout the entire basin. Knowledge of spawning habitat could inform efforts to exclude common carp from these specific locations. Based on our findings, common carp should be managed at a regional level, as opposed to single sites, owing to their extensive movements.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00027-022-00917-9.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Eleni K, Nicholas K, Ioannis K, et al (2022)

REVIVE: A feasibility assessment tool for freshwater fish conservation translocations in Mediterranean rivers.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07698-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Conservation translocation is a management action applied for population recovery of threatened freshwater fishes, often however with partially successful outcome, mainly due to inadequate feasibility assessment prior to the translocation. Up to date, feasibility assessments have been mainly focused on economically important species (e.g., salmonids) inhabiting perennial rivers, while little attention has been given to fish translocations in rivers in Mediterranean climate areas. In this study, we developed a robust feasibility assessment tool for freshwater fish translocations in Mediterranean-type riverine ecosystems within an interdisciplinary, multispecies approach. The REVIVE tool, integrates quantitative and semi-quantitative data and incorporates uncertainty, consists of two main components. Firstly, the evaluation of the potential release water bodies (R-WBs) for their suitability for the planned translocation, incorporating a number of criteria that are essential for Mediterranean rivers, with emphasis on flow regime and habitat quantity. Additional criteria include the current and historical presence of the target species, water and biological quality, habitat suitability in terms of the ecological requirements of the target species, alien invasive species' pressure, and hydromorphological pressures, including their mitigation potential. Secondly, the evaluation of the potential source water bodies (S-WBs) in terms of genetic compatibility and provision of a sufficient number of propagules. A trial application in a Mediterranean basin (Vassilopotamos River, Southern Greece) for the potential translocation of two threatened cyprinids in five R-WBs indicated the robustness of the tool. This integrative, flexible tool combines several elements identified as essential in reintroduction biology and can have wider applications, for a multitude of freshwater fish taxa and riverine systems, maximizing the success of planned translocation actions by natural resources' managers. Modifications to enable its transferability to other river types or fish taxa are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Saeki I, Y Li (2022)

Restoration Contributes to Maintain Ecosystem Services and Bio-Cultural Linkages Between Wetlands and Local Communities: a Case from a Botanical Diversity Hotspot in Japan.

Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), 42(8):117.

UNLABELLED: The Circum-Ise Bay region in central Japan is characterized by a high concentration of species-rich seepage wetlands that provide various ecosystem services to local communities. However, the non-native conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa have been widely introduced to the wetlands and compete with native plants. Here, we report the results of a 4-year restoration experiment that involved removing the conifers from a seepage wetland and observing the effects on plant composition, diversity, and ecosystem services to local communities. The experiment was conducted at a seepage wetland in Nakatsugawa city, Japan. The wetland includes many threatened and endemic plants but is also dominated by the conifers. We established three experimental plots within the wetland and removed the conifers from two of them. The stem density of overstory (i.e., canopy-tree) and understory (i.e., sub-canopy to shrub) layers in the conifer-removal plots decreased by 50% while simultaneously increasing the proportion of threatened woody plants by 14.3-50.0%. Despite these changes, plant species diversity in the groundcover layer remained high, and threatened and culturally important species became more concentrated on removal plots than on the control. We did not observe any negative regime shift, such as the establishment of introduced species. The restoration appeared to promote the occurrence of plants associated with bio-cultural linkages between the seepage wetland and local communities and that supply multiple ecosystem services.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13157-022-01639-2.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Haight RG, Yemshanov D, Kao SY, et al (2022)

A bi-level model for state and county aquatic invasive species prevention decisions.

Journal of environmental management, 327:116855 pii:S0301-4797(22)02428-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Recreational boats are important vectors of spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS) among waterbodies of the United States. To limit AIS spread, state and county agencies fund watercraft inspection and decontamination stations at lake access points. We present a bi-level model for determining how a state planner can efficiently allocate inspection resources to county managers, who independently decide where to locate inspection stations. In our formulation, each county manager determines a set of optimal plans for the locations of inspection stations under various resource constraints. Each plan maximizes inspections of risky boats that may carry AIS from infested to uninfested lakes within the county. Then, the state planner selects the set of county plans (i.e., one plan for each county) that maximizes the number of risky boats inspected throughout the state subject to a statewide resource constraint. We apply the model using information from Minnesota, USA, including the infestation status of 9182 lakes and estimates of annual numbers of boat movements from infested to uninfested lakes. Comparison of solutions of the bi-level model with solutions of a state-level model where a state planner selects lakes for inspection stations statewide shows that when state and county objectives are not aligned, the loss in efficiency at the state-level can be substantial.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

de Carvalho-Junior L, Neves LM, Teixeira-Neves TP, et al (2022)

Long-term changes in benthic communities following the invasion by an alien octocoral in the Southwest Atlantic, Brazil.

Marine pollution bulletin, 186:114386 pii:S0025-326X(22)01068-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive alien species are considered one of the main threats to marine biodiversity. We used a BACI design to investigate the changes in rocky reef benthic communities related to the invasion of the octocoral Latissimia ningalooensis in the Southwest Atlantic. Drastic changes in benthic community structure were restricted to the invaded site and associated with the growth of L. ningalooensis on turf algae. Conversely, the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum remained stable coverage along the 9-year study period, indicating a greater biotic resistance against the octocoral. Latissimia ningalooensis spread from large and well-established patches to new areas of the reef, increasing turf-octocoral interactions. This study warns of the great invasive potential of the octocoral, due to its high abundance, competitive and expansion ability. The decline in abundance of turf-forming algae following the emergence of L. ningalooensis threatens the structure and functioning of macroalgal-dominated rocky reefs.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Barry PJ, Beraud C, Wood LE, et al (2022)

Modelling of marine debris pathways into UK waters: Example of non-native crustaceans transported across the Atlantic Ocean on floating marine debris.

Marine pollution bulletin, 186:114388 pii:S0025-326X(22)01070-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The long-distance transfer of non-native, potentially invasive species via floating marine debris is an increasing threat to biodiversity and conservation efforts. To address the lack of understanding around mechanisms and pathways of species transfer via marine debris, a novel modelling approach was applied to recreate the likely trajectory and source of a large piece of debris fouled by non-native species collected from UK marine waters. This approach applied the Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) simulation tool, an adapted oil spill modelling programme, which was informed by a combination of biological trait information for the foulant species, marine debris characteristics and hydrodynamic data. The modelling output suggested an origin in the Western Atlantic, a scenario concurrent with the known distribution of the foulant species. This modelling approach represents a valuable tool with which to determine the origin and trajectory of invasive species transferred via marine debris.

RevDate: 2022-12-03

Lee SR, DC Son (2022)

Genetic diversity pattern reveals the primary determinant of burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) invasion in Korea.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:997521.

Biological invasion is a complex process associated with propagule pressure, dispersal ability, environmental constraints, and human interventions, which leave genetic signatures. The population genetics of an invasive species thus provides invaluable insights into the patterns of invasion. Burcucumber, one of the most detrimental weeds for soybean production in US, has recently colonized Korea and rapidly spread posing a great threat to the natural ecosystem. We aim to infer the determinants of the rapid burcucumber invasion by examining the genetic diversity, demography, and spread pattern with advanced genomic tools. We employed 2,696 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the level of diversity and the spatial pattern associated with the landscape factors and to infer the demographic changes of 24 populations (364 genotypes) across four major river basins with the east coastal streams in South Korea. Through the approximate Bayesian computation, we inferred the likely invasion scenario of burcucumber in Korea. The landscape genetics approach adopting the circuit theory and MaxEnt model was applied to determine the landscape contributors. Our data suggested that most populations have experienced population bottlenecks, which led to lowered within-population genetic diversity and inflated population divergences. Burcucumber colonization in Korea has strongly been affected by demographic bottlenecks and multiple introductions, whereas environmental factors were not the primary determinant of the invasion. Our work highlighted the significance of preventing secondary introductions, particularly for aggressive weedy plants such as the burcucumber.

RevDate: 2022-12-02

Page ML, NM Williams (2022)

Honey bee introductions displace native bees and decrease pollination of a native wildflower.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduced species can have cascading effects on ecological communities, but indirect effects of species introductions are rarely the focus of ecological studies. For example, managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been widely introduced outside their native range and are increasingly dominant floral visitors. Multiple studies have documented how honey bees impact native bee communities through floral resource competition, but few have quantified how these competitive interactions indirectly affect pollination and plant reproduction. Such indirect effects are hard to detect because honey bees are themselves pollinators and may directly impact pollination through their own floral visits. The potentially huge but poorly understood impacts that non-native honey bees have on native plant populations combined with increased pressure from beekeepers to place hives in U.S. National Parks and Forests makes exploring impacts of honey bee introductions on native plant pollination of pressing concern. In this study, we used experimental hive additions, field observations, as well as single-visit and multiple-visit pollination effectiveness trials across multiple years to untangle the direct and indirect impacts of increasing honey bee abundance on the pollination of an ecologically important wildflower, Camassia quamash. We found compelling evidence that honey bee introductions indirectly decrease pollination by reducing nectar and pollen availability and competitively excluding visits from more effective native bees. In contrast, the direct impact of honey bee visits on pollination was negligible, and, if anything, negative. Honey bees were ineffective pollinators and increasing visit quantity could not compensate for inferior visit quality. Indeed, although the effect was not statistically significant, increased honey bee visits had a marginally negative impact on seed production. Thus, honey bee introductions may erode longstanding plant-pollinator mutualisms, with negative consequences for plant reproduction. Our study calls for a more thorough understanding of the indirect effects of species introductions and more careful coordination of hive placements.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Saemi-Komsari M, Esmaeili HR, Keshavarzi B, et al (2022)

Characterization of ingested MPs and their relation with growth parameters of endemic and invasive fish from a coastal wetland.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07597-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastic (MP) contamination is a persistent and ubiquitous threat to aquatic ecosystems. This study quantifies MP ingestion by fish inhabiting the Anzali Wetland (Iran), a hotspot of biodiversity. Growth parameters have been monitored in endemic demersal fish (Caspian spined loach, Sabanejewia caspia), and invasive benthopelagic species (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio) in the wetland and compared with their internal content of MPs. MPs were extracted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts following digestion of the samples in alkaline medium and observation of the extracts with microscopy (Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (SEM-EDS) and confocal Raman microscopy). A total of 84.6 % of the study fish (n = 26) were contaminated with MPs. Fibres were the only type of MPs found in the GI tracts, and these were mainly dark blue and made of polycarbonate and nylon in both investigated species. The mean numbers of MPs in the GI tracts of the carp and the loach were 3.6 and 3.7 respectively. MPs had smooth surfaces in most cases although some presented brittle, fragmented, and uneven surfaces and signs of degradation. The growth rates of Carassius gibelio and Sabanejewia caspia, measured with the b value (growth factor), were 2.91 and 2.15 respectively. Carassius gibelio can play a significant role in the transport of MPs to other aquatic organisms inhabiting the Anzali wetland, and hence can cause potential harm to them. Carassius gibelio MP contamination was more pronounced with increasing gut mass in older specimens. Due to the presence of MPs and in fish that can be consumed, there could be a trophic transfer to humans. Regarding Sabanejewia caspia, although not statistically significant, their uptake of MPs tends to increase in older specimens with smaller size and body weight. This can imply that MP pollution causes inappropriate conditions and results in negative growth. The findings of this work provide new insights into MP contamination in the Anzali wetland, specifically in endemic fish. These results will be important in conservation and management programs.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Wang X, Xiao X, He Q, et al (2022)

Biological invasions in China's coastal zone.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 378(6623):957.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Silva GM, Thiengo SC, Sierpe Jeraldo VL, et al (2022)

The invasive giant African land snail, Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): global geographical distribution of this species as host of nematodes of medical and veterinary importance.

Journal of helminthology, 96:e86 pii:S0022149X22000761.

The giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, is an important invasive species in many countries, where it causes losses in biodiversity and agriculture, as well as impacting the health of both humans and animals, as the intermediate host of medically important nematodes. The present study is based on a comprehensive review of the literature on the nematodes that have been found in association with A. fulica, worldwide. We searched a number of different databases and used the findings to investigate the methods used to extract and identify the nematodes, their larval stages, and environment and collecting procedures of the infected molluscs. Between 1965 and 2021, 11 nematode species were recorded in association with A. fulica in 21 countries. Most of the studies recorded associations between A. fulica and Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which causes cerebral angiostrongyliasis in humans and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, which provokes pneumonia in felines. The nematodes were extracted primarily by artificial digestion with hydrochloric acid or pepsin, and identified based on their morphology or through experimental infection to obtain the adult. In most cases, the nematodes were at larval stage L3, and the infected A. fulica were collected from anthropogenic environments. The results demonstrate the importance of A. fulica as a host of nematodes of medical and veterinary importance, as well the contribution of anthropogenic environments to the occurrence of the parasites, and give information about the different methods used to collect and identify the nematodes found associated with this species.

RevDate: 2022-12-02

Lee SR (2022)

Adaptive divergence for a drought resistance related trait among invasive Saltcedar (Tamarix L.) populations in southwestern US: Inferences from QCT - FCT.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:997805.

Biological invasion poses several biotic and abiotic challenges due to abrupt distribution shifts. Invasive species may benefit from local adaptation responding to environmental stresses during colonization. Saltcedar (Tamarix), a notorious invasive shrub in the western US introduced from Eurasia may have adapted to low rainfall as the species widely occupies the arid land throughout the southwestern US. We investigated variation of quantitative traits in saltcedar between two regions exhibiting opposing average annual precipitations under experimentally manipulated water treatments to test local adaptation. We measured eight quantitative traits, proxies for fitness and genotyped 64 individual samples using genotype by sequencing technique. To test local adaptation, we applied QCT - FCT test based on null distribution of FCT estimated from 2,697 genome-wide SNPs and QCT estimated for the eight phenotypic traits measured. Saltcedar in the southwestern US exhibited a significant interaction between the degree of leaf loss (biomass loss by senesced leaves to total biomass) under simulated drought conditions and the origins from which the genotypes were collected, either relatively high or low rainfall regimes. The divergence found in leaf loss was significantly greater among regions than the expected given the genetic divergence on neutral loci suggesting signature of local adaptation responding to drought. The results demonstrate adaptive potential of saltcedar populations to extreme drought. As extreme aridity is often predicted in climate models across the southwestern US, the western saltcedar genotypes locally adapted to drought may further expand their ranges in this region.

RevDate: 2022-12-03
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Lucati F, Delacour S, Palmer JRB, et al (2022)

Multiple invasions, Wolbachia and human-aided transport drive the genetic variability of Aedes albopictus in the Iberian Peninsula.

Scientific reports, 12(1):20682.

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the most invasive species in the world. Native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia, over the past 30 years it has rapidly spread throughout tropical and temperate regions of the world. Its dramatic expansion has resulted in public health concerns as a consequence of its vector competence for at least 16 viruses. Previous studies showed that Ae. albopictus spread has been facilitated by human-mediated transportation, but much remains unknown about how this has affected its genetic attributes. Here we examined the factors that contributed to shaping the current genetic constitution of Ae. albopictus in the Iberian Peninsula, where the species was first found in 2004, by combining population genetics and Bayesian modelling. We found that both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers showed a lack of genetic structure and the presence of worldwide dominant haplotypes, suggesting regular introductions from abroad. Mitochondrial DNA showed little genetic diversity compared to nuclear DNA, likely explained by infection with maternally transmitted bacteria of the genus Wolbachia. Multilevel models revealed that greater mosquito fluxes (estimated from commuting patterns and tiger mosquito population distribution) and spatial proximity between sampling sites were associated with lower nuclear genetic distance, suggesting that rapid short- and medium-distance dispersal is facilitated by humans through vehicular traffic. This study highlights the significant role of human transportation in shaping the genetic attributes of Ae. albopictus and promoting regional gene flow, and underscores the need for a territorially integrated surveillance across scales of this disease-carrying mosquito.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

Tsutsumi M, Hiradate S, Yokogawa M, et al (2022)

A single application of fertilizer can affect semi-natural grassland vegetation over half a century.

PloS one, 17(11):e0275808 pii:PONE-D-22-19856.

Restoration of species-rich semi-natural grassland requires not only a seed source but also appropriate soil properties. In Europe, approximately 10 years are required for the properties of fertilized soils to reach suitable conditions and be considered successfully restored. However, restoration may require additional time in Japan because heavier precipitation causes leaching of basic cations from soils, resulting in soil acidification; volcanic ejecta also forms active Al and Fe hydroxides with high phosphate sorption. Within this context, we aimed to answer the following questions: i) whether and how the impacts of fertilization remain in the soil properties after half a century in Japan; and ii) how fertilization affects the restoration of semi-natural grasslands in Japan. We investigated the vegetation and soil properties of a Zoysia japonica pasture improved half a century ago with a single application of fertilizer and an adjacent semi-natural grassland (native pasture) in Japan, and found the following: (1) the two pastures had similar dominance of Z. japonica, but differed in the species composition; (2) the improved pasture exhibited lower species richness than the native pasture; (3) soil nutrients, including N, P, K, Mg, and Ca, were higher in the improved pasture than in the native pasture; and (4) many chemical properties of the soils were associated with species composition; namely, the vegetation on nutrient-rich soil had more alien species and fewer native species. We conclude that a single dose of fertilization can affect soil properties in semi-natural grasslands over half a century in Japan, leading to species loss and changing the species composition. We suggest that fertilized soils under grazing in Japan may require more than half a century to restore the nutrients to suitable levels for the establishment of a species-diverse grassland.

RevDate: 2022-11-30

García-Longoria L, Ahrén D, Berthomieu A, et al (2022)

Immune gene expression in the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus during an avian malaria infection.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Plasmodium relictum is the most widespread avian malaria parasite in the world. It is listed as one of the 100 most dangerous invasive species, having been responsible for the extinction of several endemic bird species, and the near-demise of several others. Here we present the first transcriptomic study focused on the effect of P. relictum on the immune system of its vector (the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus) at different times post-infection. We show that over 50% of immune genes identified as being part of the Toll pathway and 30-40% of the immune genes identified within the Imd pathway are overexpressed during the critical period spanning the parasite's oocyst and sporozoite formation (8-12 days), revealing the crucial role played by both these pathways in this natural mosquito-Plasmodium combination. Comparison of infected mosquitoes with their uninfected counterparts also revealed some unexpected immune RNA expression patterns earlier and later in the infection: Significant differences in expression of several immune effectors were observed as early as 30 minutes after the ingestion of the infected blood meal. In addition, in the later stages of the infection (towards the end of the mosquito lifespan), we observed an unexpected increase in immune investment in uninfected, but not in infected, mosquitoes. In conclusion, our work extends the comparative transcriptomic analyses of malaria-infected mosquitoes beyond human and rodent parasites and provides insights into the degree of conservation of immune pathways and into the selective pressures exerted by Plasmodium parasites on their vectors.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Mason NWH, Kirk NA, Price RJ, et al (2022)

Science for social licence to arrest an ecosystem-transforming invasion.

Biological invasions [Epub ahead of print].

The primary role for scientific information in addressing complex environmental problems, such as biological invasions, is generally assumed to be as a guide for management decisions. However, scientific information often plays a minor role in decision-making, with practitioners instead relying on professional experience and local knowledge. We explore alternative pathways by which scientific information could help reduce the spread and impacts of invasive species. Our study centred on attempts to understand the main motivations and constraints of three local governance bodies responsible for the management of invasive (wilding) conifer species in the southern South Island of New Zealand in achieving strategic and operational goals. We used a combination of workshop discussions, questionnaire responses and visits to field sites to elicit feedback from study participants. We applied a mixed inductive-deductive thematic analysis approach to derive themes from the feedback received. The three main themes identified were: (1) impacts of wilding conifers and goals for wilding conifer control, (2) barriers to achieving medium- and long-term goals, and (3) science needed to support wilding conifer control. Participants identified reversal and prevention of both instrumental (e.g. reduced water availability for agriculture) and intrinsic (e.g. loss of biodiversity and landscape values) impacts of wilding conifer invasions as primary motivators behind wilding conifer control. Barriers to achieving goals were overwhelmingly social, relating either to unwillingness of landowners to participate or poorly designed regulatory frameworks. Consequently, science needs related primarily to gaining social licence to remove wilding conifers from private land and for more appropriate regulations. Scientific information provided via spread and impacts forecasting models was viewed as a key source of scientific information in gaining social licence. International experience suggests that invasive species control programmes often face significant external social barriers. Thus, for many biological invasions, the primary role of science might be to achieve social licence and regulatory support for the long-term goals of invasive species control programmes and the management interventions required to achieve those goals.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Wei Y, He S, Wang J, et al (2022)

Genome-wide SNPs reveal novel patterns of spatial genetic structure in Aedes albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) population in China.

Frontiers in public health, 10:1028026.

INTRODUCTION: Since the second half of the 20th century, Aedes albopictus, a vector for more than 20 arboviruses, has spread worldwide. Aedes albopictus is the main vector of infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in China, and it has caused concerns regarding public health. A comprehensive understanding of the spatial genetic structure of this vector species at a genomic level is essential for effective vector control and the prevention of vector-borne diseases.

METHODS: During 2016-2018, adult female Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from eight different geographical locations across China. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used for high-throughput identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyping of the Ae. albopictus population. The spatial genetic structure was analyzed and compared to those exhibited by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and microsatellites in the Ae. albopictus population.

RESULTS: A total of 9,103 genome-wide SNP loci in 101 specimens and 32 haplotypes of cox1 in 231 specimens were identified in the samples from eight locations in China. Principal component analysis revealed that samples from Lingshui and Zhanjiang were more genetically different than those from the other locations. The SNPs provided a better resolution and stronger signals for novel spatial population genetic structures than those from the cox1 data and a set of previously genotyped microsatellites. The fixation indexes from the SNP dataset showed shallow but significant genetic differentiation in the population. The Mantel test indicated a positive correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. However, the asymmetric gene flow was detected among the populations, and it was higher from south to north and west to east than in the opposite directions.

CONCLUSIONS: The genome-wide SNPs revealed seven gene pools and fine spatial genetic structure of the Ae. albopictus population in China. The RAD-seq approach has great potential to increase our understanding of the spatial dynamics of population spread and establishment, which will help us to design new strategies for controlling vectors and mosquito-borne diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Ollard I, DC Aldridge (2022)

Declines in freshwater mussel density, size and productivity in the River Thames over the past half century.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

A pioneering, quantitative study published in Journal of Animal Ecology in 1966 on freshwater mussel populations in the River Thames, UK, continues to be cited extensively as evidence of the major contribution that mussels make to benthic biomass and ecosystem functioning in global river ecosystems. Ecological alteration, as well as declines in freshwater mussel populations elsewhere, suggest that changes to mussel populations in the River Thames are likely to have occurred over the half century since this study. We resurveyed the site reported in Negus (1966) and quantified the changes in mussel population density, species composition, growth patterns and productivity. We found large declines in population density for all unionid species. The duck mussel Anodonta anatina decreased to 1.1% of 1964 density. The painter's mussel Unio pictorum fell to 3.2% of 1964 density. The swollen river mussel Unio tumidus showed statistically nonsignificant declines. In contrast to 1964, in 2020 we found no living specimens of the depressed river mussel Pseudanodonta complanata (classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List) but found new records of the invasive, nonnative zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. Additionally, we found strong decreases in size-at-age for all species, which now grow to 65-90% of maximum lengths in 1964. As a result of reduced density and size, estimated annual biomass production fell to 7.5% of 1964 levels. Since mussels can be important to ecosystem functioning, providing key regulating and provisioning services, the declines we found imply substantial degradation of freshwater ecosystem services in the River Thames, one of the UK's largest rivers. Our study also highlights the importance to conservationists and ecologists of updating and validating assumptions and data about wild populations, which in the present era of anthropogenic ecosystem alteration are undergoing significant and rapid changes. Regular population surveys of key species are essential to maintain an accurate picture of ecosystem health and to guide management.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Langner T, Hamedy A, Wellner H, et al (2022)

First detection of Trichinella spiralis in raccoon (Procyon lotor) in Germany.

Veterinary parasitology, regional studies and reports, 36:100800.

Trichinella spp. are foodborne parasites that can cause severe and potentially fatal disease in humans. Infections occur through consumption of meat containing the infectious stage (L1). In Germany the domestic cycle has been eradicated. In wild animals sporadic occurrence is observed in species such as wild boar, red foxes and raccoon dogs. The omnivore raccoon which is an invasive species in Europe is known as a potential host but has not been studied intensely regarding this parasite in Germany until now, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge about its role in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoons from the urban area of Leipzig were investigated for several pathogens including Trichinella spp. in a cooperative project. Muscle samples of 88 individuals were examined using the artificial digestion method (ADM). One animal was found positive, which is the first detection of this parasite in a raccoon in Germany.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Sanjuán CG, Aguirre JI, Villaverde S, et al (2022)

Surveillance for gastrointestinal, subcutaneous, and ectoparasites of invasive North American raccoons (Procyon lotor) in central Spain.

Veterinary parasitology, regional studies and reports, 36:100793.

The American raccoon (Procyon lotor) is an invasive meso-carnivore which has been introduced and established in many European countries. Although the presence of the raccoon in the Iberian Peninsula was confirmed around 20 years ago, there are few data on pathogens of these animals in this region. For this work, 72 American raccoons from two subpopulations in the central region of the Iberian Peninsula were examined for selected parasites. Ectoparasite species richness (both fleas and ticks) increased during the sampling season and was highest in the Henares subpopulation and on males. Similarly, ectoparasite abundance increased during the sampling season and was highest in Henares and on adult raccoons. Four species of ticks were detected including Rhipicephalus pusillus (71%), followed by R. sanguineus sensu lato (24%), Ixodes ventalloi (3%), and Dermacentor marginatus (1.4%). Four species of fleas were detected including Pulex irritans (44%), Ctenocephalides felis (3%), C. canis (1.4%), and Paraceras melis (1.4%) infestations. A subset of raccoons (n = 56) was examined for intestinal parasites; low prevalence and diversity were found including Strongyloides procyonis (4%), Dilepis sp. (5%), Plagiorchis sp. (2%), and Moniliformis moniliformis (2%). Importantly, Baylisascaris procyonis was not found. Finally, no subcutaneous nematodes (i.e., Dracunculus and Dirofilaria spp.) were found in the 56 raccoons examined. The results of this work show that the invasive North American raccoons currently are infected with few endoparasites but are commonly infested with native ectoparasites, several of which can transmit pathogens relevant for public and veterinary health. However, the geographically distinct populations of raccoons in Spain have different introduction histories, thus additional surveillance for parasites is warranted.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Verma AK, Nayak R, Manika N, et al (2022)

Monitoring the distribution pattern and invasion status of Ageratina adenophora across elevational gradients in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(1):152.

Understanding the spread intensity and population dynamics of invasive plant species is a prerequisite for developing management strategies in the Himalayan Forest ecosystems that are experiencing an accelerated rate of climate change. Although there are studies on the occurrence of few invasive species in the Himalayan ecosystems, systematic information on their intensity of spread and species association is still missing. Considering existing data gaps, we aimed to assess the intensity of spread and distribution pattern of A. adenophora, one of the high-concern invasive species (HiCIS) of India that is causing havoc in the Himalayas, across an elevational gradient. Field data were collected in 2018 and 2021 in the Indian federal state of Sikkim, located in the Eastern Himalayas. We analyzed the population status and species association of A. adenophora along an elevational gradient ranging from > 600 m to 2700 m above sea level, which was divided into seven gradients of 300 m width, and each gradient was further randomly sampled. Overall, 81 species were present in association with A. adenophora, including 58 herbs, 19 shrubs, and 4 climbers, belonging to 30 families and 67 genera in the region. No other species continuously co-occurred along with A. adenophora throughout the elevation ranging from > 600 m to 2700 m. The species observed increased frequency (100%), density (40.51 ind./100 m[2]), and basal cover (11.25 cm[2]/m[2]) in the elevational gradient 1500-1800 m in 2018. In 2021, A. adenophora dominated the highest elevational gradient (< 2400-2700 m) with increased frequency (99.96%), density (58.41 ind./100m[2]), and basal cover (42.54 cm[2]/100m[2]), which demonstrated rapid invasion and improved plant health and reproductive vigor in comparison to the lower elevational gradient in Sikkim Himalaya. Despite being completely absent at the highest elevation (< 2400-2700 m), in 2018, it observed gregarious spread at the highest elevation in 2021, which is of serious concern to ecologists. The presence of the targeted species in all seven studied altitudinal gradients reflects stage III of the species invasion. An enormous shift in the distribution pattern along elevational gradients within a short time span is alarming for the Himalayan ecosystem since it is becoming a thriving habitat for invasive species owing to anthropogenic activity. We mapped the potential geographical extent using the species distribution model (SDM) and predicted the suitable habitat of distribution in Sikkim Himalaya. In order to curtail the spread and counteract the negative impact of this species on native vegetation in Sikkim Himalaya and ultimately reverse the process, local and regional initiatives for its biological control and management must be taken.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-05

Menicagli V, Balestri E, Fulignati S, et al (2023)

Plastic litter in coastal sand dunes: Degradation behavior and impact on native and non-native invasive plants.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 316(Pt 2):120738.

Pollution associated to marine plastic litter is raising increasing concerns due to its potential harmful effects on human health, biota, and coastal ecosystems. However, limited information is available on the degradation behavior of plastics, especially biodegradable ones, in dune habitats. Moreover, the effects of plastics on dune plant growth and ability to withstand environmental stresses and invasion by non-native plants have been largely neglected. This is a particularly relevant issue since biological invasions are major threats to dune ecosystems. In this 18-month study, we examined the degradation behavior of two plastic bags, non-biodegradable (NBP) or biodegradable/compostable (BP), in the dune environment by visual observations and analytical techniques. Concomitantly, we investigated the individual and combined effects of bag type and sand burial (no burial vs. partial burial) on the performance of a native dune plant (Thinopyrum junceum) and an invasive plant (Carpobrotus sp.) and on their interaction. NBP did not show relevant degradation signs over the experimental period as expected. BP exhibited gradual surface modifications and changes in chemical functionality and were almost disintegrated after 18 months. Bags and burial reduced independently T. junceum survival and growth, and most plants died within 8 months of plastic exposure. Bags and burial did not affect Carpobrotus survival. However, burial decreased Carpobrotus growth while NBP increased it. Both plastics increased Carpobrotus competitive ability, and no T. junceum plants survived to co-occurrent Carpobrotus, BP, and burial. These findings indicate that removing all littered plastics from beach-dune systems not only is critical to reduce plastic pollution but also to prevent further spread of invasive species in coastal dunes.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Zhang Y, Liao Z, Jiang H, et al (2022)

Climatic Variability Caused by Topographic Barrier Prevents the Northward Spread of Invasive Ageratina adenophora.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(22): pii:plants11223108.

Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M.King & H.Rob. is one of the most threatening invasive alien plants in China. Since its initial invasion into Yunnan in the 1940s, it spread rapidly northward to southern Mount Nyba in Sichuan, which lies on the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During fieldwork, we found an interesting phenomenon: A. adenophora failed to expand northward across Mount Nyba, even after the opening of the 10 km tunnel, which could have served as a potential corridor for its spread. In this work, to explore the key factors influencing its distribution and spread patterns, we used a combination of ensemble species distribution models with the MigClim model. We found that the temperature annual range (TAR), precipitation of driest month (PDM), highway density (HW), and wind speed (WS) were the most predominant factors affecting its distribution. The north of Mount Nyba is not suitable for A. adenophora survival due to higher TAR. The spatial-temporal dynamic invasion simulation using MigClim further illustrated that the northward invasion of A. adenophora was stopped by Mount Nyba. Overall, Mount Nyba may act as a topographic barrier that causes environmental differences between its south and north sides, preventing the northward invasion of A. adenophora. However, other suitable habitats on the northern side of the mountain still face challenges because A. adenophora is likely to invade via other routes. Therefore, long-term monitoring is needed to prevent human-induced long-distance spread events.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Gu J, Wang J, Bi H, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutagenesis of Sex-Specific Doublesex Splicing Variants Leads to Sterility in Spodoptera frugiperda, a Global Invasive Pest.

Cells, 11(22): pii:cells11223557.

Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), an emerging invasive pest worldwide, has posed a serious agricultural threat to the newly invaded areas. Although somatic sex differentiation is fundamentally conserved among insects, the sex determination cascade in S. frugiperda is largely unknown. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized Doublesex (dsx), a "molecular switch" modulating sexual dimorphism in S. frugiperda using male- and female-specific isoforms. Given that Lepidoptera is recalcitrant to RNAi, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis was employed to construct S. frugiperda mutants. Specifically, we designed target sites on exons 2, 4, and 5 to eliminate the common, female-specific, and male-specific regions of S. frugiperda dsx (Sfdsx), respectively. As expected, abnormal development of both the external and internal genitalia was observed during the pupal and adult stages. Interestingly, knocking out sex-specific dsx variants in S. frugiperda led to significantly reduced fecundity and fertility in adults of corresponding sex. Our combined results not only confirm the conserved function of dsx in S. frugiperda sex differentiation but also provide empirical evidence for dsx as a potential target for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to combat this globally invasive pest in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Masoni A, Coppi A, Balzani P, et al (2022)

Assessing Molecular Diversity in Native and Introduced Populations of Red Wood Ant Formica paralugubris.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(22): pii:ani12223165.

The Formica rufa group comprises several ant species which are collectively referred to as "red wood ants" and play key roles in boreal forest ecosystems, where they are ecologically dominant and greatly influence habitat dynamics. Owing to their intense predatory activity, some of these species are used as biocontrol agents against several forest insect pests and for this aim in Italy, nearly 6000 ant nests were introduced from their native areas in the Alps to several Appeninic sites during the last century. In this work, we assessed and compared the genetic variability and structure of native and introduced populations of F. paralugubris, thus evaluating the extent of genetic drift that may have occurred since the time of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. PCR amplification with a fam_EcoRI-TAC/MseI-ATG primers combination produced a total of 147 scorable bands, with 17 identified as outlier loci. The genetic variation was higher in the introduced population compared to the native ones that, on the other hand, showed a higher diversity between nests. AMOVA results clearly pointed out that the overall genetic structure was dominated by among-worker variation, considering all populations, the Alpine vs. Apennine groups and the comparison among native and related introduced populations (all ranging between 77.84% and 79.84%). Genetic analyses unveiled the existence of six main different groups that do not entirely mirror their geographic subdivision, pointing towards a wide admixture between populations, but, at the same time, rapid diversification of some Apennine populations. Future studies based on high-throughput genomic methods are needed to obtain a thorough understanding of the effects of environmental pressure on the genetic structure and mating system of these populations.

RevDate: 2022-12-05

Deyris PA, Pelissier F, Grison CM, et al (2022)

Efficient removal of persistent and emerging organic pollutants by biosorption using abundant biomass wastes.

Chemosphere, 313:137307 pii:S0045-6535(22)03800-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Persistent and emerging organic pollutants represent a serious and global threat to human health and ecosystems. We describe here a simple, efficient and affordable technology for removing such organic pollutants from aquatic systems. Biosorption process was chosen, meeting these three criteria, and so that biosorbents should be biomass wastes combining the following characteristics: natural, cheap and abundant. Powdered dead roots from invasive alien species (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Fallopia japonica), and wastes rich in tannins such as coffee grounds and green tea grounds were tested as biosorbents for removing extensively used organic pollutants: organic UV-filters, insecticides and herbicides. The elemental composition and morphology of the biosorbents were fully determined. The biosorption kinetics for each pair of biosorbent/pollutant was described by a pseudo-second order model. Excellent biosorption efficiency was obtained for 10 μM solution of oxybenzone (89 ± 1%), octocrylene (90 ± 2%), lindane (88 ± 0%) and diuron (90 ± 1%) in only 2 h. And total removal of 10 μM of chlordecone (100 ± 0%) could be achieved, which could be of high concern for the population living in chlordecone-contaminated areas. As such pollutants can be found in aquatic ecosystems, an interference study with salts showed that biosorption efficiency remained as efficient in reconstituted seawater. A principal component analysis was performed as an attempt to rationalise the biosorption results. The solubility of the organic pollutants in water and the concentration of tanins in the biosorbents were key parameters.

RevDate: 2022-11-25

Gippet JMW, Sherpa Z, C Bertelsmeier (2022)

Reliability of social media data in monitoring the global pet trade in ants.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

The global pet trade is a major risk to biodiversity and humans. Over the recent decades, the pet trade has become increasingly globalized, diversified, digitalized and extremely difficult to control. With billions of Internet users posting online daily, social media could serve as a powerful surveillance tool. But it is still unknown how reliable social media are to track the global pet trade. Here, focusing on the emerging pet trade in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), we show that social media data (∼38,000 posts from Instagram) identify the countries involved in the pet trade and reflect the taxonomic composition and commercial success of traded ant species. Moreover, Instagram data accurately estimated the overrepresentation of invasive species among traded species. Overall, our findings show that social media provide affordable and reliable data for monitoring emerging pet trades and advocate for an easier access to these data in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-25

Cassini MH (2022)

A critical review of the precautionary approach of the IUCN impact classification for non-native taxa.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

The IUCN has proposed the use of the EICAT to standardize the classification of introduced species based on their environmental impact. The IUCN invoked the precautionary principle (PP) via the two rules: (i) the impact assigned to a taxon must be the maximum recorded impact across different impact assessments, and (ii) when the main driver of environmental damage is unclear, it must be assumed to be caused by the IS. The validity of PP is conditioned by two factors: the scientific evidence demonstrating the advantages of applying a preventive measure and the degree of emergency that warrants urgent decisions. In this review, I found that these two rules do not appear to have enough scientific support and that they are not justified by a serious or irreversible instances since impact scoring is an early stage of the impact assessment process. I discuss the possibility that these rules are primarily rooted in the ethical value system underlying conservation biology. Conservationists assign intrinsic value to native species by virtue of their roles and relationships within ecological and evolutionary systems and processes; thus, individuals introduced in new environments not only cease to have value as they are no longer part of that natural diversity and lack those links with the rest of the ecosystem, but they become a threat to what conservationists value most. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-27

Rossi JP, JY Rasplus (2022)

Climate change and the potential distribution of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis), an insect vector of Xylella fastidiosa.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07477-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions represent a major threat for biodiversity and agriculture. Despite efforts to restrict the spread of alien species, preventing their introduction remains the best strategy for an efficient control. In that context preparedness of phytosanitary authorities is very important and estimating the geographical range of alien species becomes a key information. The present study investigates the potential geographical range of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis), a very efficient insect vector of Xylella fastidiosa, one of the most dangerous plant-pathogenic bacteria worldwide. We use species distribution modeling (SDM) to analyse the climate factors driving the insect distribution and we evaluate its potential distribution in its native range (USA) and in Europe according to current climate and different scenarios of climate change: 6 General Circulation Models (GCM), 4 shared socioeconomic pathways of gas emission and 4 time periods (2030, 2050, 2070, 2090). The first result is that the climate conditions of the European continent are suitable to the glassy-winged sharpshooter, in particular around the Mediterranean basin where X. fastidiosa is present. Projections according to future climate conditions indicate displacement of climatically suitable areas towards the north in both North America and Europe. Globally, suitable areas will decrease in North America and increase in Europe in the coming decades. SDM outputs vary according to the GCM considered and this variability indicated areas of uncertainty in the species potential range. Both potential distribution and its uncertainty associated to future climate projections are important information for improved preparedness of phytosanitary authorities.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Rudziński KJ, Staszek D, Asztemborska M, et al (2022)

Newly Discovered Components of Dendrolimus pini Sex Pheromone.

Insects, 13(11):.

The pine-tree lappet moth, D. pini, is a harmful defoliator of pine forests in Europe and Asia and a potentially invasive species in North America. The lures for trapping D. pini males based on two known components of its sex pheromone appeared weakly attractive to male moths. Identification of all components of the sex pheromone might allow for the development of more effective lures. The pheromone was sampled from virgin females using SPME and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Four new likely components ((Z5)-dodecenal, (Z5)-dodecen-1-ol, (Z5)-decen-1-yl acetate, (Z5)-tetradecen-1-yl acetate) and two known components ((Z5,E7)-dodecadienal, (Z5,E7)-dodecadien-1-ol) were identified based on comparison against authentic standards, Kováts indices and spectra libraries. The samples also contained several sesquiterpenes. Wind tunnel and field experiments showed that some blends of synthetic pheromone components alone or enriched with Scots pine essential oil (SPEO) were attractive to D. pini males. One component-(Z5)-decen-1-yl acetate-had a repelling effect. The presented knowledge of D. pini sex pheromone provides a basis for developing optimal lures for monitoring or controlling insect populations.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Ma Q, Guo JL, Guo Y, et al (2022)

Prediction of the Current and Future Distributions of the Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), under Climatic Change in China.

Insects, 13(11):.

The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a destructive wheat pest worldwide and an important alien species in China. Based on 258 distribution records and nine environmental factors of the Hessian fly, we predicted the potential distribution area in China under three current and future (2050s and 2070s) climate change scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5) via the optimized MaxEnt model. Under the current climate conditions, the suitable distribution areas of the Hessian fly in China were 25-48° N, 81-123° E, and the total highly suitable distribution area is approximately 9.63 × 10[5] km[2], accounting for 9.99% of the total national area. The highly suitable areas are mainly located in northern Xinjiang and central and eastern China. With the rising global temperatures, except for the high-suitable areas under the RCP8.5 scenario, most potential geographic distribution areas would expand in the future. The minimum temperature in February (tmin-2), precipitation in March (prec-3), maximum temperature in November (tmax-11), and precipitation seasonality (bio-15) are important factors that affect the potential geographic distribution of the Hessian fly. This study provides an important reference and empirical basis for management of the Hessian fly in the future.

RevDate: 2022-11-24

Sanders M, Tardani R, Locher A, et al (2022)

Development of Novel Early Detection Technology for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

Journal of economic entomology pii:6845524 [Epub ahead of print].

Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, threatens hemlock forests throughout eastern North America. Management efforts focus on early detection of HWA to ensure rapid management responses to control and stop the spread of this pest. This study's goal was to identify an affordable, efficient trap to aid with airborne environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling approaches as an early monitoring tool for HWA. We initially compared HWA detection success between a standard sticky trap, commonly used for HWA monitoring, and trap designs potentially compatible with eDNA protocols (i.e., passive trap, funnel trap, and motorized trap). Passive, funnel, and motorized traps' estimated capture success probabilities compared to sticky traps were 0.87, 0.8, and 0.4, respectively. A secondary evaluation of a modified version of the motorized trap further assessed trap performance and determined the number of traps needed in a set area to efficiently detect HWA. By modifying the original motorized trap design, its estimated capture success probability increased to 0.67 compared to a sticky trap. Overall, the cumulative capture success over the 16-week sampling period for the motorized trap was 94% and 99% for the sticky trap. The number of traps did impact capture success, and trap elevation and distance to infested hemlocks influenced the number of adelgids captured per trap. As eDNA-based monitoring approaches continue to become incorporated into invasive species surveying, further refinement with these types of traps can be useful as an additional tool in the manager's toolbox.

RevDate: 2022-11-23

Herrera C, Williams M, Encarnação J, et al (2022)

Automated detection of the yellow-legged hornet (Vespa velutina) using an optical sensor with machine learning.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The yellow-legged hornet (Vespa velutina) is native to Southeast Asia and is an invasive alien species of concern in many countries. More effective management of populations of V. velutina could be achieved through more widespread and intensive monitoring in the field, however current methods are labour intensive and costly. To address this issue, we have assessed the performance of an optical sensor combined with a machine learning model to classify V. velutina and native wasps/hornets and bees. Our aim is to use the results of the present work as a step towards the development of a monitoring solution for V. velutina in the field.

RESULTS: We recorded a total 935 flights from three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis; and four wasp/hornet species: Polistes dominula, Vespula germanica, Vespa crabro and V. velutina. The machine learning model achieved an average accuracy for species classification of 80.1 ± 13.9 % and 74.5 ± 7.0 % for V. velutina. V. crabro had the highest level of misclassification, confused mainly with V. velutina and P. dominula. These results were obtained using a 14-value peak and valley feature derived from the wingbeat power spectral density.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the wingbeat recordings from a flying insect sensor can be used with machine learning methods to differentiate V. velutina from six other Hymenoptera species in the laboratory and this knowledge could be used to help develop a tool for use in integrated invasive alien species management programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-30

Han L, Zhang Z, Tu W, et al (2022)

Preferred prey reduce species realized niche shift and improve range expansion prediction.

The Science of the total environment, 859(Pt 2):160370 pii:S0048-9697(22)07472-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Many studies have detected realized climatic niche shifts during range changes; this is challenging the fundamental theory of the niche conservatism hypothesis (NCH) and the usefulness of the ecological niche model (ENM) for predicting the distributions of species in space and time by tracking environmental change. Biotic factors such as predatory interactions are important components of species realized niches but are generally difficult to quantify during NCH testing and ENM building. Identifying species' preferred prey may provide a unique opportunity to include trophic interactions in assessing the NCH and determine whether more precise ENM predictions are generated. In this study, we focused on a range-expanding predatory bird, the Asian openbill (Anastomus oscitans). The main prey of the Asian openbill include 136 snail species. We observed a realized climatic niche shift during the northward expansion of the Asian openbill by considering only climates; however, niche conservatism was detected after incorporating their preferred prey. ENMs including preferred snails also predicted the distributions of the Asian openbill better than climate-only models and models including nonpreferred snails or only habitat variables. The results of our study suggested the importance of incorporating preferred prey in evaluating the NCH and developing a framework for predicting the range shifts of both native and alien species in response to global climate change.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Zhang H, Tang Y, Li Q, et al (2022)

Genetic and epigenetic variation separately contribute to range expansion and local metalliferous habitat adaptation during invasions of Chenopodium ambrosioides into China.

Annals of botany pii:6840031 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Invasive plants often colonize wide-ranging geographical areas with various local microenvironments. The specific roles of epigenetic and genetic variation during such expansion are still unclear. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a well-known invasive alien species in China that can thrive in metalliferous habitats. This study aims to comprehensively understand the effects of genetic and epigenetic variation on the successful invasion of C. ambrosioides.

METHODS: We sampled 367 individuals from 21 heavy metal contaminated and uncontaminated sites with a wide geographical distribution in regions of China. We got environmental factors of these sampling sites, including thirteen meteorological factors and the contents of four heavy metals in soils. Microsatellite markers were used to investigate the demographic history of C. ambrosioides populations in China. We also analysed the effect of epigenetic variation on metalliferous microhabitat adaptation using MSAP markers. Common garden experiment was conducted to compare heritable phenotypic variations among populations.

KEY RESULTS: Two distinct genetic clusters that diverged thousands of years ago were identified, suggesting that the eastern and southwestern C. ambrosioides populations in China may have originated from independent introduction events without recombination. Genetic variation was shown to be a dominant determinant of phenotypic differentiation relative to epigenetic variation and further affected the geographical distribution pattern of invasive C. ambrosioides. The global DNA unmethylation level was reduced in metalliferous habitats. Dozens of methylated loci were significantly associated with the heavy metal accumulation trait of C. ambrosioides and may contribute to coping with metalliferous microenvironments.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study of C. ambrosioides highlighted the dominant roles of genetic variation in large geographical range expansion and epigenetic variation in local metalliferous habitat adaptation.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Azzarà M, Abate E, Chiofalo MT, et al (2022)

Delaying drought-driven leaf cells damages may be the key trait of invasive trees for ensuring their success in the Mediterranean basin.

Tree physiology pii:6839992 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten the biodiversity richness of Mediterranean basin, a drought-prone region. However, our knowledge on IAS adaptative strategies for facing Mediterranean drought summers is still incomplete. The aim of the present study is to compare the water relations and the critical relative water content (RWC) values leading to loss of cell rehydration capacity of two Mediterranean basin IAS (i.e., Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia) versus two co-occurring native species (i.e., Fraxinus ornus and Quercus pubescens). Study IAS showed higher values of water potential at turgor loss point and osmotic potential at full turgor, lower values of modulus of elasticity and leaf mass area but higher photosynthesis rate, even during the summer, respect to the Mediterranean native species. These findings supported the hypothesis that IAS are characterized by a resource acquisitive strategy coupled with a safety-efficiency trade-off, compared to Mediterranean native species. However, similar leaf RWC thresholds leading to loss of cell rehydration capacity were recorded in the two groups of species. Moreover, IAS showed higher saturated water content and capacitance values compared to the co-occurring species. Overall, our results suggest that the success of Mediterranean IAS is driven by their ability to delay dehydration damages of mesophyll cells during Mediterranean summer drought, thereby supporting their distinctive high carbon assimilation rate.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Wang X, Qin Y, Xu Y, et al (2022)

Surveillance and invasive risk of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in China.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the world's most successful and destructive invasive ant species. In mainland China, fast, monthly, and annual pest reports have been established since 2010. The distribution of S. invicta under climate change in China was predicted using MaxEnt modeling in combination with comprehensive surveillance data and 56 environmental factors.

RESULTS: Fast and monthly reports revealed that S. invicta had spread to new territories almost every year. The transportation of seedlings and deployment of turfgrass were the major artificial transmission pathways. Annual reports indicated that control efforts had effectively reduced its occurrence areas and severity degree and retrieved the economic loss caused by S. invicta. The MaxEnt model predicted that S. invicta would expand to 23 provinces in China under climate change. The moisture variables were the key factors affecting the distribution of this pest.

CONCLUSION: Based on the theoretical reference framework of this research, China proposed the first-ever integrated tactics against a single pest jointly by nine ministries, which include clarifying responsibilities, cutting off transmission pathways, strengthening surveillance, declaring pest distributions, and holding control operations. Practical efforts and measures combating the devastating S. invicta may shed light on its management and other invasive species worldwide. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-21

Barnes B, Parsa M, Giannini F, et al (2022)

Analytical Bayesian approach for the design of surveillance and control programs to assess pest-eradication success.

Theoretical population biology pii:S0040-5809(22)00071-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Large invasive species eradication programs are undertaken to protect native biodiversity and agriculture. Programs are typically followed by a series of surveys to assess the likelihood of eradication success and, when residual pests are detected, small-scale control or 'mop-ups' are implemented to eliminate these infestations. Further surveys follow to confirm absence with 'freedom' declared when a target probability of absence is reached. Such biosecurity programs comprise many interacting processes - stochastic biological processes including growth, and response and control interventions - and are an important component of post-border biosecurity. Statistical frameworks formulated to contribute to the design and efficiency of these surveillance and control programs are few and, those available, rely on the simulation of the component processes. In this paper we formulate an analytical Bayesian framework for a general biosecurity program with multiple components to assess pest-eradication success. Our model incorporates stochastic growth and detection processes, and several pest control mechanisms. Survey results and economic considerations are also taken into account to support a range of biosecurity management decisions. Using a case study we demonstrate that solutions match published simulation results and extend the available analysis. Principally, we show how analytical solutions can offer a powerful tool to support the design of effective and cost-efficient biosecurity systems, and we establish some general principles that guide and contribute to robust design.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-23

Kortessis N, Kendig AE, Barfield M, et al (2022)

Litter, Plant Competition, and Ecosystem Dynamics: A Theoretical Perspective.

The American naturalist, 200(6):739-754.

AbstractCommunity structure depends jointly on species' responses to, and effects on, environmental factors. Many such factors, including detritus, are studied in ecosystem ecology. Detritus in terrestrial ecosystems is dominated by plant litter (nonliving organic material), which, in addition to its role in material cycling, can act as a niche factor modulating interactions among plants. Litter thus links traditional community and ecosystem processes, which are often studied separately. We explore this connection using population dynamics models of two plant species and a litter pool. We first find conditions determining the outcome of interactions between these species, highlighting the role that litter plays and the role of broader ecosystem parameters, such as decomposition rate. Species trade-offs in tolerance to direct competition and litter-based interference competition allow for coexistence, provided the litter-tolerant species produces more litter at the population level; otherwise, priority effects may result. When species coexist, litter-mediated interactions between plants disrupt the traditional relationship between biomass accumulation and decomposition. Increasing decomposition rate may have no effect on standing litter density and, in some cases, may even increase litter load. These results illustrate how ecosystem variables can influence community outcomes that then feed back to influence the ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Gold Z, Wall AR, Schweizer TM, et al (2022)

A manager's guide to using eDNA metabarcoding in marine ecosystems.

PeerJ, 10:e14071.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is a powerful tool that can enhance marine ecosystem/biodiversity monitoring programs. Here we outline five important steps managers and researchers should consider when developing eDNA monitoring program: (1) select genes and primers to target taxa; (2) assemble or develop comprehensive barcode reference databases; (3) apply rigorous site occupancy based decontamination pipelines; (4) conduct pilot studies to define spatial and temporal variance of eDNA; and (5) archive samples, extracts, and raw sequence data. We demonstrate the importance of each of these considerations using a case study of eDNA metabarcoding in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. eDNA metabarcoding approaches detected 94.1% (16/17) of species observed in paired trawl surveys while identifying an additional 55 native fishes, providing more comprehensive biodiversity inventories. Rigorous benchmarking of eDNA metabarcoding results improved ecological interpretation and confidence in species detections while providing archived genetic resources for future analyses. Well designed and validated eDNA metabarcoding approaches are ideally suited for biomonitoring applications that rely on the detection of species, including mapping invasive species fronts and endangered species habitats as well as tracking range shifts in response to climate change. Incorporating these considerations will enhance the utility and efficacy of eDNA metabarcoding for routine biomonitoring applications.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Bezerra-Santos MA, Dantas-Torres F, Benelli G, et al (2022)

Emerging parasites and vectors in a rapidly changing world: from ecology to management.

Acta tropica, 238:106746 pii:S0001-706X(22)00438-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Global changes have influenced our societies in several ways with both positive (e.g., technology, transportation, and food security), and negative impacts (e.g., mental health problems, spread of diseases, and pandemics). Overall, these changes have affected the distribution patterns of parasites and arthropod vectors with the introduction and spreading of alien species in new geographical areas, eventually posing new challenges in public health. In this framework, the Acta Tropica Special Issue "Emerging parasites and vectors in a rapidly changing world: from ecology to management" provides a focus on the biology, ecology and management of emerging parasites and vectors of human and veterinary importance. Herein we review and discuss novel studies dealing with interactions of parasites and vectors with animals in changing environmental settings. In our opinion, a special focus on the implementation of management strategies of parasitic diseases to face anthropogenic environmental changes still represent a priority for public health. In the final section, key research challenges in this rapidly changing scenario are outlined.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Lolis LA, Miranda RJ, F Barros (2022)

The effects of an invasive soft coral on the structure of native benthic communities.

Marine environmental research, 183:105802 pii:S0141-1136(22)00247-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Species invasion is a major threat to marine biodiversity and function; thus, studying the effects of recently reported exotic species is extremely important. Several soft coral species (Alcyonacea) have invaded the Atlantic Ocean but their effects are poorly known. Here, we investigated the effects of the invasive species Sarcothelia sp. (Alcyonacea, Xeniidae) on native benthic shallow reef communities in Brazil. We hypothesized that increasing Sarcothelia sp. abundance would be related to species richness decreases and native community structure changes. Multivariate analysis showed significant dissimilarity between invaded (high Sarcothelia sp. abundance) and non-invaded areas (high abundance of the octocoral Neospongodes atlantica and zoantharians). The invaded area showed less species composition variability (i.e., homogenization) than non-invaded ones. Within the invaded area we observed that Sarcothelia sp. abundance reduced species richness. The lowest native benthic richness (10 taxa) was observed in a transect with the highest invader cover, while the transect with the lowest Sarcothelia sp. cover presented 26 native taxa. These findings are likely related to the invasive novel functional traits, i.e., invader growth form and allelochemicals. A clear inverse abundance pattern between invasive Sarcothelia sp. and N. atlantica, indicated an intense competition between octocorals. Our study showed remarkable evidence of negative impacts of invasive soft corals on reef biodiversity. There is an urgent need for experiments evaluating changes in different ecological processes and to implement management actions.

RevDate: 2022-12-01
CmpDate: 2022-12-01

De-la-Torre GE, Valderrama-Herrera M, Urizar Garfias Reyes DF, et al (2022)

Can oviposition on marine litter pose a threat to marine fishes?.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt B):114375.

Marine litter colonization is widely investigated as an important pathway for the dispersal of potentially invasive species. However, this phenomenon may be impacting marine biota in other ways as well. In this viewpoint, we express our concerns regarding the potential loss of viable eggs of numerous oviparous fishes deposited on marine litter when large-scale stranding events occur. Our concerns are supported by personal observations of stranded marine litter harboring fresh and viable egg capsules (Sympterygia sp.) and eggs (Family: Blenniidae), as well as reports in the literature. The loss of viable eggs from oviparous fishes is widely overlooked and poorly understood. Based on these knowledge gaps, we make a call for research and propose several research priorities to understand the impact of these events.

RevDate: 2022-12-01
CmpDate: 2022-12-01

Crivellaro MS, Candido DV, Silveira TCL, et al (2022)

A tool for a race against time: Dispersal simulations to support ongoing monitoring program of the invasive coral Tubastraea coccinea.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt B):114354.

Preventing, detecting, and monitoring invasive marine species is a big challenge as it is not possible to visualize all invasion extensions. Their early detection may be the best chance to achieve eradication. The Indo-pacific scleractinian coral Tubastraea coccinea invasion in the Atlantic dates from the late 1930s. Since then, disruptive populations were found along ~8.000 km of west Atlantic, and in the Canarian Islands of Spain (east Atlantic), related to vessel fouling in the oil and gas industry. Their impacts have been noticed from endemic species to ecosystems. In Brazil, initiatives to control Tubastraea spp. have been done mostly by local environmental managers and researchers, but recently a National Plan for Prevention, Control and Monitoring (NPPCM) for Tubastraea spp. was approved. We applied an Individual-based Model within the invasion history of Tubastraea coccinea in its southern distribution limit in the Atlantic, on the rocky shore of the Arvoredo Biological Marine Reserve. We indicated hotspots for the occurrence of possible emerging invasion sites in the region and expect to support ongoing monitoring programs in defining priority areas for their early detection. The model is easily replicated and might be a valuable tool for decision makers.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Shan Y, Gao X, Hu X, et al (2022)

Current and future potential distribution of the invasive scale Ceroplastes rusci (L., 1758) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) under climate niche.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci is an invasive pest that feeds on more than 94 genera from 52 families that is spread across 60 countries, causing negative impacts to agriculture and forestry. Understanding the potential distribution of invasive species under climate change is crucial for the management and monitoring purposes. Thus, we predicted the potential distribution areas of C. rusci using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) based on the occurrence data and environmental variables under current and future climatic scenarios.

RESULTS: Our results showed that the temperature annual range (Bio 7) and mean temperature of the warmest quarter (Bio 10) attributed to a higher contribution to the current model of the distribution of C. rusci. The potential distribution maps illustrated the main concentrated areas of C. rusci which included South America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. In addition, potential range expansions or reductions were predicted under different future climate change scenarios, which showed that the total suitable areas of the fig wax scale presented an increasing trend until 2100.

CONCLUSION: Our study provides significant data to understand the potential distribution of C. rusci around the world. It also serves as an early warning for the highly suitable habitat areas that even offers a platform to the currently non-infested regions or countries who are yet to develop monitoring strategies in response to the possible C. rusci outbreak. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Hayashi M, Sano Y, Ishikawa T, et al (2022)

Invasion of fish parasite Prosorhynchoides ozakii (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) into Lake Kasumigaura and surrounding rivers of eastern Japan.

Diseases of aquatic organisms, 152:47-60.

In 2019 to 2021, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei and several freshwater fishes were sampled from 22 sites of the Tone River system including Lake Kasumigaura, Honshu, Japan, to examine the invasion of bucephalid trematodes. The parasite species identification was performed by morphological observation and DNA barcoding based on the sequences of nuclear 28S rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). A total of 1719 mussels were collected from 10 sites, and trematode-infected mussels were detected from 8 sites with prevalences between 0.3 and 42.9%. The sporocysts and cercariae were identified as Prosorhynchoides ozakii, a newly introduced species in the river system. A total of 700 fish individuals belonging to 24 species were collected from 15 sites. Two species of catfishes (Silurus asotus and Ictalurus punctatus) harbored mature or immature adults of Pr. ozakii in the intestine with prevalences between 8.3 and 20% including both host species. The metacercariae of Pr. ozakii were found from the fins and epidermis of 13 fish species from 10 sites (prevalence 4.8-100%). Fishes were heavily infected with metacercariae in fins, which were surrounded by the infiltration of hemocytes and rodlet cells. A population genetic analysis of Pr. ozakii did not show an obvious bottleneck, suggesting the possibility that the parasite was intentionally and repeatedly introduced into the river system.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Valentine JC, DA Yee (2022)

Ontogenetic Changes in Nutrients and Stoichiometry in the Invasive Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Journal of medical entomology pii:6832046 [Epub ahead of print].

A variety of physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes occur throughout the life cycle of mosquitoes, which can be correlated with a shift from the aquatic to terrestrial environment. Aedes albopictus Skuse is an abundant invasive species from Asia that was introduced into the Americas in the 1980's and is responsible for transmitting several important human disease-causing pathogens. How physiological and anatomical changes within each instar and throughout the developmental stages are related to changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) levels are an unexplored area of mosquito ecology. We hypothesized that these changes as well as stoichiometry (C:N) would vary with instar stage and larval diet. Cohorts of larvae were grown in three different diets: animal only (crickets), plant only (red maple leaves), and a mixture containing both types. Larval instars (1st-4th), pupae, and adults were raised in each diet and were separately analyzed for nutrient content (%C, %N) and stoichiometry (C:N). Significant changes in nutrient values occurred across the life cycle, with C:N values being lower in early instars versus adults or pupae, especially in animal only or mixed diets; few differences were detected in %C or %N across ontogeny. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of mosquito ecology and pathogen transmission.

RevDate: 2022-11-19

Borges AKM, Oliveira TPR, RRN Alves (2022)

Marine or freshwater: the role of ornamental fish keeper's preferences in the conservation of aquatic organisms in Brazil.

PeerJ, 10:e14387.

BACKGROUND: The use of ornamental fish as pets has important implications for the conservation of the species used in fish keeping, particularly in relation to overexploitation. Understanding ornamental fish keepers' relationship with the hobby can provide important information for assessing the potential impacts of the activity. Here, we analyzed the profile of Brazilian ornamental fish keepers and evaluated their preferences and the implications of their choices.

METHODS: Information was obtained by applying questionnaires to 906 ornamental fish keepers participating in fish keeping groups in a social network. The questionnaire contained questions about the species of fish kept (freshwater and marine), techniques used, socio-economic aspects, and associated conservation perspectives.

RESULTS: Most ornamental fish keepers were young men (20-40 years old), with higher education and monthly income above US$ 530.00. Participants predominantly kept freshwater fish (86%), but marine fish only (5%) or both marine and freshwater hobbyists (9%) were also recorded. A total of 523 species of ornamental fish were kept, most of which comprised freshwater (76% of the total) and exotic species (73%). About a third of the fish species recorded were under national trade restrictions. In addition, about a third of ornamental fish keepers declared that they also had invertebrates. Marine aquariums require a greater financial investment, especially at the beginning, than freshwater aquariums and are also almost entirely based on exotic species. The aesthetic factor is the main motivation associated with practicing this hobby, being color and behavior key factors in choosing fish. A total of 10% of hobbyists have already released fish into the wild, highlighting concerns about potential biological invasions. There is an urgent need to enforce regulations towards restricting ornamental fish keepers' access to threatened native species and potentially invasive species, as well as measures aimed at informing and raising hobbyists' awareness of conservation measures related to the hobby.

RevDate: 2022-11-19

Del Río L, Navarro-Martínez ZM, Ruiz-Abierno A, et al (2022)

Feeding ecology of invasive lionfish in the Punta Frances MPA, Cuba: insight into morphological features, diet and management.

PeerJ, 10:e14250.

Cuba's shelf has been invaded by lionfish (Pterois volitans/Pterois miles), which have become established over the archipelago, including areas of natural importance. The present study aims to evaluate morphometric features of lionfish and to explore the relationship between lionfish size and diet composition in different habitats in the Punta Frances National Park, Cuba. In total 620 lionfish were captured at 29 sites between 2013 and 2016. Lionfish stomachs were removed and their contents were analyzed using frequency and numerical methods. The length-weight allomentric relationship was obtained, and a decrease in lionfish sizes was shown over time, likely due to the extractions carried out. The diet was composed by fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and phytobenthos, with a predominance of fishes. Lionfish caught in seagrass beds tended to be smaller in size and consumed fewer fishes and more crustaceans than those captured in coral reefs. A positive correlation was observed between lionfish body size and gape size; however, no significant correlation was detected between lionfish body size and prey size. Larger lionfish tended to consume more fishes, while crustaceans were more significant in the diet of juvenile lionfish. This is the first study that examines the feeding habits of lionfish in the Punta Frances MPA, and provides valuable information on lionfish inhabiting this MPA across four years of sampling. Furthermore, this research may serve as a baseline for subsequent evaluations of lionfish impact and management actions in the area.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Zhou H, Yang Y, Liu Y, et al (2022)

Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Datnioides campbelli (Datnioididae).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 7(11):1975-1978.

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the New Guinea tiger fish Datnioides campbelli (Whitley 1938) (Lobotiformes: Datnioididae) was sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitochondrial genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes, with a length of 16,416 bp. The total base composition of the mitogenome of D. campbelli was 29.31% for A, 29.02% for C, 15.14% for G and 26.54% for T. A phylogenetic tree based on 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) provides important molecular data for further phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis of Lobotiformes.

RevDate: 2022-11-24

Li J, Pei J, Fang C, et al (2022)

Opposing seasonal temperature dependencies of CO2 and CH4 emissions from wetlands.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Wetlands are critically important to global climate change because of their role in modulating the release of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Temperature plays a crucial role in wetland GHG emissions, while the general pattern for seasonal temperature dependencies of wetland CO2 and CH4 emissions is poorly understood. Here we show opposite seasonal temperature dependencies of CO2 and CH4 emissions by using 36,663 daily observations of simultaneous measurements of ecosystem-scale CO2 and CH4 emissions in 42 widely distributed wetlands from the FLUXNET-CH4 database. Specifically, the temperature dependence of CO2 emissions decreased with increasing monthly mean temperature, but the opposite was true for that of CH4 emissions. Neglecting seasonal temperature dependencies may overestimate wetland CO2 and CH4 emissions compared to the use of a year-based static and consistent temperature dependence parameter when only considering temperature effects. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating the remarkable seasonality in temperature dependence into process-based biogeochemical models to predict feedbacks of wetland GHG emissions to climate warming.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Poveda-Martínez D, Salinas NA, Aguirre MB, et al (2022)

Genomic and ecological evidence shed light on the recent demographic history of two related invasive insects.

Scientific reports, 12(1):19629.

Hypogeococcus pungens is a species complex native to southern South America that is composed of at least five putative species, each one specialized in the use of different host plants. Two of these undescribed species were registered as invasive in Central and North America: Hyp-C is a cactophagous mealybug that became an important pest that threatens endemic cactus species in Puerto Rico, and Hyp-AP feeds on Amaranthaceae and Portulacaceae hosts, but does not produce severe damage to the host plants. We quantified genomic variation and investigated the demographic history of both invasive species by means of coalescent-based simulations using high throughput sequencing data. We also evaluated the incidence of host plant infestation produced by both species and used an ecological niche modeling approach to assess potential distribution under current and future climatic scenarios. Our genetic survey evinced the footprints of strong effective population size reduction and signals of genetic differentiation among populations within each species. Incidence of plant attacks varied between species and among populations within species, with some host plant species preferred over others. Ecological niche modeling suggested that under future climatic scenarios both species would expand their distribution ranges in Puerto Rico. These results provide valuable information for the design of efficient management and control strategies of the Puerto Rican cactus pest and shed light on the evolutionary pathways of biological invasions.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Frizzi F, Balzani P, Masoni A, et al (2022)

Sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid alter food selection in the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Despite several restrictions to their use, neonicotinoid insecticides are still widely employed worldwide. Residual sub-lethal amounts of these chemicals can have detrimental effects on the behavior of non-target insects. Toxic effects on economically important species such as bees have been widely documented, but less is known about their toxic action on other social insects, such as ants. In this study, we assessed the effect of different sub-lethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the ability of colonies of the invasive ant Lasius neglectus to select the most profitable resource. We used Y-shaped mazes having an imidacloprid-polluted or an unpolluted sucrose solution on the two branches. Two sucrose (0.1 M, 0.5 M) and two imidacloprid (1 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml) concentrations were used. In parallel, we evaluated the marking activity of foragers who fed on the same solutions. We found that the 0.1 M sugar solution polluted with 1 μg/ml imidacloprid was significantly more frequently selected in binary choices experiments than the unpolluted resource. Moreover, the ingestion of the same combination of sugar and imidacloprid significantly increased the marking rate of foragers. The higher concentration of the pollutant had lower effects, probably because of the hormesis phenomenon. Results suggest that the lower sub-lethal dose of imidacloprid can lead ants to select again the polluted resource. This "active" selection of the pollutant may magnify the negative effects on the colonies. Due to their ecological role, any impairment of ant survival or behavior may have detrimental cascade effects on the whole ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

An XL, Gu JG, Huang LF, et al (2022)

[Research progress on the ecological roles of 'marine ecosystem engineers'.].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 33(11):3159-3168.

'Marine ecosystem engineers' are marine species that can shape habitats and benefit other marine organisms, which are widely found in marine plants, animals and microorganisms. Their ecological roles are the basis of marine ecological functions. By analyzing the relevant literature, we systematically reviewed the research progress of the ecological roles of 'marine ecosystem engineers', and proposed the main research direction and content in the future. In general, 'marine ecosystem engineers' play an active role in a particular marine environment. However, once they become invasive species, they may have negative impacts on the invasive sea area. In addition, some 'marine ecosystem engineers' can have both positive and negative impacts simultaneously. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen researches on the role of 'marine ecosystem engineers' in marine biological beds, marine biogenic reefs, marine biofilms and composite ecosystem engineering, effectively utilize their positive roles and prevent and control their negative impacts, so as to realize the comprehensive development, utilization and protection of the ocean.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Chen BB, Sun ZG, Hu XY, et al (2022)

[Structure and diversity of nirK-type denitrifying microbial community in marsh soils at different invasion stages of Spartina alterniflora in the Minjiang River estuary, China].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 33(11):3007-3015.

To explore the differences in structure and diversity of nirK-type denitrifying microbial community in marsh soils at different invasion stages of Spartina alterniflora, the mudflat (MF, before invasion) and the S. alterniflora marsh after seaward invasion for 1-2 years (SAN) and 6-7 years (SA) in Shanyutan of the Minjiang River estuary were investigated by high-through put sequencing method. Results showed that the seaward invasion of S. alterniflora reduced the richness and diversity of nirK-type denitrifying microbial community in marsh soils. The nirK-type denitrifying microbial community in soils at different invasion stages included Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, with Proteobacteria as the dominant one. The seaward invasion of S. alterniflora greatly altered the composition of nirK-type denitrifying microbial community in marsh soils. The highest relative abundance of genus in soils from different invasion stages were Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Alcaligenes, respectively. The seaward invasion of S. alterniflora increased the spatial heterogeneity of nirK-type denitrifying microbial community composition in marsh soils. In SAN plot, the enhancement of spatial heterogeneity was primarily due to higher environmental disturbances in plots and the increased spatial heterogeneity of environmental variables caused by the seaward invasion of S. alterniflora. The seaward invasion of S. alterniflora altered the physico-chemical properties (e.g., grain composition, pH and moisture) and N nutrient conditions (total N, NH4[+]-N and NO3[-]-N) in marsh soils, which greatly altered the structure and diversity of nirK-type denitrifying microbial community. Our findings reveal the microbial mechanism of denitrification process in marsh soils during the seaward invasion of S. alterniflora.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Lai LC, Chao TY, MC Chiu (2022)

Searching Behavior in the Tropical Fire Ant Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

Zoological studies, 61:e26.

Social insects have evolved different search strategies to find target objects in unknown environments. In the present study, the searching behavior of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was investigated in a circular arena. The average time, search path, speed, and search patterns of worker ants in a circular arena were determined. The results showed that fire ant workers followed six major search patterns. The variation in the searching patterns of workers may explain the different levels of exploration. Most workers (56.8%) tended to search in small loops and progressively increase the search area size. These workers mostly turned in one direction, either clockwise or counterclockwise. More workers turned in a consistent pattern than in an inconsistent pattern. Moving speed was also higher in workers that maintained their turning directions than in those that changed directions. We thus propose that following search patterns consisting of loops of increasing size may be an effective strategy. The tropical fire ant S. geminata is a globally invasive species that was introduced to Taiwan 40 years ago and has continued to threaten residents. Based on behavioral studies of S. geminata, we may gain a better understanding of their exploratory behavior in the ecosystem in Taiwan.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Gavioli A, Milardi M, Soininen J, et al (2022)

How does invasion degree shape alpha and beta diversity of freshwater fish at a regional scale?.

Ecology and evolution, 12(11):e9493.

Freshwater ecosystems appear more vulnerable to biodiversity loss due to several anthropogenic disturbances and freshwater fish are particularly vulnerable to these impacts. We aimed to (1) identify the contribution of land use, spatial variables, and invasion degree in determining freshwater fish alpha (i.e., species richness) and beta (i.e., local contributions to beta diversity, LCBD) diversity, evaluating also the relationship between invasion degree and nestedness (β nes) and turnover (β sim) components of beta diversity. (2) Investigate the relationship between alpha diversity and LCBD, under the hypothesis that alpha diversity and LCBD correlate negatively and (3) investigate the relationship between species contributions to beta diversity (SCBD) and species occurrence, hypothesizing that non-native species show a lower contribution to beta diversity. The linear mixed models and the partition of R [2] retained the invasion degree as the most important variables explaining alpha and beta diversity, having a positive relationship with both diversity components. Furthermore, land use related to human impacts had a positive influence on alpha diversity, whereas it showed a negative effect on LCBD. Regression model further showed that invasion degree related positively with β sim, but negatively with β nes, suggesting that non-native species were involved in the replacement of native species in the fish community. Alpha diversity and LCBD showed a weak positive correlation, meaning that sites with low species richness have higher LCBD. SCBD scaled positively with species occurrence highlighting that rarer species contribute less to SCBD. Finally, native and exotic species contributed similarly to beta diversity. These results suggest that invasion degree plays a central role in shaping alpha and beta diversity in stream fish, more than land use features reflecting habitat alteration or other geospatial variables. Furthermore, it is important to evaluate separately the native and the non-native components of biotic communities to identify linkages between invasion dynamics and biodiversity loss.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH), Bragard C, Baptista P, et al (2022)

Pest categorisation of Neomaskellia andropogonis.

EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority, 20(11):e07624.

The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Neomaskellia andropogonis (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), the sugarcane whitefly, for the EU territory. N. andropogonis is a tropical and subtropical species that originates in south central Asia and has recently established in Iran and Iraq. N. andropogonis is not listed in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. It is oligophagous on Poaceae and most frequently reported on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), on which it has become an important emerging pest in western Iran. The larvae feed on the foliage and stalks and can cause a reduction of photosynthesis rate and growth. In heavy infestations, the sugar purity and content are greatly decreased. Honeydew egested by feeding N. andropogonis larvae can promote the growth of black sooty mould over the host. No evidence was found indicating economic damage to other grasses. The ornamental grass hosts Andropogon sp. and Imperata cylindrica are ornamental grasses in the subfamily Panicoideae and are exempt from a general prohibition on Poaceae entering the EU and together with fresh sugarcane, provide potential pathways for entry. An estimated threshold for development from egg to adult of 7.2°C with approximately 500 degree days required for a generation suggests that climatic conditions, together with the availability of grass hosts in the southern EU, would support establishment. Adults disperse naturally by flying and all stages can be moved over long distances by the trade of infested plant material. The pest has the potential to impact sugarcane production in Portugal and Spain. N. andropogonis satisfies all of the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a potential Union quarantine pest. However, this conclusion has high uncertainties regarding the likelihood of entry and the magnitude of potential impact within the EU as the insect is only recorded as an economically important pest in Iran, and its host range is poorly known and understood.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Heskel M, Pengra J, Kruper A, et al (2022)

Age and phenology control photosynthesis and leaf traits in the understory woody species, Rhamnus cathartica and Prunus serotina.

AoB PLANTS, 14(6):plac044.

Understory plants are often inadequately represented or neglected within analyses of forest ecosystem productivity. Further, the potential impacts of the biological factors of age class and growth form on carbon cycling physiology, and how it may vary across the growing season and amongst species of different native/non-native status, have not been thoroughly considered. Our study examines photosynthesis and associated physical leaf traits in two understory woody species, Rhamnus cathartica, introduced and invasive in North America, and Prunus serotina, a common subcanopy species native to North America. We estimated leaf-level photosynthesis as measured through light and carbon dioxide response curves, dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf traits (leaf mass per area and stomatal density) for each combination of species and age class at plots in the understory of a temperate deciduous research forest in the US Upper Midwest at two time points during the growing season, late spring (late May) and mid-summer (mid-July). Carbon assimilation rates from light response curves (A sat, A 400) and fluorescence capacity estimate F v/F m all increased between the two measurement points in both species and age class. Estimates of carbon reaction capacity (V cmax and J max) exhibited a different directional response to seasonal development, declining in seedlings of both species and P. serotina trees (~8-37 % reduction in V cmax, ~9-34 % reduction in J max), though increased in trees of R. cathartica (+24 % in V cmax, +9 % in J max). Divergent responses in photosynthetic parameters amongst these factors may be explained by species differences in leaf mass per area and stomatal density, which together are likely influenced by both growth form, canopy position and ontogeny. Overall, we believe our findings suggest complex, varied influences on photosynthesis that indicate environmental and biological plasticity which may contribute to the historic and continued expansion of R. cathartica in the US Upper Midwest region.

RevDate: 2022-11-15

Mohammadi A, Nayeri D, Alambeigi A, et al (2022)

A wicked environmental challenge: collaboration network for free-ranging dog management in an urban environment.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-022-24029-x [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species possess wide-ranging social and ecological impacts globally. Although the ecological impacts are well studied, social aspects especially in developing countries are often poorly understood. Free-ranging dogs (FRDs) (Canis familiaris) are the most abundant carnivore on earth with a high level of invasion. Recently, the presence of FRDs in the Jiroft city in southern Iran has increased, and local managers have not yet developed a coherent management plan. Given the high rate of human bites by FRDs in this region, a principled management plan with integrated collaboration between the relevant organizations is necessary. To better understand collaboration networks, we interviewed employees of three relevant governmental organizations about their collaboration with other organizations toward FRD management. Our objective in this study was to (1) assess the collaboration between the municipality, provincial offices of veterinary medicine, and health network and (2) predict the behavioral tendencies of network actors based on their current position in the FRD management network. Although most employees have never worked together to manage FRDs, our results showed that most of the interviewees did not evaluate the role of other organizations in FRD management as beneficial. Moreover, the current assessment of the employees of the two municipal and health organizations affects their current collaboration in the management of FRDs. Also, the current collaboration has a significant impact on their intention to collaborate in the future. We make suggestions for improving collaboration in managing FRDs in this region.

RevDate: 2022-11-15

Cadotte MW (2022)

Quantifying and linking mechanism scenarios to invasive species impact.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Plant species invasion represents one of the major drivers of biodiversity change globally, yet there is confusion about the nature of non-indigenous species (NIS) impact. This stems from differing notions of what constitutes invasive species impact and the scales at which it should be assessed. At local scales, the mechanisms of impact on local competitors can be classified into four scenarios: 1) minimal impact from NIS inhabiting unique niches; 2) neutral impact spread across the community and proportional to NIS abundance; 3) targeted impact on a small number of competitors with overlapping niches; and 4) pervasive impact that is disproportionate to NIS abundance and caused by modifications that filter out other species. I developed a statistical test to distinguish these four mechanism scenarios based on plant community rank-abundance curves and then created a scale-independent standardized impact score. Using an example long-term dataset, that has high native plant diversity and an abundance gradient of the invasive vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum, I show that impact resulted in either targeted or pervasive extirpations. Regardless of whether NIS impact is neutral, targeted, or pervasive, the net outcome will be the homogenization of ecosystems and reduced biodiversity at larger scales, perhaps reducing ecosystem resilience. The framework and statistical evaluation of impact presented in this paper provide researchers and managers with an objective approach to quantifying NIS impact and prioritizing species for further management actions.

RevDate: 2022-11-22
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Matos FAR, Edwards DP, S Magnago LF, et al (2023)

Invasive alien acacias rapidly stock carbon, but threaten biodiversity recovery in young second-growth forests.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1867):20210072.

Under the UN-Decade of Ecosystem Restoration and Bonn Challenge, second-growth forest is promoted as a global solution to climate change, degradation and associated losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Second growth is often invaded by alien tree species and understanding how this impacts carbon stock and biodiversity recovery is key for restoration planning. We assessed carbon stock and tree diversity recovery in second growth invaded by two Acacia species and non-invaded second growth, with associated edge effects, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Carbon stock recovery in non-invaded forests was threefold lower than in invaded forests. Increasingly isolated, fragmented and deforested areas had low carbon stocks when non-invaded, whereas the opposite was true when invaded. Non-invaded forests recovered threefold to sixfold higher taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity than invaded forest. Higher species turnover and lower nestedness in non-invaded than invaded forests underpinned higher abundance of threatened and endemic species in non-invaded forest. Non-invaded forests presented positive relationships between carbon and biodiversity, whereas in the invaded forests we did not detect any relationship, indicating that more carbon does not equal more biodiversity in landscapes with high vulnerability to invasive acacias. To deliver on combined climate change and biodiversity goals, restoration planning and management must consider biological invasion risk. This article is part of the theme issue 'Understanding forest landscape restoration: reinforcing scientific foundations for the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration'.

RevDate: 2022-11-13

Fenn-Moltu G, Ollier S, Caton B, et al (2022)

Alien insect dispersal mediated by the global movement of commodities.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Globalization and economic growth are recognized as key drivers of biological invasions. Alien species have become a feature of almost every biological community worldwide, and rates of new introductions continue to rise as the movement of people and goods accelerates. Insects are among the most numerous and problematic alien organisms, and are mainly introduced unintentionally with imported cargo or arriving passengers. However, the processes occurring prior to insect introductions remain poorly understood. We used a unique dataset of 1,902,392 border interception records from inspections at air, land, and maritime ports in Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Japan, USA, and Canada to identify key commodities associated with insect movement through trade and travel. In total, 8939 species were intercepted, and commodity association data were available for 1242 species recorded between 1960 and 2019. We used rarefaction and extrapolation methods to estimate the total species richness and diversity associated with different commodity types. Plant and wood products were the main commodities associated with insect movement across cargo, passenger baggage, and international mail. Furthermore, certain species were mainly associated with specific commodities within these, and other broad categories. More closely related species tended to share similar commodity associations, but this occurred largely at the genus level rather than within orders or families. These similarities within genera can potentially inform pathway management of new alien species. Combining interception records across regions provides a unique window into the unintentional movement of insects, and provides valuable information on establishment risks associated with different commodity types and pathways.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Portner COS, Rong EG, Ramirez JA, et al (2022)

Host age structure reshapes parasite symbiosis: collaboration begets pathogens, competition begets virulent mutualists.

Biology direct, 17(1):30.

BACKGROUND: Symbiotic relationships are ubiquitous in the biosphere. Inter-species symbiosis is impacted by intra-specific distinctions, in particular, those defined by the age structure of a population. Older individuals compete with younger individuals for resources despite being less likely to reproduce, diminishing the fitness of the population. Conversely, however, older individuals can support the reproduction of younger individuals, increasing the population fitness. Parasitic relationships are commonly age structured, typically, more adversely affecting older hosts.

RESULTS: We employ mathematical modeling to explore the differential effects of collaborative or competitive host age structures on host-parasite relationships. A classical epidemiological compartment model is constructed with three disease states: susceptible, infected, and recovered. Each of these three states is partitioned into two compartments representing young, potentially reproductive, and old, post-reproductive, hosts, yielding 6 compartments in total. In order to describe competition and collaboration between old and young compartments, we model the reproductive success to depend on the fraction of young individuals in the population. Collaborative populations with relatively greater numbers of post-reproductive hosts enjoy greater reproductive success whereas in purely competitive populations, increasing the post-reproductive subpopulation reduces reproductive success.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that, in collaborative host populations, pathogens strictly impacting older, post-reproductive individuals can reduce population fitness even more than pathogens that directly impact younger, potentially reproductive individuals. In purely competitive populations, the reverse is observed, and we demonstrate that endemic, virulent pathogens can oxymoronically form a mutualistic relationship with the host, increasing the fitness of the host population. Applications to endangered species conservation and invasive species containment are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Nagoshi RN (2022)

Observations of genetic differentiation between the fall armyworm host strains.

PloS one, 17(11):e0277510.

The threat of invasive species is increasing with the expansion of global trade and habitat disruption. A recent example is the establishment of fall armyworm (FAW), a noctuid moth native to the Americas, into most of the Eastern Hemisphere with projections of significant economic losses on a global scale. The species has traditionally been subdivided into two populations that differ in their propensity to use different plant hosts, a phenotype with clear relevance for identifying crops at risk. However, inconsistencies in the genetic and phenotypic descriptions of these "host strains" has led to controversy about their composition and even existence. In this study, the locus for the Triosephosphate isomerase gene (Tpi) is used both as a host strain marker and for phylogenetic analysis. Association of the host choice phenotype with the Tpi-derived phylogenetic tree uncovered genetic differentiation between populations that supports the existence of the host strains and provided evidence that they are subject to different selection pressures. This correspondence of differential host use with Tpi was demonstrated for populations from a broad geographical range and supports the involvement of one or more Z-chromosome functions controlling the phenotype. Comparisons of collections from multiple locations identified significant differences in the efficacy of different molecular markers that implicate regional variations in host strain behavior.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Ulm F, Estorninho M, de Jesus JG, et al (2022)

From a Lose-Lose to a Win-Win Situation: User-Friendly Biomass Models for Acacia longifolia to Aid Research, Management and Valorisation.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(21):.

Woody invasive species pose a big threat to ecosystems worldwide. Among them, Acacia longifolia is especially aggressive, fundamentally changing ecosystem structure through massive biomass input. This biomass is rarely harvested for usage; thus, these plants constitute a nuisance for stakeholders who invest time and money for control without monetary return. Simultaneously, there is an increased effort to valorise its biomass, e.g., for compost, growth substrate or as biofuel. However, to incentivise A. longifolia harvest and usage, stakeholders need to be able to estimate what can be obtained from management actions. Thus, the total biomass and its quality (C/N ratio) need to be predicted to perform cost-benefit analyses for usage and determine the level of invasion that has already occurred. Here, we report allometric biomass models for major biomass pools, as well as give an overview of biomass quality. Subsequently, we derive a simplified volume-based model (BM ~ 6.297 + 0.982 × Vol; BM = total dry biomass and Vol = plant volume), which can be applied to remote sensing data or with in situ manual measurements. This toolkit will help local stakeholders, forest managers or municipalities to predict the impact and valorisation potential of this invasive species and could ultimately encourage its management.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Nukeri S, Malatji MP, Sengupta ME, et al (2022)

Potential Hybridization of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in Africa-A Scoping Review.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 11(11):.

The occurrence of Fasciola&nbsp;gigantica and F. hepatica in Africa is well documented; however, unlike in Asia, there is a paucity of information on the existence of hybrids or parthenogenetic species on the continent. Nonetheless, these hybrid species may have beneficial characteristics, such as increased host range and pathogenicity. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of Fasciola hybrids in Africa. A literature search of articles published between 1980 and 2022 was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct using a combination of search terms and Boolean operators. Fasciola species were documented in 26 African countries with F. hepatica being restricted to 12 countries, whilst F. gigantica occurred in 24 countries, identified based on morphological features of adult Fasciola specimens or eggs and molecular techniques. The co-occurrence of both species was reported in 11 countries. However, the occurrence of potential Fasciola hybrids was only confirmed in Egypt and Chad but is suspected in South Africa and Zimbabwe. These were identified based on liver fluke morphometrics, assessment of the sperms in the seminal vesicle, and molecular techniques. The occurrence of intermediate host snails Galba&nbsp;truncatula and Radix natalensis was reported in Ethiopia, Egypt, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, where F. hepatica and F. gigantica co-occurrences were reported. The invasive Pseudosuccinea columella snails naturally infected with F. gigantica were documented in South Africa and Egypt. In Zimbabwe, P. columella was infected with a presumed parthenogenetic Fasciola. This suggests that the invasive species might also be contributing to the overlapping distributions of the two Fasciola species since it can transmit both species. Notwithstanding the limited studies in Africa, the potential existence of Fasciola hybrids in Africa is real and might mimic scenarios in Asia, where parthenogenetic Fasciola exist in most Asian countries. In South Africa, aspermic F. hepatica and Fasciola sp. have been reported already, and Fasciola hybrids have been reported? in Chad and Egypt. Thus, the authors recommend future surveys using molecular markers recommended to identify Fasciola spp. and their snail intermediate hosts to demarcate areas of overlapping distribution where Fasciola hybrids and/or parthenogenetic Fasciola may occur. Further studies should also be conducted to determine the presence and role of P. columella in the transmission of Fasciola spp. in these geographical overlaps to help prevent parasite spillbacks.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Yuan Y, J Li (2022)

Effects of Parasitism on the Competitive Ability of Invasive and Native Species.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11):.

Parasitic plants can often seriously harm host plants and, thus, alter competitive dominance between hosts and neighbouring species. However, whether and how parasitic plants differently affect the competitive abilities of invasive and the native plants have not been tested. In this study, we used Cuscuta grovonii as the parasitic plants and three invasive plants and three native plants as host plants. Host plants grown alone or in competition with Coix lacryma-jobi were either parasitized with Cuscuta grovonii or not parasitized. Parasitism caused similar damage to invasive and native plants when grown with Cuscuta grovonii alone but caused less damage to invasive species than native species when grown in competition. Parasitism increased the competitive ability of invasive plants but did not affect the competitive ability of native plants. In the absence of parasitism, the competitive ability of host plants was significantly negatively correlated with the competitive ability of Coix lacryma-jobi, but under parasitism, there was no significant relationship of the competitive ability between host and competitor plants. Our results indicated that parasitic plants can increase the competitive tolerance of invasive plants, but have no effect on native plants. Thus, parasitism may play an important role in the process of plant invasion.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Karachle PK, Oikonomou A, Pantazi M, et al (2022)

Can Biological Traits Serve as Predictors for Fishes' Introductions, Establishment, and Interactions? The Mediterranean Sea as a Case Study.

Biology, 11(11):.

The Mediterranean Sea (MED) is prone to species' introductions, induced by human activities and/or climate change. Recent studies focus on the biological traits that result in such introductions, yet on a single-area-type approach. Here, we used, analyzed, and compared biological traits derived from FishBase for MED, non-indigenous (NIS) and neonative (NEO) in the Mediterranean, and adjacent Atlantic (ATL) and Red Sea (RS) species. A quantitative trait-based analysis was performed using random forest to determine the importance of traits in the successful establishment in the Mediterranean. MED fishes were mainly demersal, slow growing and small-medium sized, preferring intermediate temperatures. Conversely, ATL were mainly deep-dwelling species, preferring low temperatures. RS and NIS were predominantly reef-associated, thermophilus, and stenothermic. NEO species were stenothermic with preference to intermediate-high temperatures. Omnivores with preference to animals was the most common trophic group among regions. MED species exhibited higher phylogenetic uniqueness (PD50) compared to RS and NIS, indicating that they have long ancestral branches and few descendants. Preferred temperature, habitat type preference and maximum reported length (Lmax) and infinite length (Linf) were the most important predictors in the establishment process. Overall, the results presented here could serve as a baseline for future research, especially by using more refined and/or additional biological trail estimates.

RevDate: 2022-12-07

Wilman B, Bełdowska M, Rychter A, et al (2023)

Different pathways of accumulation and elimination of neurotoxicant Hg and its forms in the clam Atlantic rangia (Rangia cuneata).

The Science of the total environment, 858(Pt 3):160018.

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most hazardous environmental pollutants, negatively affecting the ecosystem. The pathways of Hg elimination are well recognized in organisms from higher trophic levels compared to invertebrates such as clams. The aim of this study was to identify pathways of Hg accumulation in an alien species clams: Rangia cuneata, which represented an unrecognized source of Hg into the trophic chain of the southern Baltic Sea. An important aspect of this study was to determine Hg detoxification processes based on physiological state and biometric parameters of the atlatntic rangia. Special consideration was given to the role of shell in this process and the form of Hg in which it occurred. The study was also considered in terms of geographical changes in the Hg concentration in clams and the factors involved. Sex did not determine the concentration of Hg and its fraction in clams soft tissue and shell. Clams detoxified xenobiotic effectively in summer when their metabolism was accelerated. As a result, clams grew faster in warmer water than they accumulated Hg. In addition, this process was intensified by their reproduction. The mass of accumulated mercury was higher in the shell mass than in the body mass in summer. Transfer of Hg from the body to the shell depended on the forms Hg, mostly HgS. Geographical changes in the mercury concentration in clams was related to the form of Hg in the sediment. In areas where were more fines sediment fraction and organic matter accumulated in the sediment, mercury was present in a less bioavailable form, which caused that clams had lower Hg concentrations in their body. With assumption that in the future, due to its increasingly frequent occurrence, atlatntic rangia will become more common component of fish diet, a smaller load of toxic mercury will be introduced to the marine trophic chain.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Vogel G (2022)

Invasive mosquito adds to Africa's malaria toll.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 378(6620):582-583.

Anopheles stephensi may dramatically increase the number of people at risk.

RevDate: 2022-11-20

Xiang JX, Saha M, Zhong KL, et al (2022)

Genome-scale signatures of adaptive gene expression changes in an invasive seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species can successfully and rapidly colonize new niches and expand ranges via founder effects and enhanced tolerance towards environmental stresses. However, the underpinning molecular mechanisms (i.e., gene expression changes) facilitating rapid adaptation to harsh environments are still poorly understood. The red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla, which is native to the northwest Pacific but invaded North American and European coastal habitats over the last 100 years, provides an excellent model to examine whether enhanced tolerance at the level of gene expression contributed to its invasion success. We collected G. vermiculophylla from its native range in Japan and from two non-native regions along the Delmarva Peninsula (Eastern United States) and in Germany. Thalli were reared in a common garden for 4 months at which time we performed comparative transcriptome (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) sequencing. MRNA-expression profiling identified 59 genes that were differently expressed between native and non-native thalli. Of these genes, most were involved in metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, abiotic stress, and biosynthesis of products and hormones in all four non-native sites. MiRNA-based target-gene correlation analysis in native/non-native pairs revealed that some target genes are positively or negatively regulated via epigenetic mechanisms. Importantly, these genes are mostly associated with metabolism and defence capability (e.g., metal transporter Nramp5, senescence-associated protein, cell wall-associated hydrolase, ycf68 protein and cytochrome P450-like TBP). Thus, our gene expression results indicate that resource reallocation to metabolic processes is most likely a predominant mechanism contributing to the range-wide persistence and adaptation of G. vermiculophylla in the invaded range. This study, therefore, provides molecular insight into the speed and nature of invasion-mediated rapid adaption.

RevDate: 2022-11-27

Hougardy E, BN Hogg (2022)

Factors Affecting Progeny Production and Sex Ratio of Gryon aetherium (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a Candidate Biological Control Agent for Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

Insects, 13(11):.

Manipulating the factors that influence progeny production and sex ratio in parasitoids can help maximize the production of quarantine bioassays and/or mass releases. In a series of experiments, we studied the effects of several factors on offspring production and sex ratio in the parasitoid Gryon aetherium (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a candidate biological control agent for Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Progeny production was influenced by maternal age and dropped when females were 24 or 28 days old and decreased on the second day of exposure. Overall, the offspring sex ratio was highly variable in G. aetherium and was affected by the duration of exposure, with higher proportions of females emerging after one day of exposure than after two days, but was not affected by female density, female age/host deprivation, or temperature during oviposition. Progeny production was affected by the temperature during oviposition and was highest at 26.6 °C. The results indicate that production of G. aetherium can be maximized at one day of exposure, using females that are less than 24 d old, and at temperatures of around 26 °C.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Villena OC, Sullivan JH, Landa ER, et al (2022)

The Role of Tire Leachate in Condition-Specific Competition and the Persistence of a Resident Mosquito from a Competitively Superior Invader.

Insects, 13(11):.

(1) Background: Condition-specific competition, when the outcome of competition varies with abiotic conditions, can facilitate species coexistence in spatially or temporally variable environments. Discarded vehicle tires degrade to leach contaminants into collected rainwater that provide habitats for competing mosquito species. We tested the hypothesis that more highly degraded tires that contain greater tire leachate alters interspecific mosquito competition to produce a condition-specific advantage for the resident, Culex pipiens, by altering the outcome of competition with the competitively superior invasive Aedes albopictus. (2) Methods: In a competition trial, varying densities of newly hatched Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens larvae were added to tires that had been exposed to three different ultraviolet (UV)-B conditions that mimicked full-sun, shade, or no UV-B conditions in the field. We also measured Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus oviposition preference among four treatments with varying tire leachate (high and low) and resources (high and low) amounts to determine if adult gravid females avoided habitats with higher tire leachate. (3) Results: We found stronger competitive effects of Cx. pipiens on the population performance and survival of Ae. albopictus in tires exposed to shade and full-sun conditions that had higher concentrations of contaminants. Further, zinc concentration was higher in emergent adults of Ae. albopictus than Cx. pipiens. Oviposition by these species was similar between tire leachate treatments but not by resource amount. (4) Conclusions: These results suggest that degraded tires with higher tire leachate may promote condition-specific competition by reducing the competitive advantage of invasive Ae. albopictus over resident Cx. pipiens and, combined with Cx. pipiens' preferential oviposition in higher resource sites, contribute to the persistence of the resident species.

RevDate: 2022-11-28

Cloonan KR, Montgomery WS, Narvaez TI, et al (2022)

Community of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) in Agricultural and Forest Ecosystems with Laurel Wilt.

Insects, 13(11):.

Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an invasive wood-boring pest first detected in the USA in 2002 in Georgia. The beetle's dominant fungal symbiont, Harringtonialauricola, causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the Lauraceae. Over the past 20 years, X. glabratus and laurel wilt have spread to twelve southeastern states, resulting in high mortality of native Persea species, including redbay (P. borbonia), swampbay (P. palustris), and silkbay (P. humilis). Laurel wilt also threatens avocado (P. americana) in south Florida, but in contrast to the situation in forests, X. glabratus is detected at very low levels in affected groves. Moreover, other species of ambrosia beetle have acquired H. lauricola and now function as secondary vectors. To better understand the beetle communities in different ecosystems exhibiting laurel wilt, parallel field tests were conducted in an avocado grove in Miami-Dade County and a swampbay forest in Highlands County, FL. Sampling utilized ethanol lures (the best general attractant for ambrosia beetles) and essential oil lures (the best attractants for X. glabratus), alone and in combination, resulting in detection of 20 species. This study documents host-related differences in beetle diversity and population levels, and species-specific differences in chemical ecology, as reflected in efficacy of lures and lure combinations.

RevDate: 2022-11-10

Zink FA, Tembrock LR, Timm AE, et al (2022)

A Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) Assay to Detect Phthorimaea absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Bulk Trap Samples.

Journal of economic entomology pii:6819908 [Epub ahead of print].

The moth species Phthorimaea absoluta (Meyrick) (formerly Tuta absoluta) is serious threat to tomato and other Solanaceous crops worldwide and is invasive throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. While P. absoluta has not yet been found in the U.S. recent detections in the Caribbean have raised concerns that the species could be introduced to mainland North America. To improve detection capacity, a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed that employs a nondestructive bulk DNA extraction method able to detect one P. absoluta sample among 200 nontargets. Such high-throughput and sensitive molecular assays are essential to preventing introductions through early detection and response. This assay can also be used in areas where P. absoluta is established to monitor outbreaks and track migratory patterns.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Zhang J, Xia J, Zhang Q, et al (2022)

Identification of agricultural quarantine materials in passenger's luggage using ion mobility spectroscopy combined with a convolutional neural network.

Analytical methods : advancing methods and applications, 14(45):4690-4702.

As economic globalization intensifies, the recent increase in agricultural products and travelers from abroad has led to an increase in the probability of invasive alien species. A major pathway for invasive alien species is agricultural quarantine materials (AQMs) in travelers' baggage. Thus, it is meaningful to develop efficient methods for early detection and prompt action against AQMs. In this study, a method based on the combination of odor detection of AQMs using ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) and convolutional neural network (CNN) analysis for the identification of AQM species in luggage was developed. Two different ways were investigated to feed the IMS data of AQMs into the CNN, either as one-dimensional data (1D) (as a spectrum) or as two-dimensional data (2D) (as an IMS topographic map). The performances of CNN models were also compared to those of the commonly used classification algorithms: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). By doing gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM), the essential IMS feature regions from the CNN models to predict different AQM species were also identified. The results of this research demonstrated that the application of the CNN to the IMS data of AQMs yielded superior classification performance compared to PLS-DA and SIMCA. Especially, the CNN-2D model which utilized the IMS topographic map as input achieved the best classification accuracy both on the calibration and validation sets. In addition, the Grad-CAM method had an ability to detect critical discriminating spectral regions for different types of AQM samples, and could provide explanation for the CNNs' decision-making. Despite the inherent limitations of the present analytical protocol, the results showed that the method of IMS in combination with a CNN has great potential to be a complement for sniffer dogs and X-ray imaging techniques to detect AQMs.

RevDate: 2022-11-11
CmpDate: 2022-11-11

Kourantidou M, Verbrugge LNH, Haubrock PJ, et al (2022)

The economic costs, management and regulation of biological invasions in the Nordic countries.

Journal of environmental management, 324:116374.

A collective understanding of economic impacts and in particular of monetary costs of biological invasions is lacking for the Nordic region. This paper synthesizes findings from the literature on costs of invasions in the Nordic countries together with expert elicitation. The analysis of cost data has been made possible through the InvaCost database, a globally open repository of monetary costs that allows for the use of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic descriptors facilitating a better understanding of how costs are distributed. The total reported costs of invasive species across the Nordic countries were estimated at $8.35 billion (in 2017 US$ values) with damage costs significantly outweighing management costs. Norway incurred the highest costs ($3.23 billion), followed by Denmark ($2.20 billion), Sweden ($1.45 billion), Finland ($1.11 billion) and Iceland ($25.45 million). Costs from invasions in the Nordics appear to be largely underestimated. We conclude by highlighting such knowledge gaps, including gaps in policies and regulation stemming from expert judgment as well as avenues for an improved understanding of invasion costs and needs for future research.

RevDate: 2022-11-21

Bernal B, Kim S, TJ Mozdzer (2022)

Species shifts induce soil organic matter priming and changes in microbial communities.

The Science of the total environment, 859(Pt 1):159956 pii:S0048-9697(22)07056-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasion of plant species with functional traits that influences the rhizosphere can have significant effects on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics if the invasive species stimulates soil microbial communities with, for example, an enhanced supply of labile carbon and oxygen. We evaluated these effects along a Phragmites invasion chronosequence spanning over 40 years. Using a δ[13]C and δ[15]N enriched substrate, we separated SOM-derived and substrate-derived carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization in surface (top 15 cm), shallow (30-45 cm), and deep (65-80 cm) soils collected from established, newly invaded, and native plant communities. We found all soils were susceptible to SOM priming, but priming profiles differed between vegetation communities, being highest at the surface in native assemblage soils, whereas highest at depth under invasive plants. Changes in functional microbial community composition at depth in Phragmites soils, evidenced by an increase in relative fungal laccase abundance, explained the SOM priming in these deep invaded soils. Our results show that invasive Phragmites maintains a microbial community at depth able to degrade SOM faster than that under native vegetation, evidencing that plant species shifts can fundamentally change soil biogeochemistry, altering element cycling and decreasing SOM residence time. Furthermore, our experimental design allowed to quantify real-time SOM-C and SOM-N gross mineralization, resulting in a new model relating C and N mineralization in these wetland soils and providing new insights on how SOM decomposition impacts N availability and cycling across wetland N pools.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-11

Masrahi Y, Al-Namazi A, Alammari B, et al (2022)

Adaptations facilitate the invasion of Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb. (Cactaceae) in the highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia.

Plant signaling & behavior, 17(1):2144593.

The colonization and expansion of any plant species into a novel environment depend on its structural and functional characteristics. Therefore, developing better control measures for any invasive plant species requires examining and understanding the mechanisms underlying its reproduction and adaptation to the environment it invades. Recently, a novel exotic species Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb. has been identified in Baljurashi, Al-Baha province, in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Reports suggest that this species may become invasive with the current rate of habitat expansion in Baljurashi. Although C. rosea is an important invasive species, most of its morpho-anatomical and physiological characteristics have not been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-anatomical and related physiological adaptations of C. rosea in its new habitats in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia. We observed that the species is well-equipped for invasion with traits to handle semi-arid conditions, including some morphological and anatomical features, CAM photosynthetic pathway, high growth rate, and highly effective defense mechanisms against herbivores and insects. These morpho-anatomical and physiological characteristics contribute to the high invasiveness of this species in Saudi Arabia.

RevDate: 2022-11-22

Jaureguiberry P, Titeux N, Wiemers M, et al (2022)

The direct drivers of recent global anthropogenic biodiversity loss.

Science advances, 8(45):eabm9982.

Effective policies to halt biodiversity loss require knowing which anthropogenic drivers are the most important direct causes. Whereas previous knowledge has been limited in scope and rigor, here we statistically synthesize empirical comparisons of recent driver impacts found through a wide-ranging review. We show that land/sea use change has been the dominant direct driver of recent biodiversity loss worldwide. Direct exploitation of natural resources ranks second and pollution third; climate change and invasive alien species have been significantly less important than the top two drivers. The oceans, where direct exploitation and climate change dominate, have a different driver hierarchy from land and fresh water. It also varies among types of biodiversity indicators. For example, climate change is a more important driver of community composition change than of changes in species populations. Stopping global biodiversity loss requires policies and actions to tackle all the major drivers and their interactions, not some of them in isolation.

RevDate: 2022-12-05
CmpDate: 2022-11-11

Bourret SL, Kovach RP, Cline TJ, et al (2022)

High dispersal rates in hybrids drive expansion of maladaptive hybridization.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1986):20221813.

Hybridization between native and invasive species, a major cause of biodiversity loss, can spread rapidly even when hybrids have reduced fitness. This paradox suggests that hybrids have greater dispersal rates than non-hybridized individuals, yet this mechanism has not been empirically tested in animal populations. Here, we test if non-native genetic introgression increases reproductive dispersal using a human-mediated hybrid zone between native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and invasive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a large and connected river system. We quantified the propensity for individuals to migrate from natal rearing habitats (migrate), reproduce in non-natal habitats (stray), and the joint probability of dispersal as a function of genetic ancestry. Hybrid trout with predominantly non-native rainbow trout ancestry were more likely to migrate as juveniles and to stray as adults. Overall, hybrids with greater than 50% rainbow trout ancestry were 5.7 times more likely to disperse than native or hybrid trout with small amounts of rainbow trout ancestry. Our results show a genetic basis for increased dispersal in hybrids that is likely contributing to the rapid expansion of invasive hybridization between these species. Management actions that decrease the probability of hybrid dispersal may mitigate the harmful effects of invasive hybridization on native biodiversity.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Bodey TW, Angulo E, Bang A, et al (2022)

Economic costs of protecting islands from invasive alien species.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions represent a key threat to insular systems and have pronounced impacts across environments and economies. The ecological impacts have received substantial focus, but the socioeconomic impacts are poorly synthesized across spatial and temporal scales. We used the InvaCost database, the most comprehensive assessment of published economic costs of invasive species, to assess economic impacts on islands worldwide. We analyzed socioeconomic costs across differing expenditure types and examined temporal trends across islands that differ in their political geography-island nation states, overseas territories, and islands of continental countries. Over US$36 billion in total costs (including damages and management) has occurred on islands from 1965 to 2020 due to invasive species' impacts. Nation states incurred the greatest total and management costs, and islands of continental countries incurred costs of similar magnitude, both far higher than those in overseas territories. Damage-loss costs were significantly lower, but with qualitatively similar patterns across differing political geographies. The predominance of management spending differs from the pattern found for most countries examined and suggests important knowledge gaps in the extent of many damage-related socioeconomic impacts. Nation states spent the greatest proportion of their gross domestic products countering these costs, at least 1 order of magnitude higher than other locations. Most costs were borne by authorities and stakeholders, demonstrating the key role of governmental and nongovernmental bodies in addressing island invasions. Temporal trends revealed cost increases across all island types, potentially reflecting efforts to tackle invasive species at larger, more socially complex scales. Nevertheless, the already high total economic costs of island invasions substantiate the role of biosecurity in reducing and preventing invasive species arrivals to reduce strains on limited financial resources and avoid threats to sustainable development goals.

RevDate: 2022-11-10

Rochat EC, Paterson RA, Blasco-Costa I, et al (2022)

Temporal stability of polymorphic Arctic charr parasite communities reflects sustained divergent trophic niches.

Ecology and evolution, 12(11):e9460.

Polymorphic Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus populations frequently display distinct differences in habitat use, diet, and parasite communities. Changes to the relative species densities and composition of the wider fish community have the potential to alter the habitat niche of sympatric Arctic charr populations. This study evaluated the temporal stability of the parasite community, diet, and stable isotopes (δ[13]C, δ[15]N) of three sympatric Arctic charr morphs (piscivore, benthivore, and planktivore) from Loch Rannoch, Scotland, in relation to changes to the fish community. All Arctic charr morphs displayed distinct differences in parasite communities, diet, and stable isotope signatures over time, despite the establishment of four new trophically transmitted parasite taxa, and increased fish and zooplankton consumption by the piscivorous and planktivore morphs, respectively. Native parasite prevalence also increased in all Arctic charr morphs. Overall, Loch Rannoch polymorphic Arctic charr morph populations have maintained their distinct trophic niches and parasite communities through time despite changes in the fish community. This result indicates that re-stocking a native fish species has the potential to induce shifts in the parasite community and diet of Arctic charr morphs.

RevDate: 2022-11-10

Wei H, Liang Y, Luo Q, et al (2022)

Environmental-related variation of stoichiometric traits in body and organs of non-native sailfin catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp.

Ecology and evolution, 12(11):e9483.

Intraspecific variation in stoichiometric traits was thought to be an adaptive response to reduce the elemental imbalance between organism and diet in the habitat. Studying the spatial variation of stoichiometric traits of non-native species and the factors contributing to the variation could help to better understand the invasion mechanism of non-native fish. In this study, stoichiometric traits (i.e. carbon [C], phosphorus [P], calcium [Ca] and their ratios) variation in the body and organs of non-native sailfin catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. were investigated across 13 river sections in the main river basins of Guangdong province. The relationships between environmental factors and stoichiometric traits were analyzed using a general linear model and an information-theoretic approach. A manipulated feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of food quality on the stoichiometry of sailfin catfishes in a greenhouse. Sailfin catfishes exhibited considerable variability in body and organ elemental composition. Site identity was the main factor contributing to the variation, which could be explained by a combination of environmental factors including climate, diet quality, fish species richness and trophic status in the invaded rivers. Water chemistry (i.e. total nitrogen and phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus) contributed to the most variation of stoichiometric traits. Imbalances of P and Ca between sailfin catfishes and food resources varied among sampling sites, reflecting the spatial heterogeneity of nutrients limitation. Juvenile sailfin catfishes exhibited stoichiometric homeostasis (0 < 1/H < 0.25) for all elemental contents and ratios in the feeding experiment. These findings suggested variation in stoichiometric traits of sailfin catfishes might be attributed to the changes in elemental metabolism to cope with context-specific environments. This study provided heuristic knowledge about environmental-related variation in stoichiometric traits, which could enhance the understanding of the non-native species' adaptation to resource fluctuation in the invaded ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-11-10

Da Re D, Van Bortel W, Reuss F, et al (2022)

dynamAedes: a unified modelling framework for invasive Aedes mosquitoes.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):414.

Mosquito species belonging to the genus Aedes have attracted the interest of scientists and public health officers because of their capacity to transmit viruses that affect humans. Some of these species were brought outside their native range by means of trade and tourism and then colonised new regions thanks to a unique combination of eco-physiological traits. Considering mosquito physiological and behavioural traits to understand and predict their population dynamics is thus a crucial step in developing strategies to mitigate the local densities of invasive Aedes populations. Here, we synthesised the life cycle of four invasive Aedes species (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus and Ae. koreicus) in a single multi-scale stochastic modelling framework which we coded in the R package dynamAedes. We designed a stage-based and time-discrete stochastic model driven by temperature, photo-period and inter-specific larval competition that can be applied to three different spatial scales: punctual, local and regional. These spatial scales consider different degrees of spatial complexity and data availability by accounting for both active and passive dispersal of mosquito species as well as for the heterogeneity of the input temperature data. Our overarching aim was to provide a flexible, open-source and user-friendly tool rooted in the most updated knowledge on the species' biology which could be applied to the management of invasive Aedes populations as well as to more theoretical ecological inquiries.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Le CTU, ML Campbell (2022)

Public's perceptions of marine bioinvasive risks and responsible parties - Implications for social acceptability and better-informed communication in the marine biosecurity context.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt A):114283.

Using the survey data on a representative sample of the New Zealand population, our study presents a process of understanding citizens' perceptions, identifying patterns in the perceptions, and recognising the knowledge gaps existing in the citizenry in the marine biosecurity context. While our findings show a healthy sign of the public accepting their own responsibility and the devolved responsibility of business/industry, there are considerable gaps between the general public's perceptions and (marine) biosecurity current practices and expectations. There is a moderately strong signal from survey respondents that suggest the need of significantly more effort and improved transparency in marine biosecurity communication. Our outcomes indicate an anthropocentric tendency, with influences of gender, age, education, income, frequency of beach visitation upon societal perceptions in terms of awareness, concern, perceived non-indigenous marine species impacts, and accountability in marine biosecurity management. The recognised socio-demographic patterns in societal perceptions would inform marine biosecurity communication strategies.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Li H, Wang X, Mai Y, et al (2023)

Potential of microplastics participate in selective bioaccumulation of low-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons depending on the biological habits of fishes.

The Science of the total environment, 858(Pt 2):159939.

Currently, although the cumulative effects of microplastics (MPs) and organic pollutants (OPs) in the environment and within organisms are being investigated, whether and how MPs participate in bioaccumulation of OPs based on a carrier effect is still unclear. In the present study, water and aquatic organisms were collected from the Pearl River. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and MPs were separated by solid phase extraction and were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Higher PAH concentrations at the river outlet and higher MPs abundance in the inner river were observed, indicating a mismatched distribution between PAHs and MPs. No correlation between MP abundance and PAH concentration in fishes was detected, implying that MPs exerted limited influence on PAH concentrations. Interestingly, bioconcentration factors of one major low-ring PAH (phenanthrene) in fishes showed a significant correlation with MPs abundance, implying that although MPs did not affect the variation in PAH concentrations, they potentially participated in selective bioaccumulation of PAHs. Moreover, significant correlations between MPs abundance and PAHs in fishes with different feeding and living habits were found, indicating that MPs' participation in PAH bioaccumulation was dependent on fish biology and life history. Furthermore, the health risk posed by PAHs in fishes at the river outlet surpassed the line of potential high risk, while the ecological risk posed by MPs at the inner river was in the danger category, indicating the ecological risks posed by PAHs and MPs are uneven along the Pearl River. These findings deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanism of MPs participating in selective bioaccumulation of low-ring PAHs in fishes based on fish biology and point out the present risks posed by these two pollutants in the Pearl River and its estuary, which contribute to aquatic environmental protection and fishery production in this region.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Tempesti J, Langeneck J, Lardicci C, et al (2022)

Short-term colonization of fouling communities within the port of Livorno (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean): Influence of substrate three-dimensional complexity on non-indigenous species establishment.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt A):114302.

The influence of substrate morphology on early stages of fouling development was assessed through submerged experimental substrates with different morphological complexity. The experiment was carried out within commercial and touristic harbours of the port of Livorno (Italy), analysing the communities at three steps of colonization (14, 28, 42 days). We assessed the effect of substrate complexity on recruitment of non-indigenous species (NIS), combined with the influence of port use destinations. NIS were recorded in both use destination areas since the first step of colonization. Substrate morphological complexity significantly affected fouling colonization and particularly NIS assemblages. We found that high-complexity substrates are particularly suitable for NIS establishment in comparison with less complex ones. The touristic harbour exhibited a potential for fouling colonization higher than the commercial harbour. These results contributed to the understanding of factors involved in NIS establishment and spread, as well as in their spatial-temporal dynamics within port environments.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-23

Williams-Mounsey J, Crowle A, Grayson R, et al (2023)

Surface structure on abandoned upland blanket peatland tracks.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116561.

Temporary permissions are often granted for track use on peatlands. However, even when peatland track designs attempt to minimise environmental impacts via use of mesh systems, such linear disturbances may have persistent impacts. We evaluated the surface peatland structure of five abandoned tracks (four with a mesh surface, one unsurfaced) with varying past usage frequencies, at an upland site in northern England. Simplification of the surface nanotopography was found on all tracks compared to surrounding control areas, with increased micro-erosion patterns in rutted areas, and invasive species on some treatments. The frequency of previous usage was not found to be a significant factor controlling nano-topographic loss. Edge effects and hillslope position were influential in places, but these effects were not consistent across treatments. Nano-topographic recovery was found to be inhibited when track usage commenced within a short time frame after track construction. Mesh tracks appear to create a spatial constraint leading to poor development of plants and a reduced ability to form characteristic structures which are integral to mire function.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Bohannon GR, Johnson CL, Jetton RM, et al (2022)

Phenology and Voltinism of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Central North Carolina.

Environmental entomology pii:6805357 [Epub ahead of print].

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees across North America. Classical biological control using introductions of parasitoid wasps may provide a sustainable approach to managing this invasive insect. However, the establishment of parasitoids in the southern United States has been difficult. The phenology of emerald ash borer was studied in central North Carolina to inform biological control efforts that better align with the seasonal availability of susceptible emerald ash borer life stages in the warm climate of this region. Biweekly emerald ash borer life stage assessments were conducted in stands of infested green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall, Lamiales: Oleaceae) over 26 consecutive months (June 2019 through August 2021). Adult trapping was also conducted in these stands in the spring and summer of 2019, 2020, and 2021. Based on these collections, emerald ash borer exhibits a univoltine (1-yr) life cycle. Parasitoid-susceptible larvae (third and fourth instars in galleries) are present from late June through October (~1,100-3,000 degree days base 10ºC) and are mostly absent during the remainder of the year. Parasitoid release timings and the life history of selected parasitoid species should be aligned with this window of host availability to be effective. This characterization of emerald ash borer phenology and voltinism will help improve the timing and effectiveness of management efforts as this forest pest continues to spread in southern North America.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Mghili B, De-la-Torre GE, Analla M, et al (2022)

Marine macroinvertebrates fouled in marine anthropogenic litter in the Moroccan Mediterranean.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt A):114266.

The existence of floating marine litter in marine environments enhances the potential for the transport of fouling organisms using these substrates as vectors. In this study, we examined the fouling organisms on different types of litter stranded on two beaches of the Moroccan Mediterranean. The study revealed 13 fouling species belonging to 8 phyla (Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Chlorophyta, and Ochrophyta) on marine litter. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to land-based sources. The most common fouling species were the crustacean Lepas pectinata, Lepas anatifera, Perforatus perforatus, and bryozoan species. More taxa were found on large litter than on small litter. Relative substratum coverage was highest for bryozoan sp. (31.0 %), green algae (29.0 %), Lepas anatifera (21.42 %), Lepas pectinata (17.8 %), and Perforatus perforatus (17.46 %). Our results suggest that the growing generation of plastic litter may enhance the probability of the introduction of non-native species into the Moroccan Mediterranean. Therefore, monitoring efforts are needed to identify vectors and the arrival of novel invasive species in this area.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Kinani S, Roumiguières A, S Bouchonnet (2022)

A Critical Review on Chemical Speciation of Chlorine-Produced Oxidants (CPOs) in Seawater. Part 1: Chlorine Chemistry in Seawater and Its Consequences in Terms of Biocidal Effectiveness and Environmental Impact.

Critical reviews in analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Seawater chlorination has three main industrial uses: disinfection of water and installations, control of biofouling, and preventing the transport of aquatic invasive species. Once in contact with seawater, chlorine reacts rapidly with water constituents (e.g. bromide ions, ammonia, and nitrogen-containing compounds) to form a range of oxidative species (e.g. bromine and N-haloamines), termed "chlorine-produced oxidants" (CPOs) or "total residual oxidants" (TRO). The chemical nature of CPOs and their concentration are a function of two categories of parameters related to treatment modality (e.g. chlorine dose) and water quality (e.g. temperature, pH, ammonia concentration, and organic constituents). The chlorination process may result in continuous or intermittent releases of CPOs in seawater. The reactivity and potential ecotoxicity of CPO species largely depend on their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, evaluation of the biocidal effectiveness of chlorination and its potential impacts requires not only determining the sum of CPOs (via a bulk parameter), but also their chemical speciation. The aim of this article - which is the first of a trilogy dedicated to the chemical speciation of CPOs in seawater - is to provide an overview of current knowledge about chlorine chemistry in seawater and to discuss the biocidal efficacy and the environmental fate of resulting CPOs. The 2nd and 3rd articles delineate a comprehensive and critical review of analytical methods and approaches for the determination of CPOs in seawater.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Stupar M, Savković Ž, Breka K, et al (2022)

A Variety of Fungal Species on the Green Frogs' Skin (Pelophylax esculentus complex) in South Banat.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In the last several decades, amphibian populations have been declining worldwide. Many factors have been linked to global amphibian decline, including habitat destruction, pollution, introduced species, global environmental changes, and emerging infectious diseases. Recent studies of amphibian skin infections were mainly focused on the presence of chytridiomycosis, neglecting other members of the frogs' skin communities. The diversity pattern of fungal dwellers on the skin of green frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) was investigated. A total of 100 adults were sampled from three localities in South Banat (northern Serbia) over three consecutive years and detected fungal dwellers were identified using light microscopy and ITS and BenA gene sequencing. Structures belonging to fungi and fungus-like organisms including a variety of spores and different mycelia types were documented in the biofilm formed on amphibian skin, and are classified into 10 groups. In total, 42 fungal isolates were identified to species, section, or genus level. The difference in mycobiota composition between sampling points (localities and green frog taxa) was documented. The highest number of fungal structures and isolates was recorded on the hybrid taxon P. esculentus and locality Stevanove ravnice. Parental species showed a markedly lower diversity than the hybrid taxon and were more similar in diversity patterns and were placed in the same homogenous group. The locality Stevanove ravnice exhibited more pronounced differences in diversity pattern than the other two localities and was placed in a distinct and separate homogenous group. Among the fungal isolates, the highest isolation frequency was documented for Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus sp. sect. Nigri, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Trichoderma atroviride. Among the documented species, dematiaceous fungi, causative agents of chromomycosis in amphibians, were also recorded in this research with high isolation frequency. Also, some rare fungal species such as Quambalaria cyanescens and Pseudoteniolina globosa are documented for the first time in this research as microbial inhabitants of amphibian skin.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Kenyeres Z, Andrási L, Kovács P, et al (2022)

THE EFFICIENCY OF BIOGENTS SENTINEL 2.0 TRAPPING AND HUMAN-LANDING CATCHING METHODS TO CALCULATE HUMAN BITING RATES.

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association pii:488096 [Epub ahead of print].

To calculate human biting rates for various mosquito species, we performed simultaneous collections for 15 wk at 6 ecologically variable sites in Hungary. Of the dominant species, the relative abundance of Aedes vexans, Ae. sticticus, and Coquillettidia richiardii showed a significant positive correlation between CO2 + Biogents lure and human landing catch (HLC). The relative abundance of Culex pipiens was significantly lower in the HLC samples than in the CO2 + BG lure samples. Of the invasive species, Aedes korecius was found more frequently in HLC, while Ae. japonicus was more common in CO2 + BG lure samples. Estimated human biting rates, determined with the 2 collection methods, showed no significant differences at high mosquito density (100-120 bites/h/person), but there was considerable variation at low mosquito biting rates. Therefore, correcting the CO2 + BG lure trapping data to include only species biting humans provides estimates approaching the values of the HLC. Our study confirmed that while HLC is the gold standard method for determining the human biting rate, provided appropriate data adjustments are made, trapping methods performing automated data collection can provide similar data while reducing the exposure of the data collector.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Vieira JL, de Oliveira LO, Barrigossi JAF, et al (2022)

Disentangling a Neotropical pest species complex: genetic diversity and population structure of the native rice stink bug Oebalus poecilus and the invasive O. ypsilongriseus.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: A first step in any pest management initiative is recognizing the existing problem - identifying the pest species and its abundance and dispersal capacities. This is not simple and even more challenging when insidious (invasive) species are involved constituting a pest complex. Understanding a species' population diversity and structure can provide a better understanding of its adaptation and relative pest potential. Such is the need for the native rice stink bug Oebalus poecilus and the invasive O. ypsilongriseus in low and high flatlands of South America.

RESULTS: The genetic structure differed between both rice stink bug species (FST  = 0.157, P = 0.001), where 84% of the overall genetic variability takes place within species and three genetic groups were recognized through Bayesian approach (K = 3). Oebalus poecilus exhibited slightly higher genetic diversity (HE  = 0.253) and structuring (FST  = 0.050, P = 0.001) than the invasive O. ypsilongriseus (HE  = 0.211; FST  = 0.038, P = 0.013). Nonetheless, only the former exhibited significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.48, P = 0.013).

CONCLUSION: Despite the pointed peculiarities, the obtained results indicate overlap in both species' occurrence and similar genetic structure allowing for a compound problem to be dealt with as the complex requires managing without, as yet, a prevailing species or a niche specialization. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Chen Y, Ni P, Fu R, et al (2022)

(Epi)genomic adaptation driven by fine geographical scale environmental heterogeneity after recent biological invasions.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Elucidating processes and mechanisms involved in rapid local adaptation to varied environments is a poorly understood but crucial component in management of invasive species. Recent studies have proposed that genetic and epigenetic variation could both contribute to ecological adaptation, yet it remains unclear on the interplay between these two components underpinning rapid adaptation in wild animal populations. To assess their respective contributions to local adaptation, we explored epigenomic and genomic responses to environmental heterogeneity in eight recently colonized ascidian (Ciona intestinalis) populations at a relatively fine geographical scale. Based on MethylRADseq data, we detected strong patterns of local environment-driven DNA methylation divergence among populations, significant epigenetic isolation by environment (IBE), and a large number of local environment-associated epigenetic loci. Meanwhile, multiple genetic analyses based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed genomic footprints of divergent selection. In addition, for five genetically similar populations, we detected significant methylation divergence and local environment-driven methylation patterns, indicating strong effects of local environments on epigenetic variation. From a functional perspective, a majority of functional genes, gene ontology (GO) terms, and biological pathways were largely specific to one of these two types of variation, suggesting partial independence between epigenetic and genetic adaptation. The methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) analysis showed that the genetic variation explained only 18.67% of methylation variation, further confirming the autonomous relationship between these two types of variation. Altogether, we highlight the complementary interplay of genetic and epigenetic variation involved in local adaptation, which may jointly promote populations' rapid adaptive capacity and successful invasions in different environments. The findings here provide valuable insights into interactions between invaders and local environments to allow invasive species to rapidly spread, thus contributing to better prediction of invasion success and development of management strategies.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Laginhas BB, Fertakos ME, BA Bradley (2022)

We don't know what we're missing: Evidence of a vastly undersampled invasive plant pool.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive plants are a prominent threat to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Knowing the identity of invasive plants is critical for preventing their introduction and spread. Yet several lines of evidence, including spatial and taxonomic biases in reporting and the ongoing emergence of new invasives, suggest that we are missing basic information about the identity of invasive plants. Using a database of invasive plants reported in the peer-reviewed literature between 1959-2020, we examined trends in the accumulation of new invasive plants over time and estimated the size of the current pool of invasive plants both continentally and globally. The number of new invasive plants continues to increase exponentially over time, showing no sign of saturation, even in the best studied regions. Moreover, a sample-size based rarefaction-extrapolation curve of reported taxa suggests that what is documented in the current literature (3,008 taxa) only captures 64% of the likely number of invasive plants globally (4,721 taxa +/- 132 standard error). These estimates varied continentally; less than half of invasive plant taxa have likely been identified in Oceania and Central & South Americas. Studies that included multiple invasive plants (e.g., floristic studies) were much more efficient at adding new taxa to our global understanding of what is invasive (identifying 4.2 times more new taxa than single-taxon studies). With more potential invaders arriving every day, this analysis highlights a critical gap in our knowledge of the current invasive plant pool. Expanding invasion science to better encompass understudied geographic areas and increasing the numbers of floristic surveys would greatly improve our ability to accurately and efficiently identify what taxa are invasive. Preventing invasive plant introductions is incumbent upon knowing the identity of invasive plants. Thus, large knowledge gaps remain in invasion ecology that hinder efforts to proactively prevent and manage invasive plants.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-02

Nikookar SH, Maleki A, Fazeli-Dinan M, et al (2022)

Entomological Surveillance of the Invasive Aedes Species at Higher-Priority Entry Points in Northern Iran: Exploratory Report on a Field Study.

JMIR public health and surveillance, 8(10):e38647 pii:v8i10e38647.

BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus and are emerging global public health concerns.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide up-to-date data on the occurrence of the invasive Aedes species in a given area as this is essential for planning and implementing timely control strategies.

METHODS: Entomological surveillance was planned and carried out monthly from May 2018 to December 2019 at higher-priority entry points in Guilan Province, Northern Iran, using ovitraps, larval collection, and human-baited traps. Species richness (R), Simpson (D), evenness (E), and Shannon-Wiener indexes (H̕) were measured to better understand the diversity of the Aedes species. The Spearman correlation coefficient and regression models were used for data analysis.

RESULTS: We collected a total of 3964 mosquito samples including 17.20% (682/3964) belonging to the Aedes species, from 3 genera and 13 species, and morphologically identified them from May 2018 to December 2019. Ae vexans and Ae geniculatus, which showed a peak in activity levels and population in October (226/564, 40.07% and 26/103, 25.2%), were the eudominant species (D=75.7%; D=21.2%) with constant (C=100) and frequent (C=66.7%) distributions, respectively. The population of Ae vexans had a significant positive correlation with precipitation (r=0.521; P=.009) and relative humidity (r=0.510; P=.01), whereas it was inversely associated with temperature (r=-0.432; P=.04). The Shannon-Wiener Index was up to 0.84 and 1.04 in the city of Rasht and in July, respectively. The rarefaction curve showed sufficiency in sampling efforts by reaching the asymptotic line at all spatial and temporal scales, except in Rasht and in October.

CONCLUSIONS: Although no specimens of the Ae aegypti and Ae albopictus species were collected, this surveillance provides a better understanding of the native Aedes species in the northern regions of Iran. These data will assist the health system in future arbovirus research, and in the implementation of effective vector control and prevention strategies, should Ae aegypti and Ae albopictus be found in the province.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Hougardy E, Hogg BN, Wang X, et al (2022)

Discrimination Abilities and Parasitism Success of Pupal Parasitoids Towards Spotted-Wing Drosophila Pupae Previously Parasitized by the Larval Parasitoid Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Figitidae).

Environmental entomology pii:6782927 [Epub ahead of print].

Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichopria drosophilae (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) are two cosmopolitan and generalist pupal parasitoids that are among a few of the resident parasitoids in North America capable of attacking Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive pest of small and soft fruit crops worldwide. Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering) is a specialist larval parasitoid of D. suzukii that was recently approved for biological control introduction against D. suzukii in the USA. As a solitary koinobiont species, G. brasiliensis oviposits in the host larva but emerges as an adult from the host puparium. This study investigated the discrimination ability and parasitism success by the pupal parasitoids towards D. suzukii pupae previously parasitized by G. brasiliensis, to examine whether interactions with resident parasitoids will affect G. brasiliensis after it is released in the USA. We found preliminary evidence that neither pupal parasitoid could discriminate towards D. suzukii pupae parasitized by early instars of G. brasiliensis. Pachycrepoideus vindemiae was able to successfully develop on D. suzukii pupae containing all preimaginal stages of G. brasiliensis, although parasitism success was significantly higher on those bearing later rather than early stages of G. brasiliensis. Trichopria drosophilae was only able to successfully develop on D. suzukii puparia containing early instars of G. brasiliensis. These results suggest that D. suzukii parasitized by the larval parasitoid could be subsequently attacked by the pupal parasitoids, possibly affecting the success of G. brasiliensis releases.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )