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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Jan 2020 at 01:41 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-01-25

Quiroga G, Erice G, Aroca R, et al (2020)

Elucidating the Possible Involvement of Maize Aquaporins and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in the Plant Ammonium and Urea Transport under Drought Stress Conditions.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(2): pii:plants9020148.

This study investigates the possible involvement of maize aquaporins which are regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) in the transport in planta of ammonium and/or urea under well-watered and drought stress conditions. The study also aims to better understand the implication of the AM symbiosis in the uptake of urea and ammonium and its effect on plant physiology and performance under drought stress conditions. AM and non-AM maize plants were cultivated under three levels of urea or ammonium fertilization (0, 3 µM or 10 mM) and subjected or not to drought stress. Plant aquaporins and physiological responses to these treatments were analyzed. AM increased plant biomass in absence of N fertilization or under low urea/ ammonium fertilization, but no effect of the AM symbiosis was observed under high N supply. This effect was associated with reduced oxidative damage to lipids and increased N accumulation in plant tissues. High N fertilization with either ammonium or urea enhanced net photosynthesis (AN) and stomatal conductance (gs) in plants maintained under well-watered conditions, but 14 days after drought stress imposition these parameters declined in AM plants fertilized with high N doses. The aquaporin ZmTIP1;1 was up-regulated by both urea and ammonium and could be transporting these two N forms in planta. The differential regulation of ZmTIP4;1 and ZmPIP2;4 with urea fertilization and of ZmPIP2;4 with NH4+ supply suggests that these two aquaporins may also play a role in N mobilization in planta. At the same time, these aquaporins were also differentially regulated by the AM symbiosis, suggesting a possible role in the AM-mediated plant N homeostasis that deserves future studies.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Bastías DA, Martínez-Ghersa MA, Newman JA, et al (2019)

Sipha maydis sensitivity to defences of Lolium multiflorum and its endophytic fungus Epichloë occultans.

PeerJ, 7:e8257 pii:8257.

Background: Plants possess a sophisticated immune system to defend from herbivores. These defence responses are regulated by plant hormones including salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Sometimes, plant defences can be complemented by the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. A remarkable example of this are grasses establishing symbiotic associations with Epichloë fungal endophytes. We studied the level of resistance provided by the grass' defence hormones, and that provided by Epichloë fungal endophytes, against an introduced herbivore aphid. These fungi protect their hosts against herbivores by producing bioactive alkaloids. We hypothesized that either the presence of fungal endophytes or the induction of the plant salicylic acid (SA) defence pathway would enhance the level of resistance of the grass to the aphid.

Methods: Lolium multiflorum plants, with and without the fungal endophyte Epichloë occultans, were subjected to an exogenous application of SA followed by a challenge with the aphid, Sipha maydis.

Results: Our results indicate that neither the presence of E. occultans nor the induction of the plant's SA pathway regulate S. maydis populations. However, endophyte-symbiotic plants may have been more tolerant to the aphid feeding because these plants produced more aboveground biomass. We suggest that this insect insensitivity could be explained by a combination between the ineffectiveness of the specific alkaloids produced by E. occultans in controlling S. maydis aphids and the capacity of this herbivore to deal with hormone-dependent defences of L. multiflorum.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Cao J, Feng Y, Lin X, et al (2020)

A beneficial role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in influencing the effects of silver nanoparticles on plant-microbe systems in a soil matrix.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-020-07781-w [Epub ahead of print].

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered to be emerging contaminant for plant-soil systems. AM arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can alleviate the negative effects of a variety of pollutants on their hosts, but its potential roles in influencing the toxicity of AgNPs and the underlying mechanisms are still an open question. This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) inoculated with or without AM fungi and soil microorganisms to different concentrations of AgNPs (0, 0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 mg kg-1). The inoculation of AM fungi helps to alleviate the AgNP-induced phytotoxicity. Compared to the non-AM fungal inoculated treatments, AM fungal inoculation significantly increased the mycorrhizal colonization, biomass and phosphorus (P) acquisitions of maize, with an upregulation of P transporter gene expression under AgNP treatments. AM fungal inoculation decreased Ag content in plant shoots and roots, downregulated expression levels of genes involved in Ag transport and gene encoding a metallothionein involved in metal homeostasis. The beneficial role of AM fungi extended to soil microbes. Compared to the non-AM fungal inoculated treatments, AM fungal inoculation decreased the toxicity of AgNPs to soil microbial activities and bacterial abundance. AM fungal inoculation increased the bacterial diversity and induced changes in the soil bacterial community composition. Altogether, the present study revealed that AM fungal symbiosis can play beneficial roles in mediating the negative effects exposed by AgNPs on plants probably through changing the expressions of potential Ag transporters and cooperating with soil bacterial community.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Zhang W, Li XG, Sun K, et al (2020)

Mycelial network-mediated rhizobial dispersal enhances legume nodulation.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-020-0587-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The access of rhizobia to legume host is a prerequisite for nodulation. Rhizobia are poorly motile in soil, while filamentous fungi are known to grow extensively across soil pores. Since root exudates-driven bacterial chemotaxis cannot explain rhizobial long-distance dispersal, mycelia could constitute ideal dispersal networks to help rhizobial enrichment in the legume rhizosphere from bulk soil. Thus, we hypothesized that mycelia networks act as vectors that enable contact between rhizobia and legume and influence subsequent nodulation. By developing a soil microcosm system, we found that a facultatively biotrophic fungus, Phomopsis liquidambaris, helps rhizobial migration from bulk soil to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) rhizosphere and, hence, triggers peanut-rhizobium nodulation but not seen in the absence of mycelia. Assays of dispersal modes suggested that cell proliferation and motility mediated rhizobial dispersal along mycelia, and fungal exudates might contribute to this process. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis indicated that genes associated with the cell division, chemosensory system, flagellum biosynthesis, and motility were regulated by Ph. liquidambaris, thus accounting for the detected rhizobial dispersal along hyphae. Our results indicate that rhizobia use mycelia as dispersal networks that migrate to legume rhizosphere and trigger nodulation. This work highlights the importance of mycelial network-based bacterial dispersal in legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-01-24

Li T, Lin X, Yu L, et al (2020)

RNA-seq profiling of Fugacium kawagutii reveals strong responses in metabolic processes and symbiosis potential to deficiencies of iron and other trace metals.

The Science of the total environment, 705:135767.

A healthy symbiotic relationship between corals and Symbiodiniaceae relies on suitable temperature and adequate nutrients including trace metals. Besides global warming, trace metal deficiency has been shown to cause coral bleaching, a phenomenon responsible for extensive coral reef degradation around the world. How trace metal deficiency impacts Symbiodiniaceae and coral symbiosis is poorly understood, however. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to investigate how Fugacium kawagutii responds to the deficiency of five trace metals (Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ni2+). We identified 685 to 2805 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from these trace metal deficiency conditions, among which 372 were commonly regulated by all the five trace metals and were significantly enriched in energy metabolism (e.g. fatty acid synthesis). Furthermore, genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM), cell surface structure and cell adhesion were impacted, suggesting that the ability of recognition and adhesion of F. kawagutii may be altered by trace metal deficiencies. In addition, among the five metals, Fe2+ deficiency exhibited the strongest influence, with Fe-rich redox elements and many antioxidant synthesis genes being markedly down-regulated, indicative of adaptive reduction of Fe demand but a compromised ability to combat oxidative stress. Overall, deficiency of trace metals (especially Fe) seems to repress growth and ability of ROS scavenging, elevate energy metabolism and innate immunity, and alter cell adhesion capability, with implications in symbiosis disruption and coral bleaching.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Jose PA, Ben-Yosef M, Jurkevitch E, et al (2019)

Symbiotic bacteria affect oviposition behavior in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae.

Journal of insect physiology, 117:103917.

Microbial associations are widespread across the insects. In the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), vertically transmitted gut symbionts contribute to larval development inside the olive host, and to adult nutrition. Nevertheless, their effect on behavioural decisions of adults is unknown. In this study, we show that symbiotic bacteria affect oviposition behaviour in B. oleae. We studied the effect of different fruits as hosts and different gut-bacteria as gut-symbionts on oviposition attempts and fly development in B. oleae. Untreated flies that had native gut-symbionts attempted oviposition significantly more times than axenic flies as well as flies treated with medfly-associated Pantoea or Klebsiella bacteria. Axenic flies provided with a diet containing the homogenized gut of symbiotic flies recovered the same number of oviposition attempts as their symbiotic counterparts. As for as the different hosts, green olives (unripe) and grapes were preferred while black olives (ripe) elicited the least number of oviposition attempts, with an interactive effect of host and bacterial treatments. It appears that both the host attributes and the native gut-symbionts drive oviposition preference towards green olives in B. oleae. Moreover, both bacterial treatments and hosts significantly affected the development of B. oleae larvae. Though grapes elicited as many oviposition attempts as green olives, they yielded no pupae. Taken together, our results suggest that the intimate association between B. oleae and their gut-microbes, extends beyond nutritional support to behaviour.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Le Pennec G, J Gardères (2019)

The Challenge of the Sponge Suberites domuncula (Olivi, 1792) in the Presence of a Symbiotic Bacterium and a Pathogen Bacterium.

Genes, 10(7): pii:genes10070485.

Sponges, which are in close contact with numerous bacteria in prey/predator, symbiotic and pathogenic relationships, must provide an appropriate response in such situations. This starts with a discriminating recognition of the partner either by a physical contact or through secreted molecules or both. We investigated the expression of the Toll-like receptor, Caspase 3/7, Tumor Necrosis Factor receptor-associated factor 6, Bcl-2 homology protein-2 and macrophage expressed genes of axenic sponge cells in the presence of a symbiotic bacterium (Endozoicomonas sp. Hex311), a pathogen bacterium (Pseudoalteromonas sp. 1A1), their exoproducts and lipopolysaccharides. The vast majority of answers are in line with what could be observed with the symbiotic bacterium. The pathogenic bacterium seems to profit from the eukaryotic cell: suppression of the production of the antibacterial compound, inhibition of the apoptosis caspase-dependent pathway, deregulation of bacterial recognition. This work contributes new scientific knowledge in the field of immunology and apoptosis in early branching metazoan harboring within its tissue and cells a large number of symbiotic bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Noman MS, Liu L, Bai Z, et al (2020)

Tephritidae bacterial symbionts: potentials for pest management.

Bulletin of entomological research, 110(1):1-14.

Tephritidae is a large family that includes several fruit and vegetable pests. These organisms usually harbor a variegated bacterial community in their digestive systems. Symbiotic associations of bacteria and fruit flies have been well-studied in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, and Rhagoletis. Molecular and culture-based techniques indicate that many genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family, especially the genera of Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pectobacterium, Citrobacter, Erwinia, and Providencia constitute the most prevalent populations in the gut of fruit flies. The function of symbiotic bacteria provides a promising strategy for the biological control of insect pests. Gut bacteria can be used for controlling fruit fly through many ways, including attracting as odors, enhancing the success of sterile insect technique, declining the pesticide resistance, mass rearing of parasitoids and so on. New technology and recent research improved our knowledge of the gut bacteria diversity and function, which increased their potential for pest management. In this review, we discussed the diversity of bacteria in the economically important fruit fly and the use of these bacteria for controlling fruit fly populations. All the information is important for strengthening the future research of new strategies developed for insect pest control by the understanding of symbiotic relationships and multitrophic interactions between host plant and insects.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Kashkouli M, Fathipour Y, M Mehrabadi (2020)

Habitat visualization, acquisition features and necessity of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont of pistachio stink Bug, Acrosternum heegeri (Hem.: Pentatomidae).

Bulletin of entomological research, 110(1):22-33.

Plant-sucking stinkbugs are especially associated with mutualistic gut bacterial symbionts. Here, we explored the symbiotic relationship of a pistachio stinkbug, Acrosternum heegeri Fieber by histological, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), real-time PCR and molecular phylogenetic techniques. Furthermore, the effects of the symbiont on the resting/wandering behaviors of the newborn nymphs, pre-adult survival rates, and stage compositions were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and real-time PCR analyses showed that a rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium was persistently located within the posterior midgut crypts. Molecular phylogenetic and FISH techniques strongly suggested that this symbiont should be placed in the genus Pantoea of the Enterobacteriales. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of the bacterial cells on the egg surface which the surface sterilization of the eggs resulted in the successful removal of the symbiont from the eggs. Symbiotic and aposymbiotic A. heegeri showed no significant differences in the wandering behaviors of the first nymphal stages, while the symbiont-free insects suffered retarded growth and lower survivability. Together, the results highlight the habitat and acquisition features of Pantoea symbiont and its contribution in A. heegeri biology that might help us for better pest management in the future.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Rio RVM, Jozwick AKS, Savage AF, et al (2019)

Mutualist-Provisioned Resources Impact Vector Competency.

mBio, 10(3): pii:mBio.00018-19.

Many symbionts supplement their host's diet with essential nutrients. However, whether these nutrients also enhance parasitism is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether folate (vitamin B9) production by the tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) essential mutualist, Wigglesworthia, aids auxotrophic African trypanosomes in completing their life cycle within this obligate vector. We show that the expression of Wigglesworthia folate biosynthesis genes changes with the progression of trypanosome infection within tsetse. The disruption of Wigglesworthia folate production caused a reduction in the percentage of flies that housed midgut (MG) trypanosome infections. However, decreased folate did not prevent MG trypanosomes from migrating to and establishing an infection in the fly's salivary glands, thus suggesting that nutrient requirements vary throughout the trypanosome life cycle. We further substantiated that trypanosomes rely on symbiont-generated folate by feeding this vitamin to Glossina brevipalpis, which exhibits low trypanosome vector competency and houses Wigglesworthia incapable of producing folate. Folate-supplemented G. brevipalpis flies were significantly more susceptible to trypanosome infection, further demonstrating that this vitamin facilitates parasite infection establishment. Our cumulative results provide evidence that Wigglesworthia provides a key metabolite (folate) that is "hijacked" by trypanosomes to enhance their infectivity, thus indirectly impacting tsetse species vector competency. Parasite dependence on symbiont-derived micronutrients, which likely also occurs in other arthropod vectors, represents a relationship that may be exploited to reduce disease transmission.IMPORTANCE Parasites elicit several physiological changes in their host to enhance transmission. Little is known about the functional association between parasitism and microbiota-provisioned resources typically dedicated to animal hosts and how these goods may be rerouted to optimize parasite development. This study is the first to identify a specific symbiont-generated metabolite that impacts insect vector competence by facilitating parasite establishment and, thus, eventual transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate that the tsetse fly obligate mutualist Wigglesworthia provisions folate (vitamin B9) that pathogenic African trypanosomes exploit in an effort to successfully establish an infection in the vector's MG. This process is essential for the parasite to complete its life cycle and be transmitted to a new vertebrate host. Disrupting metabolic contributions provided by the microbiota of arthropod disease vectors may fuel future innovative control strategies while also offering minimal nontarget effects.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Swift S, Munroe S, Im C, et al (2019)

Remote tropical island colonization does not preclude symbiotic specialists: new evidence of mycorrhizal specificity across the geographic distribution of the Hawaiian endemic orchid Anoectochilus sandvicensis.

Annals of botany, 123(4):657-666.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: For symbiotic organisms, their colonization and spread across remote oceanic islands should favour generalists. Plants that form obligate symbiotic associations with microbes dominate island ecosystems, but the relationship between island inhabitance and symbiotic specificity is unclear, especially in the tropics. To fill this gap, we examined the mycorrhizal specificity of the Hawaiian endemic orchid Anoectochilus sandvicensis across multiple populations encompassing its entire geographic distribution.

METHODS: By molecular phylogenetic approaches we identified the mycorrhizal fungi associated with A. sandvicensis across its entire geographic distribution and determined the relationship of these fungi to others found elsewhere around the globe. With richness estimators, we assessed the mycorrhizal specificity of A. sandvicensis within and among islands. We then tested whether geographic proximity of orchid populations was a significant predictor for the presence of particular mycorrhizal fungi and their community composition.

KEY RESULTS: We found that each population of A. sandvicensis forms specific associations with one of three fungi in the genus Ceratobasidium and that the closest relatives of these fungi are globally widespread. Based on diversity indices, A. sandvicensis populations were estimated to partner with one to four mycorrhizal taxa with an estimated total of four compatible mycorrhizal fungi across its entire distribution. However, the geographic proximity of orchid populations was not a significant predictor of mycorrhizal fungal community composition.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the colonization and survival of plant species on even the most remote oceanic islands is not restricted to symbiotic generalists, and that partnering with few, but cosmopolitan microbial symbionts is an alternative means for successful island establishment. We suggest that the spatial distribution and abundance of symbionts in addition to island age, size and isolation should also be taken into consideration for predictions of island biodiversity.

RevDate: 2020-01-23

Fraser S, Fomiatti R, Moore D, et al (2019)

Is another relationship possible? Connoisseurship and the doctor-patient relationship for men who consume performance and image-enhancing drugs.

Social science & medicine (1982), 246:112720 pii:S0277-9536(19)30715-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Consumption of steroids and other performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is thought to be on the rise in Australia. Along with the benefits experienced by consumers come a range of health risks. This article draws on interviews conducted for an Australian research project on men who inject PIEDs to consider the ways in which information about managing these risks can be provided, the sources of information men use and value, and the professional relationships most effective for securing the best outcomes for them. As we will show, the men in our project expressed a very strong desire for reliable, credible information about risks and how to manage them, but also described often having to rely on information gleaned from sources of questionable reliability such as online forums and friends and acquaintances. Among the sources of information, advice and monitoring they expressed a desire to access were general medical practitioners (GPs), but high-quality interactions with GPs were, they argued, rarely possible. Using the recent work of Isabelle Stengers, particularly the notions of connoisseurship and symbiosis, we argue that new modes of engagement need to be developed that might allow men who consume PIEDs to access the information and support they need, including through their GPs. Following Stengers, we characterise the men in our project as 'connoisseurs' of PIEDs, and we consider what might be at stake and made possible were GPs and PIED connoisseurs to enter into more collaborative relationships to manage PIED-related health issues. In conducting our analysis, we argue for greater recognition of the complexities GPs face when encountering people engaged in illegal forms of consumption and call for new symbiotic models of engagement beyond both zero tolerance-style refusals to help and narrowly focused harm reduction approaches.

RevDate: 2020-01-23

Li CL, Xue DX, Wang YH, et al (2020)

A method for functional testing constitutive and ligand-induced interactions of lysin motif receptor proteins.

Plant methods, 16:3 pii:551.

Background: Plant receptors with lysin motifs (LsyM) recognize microbial signals such as fungal chitin and lipo-chitooligosaccharidic Nod factors of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. It is generally assumed that ligand-induced dimerization of LysM receptors is an essential step in activation of intracellular kinase domains and downstream signaling. Consequently, genes required for plant defense and establishment of symbiosis are expressed. We recently found that three LysM receptor proteins (namely LYK1, LYK4 and LYK5) of Arabidopsis thaliana form a tripartite receptor complex to perceive chitin. However, constitutive and ligand-induced interactions of LysM receptors generally remain difficult to be characterized.

Results: Interactions between ectodomains of LYK1, LYK4 and LYK5 were investigated by a chimeric receptor approach using hairy roots of the legume Lotus japonicus. Synthetic receptor pairs consisting of a LYK ectodomain and the intracellular domain of a L. japonicus Nod factor receptor (NFR1 and NFR5, respectively) were tested for their capacity to activate expression of the symbiotic NIN (nodule inception) gene. The results indicated constitutive (LYK4ED-LYK4ED, LYK4ED-LYK5ED) and chitin-induced interactions (LYK1ED-LYK1ED, LYK1ED-LYK5ED) of the examined ectodomains.

Conclusion: We present a method to functionally analyze constitutive and ligand-induced interactions of LysM-type proteins.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Sensui N, E Hirose (2018)

Cytoplasmic UV-R Absorption in an Integumentary Matrix (tunic) of Photosymbiotic Ascidian Colonies.

Zoological studies, 57:e33.

Noburu Sensui and Euichi Hirose (2018) In didemnid ascidians with cyanobacterial symbionts, the tunic has a specific peak absorbing ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) due to the presence of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds, which probably include mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). The UV-R absorbing tunic is supposed to protect the symbionts in the common cloacal cavity of the host colony. The histological distribution of UV-R absorption in the tunic was examined using a UV light microscope equipped with a digital camera, from which the low-pass filter of the UV-sensitive image sensor was removed. The cell peripheries of tunic bladder cells and cell-like objects were visualized with the trans-illumination of UV light, indicating UV-R absorption at that site. In contrast, tunic matrix and vacuolar content of tunic bladder cells appeared to lack of UV-R absorption, allowing damaging wavelengths to penetrate. Accordingly, UV-absorbing compounds are expected to be contained in the cytoplasmic matrix of tunic bladder cells and possibly other types of tunic cells.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Yuyama I, Nakamura T, Higuchi T, et al (2016)

Different Stress Tolerances of Juveniles of the Coral Acropora tenuis Associated with Clades C1 and D Symbiodinium.

Zoological studies, 55:e19.

Ikuko Yuyama, Takashi Nakamura, Tomihiko Higuchi, and Michio Hidaka (2016) Reef-building corals are often associated with multiple clades of symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp., where the relative composition of Symbiodinium can alter the phylogenetic properties (e.g., stress responsiveness, growth rate) of the host coral. The genus Symbiodinium contains nine clades, some of which behave differently in response to strong light and/or temperature stresses, for example, clade D Symbiodinium are thermally tolerant. However, previous studies are based on corals present in the field, and it is possible that the corals used in previous experiments did not contain single Symbiodinium clades. For an accurate assessment of the effects of each Symbiodinium clade on host thermal stress resistance, monoclonal cultures of clades C1 and D were inoculated into aposymbiotic juvenile polyps. Photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield: Fv /Fm) showed a decline at 30°C than at 25°C in both clades. Symbiodinium clade C1 showed a consistently higher rETRmax with larger fluctuations than clade D, with a lower survival rate of juveniles during thermal stress treatment. Under strong light exposure, corals containing clade C1 showed a greater decline in Fv /Fm (-74%), compared to decline in corals associated with clade D (-50%) after 3 hours. This is the first study to assess stress tolerances of juvenile corals in association with the monoclonal Symbiodinium clades C and D, and our results indicated greater tolerance of corals associated with clade D to strong light (500 μmol m-2 s-1). However, it is difficult to determine the impact of high-temperature stress on coral-algae symbiosis from photosynthetic activity. At high temperatures, clade C1 Symbiodinium exhibited high photosynthetic activity, but host survival rates were higher in corals associated with clade D Symbiodinium. Since clade C1 has a relatively high photosynthetic activity under high temperatures, clade C1 symbiosis at high temperatures might have a negative impact on corals compared with clade D.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Limviriyakul P, Tseng LC, Hwang JS, et al (2016)

Anomuran and Brachyuran Symbiotic Crabs in Coastal Areas between the Southern Ryukyu arc and the Coral Triangle.

Zoological studies, 55:e7.

Parinya Limviriyakul, Li-Chun Tseng, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, and Tung-Wei Shih (2016) Symbiotic anomuran and brachyuran crabs were identified after extensive surveys of reef zones, especially from sponges, scleractinian corals, crinoids, and sea urchins, in the coastal areas of the southern East China Sea. Twenty-nine species belonging to 17 genera, 9 families, and 2 infraorders were identified (3 were identified to the generic level). More crabs belonged to the infraorder Brachyura (82.8%) than to Anomura (17.2%). Two anomuran symbionts (Allogalathea elegans and Petrolisthes virgatus) and 5 brachyuran symbionts (Tetralia glaberrima, Tetralia rubridactyla, Trapezia cymodoce, Trapezia septata, and Cymo melanodactylus) are common in this area. Two species of Anomura (Lauriea simulata, Petrolisthes virgatus) and 3 of Brachyura (Gonatonotus nasutus, Tetralia aurantistellata and Tetralia nigrolineata) were identified for the first time from waters adjacent to Taiwan. These records represent the northernmost recorded of L. simulata and T. aurantistellata. The occurrence of P. virgatus is the second in the western Pacific Ocean. This study revealed the geospatial distribution of symbiotic crabs, which connects the region from the southern Ryukyu arc to the Coral Triangle, and provides the supporting taxonomic account of symbiotic anomuran and brachyuran crab fauna inhabiting the reef zone in northern Taiwan.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Haryanti D, Yasuda N, Harii S, et al (2015)

High tolerance of symbiotic larvae of Pocillopora damicornis to thermal stress.

Zoological studies, 54:e52.

BACKGROUND: When coral planulae, which use a horizontal mode of symbiont transmission, are inoculated with Symbiodinium, they suffer greater oxidative stress under strong light or high-temperature stress than non-symbiotic counterparts. Thus, dinoflagellate symbionts may become a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under stress. However, it remains unknown whether vertically transmitted symbionts negatively affect coral larvae under stress. We investigated the thermal tolerance of symbiotic planulae of a vertical transmitter coral, Pocillopora damicornis.

RESULTS: P. damicornis larvae, which have a large number of symbionts, survived the high-temperature treatment (32 °C) for 2 weeks. Significant reductions in Symbiodinium cell density were observed, but these did not lead to increased mortality of planulae during the 2-week experimental period. Although no significant difference was detected in the percentage of apoptotic cells between temperature treatment groups, pre-bleaching larvae exposed to 31 °C tended to exhibit higher percentages of apoptotic (TUNEL-positive) cells in the gastrodermis than 32 °C-treated larvae, which contained reduced numbers of Symbiodiniumcells.

CONCLUSIONS: Symbiotic larvae of P. damicornis survived well under high-temperature conditions, although their Symbiodinium cell density decreased. This suggests that P. damicornis larvae have the capacity to reduce the symbiont cell density without a harmful effect on their survivorship under thermal stress. Further studies on antioxidant systems and possible suppression of apoptotic pathways are necessary to elucidate the mechanism underlying the high thermal tolerance of symbiotic larvae of P.damicornis.

RevDate: 2020-01-23
CmpDate: 2020-01-23

Steimle A, Menz S, Bender A, et al (2019)

Flagellin hypervariable region determines symbiotic properties of commensal Escherichia coli strains.

PLoS biology, 17(6):e3000334 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-18-00963.

Escherichia coli represents a classical intestinal gram-negative commensal. Despite this commensalism, different E. coli strains can mediate disparate immunogenic properties in a given host. Symbiotic E. coli strains such as E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are attributed beneficial properties, e.g., promotion of intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, we aimed to identify molecular features derived from symbiotic bacteria that might help to develop innovative therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of intestinal immune disorders. This study was performed using the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, which is routinely used to evaluate potential therapeutics for the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs). We focused on the analysis of flagellin structures of different E. coli strains. EcN flagellin was found to harbor a substantially longer hypervariable region (HVR) compared to other commensal E. coli strains, and this longer HVR mediated symbiotic properties through stronger activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)5, thereby resulting in interleukin (IL)-22-mediated protection of mice against DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, using bone-marrow-chimeric mice (BMCM), CD11c+ cells of the colonic lamina propria (LP) were identified as the main mediators of these flagellin-induced symbiotic effects. We propose flagellin from symbiotic E. coli strains as a potential therapeutic to restore intestinal immune homeostasis, e.g., for the treatment of IBD patients.

RevDate: 2020-01-23
CmpDate: 2020-01-23

Hosseinzadeh S, Ramsey J, Mann M, et al (2019)

Color morphology of Diaphorina citri influences interactions with its bacterial endosymbionts and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'.

PloS one, 14(5):e0216599 pii:PONE-D-18-30769.

Diaphorina citri is a vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,' (CLas), associated with Huanglongbing, (HLB, or citrus greening) disease in citrus. D. citri exhibits three different color morph variants, blue, gray and yellow. Blue morphs have a greater capacity for long-distance flight as compared to non-blue morphs, but little else is known about how color morphology influences vector characteristics. In this study, we show that the color morphology of the insect is derived from pigmented cells of the fat body. Blue morphs acquire a lower level of CLas in their bodies from infected trees as compared to their gray and yellow conspecifics, referred to in this paper collectively as non-blue morphs. Accordingly, CLas titer in citrus leaves inoculated by non-blue insects was 6-fold higher than in leaves inoculated by blue insects. Blue color morphs harbored lower titers of Wolbachia and 'Candidatus Profftella armatura,' two of the D. citri bacterial endosymbionts. Expression of hemocyanin, a copper-binding oxygen transport protein responsible for the blue coloration of hemolymph of other arthropods and mollusks, was previously correlated with blue color morphology and is highly up-regulated in insects continuously reared on CLas infected citrus trees. Based on our results, we hypothesized that a reduction of hemocyanin expression would reduce the D. citri immune response and an increase in the titer of CLas would be observed. Surprisingly, a specific 3-fold reduction of hemocyanin-1 transcript levels using RNA silencing in blue adult D. citri morphs had an approximately 2-fold reduction on the titer of CLas. These results suggest that hemocyanin signaling from the fat body may have multiple functions in the regulation of bacterial titers in D. citri, and that hemocyanin is one of multiple psyllid genes involved in regulating CLas titer.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Cohen ML, Mashanova EV, Jagannathan SV, et al (2020)

Adaptation to pH stress by Vibrio fischeri can affect its symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes).

Microbiology (Reading, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Many microorganisms engaged in host-microbe interactions pendulate between a free-living phase and a host-affiliated stage. How adaptation to stress during the free-living phase affects host-microbe associations is unclear and understudied. To explore this topic, the symbiosis between Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) and the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri was leveraged for a microbial experimental evolution study. V. fischeri experienced adaptation to extreme pH while apart from the squid host. V. fischeri was serially passaged for 2000 generations to the lower and upper pH growth limits for this microorganism, which were pH 6.0 and 10.0, respectively. V. fischeri was also serially passaged for 2000 generations to vacillating pH 6.0 and 10.0. Evolution to pH stress both facilitated and impaired symbiosis. Microbial evolution to acid stress promoted squid colonization and increased bioluminescence for V. fischeri, while symbiont adaptation to alkaline stress diminished these two traits. Oscillatory selection to acid and alkaline stress also improved symbiosis for V. fischeri, but the facilitating effects were less than that provided by microbial adaptation to acid stress. In summary, microbial adaptation to harsh environments amid the free-living phase may impact the evolution of host-microbe interactions in ways that were not formerly considered.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Smith TE, NA Moran (2020)

Coordination of host and symbiont gene expression reveals a metabolic tug-of-war between aphids and Buchnera.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1916748117 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbioses between animals and microbes are often described as mutualistic, but are subject to tradeoffs that may manifest as shifts in host and symbiont metabolism, cellular processes, or symbiont density. In pea aphids, the bacterial symbiont Buchnera is confined to specialized aphid cells called bacteriocytes, where it produces essential amino acids needed by hosts. This relationship is dynamic; Buchnera titer varies within individual aphids and among different clonal aphid lineages, and is affected by environmental and host genetic factors. We examined how host genotypic variation relates to host and symbiont function among seven aphid clones differing in Buchnera titer. We found that bacteriocyte gene expression varies among individual aphids and among aphid clones, and that Buchnera gene expression changes in response. By comparing hosts with low and high Buchnera titer, we found that aphids and Buchnera oppositely regulate genes underlying amino acid biosynthesis and cell growth. In high-titer hosts, both bacteriocytes and symbionts show elevated expression of genes underlying energy metabolism. Several eukaryotic cell signaling pathways are differentially expressed in bacteriocytes of low- versus high-titer hosts: Cell-growth pathways are up-regulated in low-titer genotypes, while membrane trafficking, lysosomal processes, and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cytokine pathways are up-regulated in high-titer genotypes. Specific Buchnera functions are up-regulated within different bacteriocyte environments, with genes underlying flagellar body secretion and flagellar assembly overexpressed in low- and high-titer hosts, respectively. Overall, our results reveal allowances and demands made by both host and symbiont engaged in a metabolic "tug-of-war."

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Vincent F, C Bowler (2020)

Diatoms Are Selective Segregators in Global Ocean Planktonic Communities.

mSystems, 5(1): pii:5/1/e00444-19.

Diatoms are a major component of phytoplankton, believed to be responsible for around 20% of the annual primary production on Earth. As abundant and ubiquitous organisms, they are known to establish biotic interactions with many other members of plankton. Through analyses of cooccurrence networks derived from the Tara Oceans expedition that take into account both biotic and abiotic factors in shaping the spatial distributions of species, we show that only 13% of diatom pairwise associations are driven by environmental conditions; the vast majority are independent of abiotic factors. In contrast to most other plankton groups, on a global scale, diatoms display a much higher proportion of negative correlations with other organisms, particularly toward potential predators and parasites, suggesting that their biogeography is constrained by top-down pressure. Genus-level analyses indicate that abundant diatoms are not necessarily the most connected and that species-specific abundance distribution patterns lead to negative associations with other organisms. In order to move forward in the biological interpretation of cooccurrence networks, an open-access extensive literature survey of diatom biotic interactions was compiled, of which 18.5% were recovered in the computed network. This result reveals the extent of what likely remains to be discovered in the field of planktonic biotic interactions, even for one of the best-known organismal groups.IMPORTANCE Diatoms are key phytoplankton in the modern ocean that are involved in numerous biotic interactions, ranging from symbiosis to predation and viral infection, which have considerable effects on global biogeochemical cycles. However, despite recent large-scale studies of plankton, we are still lacking a comprehensive picture of the diversity of diatom biotic interactions in the marine microbial community. Through the ecological interpretation of both inferred microbial association networks and available knowledge on diatom interactions compiled in an open-access database, we propose an ecosystems approach for exploring diatom interactions in the ocean.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Guckes KR, Cecere AG, Williams AL, et al (2020)

The Bacterial Enhancer Binding Protein VasH Promotes Expression of a Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio fischeri during Symbiosis.

Journal of bacteriology pii:JB.00777-19 [Epub ahead of print].

Vibrio fischeri is a bacterial symbiont that colonizes the light organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes Certain strains of V. fischeri express a type VI secretion system (T6SS), which delivers effectors into neighboring cells that result in their death. Strains that are susceptible to the T6SS fail to establish symbiosis with a T6SS-positive strain within the same location of the squid light organ, which is a phenomenon termed strain incompatibility. This study investigates the regulation of the T6SS in V. fischeri strain FQ-A001. Here we report that the expression of Hcp, a necessary structural component of the T6SS, depends on the alternative sigma factor σ54 and the bacterial enhancer binding protein VasH. VasH is necessary for FQ-A001 to kill other strains, suggesting that VasH-dependent regulation is essential for the T6SS of V. fischeri to affect intercellular interactions. In addition, this study demonstrates VasH-dependent transcription of hcp within host-associated populations of FQ-A001, suggesting that the T6SS is expressed within the host environment. Together, these findings establish a model for transcriptional control of hcp in V. fischeri within the squid light organ, thereby increasing understanding of how the T6SS is regulated during symbiosis.IMPORTANCE Animals harbor bacterial symbionts with specific traits that promote host fitness. Mechanisms that facilitate intercellular interactions among bacterial symbionts impact which bacterial lineages ultimately establish symbiosis with the host. How these mechanisms are regulated are poorly characterized in non-human bacterial symbionts. This study establishes a model for the transcriptional regulation of a contact-dependent killing machine, thereby increasing understanding of mechanisms by which different strains compete while establishing symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-01-21

Hitzenberger JF, Dral PO, Meinhardt U, et al (2017)

Stability of Odd- Versus Even-Electron Gas-Phase (Quasi)Molecular Ions Derived from Pyridine-Substituted N-Heterotriangulenes.

ChemPlusChem, 82(2):163.

Invited for this month's cover are the collaborating groups at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany and at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Germany. The cover picture shows the symbiosis of quantum chemical theory and gas-phase collision experiment investigating the influence of the electronic state on stability of the radical cation ([M]+.) and protonated triangulene ([M+H]+). The dissociation of the radical cation requires less energy due to the formation of an energetically favored extended aromatic π-system. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/cplu.201600416.

RevDate: 2020-01-22
CmpDate: 2020-01-22

Van Dexter S, R Boopathy (2019)

Biodegradation of phenol by Acinetobacter tandoii isolated from the gut of the termite.

Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(33):34067-34072.

The diet of wood-feeding termites (WFT) consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are utilized by symbiotic protozoa as a carbon source. Protozoa produce acetate, which is the carbon source of the termite. Recently, the mechanisms by which lignin is modified by termites have been reported. Lignin is broken down into its phenylpropanoid monomers and phenolic compounds. Bacteria from WFT gut capable of degrading lignin metabolic products are potentially valuable for bioremediation and biofuel production. A bacterium was isolated from the gut of the WFT and identified as Acinetobacter tandoii. This bacterium was capable of utilizing phenol as the sole carbon source and was able to completely degrade phenol at the concentration of 280 mg/L. A. tandoii degraded phenol via the ortho and β-ketoadipase pathway. This bacterium is a known phenol degrader, but to our knowledge, this is the first time it was isolated and tested for phenol-degrading ability from termites.

RevDate: 2020-01-21

Morran LT (2020)

Evolution: Convergent Pathways to Symbiosis.

Current biology : CB, 30(2):R64-R66.

Little is known about the establishment of symbioses. A new study finds that two independent protist-algae symbioses utilize convergent patterns of nutrient exchange, suggesting that certain complementary host and symbiont traits can increase the likelihood of establishing beneficial symbiotic interactions.

RevDate: 2020-01-21

Williams SD, MR Patterson (2020)

Resistance and robustness of the global coral-symbiont network.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing ocean temperatures have widespread consequences for coral reefs, one of which is coral bleaching. We analyzed a global network of associations between coral species and Symbiodiniaceae for resistance to temperature stress and robustness to perturbations. Null networks were created by changing either the physiological parameters of the nodes or the structures of the networks. We developed a bleaching model in which each link, association, is given a weight based on temperature thresholds for specific host-symbiont pairs and links are removed as temperature increases. Resistance to temperature stress was determined from the response of the networks to the bleaching model. Ecological robustness, defined by how much perturbation is needed to decrease the number of nodes by 50%, was determined for multiple removal models that considered traits of the hosts, symbionts, and their associations. Network resistance to bleaching and robustness to perturbations differed from the null networks and varied across spatial scales, supporting that thermal tolerances, local association patterns, and environment play an important role in network persistence. Networks were more robust to attacks on associations than to attacks on species. Although the global network was fairly robust to random link removals, when links are removed according to the bleaching model, robustness decreases by about 20%. Specific environmental attacks, in the form of increasing temperatures, destabilize the global network of coral species and Symbiodiniaceae. On a global scale, the network was more robust to removals of links with susceptible Symbiodiniaceae than it was to removals of links with susceptible hosts. Thus, the symbionts convey more stability to the symbiosis than the hosts when the system is under an environmental attack. However, our results also provide evidence that the environment of the networks affects robustness to link perturbations. Our work shows that ecological resistance and robustness can be assessed through network analysis that considers specific biological traits and functional weaknesses. The global network of associations between corals and Symbiodiniaceae and its distribution of thermal tolerances are non-random, and the evolution of this architecture has led to higher sensitivity to environmental perturbations.

RevDate: 2020-01-21

Becana M, Yruela I, Sarath G, et al (2020)

Plant hemoglobins: a journey from unicellular green algae to vascular plants.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Globins (Glbs) are widely distributed in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. They can be classified into proteins with 2/2 or 3/3 α-helical folding around the heme cavity. Both types of Glbs occur in green algae, bryophytes and vascular plants. The Glbs of angiosperms have been more intensively studied and several protein structures have been solved. They can be hexacoordinate or pentacoordinate, depending on whether a histidine is coordinating or not at the sixth position of the iron atom. The 3/3 Glbs of class 1 and the 2/2 Glbs (also called class 3 in plants) are present in all angiosperms, whereas the 3/3 Glbs of class 2 have been only found in early angiosperms and eudicots. The three Glb classes are expected to play different roles. Class 1 Glbs are involved in hypoxia responses and modulate NO concentration, which may explain their roles in plant morphogenesis, hormone signaling, cell fate determination, nutrient deficiency, nitrogen metabolism and plant-microorganism symbioses. Symbiotic Glbs derive from class 1 or class 2 Glbs and transport O2 in nodules. The physiological roles of class 2 and 3 Glbs are poorly defined but could involve O2 and NO transport and/or metabolism, respectively. More research is warranted on these intriguing proteins to determine their non-redundant functions.

RevDate: 2020-01-21

Kanazawa H, Ozaki S, Doi Y, et al (2020)

Symbiotic riboflavin degradation by Microbacterium and Nocardioides bacteria.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Unlike its biosynthetic mechanisms and physiological function, current understanding of riboflavin degradation in soil is limited to a few bacteria that decompose it to lumichrome. Here, we isolated six Microbacterium and three Nocardioides strains. These strains utilized riboflavin and lumichrome, respectively, as carbon sources. Among these strains, we identified Microbacterium paraoxydans R16 (R16) and Nocardioides nitrophenolicus L16 (L16), which were isolated form the same enrichment culture. Co-cultured R16 and L16 reconstituted a riboflavin-degrading interspecies consortium, in which the R16 strain degraded riboflavin to lumichrome and ᴅ-ribose. The L16 strain utilized the lumichrome as a carbon source, indicating that R16 is required for L16 to grow in the consortium. Notably, rates of riboflavin degradation and growth were increased in co-cultured, compared with monocultured R16 cells. These results indicated that a beneficial symbiotic interaction between M. paraoxydans R16 and N. nitrophenolicus L16 results in the ability to degrade riboflavin.

RevDate: 2020-01-21
CmpDate: 2020-01-21

Briliūtė J, Urbanowicz PA, Luis AS, et al (2019)

Complex N-glycan breakdown by gut Bacteroides involves an extensive enzymatic apparatus encoded by multiple co-regulated genetic loci.

Nature microbiology, 4(9):1571-1581.

Glycans are the major carbon sources available to the human colonic microbiota. Numerous N-glycosylated proteins are found in the human gut, from both dietary and host sources, including immunoglobulins such as IgA that are secreted into the intestine at high levels. Here, we show that many mutualistic gut Bacteroides spp. have the capacity to utilize complex N-glycans (CNGs) as nutrients, including those from immunoglobulins. Detailed mechanistic studies using transcriptomic, biochemical, structural and genetic techniques reveal the pathway employed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) for CNG degradation. The breakdown process involves an extensive enzymatic apparatus encoded by multiple non-adjacent loci and comprises 19 different carbohydrate-active enzymes from different families, including a CNG-specific endo-glycosidase activity. Furthermore, CNG degradation involves the activity of carbohydrate-active enzymes that have previously been implicated in the degradation of other classes of glycan. This complex and diverse apparatus provides Bt with the capacity to access the myriad different structural variants of CNGs likely to be found in the intestinal niche.

RevDate: 2020-01-21
CmpDate: 2020-01-21

Kranabetter JM, Harman-Denhoed R, BJ Hawkins (2019)

Saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp stoichiometry (C : N : P) across temperate rainforests as evidence of shared nutrient constraints among symbionts.

The New phytologist, 221(1):482-492.

Quantifying nutritional dynamics of free-living saprotrophs and symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field is challenging, but the stoichiometry of fruiting bodies (sporocarps) may be an effective methodology for this purpose. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of soils, foliage and 146 sporocarp collections were analyzed from 14 Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii stands across a podzolization gradient on Vancouver Island (Canada). N and P concentrations were considerably higher in saprotrophic fungi. Fungal N% increased with soil N content at a greater rate for saprotrophs than ectomycorrhizal fungi, while fungal P% of saprotrophs was more constrained. Fungal N : P was more responsive to soil N : P for ectomycorrhizal fungi (homeostatic regulation coefficient 'H' = 2.9) than saprotrophs (H = 5.9), while N : P of ectomycorrhizal fungi and host tree foliage scaled almost identically. Results underscore the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi as nutrient conduits, supporting host trees, whereas saprotrophs maintain a greater degree of nutritional homeostasis. Site nutrient constraints were shared in equal measure between ectomycorrhizal fungi and host trees, particularly for P, suggesting neither partner benefits from enhanced nutrition at the expense of the other. Sporocarp stoichiometry provides new insights into mycorrhizal relationships and illustrates pervasive P deficiencies across temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest.

RevDate: 2020-01-21
CmpDate: 2020-01-21

Sui XL, Zhang T, Tian YQ, et al (2019)

A neglected alliance in battles against parasitic plants: arbuscular mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses alleviate damage to a legume host by root hemiparasitic Pedicularis species.

The New phytologist, 221(1):470-481.

Despite their ubiquitous distribution and significant ecological roles, soil microorganisms have long been neglected in investigations addressing parasitic plant-host interactions. Because nutrient deprivation is a primary cause of host damage by parasitic plants, we hypothesized that beneficial soil microorganisms conferring nutrient benefits to parasitized hosts may play important roles in alleviating damage. We conducted a pot cultivation experiment to test the inoculation effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae), a rhizobium (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and their interactive effects, on alleviation of damage to a legume host (Trifolium repens) by two root hemiparasitic plants with different nutrient requirements (N-demanding Pedicularis rex and P-demanding P. tricolor). Strong interactive effects between inoculation regimes and hemiparasite identity were observed. The relative benefits of microbial inoculation were related to hemiparasite nutrient requirements. Dual inoculation with the rhizobium strongly enhanced promotional arbuscular mycorrhizal effects on hosts parasitized by P. rex, but reduced the arbuscular mycorrhizal promotion on hosts parasitized by P. tricolor. Our results demonstrate substantial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses to alleviating damage to the legume host by root hemiparasites, and suggest that soil microorganisms are critical factors regulating host-parasite interactions and should be taken into account in future studies.

RevDate: 2020-01-21
CmpDate: 2020-01-21

Patterson A, Flores-Rentería L, Whipple A, et al (2019)

Common garden experiments disentangle plant genetic and environmental contributions to ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure.

The New phytologist, 221(1):493-502.

The interactions among climate change, plant genetic variation and fungal mutualists are poorly understood, but probably important to plant survival under drought. We examined these interactions by studying the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities of pinyon pine seedlings (Pinus edulis) planted in a wildland ecosystem experiencing two decades of climate change-related drought. We established a common garden containing P. edulis seedlings of known maternal lineages (drought tolerant, DT; drought intolerant, DI), manipulated soil moisture and measured EMF community structure and seedling growth. Three findings emerged: EMF community composition differed at the phylum level between DT and DI seedlings, and diversity was two-fold greater in DT than in DI seedlings. EMF communities of DT seedlings did not shift with water treatment and were dominated by an ascomycete, Geopora sp. By contrast, DI seedlings shifted to basidiomycete dominance with increased moisture, demonstrating a lineage by environment interaction. DT seedlings grew larger than DI seedlings in high (28%) and low (50%) watering treatments. These results show that inherited plant traits strongly influence microbial communities, interacting with drought to affect seedling performance. These interactions and their potential feedback effects may influence the success of trees, such as P. edulis, in future climates.

RevDate: 2020-01-20

Quiroga G, Erice G, Aroca R, et al (2020)

Radial water transport in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize plants under drought stress conditions is affected by indole-acetic acid (IAA) application.

Journal of plant physiology, 246-247:153115 pii:S0176-1617(20)30003-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Drought stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses, compromising crop growth, reproductive success and yield. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been demonstrated to be beneficial in helping the plant to bear with water deficit. In plants, development and stress responses are largely regulated by a complex hormonal crosstalk. Auxins play significant roles in plant growth and development, in responses to different abiotic stresses or in the establishment and functioning of the AM symbiosis. Despite these important functions, the role of indole-3acetic acid (IAA) as a regulator of root water transport and stress response is not well understood. In this study, the effect of exogenous application of IAA on the regulation of root radial water transport in AM plants was analyzed under well-watered and drought stress conditions. Exogenous IAA application affected root hydraulic parameters, mainly osmotic root hydraulic conductivity (Lo), which was decreased in both AM and non-AM plants under water deficit conditions. Under drought, the relative apoplastic water flow was differentially regulated by IAA application in non-AM and AM plants. The effect of IAA on the internal cell component of root water conductivity suggests that aquaporins are involved in the IAA-dependent inhibition of this water pathway.

RevDate: 2020-01-20

Drain A, Thouin J, Wang L, et al (2020)

Functional characterization and physiological roles of the single Shaker outward K+ channel in Medicago truncatula.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

The model legume Medicago truncatula possesses a single outward Shaker K+ channel, while Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two channels of this type, named AtSKOR and AtGORK, the former having been shown to play a major role in K+ secretion into the xylem sap in the root vasculature and the latter to mediate the efflux of K+ across the guard cell membrane leading to stomatal closure. Here we show that the expression pattern of the single M. truncatula outward Shaker channel, which has been named MtGORK, includes the root vasculature, guard cells and root hairs. As shown by patch-clamp experiments on root hair protoplasts, besides the Shaker-type slowly-activating outwardly-rectifying K+ conductance encoded by MtGORK, a second K+ -permeable conductance, displaying fast activation and weak rectification, can be expressed by M. truncatula. A KO mutation resulting in absence of MtGORK activity is shown to weakly reduce K+ translocation to shoots, and only in plants engaged in rhizobial symbiosis, but to strongly affect the control of stomatal aperture and transpirational water loss. In legumes, the early electrical signaling pathway triggered by Nod factor perception is known to comprise a short transient depolarization of the root hair plasma membrane. In absence of MtGORK functional expression, the rate of the membrane repolarization is found to be decreased by about 2 times. This defect was without any consequence on infection thread development and nodule production in plants grown in vitro, but a decrease in nodule production was observed in plants grown in soil.

RevDate: 2020-01-19

van der Zande RM, Achlatis M, Bender-Champ D, et al (2020)

Paradise lost: End-of-century warming and acidification under business-as-usual emissions have severe consequences for symbiotic corals.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite recent efforts to curtail greenhouse gas emissions, current global emission trajectories are still following the business-as-usual RCP8.5 emission pathway. The resulting ocean warming and acidification have transformative impacts on coral reef ecosystems, detrimentally affecting coral physiology and health, and these impacts are predicted to worsen in the near future. In this study, we kept fragments of the symbiotic corals Acropora intermedia (thermally sensitive) and Porites lobata (thermally tolerant) for 7 weeks under an orthogonal design of predicted end-of-century RCP8.5 conditions for temperature and pCO2 (3.5 °C and 570 ppm above present-day respectively) to unravel how temperature and acidification, individually or interactively, influence metabolic and physiological performance. Our results pinpoint thermal stress as the dominant driver of deteriorating health in both species because of its propensity to destabilize coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis (bleaching). Acidification had no influence on metabolism but had a significant negative effect on skeleton growth, particularly when photosynthesis was absent such as in bleached corals or under dark conditions. Total loss of photosynthesis after bleaching caused an exhaustion of protein and lipid stores and collapse of calcification that ultimately led to A. intermedia mortality. Despite complete loss of symbionts from its tissue, P. lobata maintained small amounts of photosynthesis and experienced a weaker decline in lipid and protein reserves that presumably contributed to higher survival of this species. Our results indicate that ocean warming and acidification under business-as-usual CO2 emission scenarios will likely extirpate thermally-sensitive coral species before the end of the century, while slowing the recovery of more thermally-tolerant species from increasingly severe mass coral bleaching and mortality. This could ultimately lead to the gradual disappearance of tropical coral reefs globally, and a shift on surviving reefs to only the most resilient coral species.

RevDate: 2020-01-18

Ramadan WS, Zaher DM, Altaie AM, et al (2020)

Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Lung and Breast Cancers through Understanding the Anti-Angiogenesis Resistance Mechanisms.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(2): pii:ijms21020565.

Breast and lung cancers are among the top cancer types in terms of incidence and mortality burden worldwide. One of the challenges in the treatment of breast and lung cancers is their resistance to administered drugs, as observed with angiogenesis inhibitors. Based on clinical and pre-clinical findings, these two types of cancers have gained the ability to resist angiogenesis inhibitors through several mechanisms that rely on cellular and extracellular factors. This resistance is mediated through angiogenesis-independent vascularization, and it is related to cancer cells and their microenvironment. The mechanisms that cancer cells utilize include metabolic symbiosis and invasion, and they also take advantage of neighboring cells like macrophages, endothelial cells, myeloid and adipose cells. Overcoming resistance is of great interest, and researchers are investigating possible strategies to enhance sensitivity towards angiogenesis inhibitors. These strategies involved targeting multiple players in angiogenesis, epigenetics, hypoxia, cellular metabolism and the immune system. This review aims to discuss the mechanisms of resistance to angiogenesis inhibitors and to highlight recently developed approaches to overcome this resistance.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Shahan R, PN Benfey (2020)

A Co-opted Regulator of Lateral Root Development Controls Nodule Organogenesis in Lotus.

Developmental cell, 52(1):6-7.

Legumes, a subset of flowering plants, form root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The regulatory network controlling nodule formation has remained mysterious. In a recent issue of Science, Soyano et al. (2019) demonstrate that co-option of an existing lateral root developmental program is used in Lotus for nodule organogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Tena G (2020)

Synthetic symbiosis.

Nature plants, 6(1):2.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Bürger M, J Chory (2020)

The Many Models of Strigolactone Signaling.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(19)30334-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones involved in several biological processes that are of great agricultural concern. While initiating plant-fungal symbiosis, SLs also trigger germination of parasitic plants that pose a major threat to farming. In vascular plants, SLs control shoot branching, which is linked to crop yield. SL research has been a fascinating field that has produced a variety of different signaling models, reflecting a complex picture of hormone perception. Here, we review recent developments in the SL field and the crystal structures that gave rise to various models of receptor activation. We also highlight the increasing number of discovered SL molecules, reflecting the existence of cross-kingdom SL communication.

RevDate: 2020-01-20

Puvar AC, Nathani NM, Shaikh I, et al (2019)

Bacterial line of defense in Dirinaria lichen from two different ecosystems: First genomic insights of its mycobiont Dirinaria sp. GBRC AP01.

Microbiological research, 233:126407 pii:S0944-5013(19)30938-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Lichens have been widely studied for their symbiotic properties and for the secondary metabolites production by its fungal symbiont. Recent molecular studies have confirmed coexistence of bacteria along with the fungal and algal symbionts. Direct nucleic acid study by -omics approaches is providing better insights into their structural and functional dynamics. However, genomic analysis of individual members of lichen is difficult by the conventional approach. Hence, genome assembly from metagenome data needs standardization in the eukaryotic system like lichens. The present study aimed at metagenomic characterization of rock associated lichen Dirinaria collected from Kutch and Dang regions of Gujarat, followed by genome reconstruction and annotation of the mycobiont Dirinaria. The regions considered in the study are eco-geographically highly variant. The results revealed higher alpha diversity in the dry region Kutch as compared to the tropical forest associated lichen from Dang. Ascomycota was the most abundant eukaryote while Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial population. There were 23 genera observed only in the Kutch lichen (KL) and one genus viz., Candidatus Vecturithrix unique to the Dang lichen (DL). The exclusive bacterial genera in the Kutch mostly belonged to groups reported for stress tolerance and earlier isolated from lithobionts of extreme niches. The assembled data of KL & DL were further used for genome reconstruction of Dirinaria sp. using GC and tetra-pentamer parameters and reassembly that resulted into a final draft genome of 31.7 Mb and 9556 predicted genes. Twenty-eight biosynthesis gene clusters were predicted that included genes for polyketide, indole and terpene synthesis. Association analysis of bacteria and mycobiont revealed 8 pathways specific to bacteria with implications in lichen symbiosis and environment interaction. The study provides the first draft genome of the entire fungal Dirinaria genus and provides insights into the Dirinaria lichen metagenome from Gujarat region.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Chung SH, Parker BJ, Blow F, et al (2020)

Host and Symbiont Genetic Determinants of Nutritional Phenotype in a Natural Population of the Pea Aphid.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

A defining feature of the nutritional ecology of plant sap feeding insects is that the dietary deficit of essential amino acids (EAAs) in plant sap is supplemented by EAA-provisioning microbial symbionts in the insect. Here, we demonstrated substantial variation in the nutritional phenotype of 208 genotypes of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum collected from natural populations. Specifically, the genotypes varied in performance (larval growth rates) on four test diets lacking EAA arginine, histidine, methionine or aromatic EAAs (phenylalanine and tryptophan), relative to the diet containing all EAAs. These data indicate that EAA supply from the symbiotic bacteria Buchnera can meet total aphid nutritional demand for only a subset of the EAA/aphid genotype combinations. We then correlated SNPs identified in the aphid and Buchnera genomes by reduced genome sequencing against aphid performance for each EAA deletion diet. This yielded significant associations between performance on the histidine-free diet and Buchnera SNPs, including metabolism genes predicted to influence histidine biosynthesis. Aphid genetic correlates of performance were obtained for all four deletion diets, with associations on the arginine-free diet and aromatic-free diets dominated by genes functioning in regulation of metabolic and cellular processes. The specific aphid genes associated with performance on different EAA deletion diets are largely non-overlapping, indicating some independence in the regulatory circuits determining aphid phenotype for the different EAAs. This study demonstrates how variation in phenotype of associations collected from natural populations can be applied to elucidate the genetic basis of ecologically-important traits in systems intractable to traditional forward/reverse genetic techniques.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Davison J, García de León D, Zobel M, et al (2020)

Plant functional groups associate with distinct arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Benefits of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis for associating plants and fungi are modulated by the functional characteristics of both partners. However, it is unknown to what extent functionally distinct groups of plants naturally associate with different AM fungi. We reanalysed 14 high-throughput sequencing data sets describing AM fungal communities associating with plant individuals (2427) belonging to 297 species. We examined how root-associating AM fungal communities varied between plants with different growth forms, photosynthetic pathways, CSR strategies, mycorrhizal statuses and N-fixing statuses. AM fungal community composition differed in relation to all studied plant functional groupings. Grasses, C4 and non-ruderal plants were characterised by high AM fungal alpha diversity; C4, ruderal and obligately mycorrhizal plants by high beta diversity. Phylogenetic diversity of AM fungi, a potential surrogate for functional diversity, was higher among forbs than other plant growth forms. Putatively ruderal (previously cultured) AM fungi disproportionately associated with forbs and ruderal plants. There was phylogenetic correlation among AM fungi in the degree of association with different plant growth forms and photosynthetic pathways. Associated AM fungal communities constitute an important component of plant ecological strategies. Functionally different plants associate with distinct AM fungal communities, linking mycorrhizal associations with functional diversity in ecosystems.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Carrouel F, Viennot S, Ottolenghi L, et al (2020)

Nanoparticles as Anti-Microbial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Remineralizing Agents in Oral Care Cosmetics: A Review of the Current Situation.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(1): pii:nano10010140.

Many investigations have pointed out widespread use of medical nanosystems in various domains of dentistry such as prevention, prognosis, care, tissue regeneration, and restoration. The progress of oral medicine nanosystems for individual prophylaxis is significant for ensuring bacterial symbiosis and high-quality oral health. Nanomaterials in oral cosmetics are used in toothpaste and other mouthwash to improve oral healthcare performance. These processes cover nanoparticles and nanoparticle-based materials, especially domains of application related to biofilm management in cariology and periodontology. Likewise, nanoparticles have been integrated in diverse cosmetic produces for the care of enamel remineralization and dental hypersensitivity. This review summarizes the indications and applications of several widely employed nanoparticles in oral cosmetics, and describes the potential clinical implementation of nanoparticles as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and remineralizing agents in the prevention of dental caries, hypersensitivity, and periodontitis.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Li T, Yu L, Song B, et al (2020)

Genome Improvement and Core Gene Set Refinement of Fugacium kawagutii.

Microorganisms, 8(1): pii:microorganisms8010102.

Cataloging an accurate functional gene set for the Symbiodiniaceae species is crucial for addressing biological questions of dinoflagellate symbiosis with corals and other invertebrates. To improve the gene models of Fugacium kawagutii, we conducted high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) for the genome and Illumina combined with PacBio sequencing for the transcriptome to achieve a new genome assembly and gene prediction. A 0.937-Gbp assembly of F. kawagutii were obtained, with a N50 > 13 Mbp and the longest scaffold of 121 Mbp capped with telomere motif at both ends. Gene annotation produced 45,192 protein-coding genes, among which, 11,984 are new compared to previous versions of the genome. The newly identified genes are mainly enriched in 38 KEGG pathways including N-Glycan biosynthesis, mRNA surveillance pathway, cell cycle, autophagy, mitophagy, and fatty acid synthesis, which are important for symbiosis, nutrition, and reproduction. The newly identified genes also included those encoding O-methyltransferase (O-MT), 3-dehydroquinate synthase, homologous-pairing protein 2-like (HOP2) and meiosis protein 2 (MEI2), which function in mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) biosynthesis and sexual reproduction, respectively. The improved version of the gene set (Fugka_Geneset _V3) raised transcriptomic read mapping rate from 33% to 54% and BUSCO match from 29% to 55%. Further differential gene expression analysis yielded a set of stably expressed genes under variable trace metal conditions, of which 115 with annotated functions have recently been found to be stably expressed under three other conditions, thus further developing the "core gene set" of F. kawagutii. This improved genome will prove useful for future Symbiodiniaceae transcriptomic, gene structure, and gene expression studies, and the refined "core gene set" will be a valuable resource from which to develop reference genes for gene expression studies.

RevDate: 2020-01-19

Wolff CA, KA Esser (2019)

Exercise Timing and Circadian Rhythms.

Current opinion in physiology, 10:64-69.

Circadian rhythms and exercise physiology are intimately linked, but the symbiosis of this relationship has yet to be fully unraveled. Exercise exerts numerous health benefits from the organelle to the organism. Proper circadian function is also emerging as a prerequisite for maintaining health. The positive effects of exercise on health may be partially mediated by an exercise-induced change in tissue molecular clocks and/or the outcomes of exercise may be modified depending on when exercise is performed. This review provides a brief overview of circadian biology and the influence of exercise on the molecular clock, with an emphasis on skeletal muscle. Additionally, we provide considerations for future investigations seeking to unravel the mechanistic interactions of exercise and the molecular clock.

RevDate: 2020-01-18

Cui L, Guo F, Zhang J, et al (2020)

Author Correction: Synergy of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and exogenous Ca2+ benefits peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) growth through the shared hormone and flavonoid pathway.

Scientific reports, 10(1):755 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-57448-2.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Rizzo E, Sherman T, Manosalva P, et al (2020)

Assessment of Local and Systemic Changes in Plant Gene Expression and Aphid Responses during Potato Interactions with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Potato Aphids.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1): pii:plants9010082.

This research examined aphid and plant responses to distinct levels (none, low, and high) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal root colonization by studying the association between potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and AM fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices). It extends knowledge on gene expression changes, assessed by RT-qPCR, of ten defense-related genes at two time-points post-herbivory (24 h and 10 days), focusing on aphid-infested local leaves, non-infested systemic leaves, and roots. The results showed that aphid fitness was not altered by AM symbiosis. At 24 h, ETHYLENE RECEPTOR1 gene expression was repressed in roots of aphid-infested non-mycorrhizal plants and aphid-infested plants with a high level of AM fungal root colonization, but not on aphid-infested plants with a low level of AM fungal root colonization. At 10 days, ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE and POTATO TYPE I PROTEASE INHIBITOR were upregulated exclusively in local leaves of aphid-infested plants with a low level of AM fungal root colonization. In addition, local and systemic changes in plant gene expression appeared to be regulated exclusively by AM status and aphid herbivory. In summary, the gene expression data provide insights on mycorrhizal potato responses to aphid herbivory and serve as a starting point for future studies using this system.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Kumar A, Cousins DR, Liu CW, et al (2020)

Nodule Inception Is Not Required for Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Medicago truncatula.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1): pii:plants9010071.

Most legumes can engage in symbiosis with N-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. This symbiosis, called nodulation, evolved from the more widespread symbiosis that most land plants form with arbuscular mycorrhiza, which is reflected in a common requirement of certain genes for both these symbioses. One key nodulation gene, Nodule Inception (NIN), has been intensively studied. Mutants in NIN are unable to form nodules, which has made it difficult to identify downstream genes under the control of NIN. The analysis of data from our recent transcriptomics study revealed that some genes with an altered expression of nin during nodulation are upregulated in mycorrhizal roots. In addition, another study reported the decreased colonization of nin roots by arbuscular mycorrhiza. We therefore investigated a role for NIN in mycorrhiza formation. Our time course study, using two nin alleles with differing genetic backgrounds, suggests that that loss of NIN does not affect colonization of Medicago truncatula roots, either in the presence or absence of rhizobia. This, and recent phylogenetic analyses showing that the loss of NIN is correlated with loss of nodulation in the FaFaCuRo clade, but not with the ability to form mycorrhiza, argue against NIN being required for arbuscular mycorrhization in legumes.

RevDate: 2020-01-14

Becerra-Rivera VA, Arteaga A, Leija A, et al (2020)

Polyamines produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm8530 contribute to symbiotically relevant phenotypes ex planta and to nodulation efficiency on alfalfa.

Microbiology (Reading, England) [Epub ahead of print].

In nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, emerging evidence shows significant roles for polyamines in growth and abiotic stress resistance. In this work we show that a polyamine-deficient ornithine decarboxylase null mutant (odc2) derived from Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm8530 had significant phenotypic differences from the wild-type, including greatly reduced production of exopolysaccharides (EPS; ostensibly both succinoglycan and galactoglucan), increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and decreased swimming motility. The introduction of the odc2 gene borne on a plasmid into the odc2 mutant restored wild-type phenotypes for EPS production, growth under oxidative stress and swimming. The production of calcofluor-binding EPS (succinoglycan) by the odc2 mutant was also completely or mostly restored in the presence of exogenous spermidine (Spd), norspermidine (NSpd) or spermine (Spm). The odc2 mutant formed about 25 % more biofilm than the wild-type, and its ability to form biofilm was significantly inhibited by exogenous Spd, NSpd or Spm. The odc2 mutant formed a less efficient symbiosis with alfalfa, resulting in plants with significantly less biomass and height, more nodules but less nodule biomass, and 25 % less nitrogen-fixing activity. Exogenously supplied Put was not able to revert these phenotypes and caused a similar increase in plant height and dry weight in uninoculated plants and in those inoculated with the wild-type or odc2 mutant. We discuss ways in which polyamines might affect the phenotypes of the odc2 mutant.

RevDate: 2020-01-11

Grimaldi DA, Peñalver E, Barrón E, et al (2019)

Direct evidence for eudicot pollen-feeding in a Cretaceous stinging wasp (Angiospermae; Hymenoptera, Aculeata) preserved in Burmese amber.

Communications biology, 2(1):408 pii:10.1038/s42003-019-0652-7.

Angiosperms and their insect pollinators form a foundational symbiosis, evidence for which from the Cretaceous is mostly indirect, based on fossils of insect taxa that today are anthophilous, and of fossil insects and flowers that have apparent anthophilous and entomophilous specializations, respectively. We present exceptional direct evidence preserved in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, 100 mya, for feeding on pollen in the eudicot genus Tricolporoidites by a basal new aculeate wasp, Prosphex anthophilos, gen. et sp. nov., in the lineage that contains the ants, bees, and other stinging wasps. Plume of hundreds of pollen grains wafts from its mouth and an apparent pollen mass was detected by micro-CT in the buccal cavity: clear evidence that the wasp was foraging on the pollen. Eudicots today comprise nearly three-quarters of all angiosperm species. Prosphex feeding on Tricolporoidites supports the hypothesis that relatively small, generalized insect anthophiles were important pollinators of early angiosperms.

RevDate: 2020-01-11

Weizman E, O Levy (2019)

The role of chromatin dynamics under global warming response in the symbiotic coral model Aiptasia.

Communications biology, 2(1):282 pii:10.1038/s42003-019-0543-y.

Extreme weather events frequency and scale are altered due to climate change. Symbiosis between corals and their endosymbiotic-dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) is susceptible to these events and can lead to what is known as bleaching. However, there is evidence for coral adaptive plasticity in the role of epigenetic that have acclimated to high-temperature environments. We have implemented ATAC-seq and RNA-seq to study the cnidarian-dinoflagellate model Exaptasia pallida (Aiptasia) and expose the role of chromatin-dynamics in response to thermal-stress. We have identified 1309 genomic sites that change their accessibility in response to thermal changes. Moreover, apo-symbiotic Aiptasia accessible sites were enriched with NFAT, ATF4, GATA3, SOX14, and PAX3 motifs and expressed genes related to immunological pathways. Symbiotic Aiptasia accessible sites were enriched with NKx3-1, HNF4A, IRF4 motifs and expressed genes related to oxidative-stress pathways. Our work opens a new path towards understanding thermal-stress gene regulation in association with gene activity and chromatin-dynamics.

RevDate: 2020-01-10

Rog I, Rosenstock NP, Körner C, et al (2020)

Share the wealth: trees with greater ectomycorrhizal species overlap share more carbon.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The mutualistic symbiosis between forest trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) is among the most ubiquitous and successful interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. Specific species of EMF are known to colonize specific tree species, benefitting from their carbon source, and in turn, improving their access to soil water and nutrients. EMF also form extensive mycelial networks that can link multiple root-tips of different trees. Yet the number of tree species connected by such mycelial networks, and the traffic of material across them, are just now under study. Recently we reported substantial belowground carbon transfer between Picea, Pinus, Larix and Fagus trees in a mature forest. Here we analyze the EMF community of these same individual trees and identify the most likely taxa responsible for the observed carbon transfer. Among the nearly 1200 EMF root-tips examined, 50-70% belong to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were associated with 3 or 4 tree host species, and 90% of all OTUs were associated with at least two tree species. Sporocarp 13 C signals indicated that carbon originating from labeled Picea trees was transferred among trees through EMF networks. Interestingly, phylogenetically more closely related tree species exhibited more similar EMF communities and exchanged more carbon. Our results show that belowground carbon transfer is well orchestrated by the evolution of EMFs and tree symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-01-10

Song QY, Li F, Nan Z, et al (2020)

Do Epichloë endophytes and their grass symbiosis only produce toxic alkaloids to insects and livestock?.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Epichloë endophytes in forage grasses have attracted widespread attention and interest of chemistry researchers due to the various unique chemical structures and interesting biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review describes the diversity of unique chemical structures of taxa from Epichloë endophytes and grass infected with Epichloë endophytes and demonstrates their reported biological activities. Until now, nearly 160 secondary metabolites (alkaloids, peptides, indole derivatives, pyrimidines, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, phenol and phenolic acid derivatives, aliphatic metabolites, sterols, amines and amides, and others) have been reported from Epichloë endophytes and grass infected with Epichloë endophytes. Among these, non-alkaloids account for half of the population of total metabolites, indicating that they also play an important role in Epichloë endophytes and grass infected with Epichloë endophytes. Also, a diverse array of secondary metabolites isolated from Epichloë endophytes and symbionts is a rich source for developing new pesticides and drugs. Bioassays disclose that in addition to toxic alkaloids, the other metabolites isolated from Epichloë endophytes and symbionts have notable biological activities, such as antifungal, anti-insect, and phytotoxic activities. Accordingly, the biological functions of non-alkaloids should not be neglected in the future investigation of Epichloë endophytes and symbionts.

RevDate: 2020-01-10

Lemaire ON, Méjean V, C Iobbi-Nivol (2020)

The Shewanella genus: ubiquitous organisms sustaining and preserving aquatic ecosystems.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:5700284 [Epub ahead of print].

The Gram-negative Shewanella bacterial genus currently includes about 70 species of mostly aquatic γ-proteobacteria, which were isolated around the globe in a multitude of environments such as surface freshwater and the deepest marine trenches. Their survival in such a wide range of ecological niches is due to their impressive physiological and respiratory versatility. Some strains are among the organisms with the highest number of respiratory systems, depending on a complex and rich metabolic network. Implicated in the recycling of organic and inorganic matter, they are important components of organism-rich oxic/anoxic interfaces, but they also belong to the microflora of a broad group of eukaryotes from metazoans to green algae. Examples of long-term biological interactions like mutualism or pathogeny have been described, although molecular determinants of such symbioses are still poorly understood. Some of these bacteria are key organisms for various biotechnological applications, especially the bioremediation of hydrocarbons and metallic pollutants. The natural ability of these prokaryotes to thrive and detoxify deleterious compounds explains their use in wastewater treatment, their use in energy generation by microbial fuel cells, and their importance for resilience of aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Russo G, Carotenuto G, Fiorilli V, et al (2019)

TPLATE Recruitment Reveals Endocytic Dynamics at Sites of Symbiotic Interface Assembly in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Interactions.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:1628.

Introduction: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis between soil fungi and the majority of plants is based on a mutualistic exchange of organic and inorganic nutrients. This takes place inside root cortical cells that harbor an arbuscule: a highly branched intracellular fungal hypha enveloped by an extension of the host cell membrane-the perifungal membrane-which outlines a specialized symbiotic interface compartment. The perifungal membrane develops around each intracellular hypha as the symbiotic fungus proceeds across the root tissues; its biogenesis is the result of an extensive exocytic process and shows a few similarities with cell plate insertion which occurs at the end of somatic cytokinesis. Materials and Methods: We here analyzed the subcellular localization of a GFP fusion with TPLATE, a subunit of the endocytic TPLATE complex (TPC), a central actor in plant clathrin-mediated endocytosis with a role in cell plate anchoring with the parental plasma membrane. Results: Our observations demonstrate that Daucus carota and Medicago truncatula root organ cultures expressing a 35S::AtTPLATE-GFP construct accumulate strong fluorescent green signal at sites of symbiotic interface construction, along recently formed perifungal membranes and at sites of cell-to-cell hyphal passage between adjacent cortical cells, where the perifungal membrane fuses with the plasmalemma. Discussion: Our results strongly suggest that TPC-mediated endocytic processes are active during perifungal membrane interface biogenesis-alongside exocytic transport. This novel conclusion, which might be correlated to the accumulation of late endosomes in the vicinity of the developing interface, hints at the involvement of TPC-dependent membrane remodeling during the intracellular accommodation of AM fungi.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Calabrese S, Cusant L, Sarazin A, et al (2019)

Imbalanced Regulation of Fungal Nutrient Transports According to Phosphate Availability in a Symbiocosm Formed by Poplar, Sorghum, and Rhizophagus irregularis.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:1617.

In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, key components of nutrient uptake and exchange are specialized transporters that facilitate nutrient transport across membranes. As phosphate is a nutrient and a regulator of nutrient exchanges, we investigated the effect of P availability to extraradical mycelium (ERM) on both plant and fungus transcriptomes and metabolomes in a symbiocosm system. By perturbing nutrient exchanges under the control of P, our objectives were to identify new fungal genes involved in nutrient transports, and to characterize in which extent the fungus differentially modulates its metabolism when interacting with two different plant species. We performed transportome analysis on the ERM and intraradical mycelium of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis associated to Populus trichocarpa and Sorghum bicolor under high and low P availability in ERM, using quantitative RT-PCR and Illumina mRNA-sequencing. We observed that mycorrhizal symbiosis induces expression of specific phosphate and ammonium transporters in both plants. Furthermore, we identified new AM-inducible transporters and showed that a subset of phosphate transporters is regulated independently of symbiotic nutrient exchange. mRNA-Sequencing revealed that the fungal transportome was not similarly regulated in the two host plant species according to P availability. Mirroring this effect, many plant carbohydrate transporters were down-regulated in P. trichocarpa mycorrhizal root tissue. Metabolome analysis revealed further that AM root colonization led to a modification of root primary metabolism under low and high P availability and to a decrease of primary metabolite pools in general. Moreover, the down regulation of the sucrose transporters suggests that the plant limits carbohydrate long distance transport (i.e. from shoot to the mycorrhizal roots). By simultaneous uptake/reuptake of nutrients from the apoplast at the biotrophic interface, plant and fungus are both able to control reciprocal nutrient fluxes.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Del Barrio-Duque A, Ley J, Samad A, et al (2019)

Beneficial Endophytic Bacteria-Serendipita indica Interaction for Crop Enhancement and Resistance to Phytopathogens.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2888.

Serendipita (=Piriformospora) indica is a fungal endophytic symbiont with the capabilities to enhance plant growth and confer resistance to different stresses. However, the application of this fungus in the field has led to inconsistent results, perhaps due to antagonism with other microbes. Here, we studied the impact of individual bacterial isolates from the endophytic bacterial community on the in vitro growth of S. indica. We further analyzed how combinations of bacteria and S. indica influence plant growth and protection against the phytopathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Bacterial strains of the genera Bacillus, Enterobacter and Burkholderia negatively affected S. indica growth on plates, whereas Mycolicibacterium, Rhizobium, Paenibacillus strains and several other bacteria from different taxa stimulated fungal growth. To further explore the potential of bacteria positively interacting with S. indica, four of the most promising strains belonging to the genus Mycolicibacterium were selected for further experiments. Some dual inoculations of S. indica and Mycolicibacterium strains boosted the beneficial effects triggered by S. indica, further enhancing the growth of tomato plants, and alleviating the symptoms caused by the phytopathogens F. oxysporum and R. solani. However, some combinations of S. indica and bacteria were less effective than individual inoculations. By analyzing the genomes of the Mycolicibacterium strains, we revealed that these bacteria encode several genes predicted to be involved in the stimulation of S. indica growth, plant development and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Particularly, a high number of genes related to vitamin and nitrogen metabolism were detected. Taking into consideration multiple interactions on and inside plants, we showed in this study that some bacterial strains may induce beneficial effects on S. indica and could have an outstanding influence on the plant-fungus symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Pastor-Bueis R, Sánchez-Cañizares C, James EK, et al (2019)

Formulation of a Highly Effective Inoculant for Common Bean Based on an Autochthonous Elite Strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, and Genomic-Based Insights Into Its Agronomic Performance.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2724.

Common bean is a poor symbiotic N-fixer, with a low response to inoculation owing to its promiscuous nodulation with competitive but inefficient resident rhizobia. Consequently, farmers prefer to fertilize them rather than rely on their capacity for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF). However, when rhizobial inoculants are based on autochthonous strains, they often have superior BNF performance in the field due to their genetic adaptations to the local environment. Nevertheless, there is scant information at the genomic level explaining their superiority or on how their genomes may influence the inoculant performance. This information is especially important in technologically advanced agri-systems like Europe, where environmental concerns and increasingly stringent fertilizer regulations are encouraging a return to the use of rhizobial inoculants, but based upon strains that have been thoroughly characterized in terms of their symbiotic performance and their genetics. The aim of this study was to design an inoculant formulation based on a superior autochthonous strain, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli LCS0306, to assess its performance in the field, and to determine the genomic features contributing to the high effectiveness of its symbiosis with common bean. Plants inoculated with the autochthonous strain LCS0306 fixed significantly more nitrogen than those with the allochthonous strains R. phaseoli ATCC 14482T and R. etli CFN42T, and had grain yield similar to the nitrogen-fertilized controls. Inoculation with LCS0306 was particularly efficacious when formulated with a carrier based upon a mixture of perlite and biochar. Whole genome comparisons revealed no differences in the classical symbiotic genes of strain LCS0306 within the symbiovar phaseoli. However, its symbiotic superior performance might be due to its genomic versatility, as it harbors a large assortment of genes contributing to fitness and competitiveness. It is concluded that inoculation with elite rhizobia formulated with perlite-biochar carriers might constitute a step-change in the sustainable cultivation of common bean in Spanish soils.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Sycheva MV, Popova LP, Pashkova TM, et al (2020)

Genomic Sequence of the Strain Enterococcus faecium ICIS 18.

Microbiology resource announcements, 9(2):.

We report here the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain ICIS 18, which was isolated from human feces. Analysis of the E. faecium ICIS 18 genome revealed genes encoding resistance to metals, fluoroquinolones, and beta-lactam antibiotics.

RevDate: 2020-01-15

Tempalski B, Williams LD, West BS, et al (2020)

Predictors of historical change in drug treatment coverage among people who inject drugs in 90 large metropolitan areas in the USA, 1993-2007.

Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 15(1):3.

BACKGROUND: Adequate access to effective treatment and medication assisted therapies for opioid dependence has led to improved antiretroviral therapy adherence and decreases in morbidity among people who inject drugs (PWID), and can also address a broad range of social and public health problems. However, even with the success of syringe service programs and opioid substitution programs in European countries (and others) the US remains historically low in terms of coverage and access with regard to these programs. This manuscript investigates predictors of historical change in drug treatment coverage for PWID in 90 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during 1993-2007, a period in which, overall coverage did not change.

METHODS: Drug treatment coverage was measured as the number of PWID in drug treatment, as calculated by treatment entry and census data, divided by numbers of PWID in each MSA. Variables suggested by the Theory of Community Action (i.e., need, resource availability, institutional opposition, organized support, and service symbiosis) were analyzed using mixed-effects multivariate models within dependent variables lagged in time to study predictors of later change in coverage.

RESULTS: Mean coverage was low in 1993 (6.7%; SD 3.7), and did not increase by 2007 (6.4%; SD 4.5). Multivariate results indicate that increases in baseline unemployment rate (β = 0.312; pseudo-p < 0.0002) predict significantly higher treatment coverage; baseline poverty rate (β = - 0.486; pseudo-p < 0.0001), and baseline size of public health and social work workforce (β = 0.425; pseudo-p < 0.0001) were predictors of later mean coverage levels, and baseline HIV prevalence among PWID predicted variation in treatment coverage trajectories over time (baseline HIV * Time: β = 0.039; pseudo-p < 0.001). Finally, increases in black/white poverty disparity from baseline predicted significantly higher treatment coverage in MSAs (β = 1.269; pseudo-p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: While harm reduction programs have historically been contested and difficult to implement in many US communities, and despite efforts to increase treatment coverage for PWID, coverage has not increased. Contrary to our hypothesis, epidemiologic need, seems not to be associated with change in treatment coverage over time. Resource availability and institutional opposition are important predictors of change over time in coverage. These findings suggest that new ways have to be found to increase drug treatment coverage in spite of economic changes and belt-tightening policy changes that will make this difficult.

RevDate: 2020-01-13

Jaspal D, A Malviya (2019)

Composites for wastewater purification: A review.

Chemosphere, 246:125788 pii:S0045-6535(19)33029-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The review deals with different kinds of composites which have been used for wastewater treatment. The use of different types of composites ranging from nanocomposites, activated charcoal composites, polymer composites, oxide-based composites, hybrid composites, and biosorbent composites, etc. has been dealt with in detail, and presented as a central source of knowledge. The paper incorporates water purification explicitly via adsorption process, which has proven to be economical and efficient. These composites have been explored for treating or elimination of various hazardous substances like heavy metal species, different classes of colored contaminants (dyes), several organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater. The composites discussed have successfully eliminated Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg, etc. In some instances the removal percentage of the contaminants was almost 100%. The presented data reveals the efficiency of composite materials in wastewater treatment over the conventional singular materials.

RevDate: 2020-01-09

Preuss M, GC Zuccarello (2020)

A comment on Salomaki and Lane 2019 "Molecular phylogenetics supports a clade of red algal parasites retaining native plastids: Taxonomy and terminology revised".

Salomaki and Lane (2019) proposed a new terminology to group red algal parasites either as parasites containing their own (native) reduced plastid: 'archaeplastic' (allied to the old designation 'alloparasite') or parasites that contain only a host plastid: 'neoplastic' (similar to the older term 'adelphoparasite'). We believe this is premature. There are examples that contradict their proposed grouping, and their proposal was based on work from the mid-1990s that should be re-evaluated. We also believe that grouping red algal parasites into two groups obscures both our lack of knowledge of these organisms and the diversity that is already seen in the few intensively studied parasites. Instead of making generalizations based on limited knowledge, further in-depth study should be encouraged and will be useful in understanding these intriguing organisms.

RevDate: 2020-01-09

Hay AE, Herrera-Belaroussi A, Rey M, et al (2020)

Feedback Regulation of N Fixation in Frankia-Alnus Symbiosis Through Amino Acids Profiling in Field and Greenhouse Nodules.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiosis established between actinorhizal plants and Frankia spp., which are nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria, promotes nodule organogenesis, the site of metabolic exchange. The present study aimed to identify amino acid markers involved in Frankia-Alnus interactions by comparing nodules and associated roots from field and greenhouse samples. Our results revealed a high level of citrulline in all samples, followed by arginine (Arg), aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), and alanine (Ala). Interestingly, the field metabolome approach highlighted more contrasted amino acid patterns between nodules and roots compared with greenhouse samples. Indeed, 12 amino acids had a mean relative abundance significantly different between field nodule and root samples, against only four amino acids in greenhouse samples, underlining the importance of developing "ecometabolome" approaches. In order to monitor the effects on Frankia cells (respiration and nitrogen fixation activities) of amino acid with an abundance pattern evocative of a role in symbiosis, in-vitro assays were performed by supplementing them in nitrogen-free cultures. Amino acids had three types of effects: i) those used by Frankia as nitrogen source (Glu, Gln, Asp), ii) amino acids stimulating both nitrogen fixation and respiration (e.g., Cit, GABA, Ala, valine, Asn), and iii) amino acids triggering a toxic effect (Arg, histidine). In this paper, a N-metabolic model was proposed to discuss how the host plant and bacteria modulate amino acids contents in nodules, leading to a fine regulation sustaining high bacterial nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2020-01-09

James SL, Lucchesi LR, Bisignano C, et al (2020)

Morbidity and mortality from road injuries: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention pii:injuryprev-2019-043302 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The global burden of road injuries is known to follow complex geographical, temporal and demographic patterns. While health loss from road injuries is a major topic of global importance, there has been no recent comprehensive assessment that includes estimates for every age group, sex and country over recent years.

METHODS: We used results from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study to report incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, deaths, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life years for all locations in the GBD 2017 hierarchy from 1990 to 2017 for road injuries. Second, we measured mortality-to-incidence ratios by location. Third, we assessed the distribution of the natures of injury (eg, traumatic brain injury) that result from each road injury.

RESULTS: Globally, 1 243 068 (95% uncertainty interval 1 191 889 to 1 276 940) people died from road injuries in 2017 out of 54 192 330 (47 381 583 to 61 645 891) new cases of road injuries. Age-standardised incidence rates of road injuries increased between 1990 and 2017, while mortality rates decreased. Regionally, age-standardised mortality rates decreased in all but two regions, South Asia and Southern Latin America, where rates did not change significantly. Nine of 21 GBD regions experienced significant increases in age-standardised incidence rates, while 10 experienced significant decreases and two experienced no significant change.

CONCLUSIONS: While road injury mortality has improved in recent decades, there are worsening rates of incidence and significant geographical heterogeneity. These findings indicate that more research is needed to better understand how road injuries can be prevented.

RevDate: 2020-01-09

Quigley KM, Randall CJ, van Oppen MJH, et al (2020)

Assessing the role of historical temperature regime and algal symbionts on the heat tolerance of coral juveniles.

Biology open pii:bio.047316 [Epub ahead of print].

The rate of coral reef degradation from climate change is accelerating and, as a consequence, a number of interventions to increase coral resilience and accelerate recovery are under consideration. Acropora spathulata coral colonies that survived mass bleaching in 2016 and 2017 were sourced from a bleaching-impacted and warmer northern reef on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). These individuals were reproductively crossed with colonies collected from a recently bleached but historically cooler central GBR reef to produce pure- and crossbred offspring groups (warm - warm, warm - cool, and cool - warm). We tested whether corals from the warmer reef produced more thermally tolerant hybrid and purebred offspring compared with crosses produced with colonies sourced from the cooler reef and whether different symbiont taxa affect heat tolerance. Juveniles were infected with Symbiodinium tridacnidorum, Cladocopium goreaui, Durusdinium trenchii and survival, bleaching, and growth were assessed at 27.5 and 31°C. The contribution of host genetic background and symbiont identity varied across fitness traits. Offspring with either both or one parent from the northern population exhibited a 13 to 26-fold increase in survival odds relative to all other treatments where survival probability was significantly influenced by familial cross identity at 31°C but not 27.5°C (Kaplan-Meier p=0.001 versus 0.2). If in symbiosis with D. trenchii, a warm sire and cool dam provided the best odds of juvenile survival. Bleaching was predominantly driven by Symbiodiniaceae treatment, where juveniles hosting D. trenchii bleached significantly less than the other treatments at 31°C. The greatest overall fold-benefits in growth and survival at 31°C occurred in having at least one warm dam and in symbiosis with D. trenchii Juveniles associated with D. trenchii grew the most at 31°C, but at 27.5°C, growth was fastest in juveniles associated with C. goreaui In conclusion, selective breeding with warmer GBR corals in combination with algal symbiont manipulation can assist in increasing thermal tolerance on cooler but warming reefs. Such interventions have the potential to improve coral fitness in warming oceans.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Liu F, Xu Y, Wang H, et al (2020)

APETALA 2 transcription factor CBX1 is a regulator of mycorrhizal symbiosis and growth of Lotus japonicus.

Plant cell reports pii:10.1007/s00299-019-02501-2 [Epub ahead of print].

KEY MESSAGE: An AP2 family gene CBX1 is involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis and growth of Lotus japonicus. APETALA 2 (AP2) transcriptional regulator is highly conserved in plants. CBX1 from Lotus japonicus is a member of AP2 family. AMF (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) inoculation experiment demonstrated that expression of CBX1 was significantly induced by AMF. Further promoter analysis showed that the - 764 to - 498 bp region of the CBX1 promoter containing CTTC motif is the AMF responsive region. Functional analysis of cbx1 mutant suggested CBX1 is critical for mycorrhizal symbiosis, especially for arbuscule formation. Moreover, under noncolonized condition, overexpression of CBX1 reduced the root length of L. japonicus but increased the size of root system and shoot length, whereas cbx1 mutant reduced the root size and shoot length, but not effect on root length. In addition, cbx1 altered activity of monolignol biosynthetic gene and increased lignin levels. Collectively, these data indicated that CBX1 is a positive regulator of symbiotic activity and plays roles in the growth of L. japonicus.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Arab DA, Bourguignon T, Wang Z, et al (2020)

Evolutionary rates are correlated between cockroach symbionts and mitochondrial genomes.

Biology letters, 16(1):20190702.

Bacterial endosymbionts evolve under strong host-driven selection. Factors influencing host evolution might affect symbionts in similar ways, potentially leading to correlations between the molecular evolutionary rates of hosts and symbionts. Although there is evidence of rate correlations between mitochondrial and nuclear genes, similar investigations of hosts and symbionts are lacking. Here, we demonstrate a correlation in molecular rates between the genomes of an endosymbiont (Blattabacterium cuenoti) and the mitochondrial genomes of their hosts (cockroaches). We used partial genome data for multiple strains of B. cuenoti to compare phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary rates for 55 cockroach/symbiont pairs. The phylogenies inferred for B. cuenoti and the mitochondrial genomes of their hosts were largely congruent, as expected from their identical maternal and cytoplasmic mode of inheritance. We found a correlation between evolutionary rates of the two genomes, based on comparisons of root-to-tip distances and on comparisons of the branch lengths of phylogenetically independent species pairs. Our results underscore the profound effects that long-term symbiosis can have on the biology of each symbiotic partner.

RevDate: 2020-01-11

Gogoleva NE, Konnova TA, Ismailov TT, et al (2020)

Dataset for transcriptome analysis of abscisic acid degrading bacterium Novosphingobium sp. P6W.

Data in brief, 28:105001.

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) improve plant productivity and stress resistance. The mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interactions include the modulation of plant hormone status. The Novosphingobium sp. strain P6W was previously described as the bacterium capable of abscisic acid (ABA) degradation, and its inoculation decreased ABA concentrations in planta. The metabolic pathway for the ABA degradation in bacteria is still unknown. Here we present transcriptome data of Novosphingobium sp. P6W grown in the medium supplemented with ABA or fructose as the carbon source. Cleaned FASTQ files for the RNA-seq libraries are deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA, Identifier: SRP189498) and have been assigned BioProject accession PRJNA529223.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Acosta-Jurado S, Alías-Villegas C, Almozara A, et al (2020)

Deciphering the Symbiotic Significance of Quorum Sensing Systems of Sinorhizobium fredii HH103.

Microorganisms, 8(1): pii:microorganisms8010068.

Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-to-cell signaling mechanism that collectively regulates and synchronizes behaviors by means of small diffusible chemical molecules. In rhizobia, QS systems usually relies on the synthesis and detection of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). In the model bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti functions regulated by the QS systems TraI-TraR and SinI-SinR(-ExpR) include plasmid transfer, production of surface polysaccharides, motility, growth rate and nodulation. These systems are also present in other bacteria of the Sinorhizobium genus, with variations at the species and strain level. In Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 phenotypes regulated by QS are plasmid transfer, growth rate, sedimentation, motility, biofilm formation, EPS production and copy number of the symbiotic plasmid (pSym). The analysis of the S. fredii HH103 genomes reveal also the presence of both QS systems. In this manuscript we characterized the QS systems of S. fredii HH103, determining that both TraI and SinI AHL-synthases proteins are responsible of the production of short- and long-chain AHLs, respectively, at very low and not physiological concentrations. Interestingly, the main HH103 luxR-type genes, expR and traR, are split into two ORFs, suggesting that in S. fredii HH103 the corresponding carboxy-terminal proteins, which contain the DNA-binding motives, may control target genes in an AHL-independent manner. The presence of a split traR gene is common in other S. fredii strains.

RevDate: 2020-01-06

Benezech C, Berrabah F, Jardinaud MF, et al (2019)

Medicago-Sinorhizobium-Ralstonia Co-infection Reveals Legume Nodules as Pathogen Confined Infection Sites Developing Weak Defenses.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(19)31568-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Legumes have the capacity to develop root nodules hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called rhizobia. For the plant, the benefit of the symbiosis is important in nitrogen-deprived conditions, but it requires hosting and feeding massive numbers of rhizobia. Recent studies suggest that innate immunity is reduced or suppressed within nodules [1-10]; this likely maintains viable rhizobial populations. To evaluate the potential consequences and risks associated with an altered immuni`ty in the symbiotic organ, we developed a tripartite system with the model legume Medicago truncatula [11, 12], its nodulating symbiont of the genus Sinorhizobium (syn. Ensifer) [13, 14], and the pathogenic soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum [15-18]. We show that nodules are frequent infection sites where pathogen multiplication is comparable to that in the root tips and independent of nodule ability to fix nitrogen. Transcriptomic analyses indicate that, despite the presence of the hosted rhizobia, nodules are able to develop weak defense reactions against pathogenic R. solanacearum. Nodule defense response displays specificity compared to that activated in roots. In agreement with nodule innate immunity, optimal R. solanacearum growth requires pathogen virulence factors. Finally, our data indicate that the high susceptibility of nodules is counterbalanced by the existence of a diffusion barrier preventing pathogen spreading from nodules to the rest of the plant.

RevDate: 2020-01-06

Sørensen MES, Wood AJ, Minter EJA, et al (2019)

Comparison of Independent Evolutionary Origins Reveals Both Convergence and Divergence in the Metabolic Mechanisms of Symbiosis.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(19)31523-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Through the merger of previously independent lineages, symbiosis promotes the acquisition of new traits and exploitation of inaccessible ecological niches [1, 2], driving evolutionary innovation and important ecosystem functions [3-6]. The transient nature of establishment makes study of symbiotic origins difficult, but experimental comparison of independent origins could reveal the degree of convergence in the underpinning mechanisms [7, 8]. We compared the metabolic mechanisms of two independent origins of Paramecium bursaria-Chlorella photosymbiosis [9-11] using a reciprocal metabolomic pulse-chase method. This showed convergent patterns of nutrient exchange and utilization for host-derived nitrogen in the Chlorella genotypes [12, 13] and symbiont-derived carbon in the P. bursaria genotypes [14, 15]. Consistent with a convergent primary nutrient exchange, partner-switched host-symbiont pairings were functional. Direct competition of hosts containing native or recombined symbionts against isogenic symbiont-free hosts showed that the fitness benefits of symbiosis for hosts increased with irradiance but varied by genotype. Global metabolism varied more between the Chlorella than the P. bursaria genotypes and suggested divergent mechanisms of light management. Specifically, the algal symbiont genotypes either produced photo-protective carotenoid pigments at high irradiance or more chlorophyll, resulting in corresponding differences in photosynthetic efficiency and non-photochemical quenching among host-symbiont pairings. These data suggest that the multiple origins of P. bursaria-Chlorella symbiosis use a convergent nutrient exchange, whereas other photosynthetic traits linked to functioning of photosymbiosis have diverged. Although convergence enables partner switching among diverse strains, phenotypic mismatches resulting from divergence of secondary symbiotic traits could mediate host-symbiont specificity in nature.

RevDate: 2020-01-04

Bourles A, Guentas L, Charvis C, et al (2020)

Co-inoculation with a bacterium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves root colonization, plant mineral nutrition, and plant growth of a Cyperaceae plant in an ultramafic soil.

Mycorrhiza pii:10.1007/s00572-019-00929-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The ecological restoration of nickel mining-degraded areas in New Caledonia is strongly limited by low availability of soil mineral nutrients, metal toxicity, and slow growth rates of native plant species. In order to improve plant growth for restoration programs, special attention was paid to interactions between plant and soil microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the influence of inoculation with Curtobacterium citreum BE isolated from a New Caledonian ultramafic soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and growth of Tetraria comosa, an endemic sedge used in restoration programs. A greenhouse experiment on ultramafic substrate was conducted with an inoculum comprising two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species isolated from New Caledonian ultramafic soils: Rhizophagus neocaledonicus and Claroideoglomus etunicatum. The effects on plant growth of the AMF and C. citreum BE inoculated separately were not significant, but their co-inoculation significantly enhanced the dry weight of T. comosa compared with the non-inoculated control. These differences were positively correlated with mycorrhizal colonization which was improved by C. citreum BE. Compared with the control, co-inoculated plants were characterized by better mineral nutrition, a higher Ca/Mg ratio, and lower metal translocation. However, for Ca/Mg ratio and metal translocation, there were no significant differences between the effects of AMF inoculation and co-inoculation.

RevDate: 2020-01-18

Gupta N, Ansari A, Dhoke GV, et al (2020)

Author Correction: Computationally designed antibody-drug conjugates self-assembled via affinity ligands.

Nature biomedical engineering, 4(1):131.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

RevDate: 2020-01-04

Shimoda Y, Nishigaya Y, Yamaya-Ito H, et al (2020)

The rhizobial autotransporter determines the symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity of Lotus japonicus in a host-specific manner.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1913349117 [Epub ahead of print].

Leguminous plants establish endosymbiotic associations with rhizobia and form root nodules in which the rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen. The host plant and intracellular rhizobia strictly control this symbiotic nitrogen fixation. We recently reported a Lotus japonicus Fix- mutant, apn1 (aspartic peptidase nodule-induced 1), that impairs symbiotic nitrogen fixation. APN1 encodes a nodule-specific aspartic peptidase involved in the Fix- phenotype in a rhizobial strain-specific manner. This host-strain specificity implies that some molecular interactions between host plant APN1 and rhizobial factors are required, although the biological function of APN1 in nodules and the mechanisms governing the interactions are unknown. To clarify how rhizobial factors are involved in strain-specific nitrogen fixation, we explored transposon mutants of Mesorhizobium loti strain TONO, which normally form Fix- nodules on apn1 roots, and identified TONO mutants that formed Fix+ nodules on apn1 The identified causal gene encodes an autotransporter, part of a protein secretion system of Gram-negative bacteria. Expression of the autotransporter gene in M. loti strain MAFF3030399, which normally forms Fix+ nodules on apn1 roots, resulted in Fix- nodules. The autotransporter of TONO functions to secrete a part of its own protein (a passenger domain) into extracellular spaces, and the recombinant APN1 protein cleaved the passenger protein in vitro. The M. loti autotransporter showed the activity to induce the genes involved in nodule senescence in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, we conclude that the nodule-specific aspartic peptidase, APN1, suppresses negative effects of the rhizobial autotransporter in order to maintain effective symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules.

RevDate: 2020-01-03

Liu J, Chen J, Xie K, et al (2020)

A mycorrhiza-specific H+ -ATPase is essential for arbuscule development and symbiotic phosphate and nitrogen uptake.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Most land plants can form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to enhance uptake of mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate (Pi) and nitrogen (N), from the soil. It is established that transport of Pi from interfacial apoplast into plant cells depends on the H+ gradient generated by the H+ -ATPase located on the periarbuscular membrane (PAM), however, little evidence regarding the potential link between mycorrhizal N transport and H+ -ATPase activity is available to date. Here, we report that a PAM-localized tomato H+ -ATPase, SlHA8, is indispensable for arbuscule development and mycorrhizal P and N uptake. Knockout of SlHA8 resulted in truncated arbuscule morphology, reduced shoot P and N accumulation, and decreased H+ -ATPase activity and acidification of apoplastic spaces in arbusculated cells. Overexpression of SlHA8 in tomato promoted both P and N uptake, and increased total colonization level, but did not affect arbuscule morphology. Heterogeneous expression of SlHA8 in the rice osha1 mutant could fully complement its defects in arbuscule development and mycorrhizal P and N uptake. Our results propose a pivotal role of the SlHA8 in energizing both the symbiotic P and N transport, and highlight the evolutionary conservation of the AM-specific H+ -ATPase orthologs in maintaining AM symbiosis across different mycorrhizal plant species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-01-08
CmpDate: 2020-01-06

Frederickson ME (2020)

No selection for cheating in a natural meta-population of rhizobia.

Ecology letters, 23(2):409-411.

Whether natural selection favours 'cheating' in mutualisms is hotly debated. Gano-Cohen et al. (2019a) report a negative correlation between fitness and mutualist quality in rhizobia, suggesting that rhizobia evolve to cheat. However, reanalysis of their data shows that the correlation is an artefact of unequal sampling across populations.

RevDate: 2020-01-03

Tonelli M, Cotta SR, Rigotto A, et al (2020)

The composition of the bacterial community in the foam produced by Mahanarva fimbriolata is distinct from those at gut and soil.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] pii:10.1007/s42770-019-00211-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The development of insects is strongly influenced by their resident microorganisms. Symbionts play key roles in insect nutrition, reproduction, and defense. Bacteria are important partners due to the wide diversity of their biochemical pathways that aid in the host development. We present evidence that the foam produced by nymphs of the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata harbors a diversity of bacteria, including some that were previously reported as defensive symbionts of insects. Analysis of the microbiomes in the nymph gut and the soil close to the foam showed that the microorganisms in the foam were more closely related to those in the gut than in the soil, suggesting that the bacteria are actively introduced into the foam by the insect. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria were the predominant groups found in the foam. Since members of Actinobacteria have been found to protect different species of insects by producing secondary metabolites with antibiotic properties, we speculate that the froth produced by M. fimbriolata may aid in defending the nymphs against entomopathogenic microorganisms.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Mandal D, Srivastava D, S Sinharoy (2020)

Optimization of Hairy Root Transformation for the Functional Genomics in Chickpea: A Platform for Nodule Developmental Studies.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2107:335-348.

Chickpea is a major protein source in low socio-economic classes and cultivated in marginal soil without fertilizer or irrigation. As a result of its root nodule formation capacity chickpea can directly use atmospheric nitrogen. Chickpea is recalcitrant to stable transformation, particularly root regeneration efficiency of chickpea is low. The composite plant-based system with a non-transformed shoot and transformed root is particularly important for root biologist and this approach has already been used successfully for root nodule symbiosis, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, and other root-related studies. Use of fluorescent marker-based approach can accurately identify the transformed root from its non-transgenic counterpart. RNAi-based gene knockout, overexpression of genes, promoter GUS analysis to understand tissue specific expression and localization of protein can be achieved using the hairy root-based system. We have already published a hairy root-based transformation and composite plant regeneration protocol of chickpea. Here we are describing the recent modification that we have made to increase the transformation frequency and nodule morphology. Further, we have developed a pouch based artificial system, large number of plants can be scored for its nodule developmental phenotype, by using this system.

RevDate: 2020-01-01

Ten Veldhuis MC, Ananyev G, GC Dismukes (2019)

Symbiosis extended: exchange of photosynthetic O2 and fungal-respired CO2 mutually power metabolism of lichen symbionts.

Photosynthesis research pii:10.1007/s11120-019-00702-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Lichens are a symbiosis between a fungus and one or more photosynthetic microorganisms that enables the symbionts to thrive in places and conditions they could not compete independently. Exchanges of water and sugars between the symbionts are the established mechanisms that support lichen symbiosis. Herein, we present a new linkage between algal photosynthesis and fungal respiration in lichen Flavoparmelia caperata that extends the physiological nature of symbiotic co-dependent metabolisms, mutually boosting energy conversion rates in both symbionts. Measurements of electron transport by oximetry show that photosynthetic O2 is consumed internally by fungal respiration. At low light intensity, very low levels of O2 are released, while photosynthetic electron transport from water oxidation is normal as shown by intrinsic chlorophyll variable fluorescence yield (period-4 oscillations in flash-induced Fv/Fm). The rate of algal O2 production increases following consecutive series of illumination periods, at low and with limited saturation at high light intensities, in contrast to light saturation in free-living algae. We attribute this effect to arise from the availability of more CO2 produced by fungal respiration of photosynthetically generated sugars. We conclude that the lichen symbionts are metabolically coupled by energy conversion through exchange of terminal electron donors and acceptors used in both photosynthesis and fungal respiration. Algal sugars and O2 are consumed by the fungal symbiont, while fungal delivered CO2 is consumed by the alga.

RevDate: 2020-01-01

Semenova TA, Dunaevsky YE, Beljakova GA, et al (2020)

Extracellular peptidases of insect-associated fungi and their possible use in biological control programs and as pathogenicity markers.

Fungal biology, 124(1):65-72.

This review deals with characteristics of peptidases of fungi whose life cycles are associated with insects to varying degrees. The review examines the characteristic features of the extracellular peptidases of entomopathogenic fungi, the dependence of the specificity of these peptidases on the ecological characteristics of the fungi, and the role of peptidases in the development of the pathogenesis. Data on the properties and physiological role of hydrolytic enzymes of symbiotic fungi in "fungal gardens" are also considered in detail. For the development of representations about mechanisms of control over populations of insect pests, special attention is given to analysis of possibilities of genetic engineering for the creation of entomopathogens with enhanced virulence. Clarification of the role of fungi and their secreted enzymes and careful environmental studies are still required to explain their significance in the composition of the biota and to ensure widespread adoption of these organisms as effective biological control agents. The systematization and comparative analysis of the existing data on extracellular peptidases of insect-associated fungi will help in the planning of further work and the search for markers of pathogenesis and symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-01-01

Nguyen DQ, Li H, Tran TT, et al (2020)

Four Tulasnella taxa associated with populations of the Australian evergreen terrestrial orchid Cryptostylis ovata.

Fungal biology, 124(1):24-33.

Of the more than 400 indigenous orchid species in Western Australia, Cryptostylis ovata is the only species that retains its leaves all year round. It exists as a terrestrial herb and occasionally as an epiphyte in forested areas. Like all terrestrial orchids, C. ovata plants associate with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities have not previously been investigated. Fungi were isolated from pelotons in rhizomes collected from three southern and two northern populations of C. ovata on six occasions over two years. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences temporally and spatially revealed that all the fungal isolates were of Tulasnella species of four distinct groups. One Tulasnella group was present only in the three southern orchid populations, and it closely resembled T. prima isolates previously described from Chiloglottis sp. orchids from eastern Australia. Isolates collected from plants in the two northern populations were of three undescribed Tulasnella groups. Analysis of intra-group diversity using inter-simple sequence repeat markers revealed that plants were usually colonised by a single genotype of Tulasnella at each sampling period, and this genotype usually, but not always, persisted with the host plant over both years tested.

RevDate: 2020-01-02

Pareek S, Kurakawa T, Das B, et al (2019)

Comparison of Japanese and Indian intestinal microbiota shows diet-dependent interaction between bacteria and fungi.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 5:37.

The bacterial species living in the gut mediate many aspects of biological processes such as nutrition and activation of adaptive immunity. In addition, commensal fungi residing in the intestine also influence host health. Although the interaction of bacterium and fungus has been shown, its precise mechanism during colonization of the human intestine remains largely unknown. Here, we show interaction between bacterial and fungal species for utilization of dietary components driving their efficient growth in the intestine. Next generation sequencing of fecal samples from Japanese and Indian adults revealed differential patterns of bacterial and fungal composition. In particular, Indians, who consume more plant polysaccharides than Japanese, harbored increased numbers of Prevotella and Candida. Candida spp. showed strong growth responses to the plant polysaccharide arabinoxylan in vitro. Furthermore, the culture supernatants of Candida spp. grown with arabinoxylan promoted rapid proliferation of Prevotella copri. Arabinose was identified as a potential growth-inducing factor in the Candida culture supernatants. Candida spp. exhibited a growth response to xylose, but not to arabinose, whereas P. copri proliferated in response to both xylose and arabinose. Candida spp., but not P. copri, colonized the intestine of germ-free mice. However, P. copri successfully colonized mouse intestine already harboring Candida. These findings demonstrate a proof of concept that fungal members of gut microbiota can facilitate a colonization of the intestine by their bacterial counterparts, potentially mediated by a dietary metabolite.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Manara S, Asnicar F, Beghini F, et al (2019)

Microbial genomes from non-human primate gut metagenomes expand the primate-associated bacterial tree of life with over 1000 novel species.

Genome biology, 20(1):299.

BACKGROUND: Humans have coevolved with microbial communities to establish a mutually advantageous relationship that is still poorly characterized and can provide a better understanding of the human microbiome. Comparative metagenomic analysis of human and non-human primate (NHP) microbiomes offers a promising approach to study this symbiosis. Very few microbial species have been characterized in NHP microbiomes due to their poor representation in the available cataloged microbial diversity, thus limiting the potential of such comparative approaches.

RESULTS: We reconstruct over 1000 previously uncharacterized microbial species from 6 available NHP metagenomic cohorts, resulting in an increase of the mappable fraction of metagenomic reads by 600%. These novel species highlight that almost 90% of the microbial diversity associated with NHPs has been overlooked. Comparative analysis of this new catalog of taxa with the collection of over 150,000 genomes from human metagenomes points at a limited species-level overlap, with only 20% of microbial candidate species in NHPs also found in the human microbiome. This overlap occurs mainly between NHPs and non-Westernized human populations and NHPs living in captivity, suggesting that host lifestyle plays a role comparable to host speciation in shaping the primate intestinal microbiome. Several NHP-specific species are phylogenetically related to human-associated microbes, such as Elusimicrobia and Treponema, and could be the consequence of host-dependent evolutionary trajectories.

CONCLUSIONS: The newly reconstructed species greatly expand the microbial diversity associated with NHPs, thus enabling better interrogation of the primate microbiome and empowering in-depth human and non-human comparative and co-diversification studies.

RevDate: 2019-12-27

Yoro E, Suzaki T, M Kawaguchi (2019)

CLE-HAR1 Systemic Signaling and NIN-Mediated Local Signaling Suppress the Increased Rhizobial Infection in the daphne Mutant of Lotus japonicus.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Legumes survive in nitrogen-limited soil by forming a symbiosis with rhizobial bacteria. During root nodule symbiosis, legumes strictly control the development of their symbiotic organs, the nodules, in a process known as autoregulation of nodulation (AON). The study of hypernodulation mutants has elucidated the molecular basis of AON. Some hypernodulation mutants show an increase in rhizobial infection in addition to developmental alteration. However, the relationship between the AON and the regulation of rhizobial infection has not been clarified. We previously isolated daphne, a nodule inception (nin) allelic mutant, in Lotus japonicus. This mutant displayed dramatically increased rhizobial infection, suggesting the existence of NIN-mediated negative regulation of rhizobial infection. Here, we investigated whether the previously isolated components of AON, especially CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-RELATED-ROOT SIGNAL1 (CLE-RS1), CLE-RS2, and their putative receptor HYPERNODULATION AND ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION1 (HAR1), were able to suppress increased infection in the daphne mutant. The constitutive expression of LjCLE-RS1/2 strongly reduced the infection in the daphne mutant in a HAR1-dependent manner. Moreover, reciprocal grafting analysis showed that strong reduction of infection in daphne rootstock constitutively expressing LjCLE-RS1 was canceled by a scion of the har1 or klavier mutant, the genes responsible for encoding putative LjCLE-RS1 receptors. These data indicate that rhizobial infection is also systemically regulated by CLE-HAR1 signaling, a component of AON. In addition, the constitutive expression of NIN in daphne har1 double-mutant roots only partially reduced the rhizobial infection. Our findings indicate that the previously identified NIN-mediated negative regulation of infection involves unknown local signaling, as well as CLE-HAR1 long-distance signaling.

RevDate: 2019-12-30

Ngamniyom A, Sriyapai T, Sriyapai P, et al (2019)

Contributions to the knowledge of Pseudolevinseniella (Trematoda: Digenea) and temnocephalans from alien crayfish in natural freshwaters of Thailand.

Heliyon, 5(12):e02990.

Redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) is a decapod species originating from Australian freshwater. For more than two decades, these crayfish have been re-distributing to environments in many countries, including Thailand. Moreover, they can carry endosymbionts and/or ectosymbionts into new environments. The aim of this study was to introduce a morphological description of Pseudolevinseniella anenteron as a metacercaria of the endoparasites of redclaw crayfish collected from natural water sources in Thailand. The occurrence of two ectosymbiotic temnocephalans (Diceratocephala boschmai and Temnosewellia sp.) in C. quadricarinatus was also reported. The internal morphology of P. anenteron, D. boschmai and Temnosewellia were described and discussed. The surface ultrastructure of the multidentate spines on the body and the metacercarial cyst wall of P. anenteron was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By performing a search of the GenBank nucleotide database of partial sequences of 18S, 28S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), P. anenteron was found to be related to Maritrema, and Temnosewellia was found to be related to T. fasciata. However, according to the cox1 gene, Temnosewellia was found to be similar to T. minor. These results reveal that redclaw crayfish that inhabit natural freshwaters in Thailand may harbour endoparasites and ecto- and endosymbionts. Furthermore, these findings may be able to monitor invasive or non-invasive species in an ecosystem.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Rahnama M, Maclean P, Fleetwood DJ, et al (2019)

VelA and LaeA are Key Regulators of Epichloë festucae Transcriptomic Response during Symbiosis with Perennial Ryegrass.

Microorganisms, 8(1): pii:microorganisms8010033.

VelA (or VeA) is a key global regulator in fungal secondary metabolism and development which we previously showed is required during the symbiotic interaction of Epichloë festucae with perennial ryegrass. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analyses of ∆velA mutant compared to wild-type E. festucae, under three different conditions (in culture, infected seedlings, and infected mature plants), were performed to investigate the impact of VelA on E. festucae transcriptome. These comparative transcriptomic studies showed that VelA regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in membrane transport, fungal cell wall biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism, along with a number of small secreted proteins and a large number of proteins with no predictable functions. In addition, these results were compared with previous transcriptomic experiments that studied the impact of LaeA, another key global regulator of secondary metabolism and development that we have shown is important for E. festucae-perennial ryegrass interaction. The results showed that although VelA and LaeA regulate a subset of E. festucae genes in a similar manner, they also regulated many other genes independently of each other suggesting specialised roles.

RevDate: 2019-12-24

Boivin S, Ait Lahmidi N, Sherlock D, et al (2019)

Host-specific competitiveness to form nodules in Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar viciae.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Fabeae legumes such as pea and fababean form symbiotic nodules with a large diversity of soil Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar viciae (Rlv) bacteria. However, bacteria Competitive to Form root Nodules (CFN) are generally not the most efficient to fix dinitrogen, resulting in a decrease of legume crop yields. Here, we investigate differential selection by host plants on the diversity of Rlv. A large collection of Rlv was collected by nodule trapping with pea and fababean from soils at five European sites. Representative genomes were sequenced. In parallel, diversity and abundance of Rlv were estimated directly in these soils using metabarcoding. The CFN of isolates was measured with both legume hosts. Pea/fababean CFN were associated to Rlv genomic regions. Variations of bacterial pea and/or fababean CFN explained the differential abundance of Rlv genotypes in pea and fababean nodules. No evidence was found for genetic association between CFN and variations in the core genome, but variations in specific regions of the nod locus, as well as in other plasmid loci, were associated with differences in CFN. These findings shed light on the genetic control of CFN in Rlv and emphasize the importance of host plants in controlling rhizobium diversity.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Deutscher AT, Chapman TA, Shuttleworth LA, et al (2019)

Tephritid-microbial interactions to enhance fruit fly performance in sterile insect technique programs.

BMC microbiology, 19(Suppl 1):287 pii:10.1186/s12866-019-1650-0.

BACKGROUND: The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being applied for the management of economically important pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a number of countries worldwide. The success and cost effectiveness of SIT depends upon the ability of mass-reared sterilized male insects to successfully copulate with conspecific wild fertile females when released in the field.

METHODS: We conducted a critical analysis of the literature about the tephritid gut microbiome including the advancement of methods for the identification and characterization of microbiota, particularly next generation sequencing, the impacts of irradiation (to induce sterility of flies) and fruit fly rearing, and the use of probiotics to manipulate the fruit fly gut microbiota.

RESULTS: Domestication, mass-rearing, irradiation and handling, as required in SIT, may change the structure of the fruit flies' gut microbial community compared to that of wild flies under field conditions. Gut microbiota of tephritids are important in their hosts' development, performance and physiology. Knowledge of how mass-rearing and associated changes of the microbial community impact the functional role of the bacteria and host biology is limited. Probiotics offer potential to encourage a gut microbial community that limits pathogens, and improves the quality of fruit flies.

CONCLUSIONS: Advances in technologies used to identify and characterize the gut microbiota will continue to expand our understanding of tephritid gut microbial diversity and community composition. Knowledge about the functions of gut microbes will increase through the use of gnotobiotic models, genome sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics and metaproteomics. The use of probiotics, or manipulation of the gut microbiota, offers significant opportunities to enhance the production of high quality, performing fruit flies in operational SIT programs.

RevDate: 2020-01-17

Andongma AA, Wan L, Dong YC, et al (2019)

Assessment of the Bacteria community structure across life stages of the Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).

BMC microbiology, 19(Suppl 1):285 pii:10.1186/s12866-019-1646-9.

BACKGROUND: Symbiotic bacteria play a critical role in insect's biology. They also offer great opportunities to improve on current pest management techniques. In order to exploit and integrate the roles played by the gut microbiota on pest management programs, a better understanding of the structural organization of the microbial community in the Chinese citrus fly Bactrocera minax is essential.

RESULTS: The results revealed a total of 162 OTUs at 97% similarity interval. The dominant bacteria phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Antinobacteria and Firmicutes, with the Proteobacteria having the highest relative abundance (more than 80% in all life stages). There was also a shift in the dominant OTUs from the early developmental stages to the late developmental stages and adult stages in B. minax. These OTUs related to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia rettgeri and Enterobacter aerogenes, respectively. Six bacteria OTU were shared by all the life stages. These belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and the Enterococcaceae families.

CONCLUSION: The common bacteria groups shared by all the life stages and other fruit flies could be important targets for further research. This should aim towards realizing how these bacteria affect the biology of the fly and how their relationship could be exploited in the development of sustainable management strategies against fruit flies.

RevDate: 2019-12-25

Ramírez-Flores MR, Bello-Bello E, Rellán-Álvarez R, et al (2019)

Inoculation with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis modulates the relationship between root growth and nutrient content in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.).

Plant direct, 3(12):e00192.

Plant root systems play a fundamental role in nutrient and water acquisition. In resource-limited soils, modification of root system architecture is an important strategy to optimize plant performance. Most terrestrial plants also form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to maximize nutrient uptake. In addition to direct delivery of nutrients, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefit the plant host by promoting root growth. Here, we aimed to quantify the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on root growth and nutrient uptake in maize. Inoculated plants showed an increase in both biomass and the total content of twenty quantified elements. In addition, image analysis showed mycorrhizal plants to have denser, more branched root systems. For most of the quantified elements, the increase in content in mycorrhizal plants was proportional to root and overall plant growth. However, the increase in boron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and strontium was greater than predicted by root system size alone, indicating fungal delivery to be supplementing root uptake.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Wang L, Abu-Doleh A, Plank J, et al (2019)

The transcriptome of the rumen ciliate Entodinium caudatum reveals some of its metabolic features.

BMC genomics, 20(1):1008.

BACKGROUND: Rumen ciliates play important roles in rumen function by digesting and fermenting feed and shaping the rumen microbiome. However, they remain poorly understood due to the lack of definitive direct evidence without influence by prokaryotes (including symbionts) in co-cultures or the rumen. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to characterize the transcriptome of Entodinium caudatum, the most predominant and representative rumen ciliate species.

RESULTS: Of a large number of transcripts, > 12,000 were annotated to the curated genes in the NR, UniProt, and GO databases. Numerous CAZymes (including lysozyme and chitinase) and peptidases were represented in the transcriptome. This study revealed the ability of E. caudatum to depolymerize starch, hemicellulose, pectin, and the polysaccharides of the bacterial and fungal cell wall, and to degrade proteins. Many signaling pathways, including the ones that have been shown to function in E. caudatum, were represented by many transcripts. The transcriptome also revealed the expression of the genes involved in symbiosis, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, and the electron-transport chain. Overall, the transcriptomic evidence is consistent with some of the previous premises about E. caudatum. However, the identification of specific genes, such as those encoding lysozyme, peptidases, and other enzymes unique to rumen ciliates might be targeted to develop specific and effective inhibitors to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency by controlling the activity and growth of rumen ciliates. The transcriptomic data will also help the assembly and annotation in future genomic sequencing of E. caudatum.

CONCLUSION: As the first transcriptome of a single species of rumen ciliates ever sequenced, it provides direct evidence for the substrate spectrum, fermentation pathways, ability to respond to various biotic and abiotic stimuli, and other physiological and ecological features of E. caudatum. The presence and expression of the genes involved in the lysis and degradation of microbial cells highlight the dependence of E. caudatum on engulfment of other rumen microbes for its survival and growth. These genes may be explored in future research to develop targeted control of Entodinium species in the rumen. The transcriptome can also facilitate future genomic studies of E. caudatum and other related rumen ciliates.

RevDate: 2019-12-21

Bu F, Rutten L, Roswanjaya YP, et al (2019)

Mutant analysis in the non-legume Parasponia andersonii identifies NIN and NF-YA1 transcription factors as a core genetic network in nitrogen-fixing nodule symbioses.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen-fixing nodulation occurs in ten taxonomic lineages, either with rhizobia or Frankia bacteria. To establish such an endosymbiosis, two processes are essential: nodule organogenesis and intracellular bacterial infection. In the legume-rhizobium endosymbiosis, both processes are guarded by the transcription factor NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) and its downstream target genes of the NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) complex. It is hypothesized that nodulation has a single evolutionary origin ~ 110 million years ago, followed by many independent losses. Despite a significant body of knowledge of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, it remains elusive which signalling modules are shared between nodulating species in different taxonomic clades. We used Parasponia andersonii to investigate the role of NIN and NF-YA genes in rhizobium nodulation in a non-legume system. Consistent with legumes, P. andersonii PanNIN and PanNF-YA1 are co-expressed in nodules. By analyzing single, double and higher-order CRISPR-Cas9 knockout mutants, we show that nodule organogenesis and early symbiotic expression of PanNF-YA1 are PanNIN-dependent and that PanNF-YA1 is specifically required for intracellular rhizobium infection. This demonstrates that NIN and NF-YA1 commit conserved symbiotic functions. As Parasponia and legumes diverged soon after the birth of the nodulation trait, we argue that NIN and NF-YA1 represent core transcriptional regulators in this symbiosis.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Roux N, Lami R, Salis P, et al (2019)

Sea anemone and clownfish microbiota diversity and variation during the initial steps of symbiosis.

Scientific reports, 9(1):19491.

Clownfishes and sea anemones form an intriguing long-term association, but the mechanism underlying this symbiosis is not well understood. Since clownfishes seem to cover themselves with sea anemone mucus, we investigated the microbiomes of the two partners to search for possible shifts in their compositions. We used a 16S rRNA gene sequencing strategy to study the dynamics of the microbiota during the association between the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris and its host Heteractis magnifica under laboratory conditions. The experiment conducted in aquaria revealed that both clownfish and sea anemone mucus had specific signatures compared to artificial sea water. The microbiomes of both species were highly dynamic during the initiation of the symbiosis and for up to seven days after contact. Three families of bacteria (Haliangiaceae, Pseudoalteromonadacae, Saprospiracae) were shared between the two organisms after symbiosis. Once the symbiosis had been formed, the clownfishes and sea anemone then shared some communities of their mucus microbiota. This study paves the way for further investigations to determine if similar microbial signatures exist in natural environments, whether such microbial sharing can be beneficial for both organisms, and whether the microbiota is implicated in the mechanisms that protect the clownfish from sea anemone stinging.

RevDate: 2019-12-21

Weldon SR, Russell JA, KM Oliver (2019)

More is not always better: coinfections with defensive symbionts generate highly variable outcomes.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.02537-19 [Epub ahead of print].

Animal-associated microbes are highly variable, contributing to a diverse set of symbiont-mediated phenotypes. Given that host and symbiont genotypes, and their interactions, can impact symbiont-based phenotypes across environments, there is potential for extensive variation in fitness outcomes. Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, host a diverse assemblage of heritable, facultative symbionts (HFS) with characterized roles in host defense. Protective phenotypes have been largely studied as single infections, but pea aphids often carry multiple HFS species and particular combinations may be enriched or depleted compared to chance expectations. Here we examined the consequences of single vs. coinfection with two common HFS exhibiting variable enrichment, the anti-parasitoid Hamiltonella defensa and anti-pathogen Regiella insecticola, across three host genotypes and environments. As expected, single infections with either H. defensa or R. insecticola raised defenses against their respective targets. Single infections with protective H. defensa lowered aphid fitness in the absence of enemy challenge, while R. insecticola was comparatively benign. However, as a coinfection, R. insecticola ameliorated H. defensa infection costs. Coinfected aphids continued to receive anti-parasitoid protection from H. defensa, but protection was weakened by R. insecticola in two clones. Notably, H. defensa eliminated survival benefits conferred after pathogen exposure by coinfecting R. insecticola Since pathogen sporulation was suppressed by R. insecticola in coinfected aphids, poor performance likely stems from H. defensa-imposed costs rather than weakened defenses. Our results reveal a complex set of coinfection outcomes, which may partially explain natural infection patterns and suggests symbiont-based phenotypes may not be easily predicted solely on infection status.Importance The hyper-diverse arthropods often harbor maternally-transmitted bacteria that protect against natural enemies. In many species, low-diversity communities of heritable symbionts are common, providing opportunities for cooperation and conflict among symbionts, which can impact defensive services rendered. Using the pea aphid, a model for defensive symbiosis, we show that coinfections with two common defensive symbionts, the anti-pathogen Regiella and anti-parasite Hamiltonella, produce outcomes that are highly variable compared to single infections, which consistently protect against designated enemies. Compared to single infections, coinfections often reduced defensive services during enemy challenge, yet improved aphid fitness in the absence of enemies. Thus, infection with multiple symbionts will not necessarily create generalist aphids with swiss-army knife defenses against numerous enemies. Instead, particular combinations of symbionts may be favored for a variety of reasons, including their abilities to lessen the costs of other defensive symbionts when enemies are not present.

RevDate: 2019-12-31

Wang G, Wang L, Ma F, et al (2019)

Integration of earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soil by Solanum nigrum L.

Journal of hazardous materials pii:S0304-3894(19)31827-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and earthworms independently enhance plant growth, heavy metal (HM) tolerance, and HM uptake, thus they are potential key factors in phytoremediation. However, few studies have investigated their interactions in HM phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. This study highlights the independent and interactive effects of earthworms and AMF on Solanum nigrum. Plants inoculated with either AMF or earthworms exhibited ameliorated growth via enhancement of productivity, metal tolerance, and phosphorus (P) acquisition. Co-inoculation with both had more pronounced effects on plant biomass and P acquisition in shoots, but not in roots, and in Cd-polluted soils it significantly promoted (P < 0.05) shoot biomass (20.7-134.6 %) and P content (20.4-112.0 %). AMF and earthworms increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues, but only AMF affected Cd partitioning between shoots and roots. Although AMF decreased root-to-shoot translocation of Cd at high Cd levels, this was counterbalanced by earthworms. Both AMF and its combination with earthworms enhanced Cd phytoavailability by altering Cd chemical fractions and decreasing pH. Co-inoculation increased Cd removal amounts up to 149.3 % in 120 mg kg-1 Cd-spiked soils. Interactions between the two organisms were synergistic in Cd phytoextraction. Thus, earthworm-AMF-plant symbiosis potentially plays an essential role in phytoremediation of HM-polluted soils.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Wang HM, Liu F, Zhang SF, et al (2019)

Epibiotic Fungal Communities of Three Tomicus spp. Infesting Pines in Southwestern China.

Microorganisms, 8(1): pii:microorganisms8010015.

The association between insects and fungi has evolved over millions of years and is ubiquitous in nature. This symbiotic relationship holds critical implications for both partners, the insects and the associated microbes. Numerous fungi are externally allied with bark beetles and form a close symbiosis, but the community structures of these fungi are largely unknown. In Yunnan Province in southwestern China, the beetles Tomicus yunnanensis, T. minor, and T. brevipilosus are major forest pests that cause large losses of two indigenous pines, Pinus yunnanensis and P. kesiya. In this study, we used the Illumina MiSeq PE300 platform to process 48 samples of epibiotic fungal communities pooled from 1348 beetles; the beetles were collected during both the branch- and trunk-infection sections from five locations across Yunnan Province. Considerably greater species richness was detected using high-throughput sequencing of amplified internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries than previously documented by using culture-dependent methods. In total, 1,413,600 reads were generated, and a 97% sequence-similarity cutoff produced eight phyla, 31 classes, 83 orders, 181 families, 331 genera, 471 species, and 1157 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with 659, 621, and 609 OTUs being confined to T. yunnanensis, T. minor, and T. brevipilosus, respectively. Tomicus yunnanensis, T. minor, and T. brevipilosus had the similar OTUs richness and evenness of fungal communities in Yunnan Province; nevertheless, the two fungal community compositions associated with T. yunnanensis and T. minor were structurally similar to each other but distinct from that associated with T. brevipilosus. Lastly, the results of principal co-ordinates analysis suggested that epibiotic fungal community structures of the three Tomicus spp. were conditioned strongly by the locations and pine hosts but weakly by beetle species and infection sections. Our findings provide baseline knowledge regarding the epibiotic fungal communities of three major Tomicus spp. in southwestern China.

RevDate: 2020-01-08

Sheffer MM, Uhl G, Prost S, et al (2019)

Tissue- and Population-Level Microbiome Analysis of the Wasp Spider Argiope bruennichi Identified a Novel Dominant Bacterial Symbiont.

Microorganisms, 8(1): pii:microorganisms8010008.

Many ecological and evolutionary processes in animals depend upon microbial symbioses. In spiders, the role of the microbiome in these processes remains mostly unknown. We compared the microbiome between populations, individuals, and tissue types of a range-expanding spider, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Our study is one of the first to go beyond targeting known endosymbionts in spiders and characterizes the total microbiome across different body compartments (leg, prosoma, hemolymph, book lungs, ovaries, silk glands, midgut, and fecal pellets). Overall, the microbiome differed significantly between populations and individuals, but not between tissue types. The microbiome of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi features a novel dominant bacterial symbiont, which is abundant in every tissue type in spiders from geographically distinct populations and that is also present in offspring. The novel symbiont is affiliated with the Tenericutes, but has low sequence identity (<85%) to all previously named taxa, suggesting that the novel symbiont represents a new bacterial clade. Its presence in offspring implies that it is vertically transmitted. Our results shed light on the processes that shape microbiome differentiation in this species and raise several questions about the implications of the novel dominant bacterial symbiont on the biology and evolution of its host.

RevDate: 2019-12-20

Oliveira NC, FL Cônsoli (2019)

Beyond host regulation: Changes in gut microbiome of permissive and nonpermissive hosts following parasitization by the wasp Cotesia flavipes.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:5682488 [Epub ahead of print].

Koinobiont parasitoids regulate the physiology of their hosts, possibly interfering with the host gut microbiota and ultimately impacting parasitoid development. We used the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes to investigate if the regulation of the host would also affect the host gut microbiota. We also wondered if the effects of parasitization on the gut microbiota would depend on the host-parasitoid association by testing the permissive Diatraea saccharalis and the nonpermissive Spodoptera frugiperda hosts. We determined the structure and potential functional contribution of the gut microbiota of the fore-midgut and hindgut of the hosts at different stages of development of the immature parasitoid. The abundance and diversity of operational taxonomic units of the anteromedial gut and posterior region from larvae of the analyzed hosts were affected by parasitization. Changes in the gut microbiota induced by parasitization altered the potential functional contribution of the gut microbiota associated with both hosts. Our data also indicated that the mechanism by which C. flavipes interferes with the gut microbiota of the host does not require a host-parasitoid coevolutionary history. Changes observed in the potential contribution of the gut microbiota of parasitized hosts impact the host's nutritional quality, and could favor host exploitation by C. flavipes.

RevDate: 2020-01-16

Nguyen HP, Miwa H, Obirih-Opareh J, et al (2020)

Novel rhizobia exhibit superior nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation even under high nitrate concentrations.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 96(2):.

Legume-rhizobium symbiosis leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. However, externally applied chemical nitrogen fertilizers (nitrate and ammonia) strongly inhibit nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. Here, we isolated several rhizobial strains exhibiting a superior nodulation and nitrogen fixation with soybean at high nitrate concentrations. The nodulation of soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 was significantly inhibited at 12.5 mM nitrate; however, three isolates (NKS4, NKM2 and NKTG2) were capable of forming nitrogen-fixing nodules, even at 20 mM nitrate. These isolates exhibited higher nodulation competitiveness and induced larger nodules with higher nitrogen-fixation activity than USDA110 at 5 mM nitrate. Furthermore, these isolates induced more nodules than USDA110 even in nitrate-free conditions. These isolates had a distant lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus; though they were relatively phylogenetically close to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, their morphological and growth characteristics were significantly different. Notably, in the presence of nitrate, expression of the soybean symbiosis-related genes (GmENOD40 and GmNIN) was significantly higher and expression of GmNIC1 that is involved in nitrate-dependent nodulation inhibition was lower in the roots inoculated with these isolates in contrast with inoculation of USDA110. These novel rhizobia serve as promising inoculants for soybeans cultivated in diverse agroecosystems, particularly on nitrate-applied soils.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )