Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Symbiosis

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 08 Mar 2021 at 01:35 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-03-06

Varasteh T, Tschoeke D, Garcia G, et al (2021)

Insights into the genomic repertoire of Aquimarina litoralis CCMR20, a symbiont of coral Mussismilia braziliensis.

Archives of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Aquimarina litoralis CCMR20 originated from the coral Mussismilia braziliensis (Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil, summer 2010). To gain new insights into the genomic repertoire associated with symbioses, we obtained the genome sequence of this strains using Illumina sequencing. CCMR20 has a genome size of 6.3 Mb, 32.6%GC, and 5513 genes (37 tRNA and 4 rRNA). A more fine-grained examination of the gene repertoire of CCMR20 disclosed genes engaged with symbiosis (heterotrophic carbon metabolism, CAZymes, B-vitamins group, carotenoid pigment and antioxidant molecules production). Genomic evidence further expand the possible relevance of this symbiont in the health of Mussismilia holobiont.Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GeneBank under the accession number WEKL00000000.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Frew A, Price JN, Oja J, et al (2021)

Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their role in moderating plant allometric partitioning.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) effects on plants depend on several factors including plant photosynthetic physiology (e.g. C3, C4), soil nutrient availability and plants' co-evolved soil-dwelling fungal symbionts, namely arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Complicated interactions among these components will determine the outcomes for plants. Therefore, clearer understanding is needed of how plant growth and nutrient uptake, along with root-colonising AM fungal communities, are simultaneously impacted by eCO2. We conducted a factorial growth chamber experiment with a C3 and a C4 grass species (± AM fungi and ± eCO2). We found that eCO2 increased plant biomass allocation towards the roots, but only in plants without AM fungi, potentially associated with an eCO2-driven increase in plant nutrient requirements. Furthermore, our data suggest a difference in the identities of root-colonising fungal taxa between ambient CO2 and eCO2 treatments, particularly in the C4 grass species, although this was not statistically significant. As AM fungi are ubiquitous partners of grasses, their response to increasing atmospheric CO2 is likely to have important consequences for how grassland ecosystems respond to global change.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Obeng N, Bansept F, Sieber M, et al (2021)

Evolution of Microbiota-Host Associations: The Microbe's Perspective.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(21)00041-X [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiota-host associations are ubiquitous in nature. They are often studied using a host-centered view, while microbes are assumed to have coevolved with hosts or colonize hosts as nonadapted entities. Both assumptions are often incorrect. Instead, many host-associated microbes are adapted to a biphasic life cycle in which they alternate between noncoadapted hosts and a free-living phase. Full appreciation of microbiota-host symbiosis thus needs to consider how microbes optimize fitness across this life cycle. Here, we evaluate the key stages of the biphasic life cycle and propose a new conceptual framework for microbiota-host interactions which includes an integrative measure of microbial fitness, related to the parasite fitness parameter R0, and which will help in-depth assessment of the evolution of these widespread associations.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Marzano M, Fosso B, Piancone E, et al (2021)

Stem Cell Impairment at the Host-Microbiota Interface in Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers, 13(5): pii:cancers13050996.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation is believed to result from the conversion of normal intestinal stem cells (ISCs) into cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Hence, CRC evolves through the multiple acquisition of well-established genetic and epigenetic alterations with an adenoma-carcinoma sequence progression. Unlike other stem cells elsewhere in the body, ISCs cohabit with the intestinal microbiota, which consists of a diverse community of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The gut microbiota communicates closely with ISCs and mounting evidence suggests that there is significant crosstalk between host and microbiota at the ISC niche level. Metagenomic analyses have demonstrated that the host-microbiota mutually beneficial symbiosis existing under physiologic conditions is lost during a state of pathological microbial imbalance due to the alteration of microbiota composition (dysbiosis) and/or the genetic susceptibility of the host. The complex interaction between CRC and microbiota is at the forefront of the current CRC research, and there is growing attention on a possible role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of CRC through ISC niche impairment. Here we primarily review the most recent findings on the molecular mechanism underlying the complex interplay between gut microbiota and ISCs, revealing a possible key role of microbiota in the aberrant reprogramming of CSCs in the initiation of CRC. We also discuss recent advances in OMICS approaches and single-cell analyses to explore the relationship between gut microbiota and ISC/CSC niche biology leading to a desirable implementation of the current precision medicine approaches.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Miyabayashi H, Sakai HD, N Kurosawa (2021)

DNA Polymerase B1 Binding Protein 1 Is Important for DNA Repair by Holoenzyme PolB1 in the Extremely Thermophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

Microorganisms, 9(2): pii:microorganisms9020439.

DNA polymerase B1 (PolB1) is a member of the B-family DNA polymerase family and is a replicative DNA polymerase in Crenarchaea. PolB1 is responsible for the DNA replication of both the leading and lagging strands in the thermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Recently, two subunits, PolB1-binding protein (PBP)1 and PBP2, were identified in Saccharolobus solfataricus. Previous in vitro studies suggested that PBP1 and PBP2 influence the core activity of apoenzyme PolB1 (apo-PolB1). PBP1 contains a C-terminal acidic tail and modulates the strand-displacement synthesis activity of PolB1 during the synthesis of Okazaki fragments. PBP2 modestly enhances the DNA polymerase activity of apo-PolB1. These subunits are present in Sulfolobales, Acidilobales, and Desulfurococcales, which belong to Crenarchaea. However, it has not been determined whether these subunits are essential for the activity of apo-PolB1. In this study, we constructed a pbp1 deletion strain in S. acidocaldarius and characterized its phenotypes. However, a pbp2 deletion strain was not obtained, indicating that PBP2 is essential for replication by holoenzyme PolB1. A pbp1 deletion strain was sensitive to various types of DNA damage and exhibited an increased mutation rate, suggesting that PBP1 contribute to the repair or tolerance of DNA damage by holoenzyme PolB1. The results of our study suggest that PBP1 is important for DNA repair by holoenzyme PolB1 in S. acidocaldarius.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Koshy-Chenthittayil S, Archambault L, Senthilkumar D, et al (2021)

Agent Based Models of Polymicrobial Biofilms and the Microbiome-A Review.

Microorganisms, 9(2): pii:microorganisms9020417.

The human microbiome has been a focus of intense study in recent years. Most of the living organisms comprising the microbiome exist in the form of biofilms on mucosal surfaces lining our digestive, respiratory, and genito-urinary tracts. While health-associated microbiota contribute to digestion, provide essential nutrients, and protect us from pathogens, disturbances due to illness or medical interventions contribute to infections, some that can be fatal. Myriad biological processes influence the make-up of the microbiota, for example: growth, division, death, and production of extracellular polymers (EPS), and metabolites. Inter-species interactions include competition, inhibition, and symbiosis. Computational models are becoming widely used to better understand these interactions. Agent-based modeling is a particularly useful computational approach to implement the various complex interactions in microbial communities when appropriately combined with an experimental approach. In these models, each cell is represented as an autonomous agent with its own set of rules, with different rules for each species. In this review, we will discuss innovations in agent-based modeling of biofilms and the microbiota in the past five years from the biological and mathematical perspectives and discuss how agent-based models can be further utilized to enhance our comprehension of the complex world of polymicrobial biofilms and the microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Shimizu K, Seiki I, Goto Y, et al (2021)

Measurement of the Intestinal pH in Mice under Various Conditions Reveals Alkalization Induced by Antibiotics.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2): pii:antibiotics10020180.

The intestinal pH can greatly influence the stability and absorption of oral drugs. Therefore, knowledge of intestinal pH is necessary to understand the conditions for drug delivery. This has previously been measured in humans and rats. However, information on intestinal pH in mice is insufficient despite these animals being used often in preclinical testing. In this study, 72 female ICR mice housed in SPF (specific pathogen-free) conditions were separated into nine groups to determine the intestinal pH under conditions that might cause pH fluctuations, including high-protein diet, ageing, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, several antibiotic treatment regimens and germ-free mice. pH was measured in samples collected from the ileum, cecum and colon, and compared to control animals. An electrode, 3 mm in diameter, enabled accurate pH measurements with a small amount of gastrointestinal content. Consequently, the pH values in the cecum and colon were increased by high-protein diet, and the pH in the ileum was decreased by PPI. Drastic alkalization was induced by antibiotics, especially in the cecum and colon. The alkalized pH values in germ-free mice suggested that the reduction in the intestinal bacteria caused by antibiotics led to alkalization. Alkalization of the intestinal pH caused by antibiotic treatment was verified in mice. We need further investigations in clinical settings to check whether the same phenomena occur in patients.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Saati-Santamaría Z, Rivas R, Kolařik M, et al (2021)

A New Perspective of Pseudomonas-Host Interactions: Distribution and Potential Ecological Functions of the Genus Pseudomonas within the Bark Beetle Holobiont.

Biology, 10(2): pii:biology10020164.

Symbiosis between microbes and insects has been raised as a promising area for understanding biological implications of microbe-host interactions. Among them, the association between fungi and bark beetles has been generally recognized as essential for the bark beetle ecology. However, many works investigating bark beetle bacterial communities and their functions usually meet in a common finding: Pseudomonas is a broadly represented genus within this holobiont and it may provide beneficial roles to its host. Thus, we aimed to review available research on this microbe-host interaction and point out the probable relevance of Pseudomonas strains for these insects, in order to guide future research toward a deeper analysis of the importance of these bacteria for the beetle's life cycle.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Trinchera A, Testani E, Roccuzzo G, et al (2021)

Agroecological Service Crops Drive Plant Mycorrhization in Organic Horticultural Systems.

Microorganisms, 9(2): pii:microorganisms9020410.

Mycorrhizal symbiosis represents a valuable tool for increasing plant nutrient uptake, affecting system biodiversity, ecosystem services and productivity. Introduction of agroecological service crops (ASCs) in cropping systems may determine changes in weed community, that can affect the development of the mycorrhizal mycelial network in the rhizosphere, favoring or depressing the cash crop mycorrhization. Two no-till Mediterranean organic horticultural systems were considered: one located in central Italy, where organic melon was transplanted on four winter-cereals mulches (rye, spelt, barley, wheat), one located in southern Italy (Sicily), where barley (as catch crop) was intercropped in an organic young orange orchard, with the no tilled, unweeded systems taken as controls. Weed "Supporting Arbuscular Mycorrhiza" (SAM) trait, weed density and biodiversity indexes, mycorrhization of coexistent plants in the field, the external mycelial network on roots were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, crop P uptake, yield and quality were evaluated. We verified that cereals, used as green mulches or intercropped, may drive the weed selection in favor of the SAM species, and promote the mycelial network, thus significantly increasing the mycorrhization, the P uptake, the yield and quality traits of the cash crop. This is a relevant economic factor when introducing sustainable cropping practices and assessing the overall functionality of the agroecosystem.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Rosselli R, La Porta N, Muresu R, et al (2021)

Pangenomics of the Symbiotic Rhizobiales. Core and Accessory Functions Across a Group Endowed with High Levels of Genomic Plasticity.

Microorganisms, 9(2): pii:microorganisms9020407.

Pangenome analyses reveal major clues on evolutionary instances and critical genome core conservation. The order Rhizobiales encompasses several families with rather disparate ecological attitudes. Among them, Rhizobiaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, Phyllobacteriacreae and Xanthobacteriaceae, include members proficient in mutualistic symbioses with plants based on the bacterial conversion of N2 into ammonia (nitrogen-fixation). The pangenome of 12 nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts of the Rhizobiales was analyzed yielding total 37,364 loci, with a core genome constituting 700 genes. The percentage of core genes averaged 10.2% over single genomes, and between 5% to 7% were found to be plasmid-associated. The comparison between a representative reference genome and the core genome subset, showed the core genome highly enriched in genes for macromolecule metabolism, ribosomal constituents and overall translation machinery, while membrane/periplasm-associated genes, and transport domains resulted under-represented. The analysis of protein functions revealed that between 1.7% and 4.9% of core proteins could putatively have different functions.

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Baldo L, J Werren (2021)

Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Symbioses.

Genes, 12(3): pii:genes12030327.

Symbiosis is the living together of dissimilar organisms [...].

RevDate: 2021-03-06

Wiewióra B, G Żurek (2021)

The Response of the Associations of Grass and Epichloë Endophytes to the Increased Content of Heavy Metals in the Soil.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(3): pii:plants10030429.

The rapid development of civilization increases the area of land exposed to the accumulation of toxic compounds, including heavy metals, both in water and soil. Endophytic fungi associated with many species of grasses are related to the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses, which include heavy metals. This paper reviews different aspects of symbiotic interactions between grass species and fungal endophytes from the genera Epichloë with special attention paid to the elevated concentration of heavy metals in growing substrates. The evidence shows the high resistance variation of plant endophyte symbiosis on the heavy metals in soil outcome. The fungal endophytes confer high heavy metal tolerance, which is the key feature in its practical application with their host plants, i.e., grasses in phytoremediation.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Teheran-Sierra LG, Funnicelli MIG, de Carvalho LAL, et al (2021)

Bacterial communities associated with sugarcane under different agricultural management exhibit a diversity of plant growth-promoting traits and evidence of synergistic effect.

Microbiological research, 247:126729 pii:S0944-5013(21)00035-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant-associated microbiomes have been a target of interest for the prospection of microorganisms, which may be acting as effectors to increase agricultural productivity. For years, the search for beneficial microorganisms has been carried out from the characterization of functional traits of growth-promotion using tests with a few isolates. However, eventually, the expectations with positive results may not be realized when the evaluation is performed in association with plants. In our study, we accessed the cultivable sugarcane microbiome under two conditions of agronomic management: organic and conventional. From the use of a new customized culture medium, we recovered 944 endophytic and epiphytic bacterial communities derived from plant roots, stalks, leaves, and rhizospheric soil. This could be accomplished by using a large-scale approach, initially performing an in planta (Cynodon dactylon) screening process of inoculation to avoid early incompatibility. The inoculation was performed using the bacterial communities, considering that in this way, they could act synergistically. This process resulted in 38 candidate communities, 17 of which had higher Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and phosphate solubilization activity and, were submitted to a new in planta test using Brachiaria ruziziensis and quantification of functional traits for growth-promotion and physiological tests. Enrichment analysis of selected communities has shown that they derived mainly from epiphytic populations of sugarcane stalks under conventional management. The sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 34 genera and 24 species distributed among the phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. We also observed a network of genera in these communities where the genus Chryseobacterium stands out with a greater degree of interaction, indicating a possible direct or indirect role as a keystone taxon in communities with plant-growth promotion capacities. From the results achieved, we can conclude that the approach is useful in the recovery of a set of sugarcane bacterial communities and that there is, evidence of synergistic action providing benefits to plants, and that they are compatible with plants of the same family (Poaceae). Thus, we are reporting the beneficial bacterial communities identified as suitable candidates with rated potential to be exploited as bioinoculants for crops.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Alsayegh SY, Al-Ghouti MA, N Zouari (2021)

Study of bacterial interactions in reconstituted hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortia from a local collection, for the bioremediation of weathered oily-soils.

Biotechnology reports (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 29:e00598 pii:S2215-017X(21)00014-X.

To enhance the process of bacterial remediation of weathered hydrocarbons, the area of Dukhan, Qatar, was considered as a model for weathering processes. Self-purification by indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria showed low performance. Biostimulation/seeding using one or another of the indigenous bacteria improved the performance. Symbiosis between three strains dominating the soil; Bacillus sorensis D11, Bacillus cereus D12, and Pseudomonas stutzeri D13, was highly performant for removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the weathered soil. D11, the most sensitive, showed the highest performance when mixed with D12 or D13. D12, less performant than D11, was more active on diesel range organics (DRO: C10-C28), similar to D11. D13 showed a metabolic behavior close to commensal and co-metabolic ones. It was more active on hydrocarbons above C29. Combination of the three strains conducted to the removal of at least 80% of C10-C35 organics in the extract at concentrations of 31.1 mg/g TPH-DRO.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Dittami SM, Arboleda E, Auguet JC, et al (2021)

A community perspective on the concept of marine holobionts: current status, challenges, and future directions.

PeerJ, 9:e10911 pii:10911.

Host-microbe interactions play crucial roles in marine ecosystems. However, we still have very little understanding of the mechanisms that govern these relationships, the evolutionary processes that shape them, and their ecological consequences. The holobiont concept is a renewed paradigm in biology that can help to describe and understand these complex systems. It posits that a host and its associated microbiota with which it interacts, form a holobiont, and have to be studied together as a coherent biological and functional unit to understand its biology, ecology, and evolution. Here we discuss critical concepts and opportunities in marine holobiont research and identify key challenges in the field. We highlight the potential economic, sociological, and environmental impacts of the holobiont concept in marine biological, evolutionary, and environmental sciences. Given the connectivity and the unexplored biodiversity specific to marine ecosystems, a deeper understanding of such complex systems requires further technological and conceptual advances, e.g., the development of controlled experimental model systems for holobionts from all major lineages and the modeling of (info)chemical-mediated interactions between organisms. Here we propose that one significant challenge is to bridge cross-disciplinary research on tractable model systems in order to address key ecological and evolutionary questions. This first step is crucial to decipher the main drivers of the dynamics and evolution of holobionts and to account for the holobiont concept in applied areas, such as the conservation, management, and exploitation of marine ecosystems and resources, where practical solutions to predict and mitigate the impact of human activities are more important than ever.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Fernandez F, Baker DP, Fu YC, et al (2021)

A Symbiosis of Access: Proliferating STEM PhD Training in the U.S. from 1920-2010.

Minerva, 59(1):79-98.

Over the course of the 20th century, unprecedented growth in scientific discovery was fueled by broad growth in the number of university-based scientists. During this period the American undergraduate enrollment rate and number of universities with STEM graduate programs each doubled three times and the annual volume of new PhDs doubled six times. This generated the research capacity that allowed the United States to surpass early European-dominated science production and lead for the rest of the century. Here, we focus on origins in the organizational environment and institutional dynamics instead of conventional economic factors. We argue that three trends of such dynamics in the development of American higher education not often considered together-mass undergraduate education, decentralized founding of universities, and flexible mission charters for PhD training-form a process characterized by a term coined here: access symbiosis. Then using a 90-year data series on STEM PhD production and institutional development, we demonstrate the historical progression of these mutually beneficial trends. This access symbiosis in the U.S., and perhaps versions of it in other nations, is likely one critical component of the integration of higher education development with the growing global capacity for scientific discovery. These results are discussed in terms of the contributions of American universities to the Century of Science, recent international trends, and its future viability.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Xuan W, Lesniak MS, James CD, et al (2021)

Context-Dependent Glioblastoma-Macrophage/Microglia Symbiosis and Associated Mechanisms.

Trends in immunology pii:S1471-4906(21)00028-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal form of primary brain tumor in human adults. The impact of tumor-intrinsic alterations is not exclusively confined to cancer cells but can also be extended to the tumor microenvironment (TME). Glioblastoma-associated macrophages/microglia (GAMs) are a prominent type of immune cells that account for up to 50% of total cells in GBM. Emerging evidence suggests that context-dependent GBM-GAM symbiotic interactions are pivotal for tumor growth and progression. Here, we discuss how specific genetic alterations in GBM cells affect GAM biology and, reciprocally, how GAMs support GBM progression. We hypothesize that understanding context-dependent GBM-GAM symbiosis may reveal the molecular basis of GBM tumorigenesis and lead to novel candidate treatment approaches aiming to improve GBM patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Aoki T, Kawaguchi M, Imaizumi-Anraku H, et al (2021)

Mutants of Lotus japonicus deficient in flavonoid biosynthesis.

Journal of plant research, 134(2):341-352.

Spatiotemporal features of anthocyanin accumulation in a model legume Lotus japonicus (Regel) K.Larsen were elucidated to develop criteria for the genetic analysis of flavonoid biosynthesis. Artificial mutants and wild accessions, with lower anthocyanin accumulation in the stem than the standard wild type (B-129 'Gifu'), were obtained by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and from a collection of wild-grown variants, respectively. The loci responsible for the green stem of the mutants were named as VIRIDICAULIS (VIC). Genetic and chemical analysis identified two loci, namely, VIC1 and VIC2, required for the production of both anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), and two loci, namely, VIC3 and VIC4, required for the steps specific to anthocyanin biosynthesis. A mutation in VIC5 significantly reduced the anthocyanin accumulation. These mutants will serve as a useful system for examining the effects of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins on the interactions with herbivorous pests, pathogenic microorganisms and nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria, Mesorhizobium loti.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Cotes B, Thöming G, Amaya-Gómez CV, et al (2020)

Root-associated entomopathogenic fungi manipulate host plants to attract herbivorous insects.

Scientific reports, 10(1):22424.

Root-associated entomopathogenic fungi (R-AEF) indirectly influence herbivorous insect performance. However, host plant-R-AEF interactions and R-AEF as biological control agents have been studied independently and without much attention to the potential synergy between these functional traits. In this study, we evaluated behavioral responses of cabbage root flies [Delia radicum L. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)] to a host plant (white cabbage cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba cv. Castello L.) with and without the R-AEF Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). We performed experiments on leaf reflectance, phytohormonal composition and host plant location behavior (behavioral processes that contribute to locating and selecting an adequate host plant in the environment). Compared to control host plants, R-AEF inoculation caused, on one hand, a decrease in reflectance of host plant leaves in the near-infrared portion of the radiometric spectrum and, on the other, an increase in the production of jasmonic, (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine and salicylic acid in certain parts of the host plant. Under both greenhouse and field settings, landing and oviposition by cabbage root fly females were positively affected by R-AEF inoculation of host plants. The fungal-induced change in leaf reflectance may have altered visual cues used by the cabbage root flies in their host plant selection. This is the first study providing evidence for the hypothesis that R-AEF manipulate the suitability of their host plant to attract herbivorous insects.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Dávila-Delgado R, Bañuelos-Vazquez LA, Monroy-Morales E, et al (2020)

Rhizobium etli CE3-DsRed pMP604: a useful biological tool to study initial infection steps in Phaseolus vulgaris nodulation.

Planta, 252(4):69 pii:10.1007/s00425-020-03479-y.

MAIN CONCLUSION: Rhizobium etli CE3-DsRed pMP604 drives infection 12-24 h earlier than R. etli CE3-DsRed and it is an excellent tool in live-cell imaging studies of IT developement in P. vulgaris roots. The study of the cellular dynamics of nodulation has frequently been limited by the difficulty of performing live-cell imaging in nodule primordia and legume roots, which are constituted by multiple cell layers, such is the case of Phaseolus vulgaris. Seeking conditions to reduce the time it takes for rhizobia to infect P. vulgaris root, we decided to explore the nodulation properties of Rhizobium etli CE3 pMP604, a strain that constitutively produces Nod factors through a flavonoids-independent transcriptional activation which is often used to purify Nod factors. Even though the strain infects 12-24 h earlier than the parental R. etli CE3 strain, infection thread (IT) formation, nodule organogenesis processes and N2-fixation activity are similar for both strains. Additionally, we have confirmed that R. etli CE3-DsRed pMP604 is an excellent tool to trace IT development in P. vulgaris roots.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Adedeji AA, OO Babalola (2020)

Secondary metabolites as plant defensive strategy: a large role for small molecules in the near root region.

Planta, 252(4):61 pii:10.1007/s00425-020-03468-1.

The roles of plant roots are not merely limited to the provision of mechanical support, nutrients and water, but also include more specific roles, such as the capacity to secrete diverse chemical substances. These metabolites are actively secreted in the near root and play specific and significant functions in plant defense and communication. In this review, we detail the various preventive roles of these powerful substances in the rhizosphere with a perspective as to how plants recruit microbes as a preventive measure against other pathogenic microbes, also, briefly about how the rhizosphere can repel insect pests, and how these chemical substances alter microbial dynamics and enhance symbiotic relationships. We also highlight the need for more research in this area to detail the mode of action and quantification of these compounds in the environment and their roles in some important biological processes in microorganisms and plants.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Ramoneda J, Roux JJL, Frossard E, et al (2020)

Geographical patterns of root nodule bacterial diversity in cultivated and wild populations of a woody legume crop.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 96(10):.

There is interest in understanding how cultivation, plant genotype, climate and soil conditions influence the biogeography of root nodule bacterial communities of legumes. For crops from regions with relict wild populations, this is of even greater interest because the effects of cultivation on symbiont communities can be revealed, which is of particular interest for bacteria such as rhizobia. Here, we determined the structure of root nodule bacterial communities of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), a leguminous shrub endemic to South Africa. We related the community dissimilarities of the root nodule bacteria of 18 paired cultivated and wild rooibos populations to pairwise geographical distances, plant ecophysiological characteristics and soil physicochemical parameters. Using next-generation sequencing data, we identified region-, cultivation- and farm-specific operational taxonomic units for four distinct classes of root nodule bacterial communities, dominated by members of the genus Mesorhizobium. We found that while bacterial richness was locally increased by organic cultivation, strong biogeographical differentiation in the bacterial communities of wild rooibos disappeared with cultivation of one single cultivar across its entire cultivation range. This implies that expanding rooibos farming has the potential to endanger wild rooibos populations through the homogenisation of root nodule bacterial diversity.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Szuba A, Marczak Ł, Ratajczak I, et al (2020)

Integrated proteomic and metabolomic analyses revealed molecular adjustments in Populus × canescens colonized with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus, which limited plant host growth.

Environmental microbiology, 22(9):3754-3771.

Ectomycorrhizae (ECMs) are a highly context-dependent interactions that are not always beneficial for the plant host, sometimes leading to a decrease in plant growth. However, the molecular status of these plants remains unknown. We studied Populus × canescens microcuttings characterized by impaired growth in response to colonization by a Paxillus involutus strain via integrative proteomics-metabolomics analyses. The analysed strain was characterized by low compatibility and formed only mantles, not a Hartig net, in the majority of root tips. The increased abundance of photosynthetic proteins and foliar carbohydrates co-occurred with signals of intensified resource exchange via the stems of colonized plants. In the roots, intensified C metabolism resulted in the biosynthesis of secondary C compounds unavailable to the fungal partner but also C skeletons necessary to increase insufficient N uptake from the hyphae. The stress response was also detected in colonized plants but was similar to that reported previously during mutualistic ECM interactions. In colonized poplar plants, mechanisms to prevent imbalanced C/N trade-offs were activated. Root metabolism strongly depended on features of the whole plant, especially the foliar C/N budget. However, despite ECM-triggered growth impairment and the foliar nutrient status, the fungal partner was recognized to be a symbiotic partner.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-03-05

Kochanowsky RM, Bradshaw C, Forlastro I, et al (2020)

Xenorhabdus bovienii strain jolietti uses a type 6 secretion system to kill closely related Xenorhabdus strains.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 96(8):.

Xenorhabdus bovienii strain jolietti (XBJ) is a Gram-negative bacterium that interacts with several organisms as a part of its life cycle. It is a beneficial symbiont of nematodes, a potent pathogen of a wide range of soil-dwelling insects and also has the ability to kill soil- and insect-associated microbes. Entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes vector XBJ into insects, releasing the bacteria into the insect body cavity. There, XBJ produce a variety of insecticidal toxins and antimicrobials. XBJ's genome also encodes two separate Type Six Secretion Systems (T6SSs), structures that allow bacteria to inject specific proteins directly into other cells, but their roles in the XBJ life cycle are mostly unknown. To probe the function of these T6SSs, we generated mutant strains lacking the key structural protein Hcp from each T6SS and assessed phenotypes related to different parts of XBJ's life cycle. Here we demonstrate that one of the T6SSs is more highly expressed in in vitro growth conditions and has antibacterial activity against other Xenorhabdus strains, and that the two T6SSs have a redundant role in biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Cheng XF, Wu HH, Zou YN, et al (2021)

Mycorrhizal response strategies of trifoliate orange under well-watered, salt stress, and waterlogging stress by regulating leaf aquaporin expression.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 162:27-35 pii:S0981-9428(21)00093-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Aquaporins (AQPs) involved in water and small molecule transport respond to environmental stress, while it is not clear how arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regulate AQP expression. Here, we investigated the change in leaf water potential and expression level of four tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), six plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), and four nodin-26 like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) genes in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae under well-watered (WW), salt stress (SS), and waterlogging stress (WS). Root AMF colonization and soil hyphal length collectively were reduced by SS and WS. Under WW, inoculation with AMF gave diverse responses of AQPs: six AQPs up-regulated, three AQPs down-regulated, and five AQPs did not change. Such up-regulation of more AQPs under mycorrhization and WW partly accelerated water absorption, thereby, maintaining higher leaf water potential. However, under SS, all the fourteen AQPs were dramatically induced by AMF inoculation, which improved water permeability of membranes and stimulated water transport of the host. Under WS, AMF colonization almost did not induce or even down-regulated these AQPs expressions with three exceptions (PtTIP2;2, PtPIP1;1, and PtNIP1;2), thus, no change in leaf water potential. As a result, mycorrhizal plants under flooding may have an escape mechanism to reduce water absorption. It is concluded that AMF had different strategies in response to environmental stresses (e.g. SS and WS) by regulating leaf AQP expression in the host (e.g. trifoliate orange).

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Onyango CA, Glassom D, A MacDonald (2021)

De novo assembly of the transcriptome of scleractinian coral, Anomastraea irregularis and analyses of its response to thermal stress.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Rising seawater temperatures cause coral bleaching. The molecular responses of the coral holobiont under stress conditions, determine the success of the symbiosis. Anomastraea irregularis is a hard coral commonly found in the harsh intertidal zones of the south coast of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, where it thrives at the very margins of hard coral distribution in the Western Indian Ocean. To identify the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying its resilience to heat stress, experimental and control nubbins were exposed to temperatures of 29 and 19 °C respectively for 24 h. The transcriptome was assembled de novo from 42.8 million quality controlled 63 bp paired-end short sequence reads obtained via RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The assembly yielded 333,057 contigs (> 500 bp = 55,626, Largest = 6341 bp N50 = 747 bp). 1362 (1.23%) of the transcripts were significantly differentially expressed between heat stressed and control samples. Log fold change magnitudes among individual genes ranged from - 4.6 to 7.2. Overall, the heat stress response in the A. irregularis constituted a protective response involving up regulation of apoptosis and SUMOylation. Gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that heat stress in the coral affected the metabolism, protein synthesis, photosynthesis, transport and cytoskeleton. This is the first study to produce a reference transcriptome of this coral species and analyze its response to heat stress. The assembled transcriptome also presents a valuable resource for further transcriptomic and genomic studies.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Afonin AM, Leppyanen IV, Kulaeva OA, et al (2020)

A high coverage reference transcriptome assembly of pea (Pisum sativum L.) mycorrhizal roots.

Vavilovskii zhurnal genetiki i selektsii, 24(4):331-339.

Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is an ancient mutualistic symbiosis formed by 80-90 % of land plant species with the obligatorily biotrophic fungi that belong to the phylum Glomeromycota. This symbiosis is mutually beneficial, as AM fungi feed on plant photosynthesis products, in turn improving the efficiency of nutrient uptake from the environment. The garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), a widely cultivated crop and an important model for genetics, is capable of forming triple symbiotic systems consisting of the plant, AM fungi and nodule bacteria. As transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being implemented for studying the mutualistic symbioses of pea, a need for a reference transcriptome of genes expressed under these specific conditions for increasing the resolution and the accuracy of other methods arose. Numerous transcriptome assemblies constructed for pea did not include mycorrhizal roots, hence the aim of the study to construct a reference transcriptome assembly of pea mycorrhizal roots. The combined transcriptome of mycorrhizal roots of Pisum sativum cv. Frisson inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG144 was investigated, and for both the organisms independent transcriptomes were assembled (coverage 177x for pea and 45x for fungus). Genes specific to mycorrhizal roots were found in the assembly, their expression patterns were examined with qPCR on two pea cultivars, Frisson and Finale. The gene expression depended on the inoculation stage and on the pea cultivar. The investigated genes may serve as markers for early stages of inoculation in genetically diverse pea cultivars.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Turkovskaya OV, SN Golubev (2020)

The Collection of Rhizosphere Microorganisms: its importance for the study of associative plant-bacterium interactions.

Vavilovskii zhurnal genetiki i selektsii, 24(3):315-324.

Microbial culture collections are very important components of biological science. They provide researchers with material for studies and preserve biological resources. One such collection is the Collection of Rhizosphere Microorganisms, kept at the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (IBPPM). Its activity is primarily directed toward the isolation and preservation of microorganisms from the plant root zone. The international research interest in microorganisms from this ecological niche is not waning, because they are very important for plant growth and development and, consequently, for plant breeding. The group of bacteria with properties of significance for plants has been given the name "plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria" (PGPR). This group includes nitrogen-fixing soil alpha-proteobacteria of the genus Azospirillum, which form the core of the IBPPM collection. First discovered by Brazilian scientists in the 1970s, azospirilla are now a universally recognized model object for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying plant-bacterium interactions. The broad range of useful properties found in these microorganisms, including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, production of phytohormones, solubilization of phosphates, control of pathogens, and formation of induced systemic resistance in the colonized plants, make these bacteria an all-purpose tool that has been used for several decades in basic and applied research. This article reviews the current state of Azospirillum research, with emphasis on the results obtained at the IBPPM. Scientific expeditions across the Saratov region undertaken by IBPPM microbiologists in the early 1980s formed the basis for the unique collection of members of this bacterial taxon. Currently, the collection has more than 160 Azospirillum strains and is one of the largest collections in Europe. The research conducted at the IBPPM is centered mostly on the Azospirillum structures involved in associative symbiosis with plants, primarily extracellular polysaccharide-containing complexes and lectins. The development of immunochemical methods contributed much to our understanding of the overall organization of the surface of rhizosphere bacteria. The extensive studies of the Azospirillum genome largely deepened our understanding of the role of the aforesaid bacterial structures, motility, and biofilms in the colonization of host plant roots. Of interest are also applied studies focusing on agricultural and environmental technologies and on the "green" synthesis of Au, Ag, and Se nanoparticles. The Collection of Rhizosphere Microorganisms continues to grow, being continually supplemented with newly isolated strains. The data presented in this article show the great importance of specialized microbial culture repositories, such as the IBPPM collection, for the development and maintenance of the microbial research base and for the effective solution of basic and applied tasks in microbiology.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Kryukov AA, Gorbunova AO, Machs EM, et al (2020)

Perspectives of using Illumina MiSeq for identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Vavilovskii zhurnal genetiki i selektsii, 24(2):158-167.

Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) form one of the most common symbiosis with the majority of land plants. AMF supply the plant with various mineral elements, primarily phosphorus, and improve the water supply. The search for the most effective AMF strains for symbiosis and the creation of microbial preparations on that basis is an important task for modern biology. Owing to the difficulties of cultivation without a host plant and their high genetic polymorphism, identifying AMF is very difficult. A high number of cryptic species often makes morphological identification unreliable. Recent years have seen a growth in the number of AMF biodiversity studies performed by modern NGS-based methods, Illumina MiSeq in particular. Currently, there are still many questions that remain for the identification of AМF. The most important are whether conservative or variable sequences should be used to select a marker for barcoding and whether universal primers or those specific to AMF should be used. In our work, we have successfully used universal primers ITS3 and ITS4 for the sequencing in Illumina MiSeq of the 5.8S rDNA - ITS2 region of the 35S rRNA genes, which contain both a conservative and variable regions. The molecular genetic approach for AMF identification was quite effective and allowed us to reliably identify eight of nine isolates to the species level: five isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis, and one isolate of R. invermaius, Paraglomus laccatum, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, respectively. For all five R. irregularis isolates, high variability in the ITS region and the absence of ecotopic-related molecular characters in the ITS2 region were demonstrated. The NCBI data is still insufficient for accurate AMF identification of Acaulospora sp. isolates from the genus to the species level.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Graf JS, Schorn S, Kitzinger K, et al (2021)

Anaerobic endosymbiont generates energy for ciliate host by denitrification.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria are specialized eukaryotic organelles that have a dedicated function in oxygen respiration and energy production. They evolved about 2 billion years ago from a free-living bacterial ancestor (probably an alphaproteobacterium), in a process known as endosymbiosis1,2. Many unicellular eukaryotes have since adapted to life in anoxic habitats and their mitochondria have undergone further reductive evolution3. As a result, obligate anaerobic eukaryotes with mitochondrial remnants derive their energy mostly from fermentation4. Here we describe 'Candidatus Azoamicus ciliaticola', which is an obligate endosymbiont of an anaerobic ciliate and has a dedicated role in respiration and providing energy for its eukaryotic host. 'Candidatus A. ciliaticola' contains a highly reduced 0.29-Mb genome that encodes core genes for central information processing, the electron transport chain, a truncated tricarboxylic acid cycle, ATP generation and iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. The genome encodes a respiratory denitrification pathway instead of aerobic terminal oxidases, which enables its host to breathe nitrate instead of oxygen. 'Candidatus A. ciliaticola' and its ciliate host represent an example of a symbiosis that is based on the transfer of energy in the form of ATP, rather than nutrition. This discovery raises the possibility that eukaryotes with mitochondrial remnants may secondarily acquire energy-providing endosymbionts to complement or replace functions of their mitochondria.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Murphy R, Benndorf R, de Beer ZW, et al (2021)

Comparative Genomics Reveals Prophylactic and Catabolic Capabilities of Actinobacteria within the Fungus-Farming Termite Symbiosis.

mSphere, 6(2):.

Actinobacteria, one of the largest bacterial phyla, are ubiquitous in many of Earth's ecosystems and often act as defensive symbionts with animal hosts. Members of the phylum have repeatedly been isolated from basidiomycete-cultivating fungus-farming termites that maintain a monoculture fungus crop on macerated dead plant substrate. The proclivity for antimicrobial and enzyme production of Actinobacteria make them likely contributors to plant decomposition and defense in the symbiosis. To test this, we analyzed the prophylactic (biosynthetic gene cluster [BGC]) and metabolic (carbohydrate-active enzyme [CAZy]) potential in 16 (10 existing and six new genomes) termite-associated Actinobacteria and compared these to the soil-dwelling close relatives. Using antiSMASH, we identified 435 BGCs, of which 329 (65 unique) were similar to known compound gene clusters, while 106 were putatively novel, suggesting ample prospects for novel compound discovery. BGCs were identified among all major compound categories, including 26 encoding the production of known antimicrobial compounds, which ranged in activity (antibacterial being most prevalent) and modes of action that might suggest broad defensive potential. Peptide pattern recognition analysis revealed 823 (43 unique) CAZymes coding for enzymes that target key plant and fungal cell wall components (predominantly chitin, cellulose, and hemicellulose), confirming a substantial degradative potential of these bacteria. Comparison of termite-associated and soil-dwelling bacteria indicated no significant difference in either BGC or CAZy potential, suggesting that the farming termite hosts may have coopted these soil-dwelling bacteria due to their metabolic potential but that they have not been subject to genome change associated with symbiosis.IMPORTANCEActinobacteria have repeatedly been isolated in fungus-farming termites, and our genome analyses provide insights into the potential roles they may serve in defense and for plant biomass breakdown. These insights, combined with their relatively higher abundances in fungus combs than in termite gut, suggest that they are more likely to play roles in fungus combs than in termite guts. Up to 25% of the BGCs we identify have no similarity to known clusters, indicating a large potential for novel chemistry to be discovered. Similarities in metabolic potential of soil-dwelling and termite-associated bacteria suggest that they have environmental origins, but their consistent presence with the termite system suggests their importance for the symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Suzuki M, Sujino T, Chiba S, et al (2021)

Host-microbe cross-talk governs amino acid chirality to regulate survival and differentiation of B cells.

Science advances, 7(10): pii:7/10/eabd6480.

Organisms use l-amino acids (l-aa) for most physiological processes. Unlike other organisms, bacteria chiral-convert l-aa to d-configurations as essential components of their cell walls and as signaling molecules in their ecosystems. Mammals recognize microbe-associated molecules to initiate immune responses, but roles of bacterial d-amino acids (d-aa) in mammalian immune systems remain largely unknown. Here, we report that amino acid chirality balanced by bacteria-mammal cross-talk modulates intestinal B cell fate and immunoglobulin A (IgA) production. Bacterial d-aa stimulate M1 macrophages and promote survival of intestinal naïve B cells. Mammalian intestinal d-aa catabolism limits the number of B cells and restricts growth of symbiotic bacteria that activate T cell-dependent IgA class switching of the B cells. Loss of d-aa catabolism results in excessive IgA production and dysbiosis with altered IgA coating on bacteria. Thus, chiral conversion of amino acids is linked to bacterial recognition by mammals to control symbiosis with bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-03-04

Vargas C, Wu G, Delgado MJ, et al (1996)

Identification of symbiosis-specific c-type cytochromes and a putative oxidase in bacteroids of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 142(1):41-46.

Covalently bound haem proteins and cytochromes were analysed in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae free-living cells and nitrogen-fixing bacteroids isolated from pea nodules. Increased levels of spectroscopically detectable cytochrome c in bacteroids were correlated with the appearance of two proteins of Mr 30000 and 28000 that contained covalently bound haem. Conversely, bacteroids had undetectable levels of a periplasmic cytochrome c of Mr 14000 that is normally present in free-living bacteria. Difference spectra confirmed that the terminal oxidases, cytochromes aa3 and d, were absent, and photodissociation spectra revealed novel components that may be due to a bacteroid terminal oxidase.

RevDate: 2021-03-04
CmpDate: 2021-03-04

Jorrin B, Palacios JM, Peix Á, et al (2020)

Rhizobium ruizarguesonis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Pisum sativum L.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 43(4):126090.

Four strains, coded as UPM1132, UPM1133T, UPM1134 and UPM1135, and isolated from nodules of Pisum sativum plants grown on Ni-rich soils were characterised through a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical and showed 100% similarity with their closest phylogenetic neighbors, the species included in the 'R. leguminosarum group': R. laguerreae FB206T, R. leguminosarum USDA 2370T, R. anhuiense CCBAU 23252T, R. sophoreae CCBAU 03386T, R. acidisoli FH13T and R. hidalgonense FH14T, and 99.6% sequence similarity with R. esperanzae CNPSo 668T. The analysis of combined housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII sequences showed similarities of 92-95% with the closest relatives. Whole genome average nucleotide identity (ANI) values were 97.5-99.7% ANIb similarity among the four strains, and less than 92.4% with closely related species, while digital DNA-DNA hybridization average values (dDDH) were 82-85% within our strains and 34-52% with closely related species. Major fatty acids in strain UPM1133T were C18:1 ω7c / C18:1 ω6c in summed feature 8, C14:0 3OH/ C16:1 iso I in summed feature 2 and C18:0. Colonies were small to medium, pearl-white coloured in YMA at 28°C and growth was observed in the ranges 8-34°C, pH 5.5-7.5 and 0-0.7% (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 60.8mol %. The combined genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strains UPM1132, UPM1133T, UPM1134 and UPM1135 into a novel species of Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium ruizarguesonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UPM1133T (=CECT 9542T=LMG 30526T).

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Fukuda TTH, Helfrich EJN, Mevers E, et al (2021)

Specialized Metabolites Reveal Evolutionary History and Geographic Dispersion of a Multilateral Symbiosis.

ACS central science, 7(2):292-299.

Fungus-growing ants engage in a multilateral symbiosis: they cultivate a fungal garden as their primary food source and host symbiotic actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that provide chemical defenses. The bacterial symbionts produce small specialized metabolites that protect the fungal garden from specific fungal pathogens (Escovopsis spp.), and in return, they are fed by the ant hosts. Multiple studies on the molecules underlying this symbiotic system have led to the discovery of a large number of structurally diverse antifungal molecules, but somewhat surprisingly no shared structural theme emerged from these studies. A large systematic study of Brazilian nests led to the discovery of the widespread production of a potent but overlooked antifungal agent, which we named attinimicin, by nearly two-thirds of all Pseudonocardia strains from multiple sites in Brazil. Here we report the structure of attinimicin, its putative biosynthetic gene cluster, and the evolutionary relationship between attinimicin and two related peptides, oxachelin A and cahuitamycin A. All three nonribosomal peptides are structural isomers with different primary peptide sequences. Attinimicin shows iron-dependent antifungal activity against specific environmental fungal parasites but no activity against the fungal cultivar. Attinimicin showed potent in vivo activity in a mouse Candida albicans infection model comparable to clinically used azole-containing antifungals. In situ detection of attinimicin in both ant nests and on worker ants supports an ecological role for attinimicin in protecting the fungal cultivar from pathogens. The geographic spread of the attinimicin biosynthetic gene cluster in Brazilian Pseudonocardia spp. marks attinimicin as the first specialized metabolite from ant-associated bacteria with broad geographic distribution.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Muhammad A, Habineza P, Hou Y, et al (2019)

Preparation of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) Germ-free Larvae for Host-gut Microbes Interaction Studies.

Bio-protocol, 9(24):e3456 pii:3456.

Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is a devastating pest of palm trees worldwide. RPW gut is colonized by diverse bacterial species which profoundly influence host development and nutritional metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota remain mostly unknown. Antibiotics are usually employed to remove gut bacteria to investigate the impact of gut bacteria on insect fitness. However, administration of antibiotics cannot thoroughly remove gut bacteria for most insect species. Therefore, establishing germfree (GF) organisms is a powerful way to reveal the mutual interactions between gut bacteria and their insect hosts. Here, we describe a protocol to generate and maintain RPW GF larvae, being completely devoid of gut bacteria in laboratory. RPW GF larvae were established from the dechorionated fresh eggs which were reared on the sterilized artificial food under axenic conditions. The establishment of GF larvae set a solid foundation to deeply elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Mindt E, Wang M, Schäfer M, et al (2019)

Quantification of Blumenol Derivatives as Leaf Biomarkers for Plant-AMF Association.

Bio-protocol, 9(14):e3301 pii:3301.

Symbiotic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants are widespread among land plants and can be beneficial for both partners. The plant is provided with mineral nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, whereas it provides carbon resources for the fungus in return. Due to the large economic and environmental impact, efficient characterization methods are required to monitor and quantify plant-AMF colonization. Existing methods, based on destructive sampling and elaborate root tissue analysis, are of limited value for high-throughput (HTP) screening. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the HTP quantification of blumenol derivatives in leaves by a simple extraction procedure and sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis as accurate proxies of root AMF-associations in both model plants and economically relevant crops.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Ishigami K, Jang S, Itoh H, et al (2021)

Insecticide resistance governed by gut symbiosis in a rice pest, Cletus punctiger, under laboratory conditions.

Biology letters, 17(3):20200780.

Resistance to toxins in insects is generally thought of as their own genetic trait, but recent studies have revealed that gut microorganisms could mediate resistance by detoxifying phytotoxins and man-made insecticides. By laboratory experiments, we here discovered a striking example of gut symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance in a serious rice pest, Cletus punctiger. The rice bug horizontally acquired fenitrothion-degrading Burkholderia through oral infection and housed it in midgut crypts. Fenitrothion-degradation test revealed that the gut-colonizing Burkholderia retains a high degrading activity of the organophosphate compound in the insect gut. This gut symbiosis remarkably increased resistance against fenitrothion treatment in the host rice bug. Considering that many stinkbug pests are associated with soil-derived Burkholderia, our finding strongly supports that a number of stinkbug species could gain resistance against insecticide simply by acquiring insecticide-degrading gut bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Koonin EV, Dolja VV, M Krupovic (2021)

The healthy human virome: from virus-host symbiosis to disease.

Current opinion in virology, 47:86-94 pii:S1879-6257(21)00012-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Viruses are ubiquitous, essential components of any ecosystem, and of multicellular organism holobionts. Numerous viruses cause acute infection, killing the host or being cleared by immune system. In many other cases, viruses coexist with the host as symbionts, either temporarily or for the duration of the host's life. Apparently, virus-host relationships span the entire range from aggressive parasitism to mutualism. Here we attempt to delineate the healthy human virome, that is, the entirety of viruses that are present in a healthy human body. The bulk of the healthy virome consists of bacteriophages infecting bacteria in the intestine and other locations. However, a variety of viruses, such as anelloviruses and herpesviruses, and the numerous endogenous retroviruses, persist by replicating in human cells, and these are our primary focus. Crucially, the boundary between symbiotic and pathogenic viruses is fluid such that members of the healthy virome can become pathogens under changing conditions.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Álvarez J, Manuel Fernández Real J, Guarner F, et al (2021)

Gut Microbes and Health.

Gastroenterologia y hepatologia pii:S0210-5705(21)00058-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The human body is populated by myriads of microorganisms throughout its surface and in the cavities connected to the outside. The microbial colonisers of the intestine (microbiota) are a functional and non-expendable part of the human organism: they provide genes (microbiome) and additional functions to the resources of our species and participate in multiple physiological processes (somatic development, nutrition, immunity, etc.). Some chronic non-communicable diseases of developed society (atopias, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory diseases, cancer and some behaviour disorders) are associated with dysbiosis: loss of species richness in the intestinal microbiota and deviation from the ancestral microbial environment. Changes in the vertical transmission of the microbiome, the use of antiseptics and antibiotics, and dietary habits in industrialised society appear to be at the origin of dysbiosis. Generating and maintaining diversity in the microbiota is a new clinical target for health promotion and disease prevention.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Gerami Z, Lakzian A, Hemati A, et al (2021)

Effect of cadmium on sorghum root colonization by glomeral fungi and its impact on total and easily extractable glomalin production.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Glomalin is a specific glycoprotein compound synthesized by glomeral fungi and its amount varies according to soil conditions. Due to the symbiosis of these fungi with a multitude of plants, a remarkable amount of glomalin is produced inside the hypha wall of these fungi. Furthermore, while increasing the symbiosis stability, glomalin plays a critical role in reducing the availability of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) through their fixation. In this regard, soil contamination with PTEs such as cadmium (Cd) affects the glomalin production of mycorrhiza fungi. In order to investigate the effect of different levels of Cd on glomalin production of three species of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi in the presence of sorghum, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three repetitions. Factors include four levels of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20 milligrams per kilogram of soil) and second factor included these three types of mycorrhiza: Funneliformis mosseae (FM), Rhizophagus intraradices (RI), and Claroideoglomus etunicatum (CE). The results of this study showed that when increasing soil Cd concentration, shoot dry weight, root colonization percentage, total and easily extractable glomalin decreased while leaf proline concentration, shoot, and root Cd concentration increased. The presence of mycorrhiza in comparison with the control increased the dry weight of shoots and plant height. The results showed that mycorrhizal treatments increased total and easily extractable glomalin compared to the absence of mycorrhiza. Also, the highest amount of glomalin production was observed in two species of FM and CE. Complexation of Cd by total glomalin and easily extractable glomalin was higher in two species of FM and CE rather than RI. The results showed that the use of three species of mycorrhizae reduced the adverse effects of high levels of Cd. Also, the concentration of leaf proline, soluble sugars, shoot, and root Cd concentration was higher in presence of mycorrhizal fungal species than in plant not inoculated with mycorrhizal fungal species. This increase was significant in both FM and CE species. Finally, a notable positive correlation was also observed between glomalin measured by Bradford method and percentage of root colonization.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Emmett BD, Lévesque-Tremblay V, MJ Harrison (2021)

Conserved and reproducible bacterial communities associate with extraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Extraradical hyphae (ERH) of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) extend from plant roots into the soil environment and interact with soil microbial communities. Evidence of positive and negative interactions between AMF and soil bacteria point to functionally important ERH-associated communities. To characterize communities associated with ERH and test controls on their establishment and composition, we utilized an in-growth core system containing a live soil-sand mixture that allowed manual extraction of ERH for 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling. Across experiments and soils, consistent enrichment of members of the Betaproteobacteriales, Myxococcales, Fibrobacterales, Cytophagales, Chloroflexales, and Cellvibrionales was observed on ERH samples, while variation among samples from different soils was observed primarily at lower taxonomic ranks. The ERH-associated community was conserved between two fungal species assayed, Glomus versiforme and Rhizophagus irregularis, though R. irregularis exerted a stronger selection and showed greater enrichment for taxa in the Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. A distinct community established within 14 days of hyphal access to the soil, while temporal patterns of establishment and turnover varied between taxonomic groups. Identification of a conserved ERH-associated community is consistent with the concept of an AMF microbiome and can aid the characterization of facilitative and antagonistic interactions influencing the plant-fungal symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Songwattana P, Chaintreuil C, Wongdee J, et al (2021)

Identification of type III effectors modulating the symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium vignae strain ORS3257 with various Vigna species.

Scientific reports, 11(1):4874.

The Bradyrhizobium vignae strain ORS3257 is an elite strain recommended for cowpea inoculation in Senegal. This strain was recently shown to establish symbioses on some Aeschynomene species using a cocktail of Type III effectors (T3Es) secreted by the T3SS machinery. In this study, using a collection of mutants in different T3Es genes, we sought to identify the effectors that modulate the symbiotic properties of ORS3257 in three Vigna species (V. unguiculata, V. radiata and V. mungo). While the T3SS had a positive impact on the symbiotic efficiency of the strain in V. unguiculata and V. mungo, it blocked symbiosis with V. radiata. The combination of effectors promoting nodulation in V. unguiculata and V. mungo differed, in both cases, NopT and NopAB were involved, suggesting they are key determinants for nodulation, and to a lesser extent, NopM1 and NopP1, which are additionally required for optimal symbiosis with V. mungo. In contrast, only one effector, NopP2, was identified as the cause of the incompatibility between ORS3257 and V. radiata. The identification of key effectors which promote symbiotic efficiency or render the interaction incompatible is important for the development of inoculation strategies to improve the growth of Vigna species cultivated in Africa and Asia.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Jang S, Mergaert P, Ohbayashi T, et al (2021)

Dual oxidase enables insect gut symbiosis by mediating respiratory network formation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(10):.

Most animals harbor a gut microbiota that consists of potentially pathogenic, commensal, and mutualistic microorganisms. Dual oxidase (Duox) is a well described enzyme involved in gut mucosal immunity by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that antagonizes pathogenic bacteria and maintains gut homeostasis in insects. However, despite its nonspecific harmful activity on microorganisms, little is known about the role of Duox in the maintenance of mutualistic gut symbionts. Here we show that, in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, Duox-dependent ROS did not directly contribute to epithelial immunity in the midgut in response to its mutualistic gut symbiont, Burkholderia insecticola Instead, we found that the expression of Duox is tracheae-specific and its down-regulation by RNAi results in the loss of dityrosine cross-links in the tracheal protein matrix and a collapse of the respiratory system. We further demonstrated that the establishment of symbiosis is a strong oxygen sink triggering the formation of an extensive network of tracheae enveloping the midgut symbiotic organ as well as other organs, and that tracheal breakdown by Duox RNAi provokes a disruption of the gut symbiosis. Down-regulation of the hypoxia-responsive transcription factor Sima or the regulators of tracheae formation Trachealess and Branchless produces similar phenotypes. Thus, in addition to known roles in immunity and in the formation of dityrosine networks in diverse extracellular matrices, Duox is also a crucial enzyme for tracheal integrity, which is crucial to sustain mutualistic symbionts and gut homeostasis. We expect that this is a conserved function in insects.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Pilgrim J, Siozios S, Baylis M, et al (2021)

Correction to: Cardinium symbiosis as a potential confounder of mtDNA based phylogeographic inference in Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of veterinary viruses.

Parasites & vectors, 14(1):128.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Peter C, Thoms S, Koch F, et al (2020)

Effects of sponge-derived Ageladine A on the photosynthesis of different microalgal species and strains.

PloS one, 15(12):e0244095.

Fluorescent natural compounds have been identified in several marine hosts of microalgae. Their prevalence, and the energy the host is expending on their synthesis, suggests an important, yet poorly understood ecological role. It has been suggested that some of these natural products may enhance the photosynthesis of microbial symbionts. In this study, the effect of Ageladine A (Ag A), a pH-dependent fluorophore found in sponges of the genus Agelas, on the photosynthesis of nine microalgal species and strains was examined. The data showed that the variety of effects of Ag A additions differed between species, and even strains within a species. While in one strain of Synechococcus sp., the presence of Ag A increased gross photosynthesis under UV light exposure, it decreased in another. And while in the chlorophyte T. chuii overall metabolic activity was greatly reduced under all forms of lighting, photosynthesis in T. lutea was positively affected by the addition of Ag A. The variety of effects of Ag A on photosynthesis observed in this study indicate a complex interaction of Ag A with microalgal cells and suggests that a host may be able to shape its own symbiotic microbiome with self-produced natural products.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Hu B, Flemetakis E, H Rennenberg (2021)

Pedospheric Microbial Nitric Oxide Production Challenges Root Symbioses.

Trends in plant science, 26(2):104-107.

Recent studies indicate that a multitude of microbial processes are involved in nitric oxide production and consumptions in the pedosphere. Due to its dual function as a toxic metabolite and signaling compound, we speculate that this pedospheric nitric oxide of microbial origin can significantly interact with mycorrhizal symbioses and symbiotic nitrogen fixation of legumes.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Paulitsch F, Delamuta JRM, Ribeiro RA, et al (2020)

Phylogeny of symbiotic genes reveals symbiovars within legume-nodulating Paraburkholderia species.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 43(6):126151.

Bacteria belonging to the genus Paraburkholderia are capable of establishing symbiotic relationships with plants belonging to the Fabaceae (=Leguminosae) family and fixing the atmospheric nitrogen in specialized structures in the roots called nodules, in a process known as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). In the nodulation and BNF processes several bacterial symbiotic genes are involved, but the relations between symbiotic, core genes and host specificity are still poorly studied and understood in Paraburkholderia. In this study, eight strains of nodulating nitrogen-fixing Paraburkholderia isolated in Brazil, together with described species and other reference strains were used to infer the relatedness between core (16S rDNA, recA) and symbiotic (nod, nif, fix) genes. The diversity of genes involved in the nodulation (nodAC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) abilities was investigated. Only two groups, one containing three Paraburkholderia species symbionts of Mimosa, and another one with P. ribeironis strains presented similar phylogenetic patterns in the analysis of core and symbiotic genes. In three other groups events of horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes were detected. Paraburkholderia strains with available genomes were used in the complementary analysis of nifHDK and fixABC and confirmed well-defined phylogenetic positions of symbiotic genes. In all analyses of nod, nif and fix genes the strains were distributed into five clades with high bootstrap support, allowing the proposal of five symbiovars in nodulating nitrogen-fixing Paraburkholderia, designated as mimosae, africana, tropicalis, atlantica and piptadeniae. Phylogenetic inferences within each symbiovar are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Suetsugu K, Haraguchi TF, Tanabe AS, et al (2021)

Specialized mycorrhizal association between a partially mycoheterotrophic orchid Oreorchis indica and a Tomentella taxon.

Mycorrhiza, 31(2):243-250.

The evolution of full mycoheterotrophy in orchids likely occurs through intermediate stages (i.e., partial mycoheterotrophy or mixotrophy), in which adult plants obtain nutrition through both autotrophy and mycoheterotrophy. However, because of its cryptic manifestation, partial mycoheterotrophy has only been confirmed in slightly more than 20 orchid species. Here, we hypothesized that Oreorchis indica is partially mycoheterotrophic, since (i) Oreorchis is closely related to leafless Corallorhiza, and (ii) it possesses clustered, multi-branched rhizomes that are often found in fully mycoheterotrophic orchids. Accordingly, we investigated the nutritional modes of O. indica in a Japanese subboreal forest by measuring the 13C and 15N abundances and by community profiling of its mycorrhizal fungi. We found that O. indica mycorrhizal samples (all 12 samples from four individuals) were predominantly colonized by a single OTU of the obligate ectomycorrhizal Tomentella (Thelephoraceae). In addition, the leaves of O. indica were highly enriched in both 13C and 15N compared with those of co-occurring autotrophic plants. It was estimated that O. indica obtained 44.4 ± 6.2% of its carbon from fungal sources. These results strongly suggest that in the Oreorchis-Corallorhiza clade, full mycoheterotrophy evolved after the establishment of partial mycoheterotrophy, rather than through direct shifts from autotrophy.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Reinhardt D, Roux C, Corradi N, et al (2021)

Lineage-Specific Genes and Cryptic Sex: Parallels and Differences between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Fungal Pathogens.

Trends in plant science, 26(2):111-123.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) live as obligate root symbionts on almost all land plants. They have long been regarded as ancient asexuals that have propagated clonally for millions of years. However, genomic studies in Rhizophagus irregularis and other AMF revealed many features indicative of sex. Surprisingly, comparative genomics of conspecific isolates of R. irregularis revealed an unexpected interstrain diversity, suggesting that AMF carry a high number of lineage-specific (LS) genes. Intriguingly, cryptic sex and LS genomic regions have previously been reported in a number of fungal pathogens of plants and humans. Here, we discuss these genomic similarities and highlight their potential relevance for AMF adaptation to the environment and for symbiotic functioning.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Molina L, Segura A, Duque E, et al (2020)

The versatility of Pseudomonas putida in the rhizosphere environment.

Advances in applied microbiology, 110:149-180.

This article addresses the lifestyle of Pseudomonas and focuses on how Pseudomonas putida can be used as a model system for biotechnological processes in agriculture, and in the removal of pollutants from soils. In this chapter we aim to show how a deep analysis using genetic information and experimental tests has helped to reveal insights into the lifestyle of Pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida is a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) that establishes commensal relationships with plants. The interaction involves a series of functions encoded by core genes which favor nutrient mobilization, prevention of pathogen development and efficient niche colonization. Certain Pseudomonas putida strains harbor accessory genes that confer specific biodegradative properties and because these microorganisms can thrive on the roots of plants they can be exploited to remove pollutants via rhizoremediation, making the consortium plant/Pseudomonas a useful tool to combat pollution.

RevDate: 2021-02-23
CmpDate: 2021-02-23

Zhou Y, Coventry DR, Gupta VVSR, et al (2020)

The preceding root system drives the composition and function of the rhizosphere microbiome.

Genome biology, 21(1):89.

BACKGROUND: The soil environment is responsible for sustaining most terrestrial plant life, yet we know surprisingly little about the important functions carried out by diverse microbial communities in soil. Soil microbes that inhabit the channels of decaying root systems, the detritusphere, are likely to be essential for plant growth and health, as these channels are the preferred locations of new root growth. Understanding the microbial metagenome of the detritusphere, and how it responds to agricultural management such as crop rotations and soil tillage, is vital for improving global food production.

RESULTS: This study establishes an in-depth soil microbial gene catalogue based on the living-decaying rhizosphere niches in a cropping soil. The detritusphere microbiome regulates the composition and function of the rhizosphere microbiome to a greater extent than plant type: rhizosphere microbiomes of wheat and chickpea were homogenous (65-87% similarity) in the presence of decaying root (DR) systems but were heterogeneous (3-24% similarity) where DR was disrupted by tillage. When the microbiomes of the rhizosphere and the detritusphere interact in the presence of DR, there is significant degradation of plant root exudates by the rhizosphere microbiome, and genes associated with membrane transporters, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are enriched.

CONCLUSIONS: The study describes the diversity and functional capacity of a high-quality soil microbial metagenome. The results demonstrate the contribution of the detritusphere microbiome in determining the metagenome of developing root systems. Modifications in root microbial function through soil management can ultimately govern plant health, productivity and food security.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Castellani LG, Luchetti A, Nilsson JF, et al (2021)

Exopolysaccharide Characterization of Rhizobium favelukesii LPU83 and Its Role in the Symbiosis With Alfalfa.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:642576.

One of the greatest inputs of available nitrogen into the biosphere occurs through the biological N2-fixation to ammonium as result of the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants. These interactions allow increased crop yields on nitrogen-poor soils. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are key components for the establishment of an effective symbiosis between alfalfa and Ensifer meliloti, as bacteria that lack EPS are unable to infect the host plants. Rhizobium favelukesii LPU83 is an acid-tolerant rhizobia strain capable of nodulating alfalfa but inefficient to fix nitrogen. Aiming to identify the molecular determinants that allow R. favelukesii to infect plants, we studied its EPS biosynthesis. LPU83 produces an EPS I identical to the one present in E. meliloti, but the organization of the genes involved in its synthesis is different. The main gene cluster needed for the synthesis of EPS I in E. meliloti, is split into three different sections in R. favelukesii, which probably arose by a recent event of horizontal gene transfer. A R. favelukesii strain devoided of all the genes needed for the synthesis of EPS I is still able to infect and nodulate alfalfa, suggesting that attention should be directed to other molecules involved in the development of the symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-02-28

Fraser A, A Clark (2021)

Damaged hardmen: Organized crime and the half-life of deindustrialization.

The British journal of sociology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite frequent associations, deindustrialization features rarely in studies of organized crime, and organized crime is at best a spectral presence in studies of deindustrialization. By developing an original application of Linkon's concept of the "half-life," we present an empirical case for the symbiotic relationship between former sites of industry and the emergence of criminal markets. Based on a detailed case-study in the west of Scotland, an area long associated with both industry and crime, the paper interrogates the environmental, social, and cultural after-effects of deindustrialization at a community level. Drawing on 55 interviews with residents and service-providers in Tunbrooke, an urban community where an enduring criminal market grew in the ruins of industry, the paper elaborates the complex landscapes of identity, vulnerability, and harm that are embedded in the symbiosis of crime and deindustrialization. Building on recent scholarship, the paper argues that organized crime in Tunbrooke is best understood as an instance of "residual culture" grafted onto a fragmented, volatile criminal marketplace where the stable props of territorial identity are unsettled. The analysis allows for an extension of both the study of deindustrialization and organized crime, appreciating the "enduring legacies" of closure on young people, communal identity, and social relations in the twenty-first century.

RevDate: 2021-03-01
CmpDate: 2021-03-01

Wang G, Zhang X, Herre EA, et al (2021)

Genomic evidence of prevalent hybridization throughout the evolutionary history of the fig-wasp pollination mutualism.

Nature communications, 12(1):718.

Ficus (figs) and their agaonid wasp pollinators present an ecologically important mutualism that also provides a rich comparative system for studying functional co-diversification throughout its coevolutionary history (~75 million years). We obtained entire nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast genomes for 15 species representing all major clades of Ficus. Multiple analyses of these genomic data suggest that hybridization events have occurred throughout Ficus evolutionary history. Furthermore, cophylogenetic reconciliation analyses detect significant incongruence among all nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial-based phylogenies, none of which correspond with any published phylogenies of the associated pollinator wasps. These findings are most consistent with frequent host-switching by the pollinators, leading to fig hybridization, even between distantly related clades. Here, we suggest that these pollinator host-switches and fig hybridization events are a dominant feature of fig/wasp coevolutionary history, and by generating novel genomic combinations in the figs have likely contributed to the remarkable diversity exhibited by this mutualism.

RevDate: 2021-03-01
CmpDate: 2021-03-01

Shropshire JD, Leigh B, SR Bordenstein (2020)

Symbiont-mediated cytoplasmic incompatibility: what have we learned in 50 years?.

eLife, 9:.

Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common symbiont-induced reproductive manipulation. Specifically, symbiont-induced sperm modifications cause catastrophic mitotic defects in the fertilized embryo and ensuing lethality in crosses between symbiotic males and either aposymbiotic females or females harboring a different symbiont strain. However, if the female carries the same symbiont strain, then embryos develop properly, thereby imparting a relative fitness benefit to symbiont-transmitting mothers. Thus, CI drives maternally-transmitted bacteria to high frequencies in arthropods worldwide. In the past two decades, CI experienced a boom in interest due to its (i) deployment in worldwide efforts to curb mosquito-borne diseases, (ii) causation by bacteriophage genes, cifA and cifB, that modify sexual reproduction, and (iii) important impacts on arthropod speciation. This review serves as a gateway to experimental, conceptual, and quantitative themes of CI and outlines significant gaps in understanding CI's mechanism that are ripe for investigation from diverse subdisciplines in the life sciences.

RevDate: 2021-03-01
CmpDate: 2021-03-01

Nasir F, Li W, Tran LP, et al (2020)

Does Karrikin Signaling Shape the Rhizomicrobiome via the Strigolactone Biosynthetic Pathway?.

Trends in plant science, 25(12):1184-1187.

A recent study by Choi et al. provides evidence of the interaction between the karrikin (KAR) signaling and strigolactone (SL) biosynthetic pathways. Since SLs shape rhizomicrobiome composition, it is of interest to determine whether KAR signaling could affect rhizomicrobiome composition by improving the synthesis of root-derived SLs to support climate-smart agriculture.

RevDate: 2021-03-01
CmpDate: 2021-03-01

Ip YK, Teng GCY, Boo MV, et al (2020)

Symbiodiniaceae Dinoflagellates Express Urease in Three Subcellular Compartments and Upregulate its Expression Levels in situ in Three Organs of a Giant Clam (Tridacna squamosa) During Illumination.

Journal of phycology, 56(6):1696-1711.

Giant clams harbor three genera of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium, Cladocopium, and Durusdinium) as extracellular symbionts (zooxanthellae). While symbiotic dinoflagellates can synthesize amino acids to benefit the host, they are nitrogen-deficient. Hence, the host must supply them with nitrogen including urea, which can be degraded to ammonia and carbon dioxide by urease (URE). Here, we report three complete coding cDNA sequences of URE, one for each genus of dinoflagellate, obtained from the colorful outer mantle of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa. The outer mantle had higher transcript level of Tridacna squamosa zooxanthellae URE (TSZURE) than the whitish inner mantle, foot muscle, hepatopancreas, and ctenidium. TSZURE was immunolocalized strongly and atypically in the plastid, moderately in the cytoplasm, and weakly in the cell wall and plasma membrane of symbiotic dinoflagellates. In the outer mantle, illumination upregulated the protein abundance of TSZURE, which could enhance urea degradation in photosynthesizing dinoflagellates. The urea-nitrogen released could then augment synthesis of amino acids to be shared with the host for its general needs. Illumination also enhanced gene and protein expression levels of TSZURE/TSZURE in the inner mantle and foot muscle, which contain only small quantities of symbiotic dinoflagellate, have no iridocyte, and lack direct exposure to light. With low phototrophic potential, dinoflagellates in the inner mantle and foot muscle might need to absorb carbohydrates in order to assimilate the urea-nitrogen into amino acids. Amino acids donated by dinoflagellates to the inner mantle and the foot muscle could be used especially for synthesis of organic matrix needed for light-enhanced shell formation and muscle protein, respectively.

RevDate: 2021-02-27

Říhová J, Batani G, Rodríguez-Ruano SM, et al (2021)

A new symbiotic lineage related to Neisseria and Snodgrassella arises from the dynamic and diverse microbiomes in sucking lice.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The phylogenetic diversity of symbiotic bacteria in sucking lice suggests that lice have a complex history of symbiont acquisition, loss, and replacement throughout their evolution. These processes have resulted in the establishment of different, phylogenetically distant bacteria as obligate mutualists in different louse groups. By combining metagenomics and amplicon screening across several populations of three louse species (members of the genera Polyplax and Hoplopleura) we describe a novel louse symbiont lineage related to Neisseria and Snodgrassella, and show its independent origin in the two louse genera. While the genomes of these symbionts are highly similar, their respective distributions and status within lice microbiomes indicate that they have different functions and history. In Hoplopleura acanthopus, the Neisseriaceae-related bacterium is a dominant obligate symbiont present across several host populations. In contrast, the Polyplax microbiomes are dominated by the obligate symbiont Legionella polyplacis, with the Neisseriaceae-related bacterium co-occurring only in some samples and with much lower abundance. The results thus support the view that compared to other exclusively blood feeding insects, Anoplura possess a unique capacity to acquire symbionts from diverse groups of bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-02-27

Shah AS, Wakelin SA, Moot DJ, et al (2021)

Trifolium repens and T. subterraneum modify their nodule microbiome in response to soil pH.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: The influence of soil edaphic factors on recruitment and composition of bacteria in the legume nodule is unknown. Typically, low (acidic) pH soils have a negative effect on the plant-rhizobia symbiosis and thereby reduce clover growth. However, the specific relationship between soil pH and the ecology of rhizobia is unknown, in either their free-living or nodule-inhabiting states. We used New Zealand pasture systems with soils of different pH, and white (WC) and subterranean (SC) clovers, to examine the relationship between soil pH and the diversity of bacteria that inhabit the nodules.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA) assessed the bacterial community in 5,299 nodules recovered from both legume species grown in 47 soils of different edaphic (including pH) properties. Fewer nodules were formed on both clovers at low soil pH. As expected, rhizobia comprised ~ 92% of the total reads in both clovers, however 28 non-rhizobia genera were also present. Soil pH influenced the community structure of bacteria within the nodule, and this was more evident in non-Rhizobium taxa than Rhizobium. Host strongly influenced the diversity of bacteria in the nodules. The alpha diversity of nodule microbiome in SC nodules was higher than in WC nodules and SC nodules also harbored a higher relative abundance of non-Rhizobium bacteria than WC. Beta diversity of Rhizobium and non-Rhizobium bacteria was influenced more by clover species rather than edaphic factors.

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that these clover species modified their nodule biomes in response to pH-stress.

The non-Rhizobium bacteria may have some functional significance (such as improved clover persistence in low pH soils) in legume nodules.

RevDate: 2021-02-27

Cohen JJ, Eichinger SJ, Witte DA, et al (2021)

Control of Competence in Vibrio fischeri.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 87(6):.

Vibrio species, including the squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri, become competent to take up DNA under specific conditions. For example, V. fischeri becomes competent when grown in the presence of chitin oligosaccharides or upon overproduction of the competence regulatory factor TfoX. While little is known about the regulatory pathway(s) that controls V. fischeri competence, this microbe encodes homologs of factors that control competence in the well-studied V. cholerae To further develop V. fischeri as a genetically tractable organism, we evaluated the roles of some of these competence homologs. Using TfoX-overproducing cells, we found that competence depends upon LitR, the homolog of V. cholerae master quorum-sensing and competence regulator HapR, and upon homologs of putative pilus genes that in V. cholerae facilitate DNA uptake. Disruption of genes for negative regulators upstream of LitR, namely, the LuxO protein and the small RNA (sRNA) Qrr1, resulted in increased transformation frequencies. Unlike LitR-controlled light production, however, competence did not vary with cell density under tfoX overexpression conditions. Analogous to the case with V. cholerae, the requirement for LitR could be suppressed by loss of the Dns nuclease. We also found a role for the putative competence regulator CytR. Finally, we determined that transformation frequencies varied depending on the TfoX-encoding plasmid, and we developed a new dual tfoX and litR overexpression construct that substantially increased the transformation frequency of a less genetically tractable strain. By advancing the ease of genetic manipulation of V. fischeri, these findings will facilitate the rapid discovery of genes involved in physiologically relevant processes, such as biofilm formation and host colonization.IMPORTANCE The ability of bacteria to take up DNA (competence) and incorporate foreign DNA into their genomes (transformation) permits them to rapidly evolve and gain new traits and/or acquire antibiotic resistances. It also facilitates laboratory-based investigations into mechanisms of specific phenotypes, such as those involved in host colonization. Vibrio fischeri has long been a model for symbiotic bacterium-host interactions as well as for other aspects of its physiology, such as bioluminescence and biofilm formation. Competence of V. fischeri can be readily induced upon overexpression of the competence factor TfoX. Relatively little is known about the V. fischeri competence pathway, although homologs of factors known to be important in V. cholerae competence exist. By probing the importance of putative competence factors that control transformation of V. fischeri, this work deepens our understanding of the competence process and advances our ability to genetically manipulate this important model organism.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Teoh MC, Furusawa G, G Veera Singham (2021)

Multifaceted interactions between the pseudomonads and insects: mechanisms and prospects.

Archives of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Insects and bacteria are the most widespread groups of organisms found in nearly all habitats on earth, establishing diverse interactions that encompass the entire range of possible symbiotic associations from strict parasitism to obligate mutualism. The complexity of their interactions is instrumental in shaping the roles of insects in the environment, meanwhile ensuring the survival and persistence of the associated bacteria. This review aims to provide detailed insight on the multifaceted symbiosis between one of the most versatile bacterial genera, Pseudomonas (Gammaproteobacteria: Pseudomonadaceae) and a diverse group of insect species. The Pseudomonas engages with varied interactions with insects, being either a pathogen or beneficial endosymbiont, as well as using insects as vectors. In addition, this review also provides updates on existing and potential applications of Pseudomonas and their numerous insecticidal metabolites as biocontrol agents against pest insects for the improvement of integrated pest management strategies. Here, we have summarized several known modes of action and the virulence factors of entomopathogenic Pseudomonas strains essential for their pathogenicity against insects. Meanwhile, the beneficial interactions between pseudomonads and insects are currently limited to a few known insect taxa, despite numerous studies reporting identification of pseudomonads in the guts and haemocoel of various insect species. The vector-symbiont association between pseudomonads and insects can be diverse from strict phoresy to a role switch from commensalism to parasitism following a dose-dependent response. Overall, the pseudomonads appeared to have evolved independently to be either exclusively pathogenic or beneficial towards insects.

RevDate: 2021-02-26
CmpDate: 2021-02-26

Charon J, Marcelino VR, Wetherbee R, et al (2020)

Metatranscriptomic Identification of Diverse and Divergent RNA Viruses in Green and Chlorarachniophyte Algae Cultures.

Viruses, 12(10):.

Our knowledge of the diversity and evolution of the virosphere will likely increase dramatically with the study of microbial eukaryotes, including the microalgae within which few RNA viruses have been documented. By combining total RNA sequencing with sequence and structural-based homology detection, we identified 18 novel RNA viruses in cultured samples from two major groups of microbial algae: the chlorophytes and the chlorarachniophytes. Most of the RNA viruses identified in the green algae class Ulvophyceae were related to the Tombusviridae and Amalgaviridae viral families commonly associated with land plants. This suggests that the evolutionary history of these viruses extends to divergence events between algae and land plants. Seven Ostreobium sp-associated viruses exhibited sequence similarity to the mitoviruses most commonly found in fungi, compatible with horizontal virus transfer between algae and fungi. We also document, for the first time, RNA viruses associated with chlorarachniophytes, including the first negative-sense (bunya-like) RNA virus in microalgae, as well as a distant homolog of the plant virus Virgaviridae, potentially signifying viral inheritance from the secondary chloroplast endosymbiosis that marked the origin of the chlorarachniophytes. More broadly, these data suggest that the scarcity of RNA viruses in algae results from limited investigation rather than their absence.

RevDate: 2021-02-26
CmpDate: 2021-02-26

Volkoff AN, M Cusson (2020)

The Unconventional Viruses of Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps.

Viruses, 12(10):.

To ensure their own immature development as parasites, ichneumonid parasitoid wasps use endogenous viruses that they acquired through ancient events of viral genome integration. Thousands of species from the campoplegine and banchine wasp subfamilies rely, for their survival, on their association with these viruses, hijacked from a yet undetermined viral taxon. Here, we give an update of recent findings on the nature of the viral genes retained from the progenitor viruses and how they are organized in the wasp genome.

RevDate: 2021-02-26
CmpDate: 2021-02-26

Chichlowski M, Shah N, Wampler JL, et al (2020)

Bifidobacterium longum Subspecies infantis (B. infantis) in Pediatric Nutrition: Current State of Knowledge.

Nutrients, 12(6):.

Abstract: Since originally isolated in 1899, the genus Bifidobacterium has been demonstrated to predominate in the gut microbiota of breastfed infants and to benefit the host by accelerating maturation of the immune response, balancing the immune system to suppress inflammation, improving intestinal barrier function, and increasing acetate production. In particular, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis) is well adapted to the infant gut and has co-evolved with the mother-infant dyad and gut microbiome, in part due to its ability to consume complex carbohydrates found in human milk. B. infantis and its human host have a symbiotic relationship that protects the preterm or term neonate and nourishes a healthy gut microbiota prior to weaning. To provide benefits associated with B. infantis to all infants, a number of commercialized strains have been developed over the past decades. As new ingredients become available, safety and suitability must be assessed in preclinical and clinical studies. Consideration of the full clinical evidence for B. infantis use in pediatric nutrition is critical to better understand its potential impacts on infant health and development. Herein we summarize the recent clinical studies utilizing select strains of commercialized B. infantis.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Müller LM (2021)

PHO1 proteins mediate phosphate transport in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

Plant physiology, 185(1):26-28.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Nguyen NNT, Clua J, Vetal PV, et al (2021)

PHO1 family members transport phosphate from infected nodule cells to bacteroids in Medicago truncatula.

Plant physiology, 185(1):196-209.

Legumes play an important role in the soil nitrogen availability via symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Phosphate (Pi) deficiency severely impacts SNF because of the high Pi requirement of symbiosis. Whereas PHT1 transporters are involved in Pi uptake into nodules, it is unknown how Pi is transferred from the plant infected cells to nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. We hypothesized that Medicago truncatula genes homologous to Arabidopsis PHO1, encoding a vascular apoplastic Pi exporter, are involved in Pi transfer to bacteroids. Among the seven MtPHO1 genes present in M. truncatula, we found that two genes, namely MtPHO1.1 and MtPHO1.2, were broadly expressed across the various nodule zones in addition to the root vascular system. Expressions of MtPHO1.1 and MtPHO1.2 in Nicotiana benthamiana mediated specific Pi export. Plants with nodule-specific downregulation of both MtPHO1.1 and MtPHO1.2 were generated by RNA interference (RNAi) to examine their roles in nodule Pi homeostasis. Nodules of RNAi plants had lower Pi content and a three-fold reduction in SNF, resulting in reduced shoot growth. Whereas the rate of 33Pi uptake into nodules of RNAi plants was similar to control, transfer of 33Pi from nodule cells into bacteroids was reduced and bacteroids activated their Pi-deficiency response. Our results implicate plant MtPHO1 genes in bacteroid Pi homeostasis and SNF via the transfer of Pi from nodule infected cells to bacteroids.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Itankar N, Y Patil (2021)

Employing waste to manage waste: Utilizing waste biomaterials for the elimination of hazardous contaminant [Cr(VI)] from aqueous matrices.

Journal of contaminant hydrology, 239:103775 pii:S0169-7722(21)00014-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Pollution caused due to discharge of toxic and hazardous chemical contaminants from industrial processes is an issue of major environmental concern. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is one such known toxic heavy metal contaminant emanated largely from various industrial processes. Since physical-chemical treatment techniques are beset with several problems, there is an increased attention on the use of waste biomaterials/biomass as sorbents for the elimination of heavy metals from aqueous matrices. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of some low-cost waste biomaterials such as fruit wastes, agricultural and industrial waste/byproducts, waste parts of photosynthetic plants, aquatic plants and fungal biomass collected from different sources for the biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous matrices. Amid the tested biomaterials, wood apple shell (WAS) biomass (Limonia acidissima) was found to be highly efficient biosorbent for Cr(VI) sorption. In majority of biomass, it was observed that biosorption of Cr(VI) took place at acidic pH with optimum pH ranging from 2.0 to 5.0. Loading capacity of WAS biomass (29.37 mg/g) was higher than that of conventional adsorbent activated charcoal (26.56 mg/g), which was used as control. Cr(VI) treated biomass (WAS) was characterized using instrumental techniques such as Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed the adsorption of Cr(VI). Boehm titration and FTIR studies were conducted to ascertain the presence of functional groups responsible for Cr(VI) sorption by WAS biomass. The WAS biomass removed Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater with an efficiency of >99.9% thus complying with the statutory limits. Considering the economical aspect, the selected biomass can be viewed as a potential candidate for the elimination of toxic contaminant from wastewater.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Zhao Y, Zhang R, Jiang K, et al (2021)

Nuclear Phylotranscriptomics/Phylogenomics Support Numerous Polyploidization Events and Hypotheses for the Evolution of Rhizobial Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis in Fabaceae.

Molecular plant pii:S1674-2052(21)00072-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Fabaceae, with 765 genera and ∼19,500 species, are the third-largest angiosperm family and important both economically and ecologically, with global crops intensively studied in part for their nitrogen-fixing ability. However, resolution of Fabaceae phylogeny and divergence times at intrasubfamilial levels have been elusive, precluding a reconstruction of the evolutionary history of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Fabaceae. Here, we report a highly resolved phylogeny using >1500 nuclear genes from newly sequenced transcriptomes and genomes of 391 species along with other datasets for a total of 463 legumes spanning all six subfamilies and 333 of 765 genera. The subfamilies are maximally supported as monophyletic, with the clade comprising subfamilies Cercidoideae and Detarioideae being the sister of remaining legumes, and Duparquetioideae and Dialioideae being successive sisters to the clade of Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae. Molecular clock estimation revealed early radiation of subfamilies near the K/Pg boundary marked by mass extinction and subsequent divergences of most tribe-level clades within ∼15 million years. Phylogenomic analyses of thousands of gene families support 28 proposed WGD/WGT events across Fabaceae, including those at the ancestors of Fabaceae and five of the subfamilies, with support from further analyses for the Fabaceae ancestral polyploidy. The evolution of rhizobial nitrogen-fixing nodulation in Fabaceae was examined through ancestral character reconstruction and phylogenetic analyses of related gene families, providing support for hypotheses of one or two switch(es) to rhizobial nodulation followed by multiple losses. These results form a foundation for further morphological and functional evolutionary analyses across Fabaceae.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Bain SA, Marshall H, de la Filia AG, et al (2021)

Sex-specific expression and DNA methylation in a species with extreme sexual dimorphism and paternal genome elimination.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Phenotypic differences between sexes are often mediated by differential expression and alternative splicing of genes. However, the mechanisms that regulate these expression and splicing patterns remain poorly understood. The mealybug, Planococcus citri, displays extreme sexual dimorphism and exhibits an unusual instance of sex-specific genomic imprinting, Paternal Genome Elimination (PGE), in which the paternal chromosomes in males are highly condensed and eliminated from the sperm. P. citri has no sex chromosomes and both sexual dimorphism and PGE are predicted to be under epigenetic control. We recently showed that P. citri females display a highly unusual DNA methylation profile for an insect species, with the presence of promoter methylation associated with lower levels of gene expression. Here we therefore decided to explore genome-wide differences in DNA methylation between male and female P. citri using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. We identified extreme differences in genome-wide levels and patterns between the sexes. Males display overall higher levels of DNA methylation which manifest as more uniform low-levels across the genome. Whereas females display more targeted high levels of methylation. We suggest these unique sex-specific differences are due to chromosomal differences caused by PGE and may be linked to possible ploidy compensation. Using RNA-Seq we identify extensive sex-specific gene expression and alternative splicing, but we find no correlation with cis-acting DNA methylation.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

González-Vallejo NE, S Amador-Carrillo (2021)

Assessment of Megadenus holothuricola Rosén, 1910 (Eulimidae), an endoparasite of Holothuria mexicana Ludwig, 1875 (Holothuriidae) in the southern Gulf of Mexico and the description a new species.

ZooKeys, 1016:49-61 pii:55071.

As part of a study on holothurians from the southern Gulf of Mexico, some Holothuria mexicana Ludwig, 1875 were obtained for gut analysis. In two of them, a couple of eulimids were located inside the main tube of the respiratory tree. They were identified as Megadenus holothuricola Rosén, 1910, described from the Bahamas Islands, based on five specimens attached to the respiratory tree of H. mexicana. The original description was brief with few details, the type material is lost, and the species has not been found again. In this contribution, this species is confirmed for Campeche Bay, Mexico. The adult shell is globular to conical, transparent, thin, and fragile. Megadenus smithisp. nov. from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific is described based on adult specimens. It differs from its congeneric species in its more robust shell, the pseudopallium does not cover the shell, and its short and contracted proboscis forms a thick disc. Further research on these eulimid parasites is now complicated in the southern Gulf of Mexico because of the holothurian population collapse due to over-exploitation of the fishery.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Okamura T, Ogawa Y, Takase A, et al (2021)

[Conflicts in the end-of-life care: Interviews with care staff by Buddhist priests and researchers].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics, 58(1):126-133.

AIM: Interprofessional communication and collaboration is essential for a better end-of-life and death, where individual dying people are respected and their satisfaction is the goal. The aim of this study is to explore 1) ethical conflicts viewed by care staff of geriatric institutions, 2) their views about geriatric medicine, and 3) their views about religion in the context of institutional end-of-life care.

METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted by Buddhist priests and researchers with nine care workers who worked in nursing homes or long-stay geriatric hospitals. This interview was conducted as part of a research project that investigated the feasibility of the engagement of religious workers in the geriatric care setting.

RESULTS: Regarding ethical conflicts, six themes were merged: difficulty in knowing the will of the person being cared for, dissonance with the family, older person's wish to die, losing the purpose for living, staff not being used to death, and families not being used to death. Regarding geriatric medicine, eight themes were merged: gratitude for cooperation, persuasive explanation, not accepting death, not allowing patients to share a peer's death, cold attitude, being drug therapy centered, not being person-centered, and heavy burden for patients. Regarding religion, five themes were merged: expectation for salvation, barrier to hospitals, already involved in nursing homes, explicit religious traits are acceptable, and favorable character of religious workers in institutions.

CONCLUSIONS: Communication between geriatric physicians, care staff, and mainstream religious workers, with the aim of providing a better quality of end-of-life and death, is beneficial in a super-aged society.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Bulman CA, Chappell L, Gunderson E, et al (2021)

The Eagle effect in the Wolbachia-worm symbiosis.

Parasites & vectors, 14(1):118.

BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) are two human neglected tropical diseases that cause major disabilities. Mass administration of drugs targeting the microfilarial stage has reduced transmission and eliminated these diseases in several countries but a macrofilaricidal drug that kills or sterilizes the adult worms is critically needed to eradicate the diseases. The causative agents of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are filarial worms that harbor the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. Because filarial worms depend on Wolbachia for reproduction and survival, drugs targeting Wolbachia hold great promise as a means to eliminate these diseases.

METHODS: To better understand the relationship between Wolbachia and its worm host, adult Brugia pahangi were exposed to varying concentrations of doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline and rifampicin in vitro and assessed for Wolbachia numbers and worm motility. Worm motility was monitored using the Worminator system, and Wolbachia titers were assessed by qPCR of the single copy gene wsp from Wolbachia and gst from Brugia to calculate IC50s and in time course experiments. Confocal microscopy was also used to quantify Wolbachia located at the distal tip region of worm ovaries to assess the effects of antibiotic treatment in this region of the worm where Wolbachia are transmitted vertically to the microfilarial stage.

RESULTS: Worms treated with higher concentrations of antibiotics had higher Wolbachia titers, i.e. as antibiotic concentrations increased there was a corresponding increase in Wolbachia titers. As the concentration of antibiotic increased, worms stopped moving and never recovered despite maintaining Wolbachia titers comparable to controls. Thus, worms were rendered moribund by the higher concentrations of antibiotics but Wolbachia persisted suggesting that these antibiotics may act directly on the worms at high concentration. Surprisingly, in contrast to these results, antibiotics given at low concentrations reduced Wolbachia titers.

CONCLUSION: Wolbachia in B. pahangi display a counterintuitive dose response known as the "Eagle effect." This effect in Wolbachia suggests a common underlying mechanism that allows diverse bacterial and fungal species to persist despite exposure to high concentrations of antimicrobial compounds. To our knowledge this is the first report of this phenomenon occurring in an intracellular endosymbiont, Wolbachia, in its filarial host.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Eckstein S, Brehm J, Seidel M, et al (2021)

Two novel XRE-like transcriptional regulators control phenotypic heterogeneity in Photorhabdus luminescens cell populations.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):63.

BACKGROUND: The insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens exists in two phenotypically different forms, designated as primary (1°) and secondary (2°) cells. Upon yet unknown environmental stimuli up to 50% of the 1° cells convert to 2° cells. Among others, one important difference between the phenotypic forms is that 2° cells are unable to live in symbiosis with their partner nematodes, and therefore are not able to re-associate with them. As 100% switching of 1° to 2° cells of the population would lead to a break-down of the bacteria's life cycle the switching process must be tightly controlled. However, the regulation mechanism of phenotypic switching is still puzzling.

RESULTS: Here we describe two novel XRE family transcriptional regulators, XreR1 and XreR2, that play a major role in the phenotypic switching process of P. luminescens. Deletion of xreR1 in 1° or xreR2 in 2° cells as well as insertion of extra copies of xreR1 into 2° or xreR2 into 1° cells, respectively, induced the opposite phenotype in either 1° or 2° cells. Furthermore, both regulators specifically bind to different promoter regions putatively fulfilling a positive autoregulation. We found initial evidence that XreR1 and XreR2 constitute an epigenetic switch, whereby XreR1 represses xreR2 expression and XreR2 self-reinforces its own gene by binding to XreR1.

CONCLUSION: Regulation of gene expression by the two novel XRE-type regulators XreR1 and XreR2 as well as their interplay represents a major regulatory process in phenotypic switching of P. luminescens. A fine-tuning balance between both regulators might therefore define the fate of single cells to convert from the 1° to the 2° phenotype.

RevDate: 2021-02-25
CmpDate: 2021-02-25

Park E, R Poulin (2020)

Widespread Torix Rickettsia in New Zealand amphipods and the use of blocking primers to rescue host COI sequences.

Scientific reports, 10(1):16842.

Endosymbionts and intracellular parasites are common in arthropod hosts. As a consequence, (co)amplification of untargeted bacterial sequences has been occasionally reported as a common problem in DNA barcoding. While identifying amphipod species with universal COI primers, we unexpectedly detected rickettsial endosymbionts belonging to the Torix group. To map the distribution and diversity of Rickettsia species among amphipod hosts, we conducted a nationwide molecular screening of seven families of New Zealand freshwater amphipods. In addition to uncovering a diversity of Torix Rickettsia species across multiple amphipod populations from three different families, our research indicates that: (1) detecting Torix Rickettsia with universal primers is not uncommon, (2) obtaining 'Rickettsia COI sequences' from many host individuals is highly likely when a population is infected, and (3) obtaining 'host COI' may not be possible with a conventional PCR if an individual is infected. Because Rickettsia COI is highly conserved across diverse host taxa, we were able to design blocking primers that can be used in a wide range of host species infected with Torix Rickettsia. We propose the use of blocking primers to circumvent problems caused by unwanted amplification of Rickettsia and to obtain targeted host COI sequences for DNA barcoding, population genetics, and phylogeographic studies.

RevDate: 2021-02-25
CmpDate: 2021-02-25

Kiouptsi K, Jäckel S, Wilms E, et al (2020)

The Commensal Microbiota Enhances ADP-Triggered Integrin αIIbβ3 Activation and von Willebrand Factor-Mediated Platelet Deposition to Type I Collagen.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(19):.

The commensal microbiota is a recognized enhancer of arterial thrombus growth. While several studies have demonstrated the prothrombotic role of the gut microbiota, the molecular mechanisms promoting arterial thrombus growth are still under debate. Here, we demonstrate that germ-free (GF) mice, which from birth lack colonization with a gut microbiota, show diminished static deposition of washed platelets to type I collagen compared with their conventionally raised (CONV-R) counterparts. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that platelets from GF mice show diminished activation of the integrin αIIbβ3 (glycoprotein IIbIIIa) when activated by the platelet agonist adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Furthermore, washed platelets from Toll-like receptor-2 (Tlr2)-deficient mice likewise showed impaired static deposition to the subendothelial matrix component type I collagen compared with wild-type (WT) controls, a process that was unaffected by GPIbα-blockade but influenced by von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels. Collectively, our results indicate that microbiota-triggered steady-state activation of innate immune pathways via TLR2 enhances platelet deposition to subendothelial matrix molecules. Our results link host colonization status with the ADP-triggered activation of integrin αIIbβ3, a pathway promoting platelet deposition to the growing thrombus.

RevDate: 2021-02-25
CmpDate: 2021-02-25

Banuelos J, Martínez-Romero E, Montaño NM, et al (2021)

Folates in legume root nodules.

Physiologia plantarum, 171(3):447-452.

Folates are multifunctional metabolites in plants that are essential for cell division, nucleic acids and amino acid synthesis. During symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes, these cofactors are needed for de novo purine biosynthesis, meaning that changes in the folate pools could directly affect the flow of fixed nitrogen to the plant. Its role related to symbiotic nitrogen fixation has not been yet explored, but recent data suggest a relevant role during the first steps. Transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic analyses indicate that folates are accumulated in symbiotic plant tissue, as they are involved, not only in de novo purines biosynthesis, but in nitrogen translocation, endoreduplication and phytohormones biosynthesis. Understanding the possible implication of folate pools during the nitrogen fixation and assimilation, might aid for new engineering targets, in relation to the two transformylations or the production of glycine by serine hydroxymethyltransferase during the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway. In this review, we intend to deliver and discuss the available evidence that support a relevant role of folates during the symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2021-02-25
CmpDate: 2021-02-25

Fiorentini C, Carlini F, Germinario EAP, et al (2020)

Gut Microbiota and Colon Cancer: A Role for Bacterial Protein Toxins?.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(17):.

Accumulating evidence indicates that the human intestinal microbiota can contribute to the etiology of colorectal cancer. Triggering factors, including inflammation and bacterial infections, may favor the shift of the gut microbiota from a mutualistic to a pro-carcinogenic configuration. In this context, certain bacterial pathogens can exert a pro-tumoral activity by producing enzymatically-active protein toxins that either directly induce host cell DNA damage or interfere with essential host cell signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation. This review is focused on those toxins that, by mimicking carcinogens and cancer promoters, could represent a paradigm for bacterially induced carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-02-25
CmpDate: 2021-02-25

Wong CB, Odamaki T, JZ Xiao (2020)

Insights into the reason of Human-Residential Bifidobacteria (HRB) being the natural inhabitants of the human gut and their potential health-promoting benefits.

FEMS microbiology reviews, 44(3):369-385.

Members of Bifidobacterium are among the first microbes to colonise the human gut, and certain species are recognised as the natural resident of human gut microbiota. Their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting benefits and reduced abundance of this genus is linked with several diseases. Bifidobacterial species are assumed to have coevolved with their hosts and include members that are naturally present in the human gut, thus recognised as Human-Residential Bifidobacteria (HRB). The physiological functions of these bacteria and the reasons why they occur in and how they adapt to the human gut are of immense significance. In this review, we provide an overview of the biology of bifidobacteria as members of the human gut microbiota and address factors that contribute to the preponderance of HRB in the human gut. We highlight some of the important genetic attributes and core physiological traits of these bacteria that may explain their adaptive advantages, ecological fitness, and competitiveness in the human gut. This review will help to widen our understanding of one of the most important human commensal bacteria and shed light on the practical consideration for selecting bifidobacterial strains as human probiotics.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Quilbé J, JF Arrighi (2021)

NSP2, a key symbiotic regulator in the spotlight.

Journal of experimental botany, 72(4):959-963.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Valencia-Giraldo SM, Niño-Castro A, López-Peña A, et al (2021)

Immunity and survival response of Atta cephalotes (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae) workers to Metarhizium anisopliae infection: Potential role of their associated microbiota.

PloS one, 16(2):e0247545 pii:PONE-D-20-34316.

Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex are at constant risk of epizootics due to their dense living conditions and frequent social interactions between genetically related individuals. To help mitigate the risk of epizootics, these ants display individual and collective immune responses, including associations with symbiotic bacteria that can enhance their resistance to pathogenic infections. For example, Acromyrmex spp. harbor actinobacteria that control infection by Escovopsis in their fungal gardens. Although Atta spp. do not maintain symbiosis with protective actinobacteria, the evidence suggests that these insects are colonized by bacterial microbiota that may play a role in their defense against pathogens. The potential role of the bacterial microbiome of Atta workers in enhancing host immunity remains unexplored. We evaluated multiple parameters of the individual immunity of Atta cephalotes (Linnaeus, 1758) workers, including hemocyte count, encapsulation response, and the antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph in the presence or absence of bacterial microbiota. Experiments were performed on ants reared under standard conditions as well as on ants previously exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Metharrizium anisopliae. Furthermore, the effects of the presence/absence of bacteria on the survival of workers exposed to M. anisopliae were evaluated. The bacterial microbiota associated with A. cephalotes workers does not modulate the number of hemocytes under control conditions or under conditions of exposure to the fungal pathogen. In addition, infection by M. anisopliae, but not microbiota, increases the encapsulation response. Similarly, the exposure of workers to this fungus led to increased hemolymph antimicrobial activity. Conversely, the removal of bacterial microbiota did not have a significant impact on the survival of workers with M. anisopliae. Our results suggest that the bacterial microbiota associated with the cuticle of A. cephalotes workers does not play a role as a modulator of innate immunity, either at baseline or after exposure to the entomopathogen M. anisopliae. Further, upon infection, workers rely on mechanisms of humoral immunity to respond to this threat. Overall, our findings indicate that the bacterial microbiota associated with A. cephalotes workers does not play a defensive role.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Hyun HR, Yoon H, Lyou ES, et al (2021)

Short-Term Legacy Effects of Mercury Contamination on Plant Growth and nifH-Harboring Microbial Community in Rice Paddy Soil.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Methylmercury (MeHg), which is formed in rice paddy soil, exhibits strong neurotoxicity through bioaccumulation in the food chain. A few groups of microorganisms drive both mercury methylation and nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere. Little is known about how the shifted soil microbial community by Hg contamination affects nitrogen fixation rate and plant growth in paddy soil. Here, we examined how stimulated short-term Hg amendment affects the nitrogen fixing microbial community and influences plant-microbe interactions. Soil was treated with low (0.2 mg/kg) and high (1.1 mg/kg) concentrations of Hg for 4 weeks; then, rice (Oryza sativa) was planted and grown for 12 weeks. The nitrogen-fixation rate and rice growth were measured. The diversity and structure of the microbial community were analyzed by sequencing the nifH gene before and after rice cultivation. Hg treatments significantly decreased the nitrogen fixation rate and dry weight of the rice plants. The structure of the nifH-harboring community was remarkably changed after rice cultivation depending on Hg treatments. Iron- or sulfate-reducing bacteria, including Desulfobacca, Desulfoporosimus, and Geobacter, were observed as legacy response groups; their abundances increased in the soil after Hg treatment. The high abundance of those groups were maintained in control, but the abundance drastically decreased after rice cultivation in the soil treated with Hg, indicating that symbiotic behavior of rice plants changes according to the legacy effects on Hg contamination. These results suggested that Hg contamination can persist in soil microbial communities, affecting their nitrogen-fixation ability and symbiosis with rice plants in paddy soil.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Huang D, Wang Q, Zou Y, et al (2021)

Silencing MdGH3-2/12 in apple reduces cadmium resistance via the regulation of AM colonization.

Chemosphere, 269:129407.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can form a symbiotic relationship with most terrestrial plant roots, promote plant growth, and heavy metal (HM) tolerance and thus plays a crucial role in phytoremediation. However, research on the relationship between colonization level and HM tolerance is limited. In this study, apple (Malus domestica) Gretchen Hagen3 genes MdGH3-2/12 silencing plants were treated with four AMF and Cd combination treatments to determine AMF colonization levels, biomass, Cd accumulation, photosynthesis, fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant substance accumulation, and Cd uptake, transport and detoxification gene expression levels. Results indicate the greater sensitivity of transgenic plants under AMF inoculation and Cd treatment compared with wild type (WT) via lower AMF colonization levels, biomass accumulation, photosynthetic parameters, and the accumulation and clearance homeostasis of ROS, as well as lower detoxification expression levels and higher Cd uptake and transport expression levels. Our study essentially demonstrates that MdGH3-2/12 plays an important role in Cd stress tolerance by regulating AM colonization in apple.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Liu W, Wang J, Zhang HY, et al (2021)

Symbiotic bacteria attenuate Drosophila oviposition repellence to alkaline through acidification.

Insect science, 28(2):403-414.

Metazoans harbor a wealth of symbionts that are ever-changing the environment by taking up resources and/or excreting metabolites. One such common environmental modification is a change in pH. Conventional wisdom holds that symbionts facilitate the survival and production of their hosts in the wild, but this notion lacks empirical evidence. Here, we report that symbiotic bacteria in the genus Enterococcus attenuate the oviposition avoidance of alkaline environments in Drosophila. We studied the effects of alkalinity on oviposition preference for the first time, and found that flies are robustly disinclined to oviposit on alkali-containing substrates. This innate repulsion to alkaline environments is explained, in part, by the fact that alkalinity compromises the health and lifespan of both offspring and parent Drosophila. Enterococcus dramatically diminished or even completely reversed the ovipositional avoidance of alkalinity in Drosophila. Mechanistically, Enterococcus generate abundant lactate during fermentation, which neutralizes the residual alkali in an egg-laying substrate. In conclusion, Enterococcus protects Drosophila from alkali stress by acidifying the ovipositional substrate, and ultimately improves the fitness of the Drosophila population. Our results demonstrate that symbionts are profound factors in the Drosophila ovipositional decision, and extend our understanding of the intimate interactions between Drosophila and their symbionts.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Cai T, Zhang Y, Liu Y, et al (2021)

Wolbachia enhances expression of NlCYP4CE1 in Nilaparvata lugens in response to imidacloprid stress.

Insect science, 28(2):355-362.

The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the main insect pests of rice. The N. lugens gene NlCYP4CE1 encodes cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), which is a key enzyme in the metabolism of the insecticide imidacloprid. Previous research has suggested that the expression of NlCYP4CE1 is induced by imidacloprid stress, but the effect of bacterial symbionts on its expression has not been determined. The results of this study show that exposure to subtoxic imidacloprid changed the structure of the bacterial symbiont community in N. lugens. Specifically, the total bacterial content increased, but the bacterial species diversity significantly decreased. Wolbachia accounted for the largest proportion of bacteria in N. lugens; its abundance significantly increased after subtoxic imidacloprid exposure. The transcript level of NlCYP4CE1 was significantly increased by imidacloprid, but this effect was significantly weakened after Wolbachia was cleared with tetracycline. This result suggests that Wolbachia enhances the expression of NlCYP4CE1 to promote the detoxification metabolic response to imidacloprid stress. Understanding the effect of bacterial symbionts on gene expression in the host provides a new perspective on interactions between insecticides and their target insect pests, and highlights that subtoxic imidacloprid exposure may raise the risk of insecticide resistance by altering the structure of bacterial symbiont communities.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Nagam V, Aluru R, Shoaib M, et al (2021)

Diversity of fungal isolates from fungus-growing termite Macrotermes barneyi and characterization of bioactive compound from Xylaria escharoidea.

Insect science, 28(2):392-402.

Owing to their potential applications, as well as their structural diversity, the discovery of novel secondary metabolites from insect-associated fungi has been of interest to researchers in recent years. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the diversity of fungi associated with fungus-growing termites and bioprospecting these for potential secondary metabolites. In total, 18 fungal species were isolated and described from the gut and comb of Macrotermes barneyi based on 18S ribosomal DNA gene sequence analysis. Antimicrobial activity assays were carried out on all the known fungi, and nine isolates were recorded as active against pathogenic fungi. Xylaria escharoidea, the best performing isolate, was grown at laboratory scale and 4,8-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H) was isolated and characterized. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this isolated compound against tested pathogenic organisms was found to be 6.25 μg. In addition, molecular docking studies have revealed that 4,8-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H) is a prominent antibacterial agent with a marked interaction with key residues on protein A (agrAC) that regulates the accessory gene. The findings of this study support the drug discovery of antimicrobial properties in insect-associated fungi, which may lead to novel secondary metabolites.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Lei T, Zhao J, Wang HL, et al (2021)

Impact of a novel Rickettsia symbiont on the life history and virus transmission capacity of its host whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

Insect science, 28(2):377-391.

Rickettsia consists of some of the most prevalent symbionts of insects and often plays a significant role in the biology of its hosts. Recently, a maternally inherited Torix group Rickettsia, provisionally named as RiTBt, was recorded in a species of notorious pest whitefly, tentatively named as Asia II 1, from the Bemisia tabaci complex. The role of this Rickettsia in the biology of its host is unknown. Here we investigated the impact of RiTBt on the performance and virus transmission capacity of Asia II 1. RiTBt did not significantly affect the life history parameters of the whitefly when the host insect was reared on tobacco, tomato, and cotton, three host plants with relatively low, medium and high suitability to the whitefly. Intriguingly, RiTBt slightly enhanced whitefly transmission of cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV), a virus that is transmitted by the whitefly in the field and has caused extensive damage to cotton production. Specifically, compared with whiteflies without RiTBt, following a 48 h virus acquisition whiteflies with RiTBt had higher titer of virus and showed higher efficiency of virus transmission. A rickettsial secretory protein BtR242 was identified as a putative virus-binding protein, and was observed to interact with the coat protein of CLCuMuV in vitro. Viral infection of the whitefly downregulated gene transcript levels of the BtR242 gene. These observations indicate that RiTBt has limited impact on the biology of the Asia II 1 whitefly, and whether this symbiont has functions in the biology of other host whiteflies warrants future investigation.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Gavrin A, Loughlin PC, Brear E, et al (2021)

Soybean Yellow Stripe-like 7 is a symbiosome membrane peptide transporter important for nitrogen fixation.

Plant physiology pii:6129112 [Epub ahead of print].

Legumes form a symbiosis with rhizobia that convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia and provide it to the plant in return for a carbon and nutrient supply. Nodules, developed as part of the symbiosis, harbor rhizobia that are enclosed in a plant-derived symbiosome membrane (SM) to form an organelle-like structure called the symbiosome. In mature nodules exchanges between the symbionts occur across the SM. Here we characterize Yellow Stripe-like 7 (GmYSL7), a Yellow stripe-like family member localized on the SM in soybean (Glycine max) nodules. It is expressed specifically in infected cells with expression peaking soon after nitrogenase becomes active. Unlike most YSL family members, GmYSL7 does not transport metals complexed with phytosiderophores. Rather, it transports oligopeptides of between four and 12 amino acids. Silencing GmYSL7 reduces nitrogenase activity and blocks infected cell development so that symbiosomes contain only a single bacteroid. This indicates the substrate of YSL7 is required for proper nodule development, either by promoting symbiosome development directly or by preventing inhibition of development by the plant. RNAseq of nodules where GmYSL7 was silenced suggests that the plant initiates a defense response against rhizobia with genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid export downregulated and some transcripts associated with metal homeostasis altered. These changes may result from the decrease in nitrogen fixation upon GmYSL7 silencing and suggest that the peptide(s) transported by GmYSL7 monitor the functional state of the bacteroids and regulate nodule metabolism and transport processes accordingly. Further work to identify the physiological substrate for GmYSL7 will allow clarification of this role.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Sieber M, Traulsen A, Schulenburg H, et al (2021)

On the evolutionary origins of host-microbe associations.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(9):.

Many microorganisms with high prevalence in host populations are beneficial to the host and maintained by specialized transmission mechanisms. Although microbial promotion of host fitness and specificity of the associations undoubtedly enhance microbial prevalence, it is an open question whether these symbiotic traits are also a prerequisite for the evolutionary origin of prevalent microbial taxa. To address this issue, we investigate how processes without positive microbial effects on host fitness or host choice can influence the prevalence of certain microbes in a host population. Specifically, we develop a theoretical model to assess the conditions under which particular microbes can become enriched in animal hosts even when they are not providing a specific benefit to a particular host. We find increased prevalence of specific microbes in a host when both show some overlap in their lifecycles, and especially when both share dispersal routes across a patchy habitat distribution. Our results emphasize that host enrichment per se is not a reliable indicator of beneficial host-microbe interactions. The resulting increase in time spent associated with a host may nevertheless give rise to new selection conditions, which can favor microbial adaptations toward a host-associated lifestyle, and, thus, it could be the foundation for subsequent evolution of mutually beneficial coevolved symbioses.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Shah S, Chand K, Rekadwad B, et al (2021)

A prospectus of plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium from orchid (Vanda cristata).

BMC biotechnology, 21(1):16.

BACKGROUND: A plant growth-promoting endophytic bacterium PVL1 isolated from the leaf of Vanda cristata has the ability to colonize with roots of plants and protect the plant. PVL1 was isolated using laboratory synthetic media. 16S rRNA gene sequencing method has been employed for identification before and after root colonization ability.

RESULTS: Original isolated and remunerated strain from colonized roots were identified as Bacillus spp. as per EzBiocloud database. The presence of bacteria in the root section of the plantlet was confirmed through Epifluorescence microscopy of colonized roots. The in-vitro plantlet colonized by PVL1 as well as DLMB attained higher growth than the control. PVL1 capable of producing plant beneficial phytohormone under in vitro cultivation. HPLC and GC-MS analysis suggest that colonized plants contain Indole Acetic Acid (IAA). The methanol extract of Bacillus spp., contains 0.015 μg in 1 μl concentration of IAA. PVL1 has the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds such as ethyl iso-allocholate, which exhibits immune restoring property. One-way ANOVA shows that results were statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05 level.

CONCLUSIONS: Hence, it has been concluded that Bacillus spp. PVL1 can promote plant growth through secretion of IAA during root colonization and ethyl iso-allocholate to protect plants from foreign infections. Thus, this study supports to support Koch's postulates of bacteria establishment.

RevDate: 2021-02-23
CmpDate: 2021-02-23

Gola A, Dorrington MG, Speranza E, et al (2021)

Commensal-driven immune zonation of the liver promotes host defence.

Nature, 589(7840):131-136.

The liver connects the intestinal portal vasculature with the general circulation, using a diverse array of immune cells to protect from pathogens that translocate from the gut1. In liver lobules, blood flows from portal triads that are situated in periportal lobular regions to the central vein via a polarized sinusoidal network. Despite this asymmetry, resident immune cells in the liver are considered to be broadly dispersed across the lobule. This differs from lymphoid organs, in which immune cells adopt spatially biased positions to promote effective host defence2,3. Here we used quantitative multiplex imaging, genetic perturbations, transcriptomics, infection-based assays and mathematical modelling to reassess the relationship between the localization of immune cells in the liver and host protection. We found that myeloid and lymphoid resident immune cells concentrate around periportal regions. This asymmetric localization was not developmentally controlled, but resulted from sustained MYD88-dependent signalling induced by commensal bacteria in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, which in turn regulated the composition of the pericellular matrix involved in the formation of chemokine gradients. In vivo experiments and modelling showed that this immune spatial polarization was more efficient than a uniform distribution in protecting against systemic bacterial dissemination. Together, these data reveal that liver sinusoidal endothelial cells sense the microbiome, actively orchestrating the localization of immune cells, to optimize host defence.

RevDate: 2021-02-23
CmpDate: 2021-02-23

Hinds LA, Grice D, Watson DM, et al (2021)

Efficacy of a combined insecticide-rodenticide product on ectoparasite and commensal rodent mortality.

Pest management science, 77(3):1160-1168.

BACKGROUND: Ectoparasites may transfer zoonotic pathogens from rodents to humans or livestock when rodents are managed with rodenticides. This could be minimized using a product combining a rodenticide with a delayed action and a systemic insecticide/acaricide that rapidly kills ectoparasites. Such a combination was tested in commensal pest rodent species to assess efficacy and timing of responses in rodents, and fleas and ticks feeding on them. Ticks or fleas attached to rats (Rattus norvegicus) and house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) were exposed to a product containing brodifacoum (50 ppm) and fipronil (40 ppm) for three days.

RESULTS: 98-100% of fleas on treated rodents died within one to two days after first exposure, whereas >90% fleas survived on control rodents. The effect persisted for four or more days after bait uptake. Ticks started to succumb to the effect of the combination product within one day (mice) and within four days (rats) of first exposure, with all ticks dying by Day (D)8. Tick survival in control rodents was 90-100%. Rodent mortality began at D3 (rats) and D4 (mice) after first consumption of product and all were dead by D9 (rats) and D7 (mice).

CONCLUSION: This product effectively killed ectoparasites and rodents. Flea mortality was swift and complete, generally within one day of exposure, whereas it took ticks up to four days to die, but before the rats and house mice died. The combination product might help to prevent ectoparasites migrating from dying rodents to another host. Field trials are warranted. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2021-02-23
CmpDate: 2021-02-23

Morrison BML, R Dirzo (2020)

Distinct responses of antagonistic and mutualistic networks to agricultural intensification.

Ecology, 101(10):e03116.

Species interaction networks, which govern the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem processes within ecological communities, are being rapidly altered by anthropogenic activities worldwide. Studies on the response of species interaction networks to anthropogenic disturbance have almost exclusively focused on one interaction type at a time, such as mutualistic or antagonistic interactions, making it challenging to decipher how networks of different interaction types respond to the same anthropogenic disturbance. Moreover, few studies have simultaneously focused on the two main components of network structure: network topology (i.e., architecture) and network ecology (i.e., species identities and interaction turnover), thereby limiting our understanding of the ecological drivers underlying changes in network topology in response to anthropogenic disturbance. Here, we used 16,400 plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interaction observations from 16 sites along an agricultural intensification gradient to compare changes in network topology and ecology between mutualistic and antagonistic networks. We measured two aspects of network topology-nestedness and modularity-and found that although the mutualistic networks were consistently more nested than antagonistic networks and antagonistic networks were consistently more modular, the rate of change in nestedness and modularity along the gradient was comparable between the two network types. Change in network ecology, however, was distinct between mutualistic and antagonistic networks, with partner switching making a significantly larger contribution to interaction turnover in the mutualistic networks than in the antagonistic networks, and species turnover being a strong contributor to interaction turnover in the antagonistic networks. The ecological and topological changes we observed in the antagonistic and mutualistic networks have different implications for pollinator and herbivore communities in agricultural landscapes, and support the idea that pollinators are more labile in their interaction partner choice, whereas herbivores form more reciprocally specialized, and therefore more vulnerable, interactions. Our results also demonstrate that studying both topological and ecological network structure can help to elucidate the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ecological communities, with applications for conservation and restoration of species interactions and the ecosystem processes they maintain.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Bharti D, Kumar S, La Terza A, et al (2020)

Dispersal of ciliated protist cysts: mutualism and phoresy on mites.

Ecology, 101(9):e03075.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Hall C, Camilli S, Dwaah H, et al (2021)

Freshwater sponge hosts and their green algae symbionts: a tractable model to understand intracellular symbiosis.

PeerJ, 9:e10654 pii:10654.

In many freshwater habitats, green algae form intracellular symbioses with a variety of heterotrophic host taxa including several species of freshwater sponge. These sponges perform important ecological roles in their habitats, and the poriferan:green algae partnerships offers unique opportunities to study the evolutionary origins and ecological persistence of endosymbioses. We examined the association between Ephydatia muelleri and its chlorophyte partner to identify features of host cellular and genetic responses to the presence of intracellular algal partners. Chlorella-like green algal symbionts were isolated from field-collected adult E. muelleri tissue harboring algae. The sponge-derived algae were successfully cultured and subsequently used to reinfect aposymbiotic E. muelleri tissue. We used confocal microscopy to follow the fate of the sponge-derived algae after inoculating algae-free E. muelleri grown from gemmules to show temporal patterns of symbiont location within host tissue. We also infected aposymbiotic E. muelleri with sponge-derived algae, and performed RNASeq to study differential expression patterns in the host relative to symbiotic states. We compare and contrast our findings with work in other systems (e.g., endosymbiotic Hydra) to explore possible conserved evolutionary pathways that may lead to stable mutualistic endosymbioses. Our work demonstrates that freshwater sponges offer many tractable qualities to study features of intracellular occupancy and thus meet criteria desired for a model system.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Loh HQ, Hervé V, A Brune (2020)

Metabolic Potential for Reductive Acetogenesis and a Novel Energy-Converting [NiFe] Hydrogenase in Bathyarchaeia From Termite Guts - A Genome-Centric Analysis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:635786.

Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in the hindgut of higher termites is mediated by a diverse assemblage of bacteria and archaea. During a large-scale metagenomic study, we reconstructed 15 metagenome-assembled genomes of Bathyarchaeia that represent two distinct lineages in subgroup 6 (formerly MCG-6) unique to termite guts. One lineage (TB2; Candidatus Termitimicrobium) encodes all enzymes required for reductive acetogenesis from CO2 via an archaeal variant of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, involving tetrahydromethanopterin as C1 carrier and an (ADP-forming) acetyl-CoA synthase. This includes a novel 11-subunit hydrogenase, which possesses the genomic architecture of the respiratory Fpo-complex of other archaea but whose catalytic subunit is phylogenetically related to and shares the conserved [NiFe] cofactor-binding motif with [NiFe] hydrogenases of subgroup 4 g. We propose that this novel Fpo-like hydrogenase provides part of the reduced ferredoxin required for CO2 reduction and is driven by the electrochemical membrane potential generated from the ATP conserved by substrate-level phosphorylation; the other part may require the oxidation of organic electron donors, which would make members of TB2 mixotrophic acetogens. Members of the other lineage (TB1; Candidatus Termiticorpusculum) are definitely organotrophic because they consistently lack hydrogenases and/or methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin reductase, a key enzyme of the archaeal Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Both lineages have the genomic capacity to reduce ferredoxin by oxidizing amino acids and might conduct methylotrophic acetogenesis using unidentified methylated compound(s). Our results indicate that Bathyarchaeia of subgroup 6 contribute to acetate formation in the guts of higher termites and substantiate the genomic evidence for reductive acetogenesis from organic substrates, possibly including methylated compounds, in other uncultured representatives of the phylum.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Gokhale D, S Rao (2020)

Adverse Maternal Nutritional Status Affects Birth Weight among Rural Mothers of Maharashtra.

Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 66(Supplement):S71-S75.

Maternal anthropometry and its influence on the birth weight has been studied widely, but effects of maternal undernutrition in-utero depicted by surrogate measures of sitting height and head circumference are largely unknown. We have studied the maternal sitting height along with other conventional nutritional status indicators at registration in predicting the risk of low birth weight (LBW) among 204 young rural women. Information on socio-demographic and economic profile, anthropometric measurements at registration and neonatal birth weight after delivery was recorded. Mothers were thin (mean weight; 46.4±6.1 kg), had short stature (mean height: 153.3±5.7 cm) and 33.8% were undernourished (body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2). Prevalence of LBW was 27.5%. Maternal weight, height, BMI, head circumference, sitting height and %body fat at registration were significantly (p<0.05) associated with birth weight. Significant risks for LBW were observed for low (<42.26 kg) weight (OR=3.69; CI: 1.6-8.1), short (<150 cm) height (OR=2.3; CI: 1-5.1), low (<18.5 kg/m2) BMI (OR=3.27; CI: 1.4-7.3), low (<70 cm) sitting height (OR=2.3; CI: 1.0-5.1), small (<52 cm) head circumference (OR=3.3; CI: 1.6-7.1), and low (<22.7%) %body fat (OR=4.98; CI: 2.2-11.2). Interestingly, these risks remained significant for sitting height (OR=3.4; CI: 1.5-7.6, OR=2.5; CI: 1.1-5.8) and head circumference (OR=2.4; CI: 1.1-5.6, OR=2.2; CI: 0.9-5.03) even after adjusting for BMI and %body fat respectively indicating their independent influence. Our findings highlight that in addition to the current maternal undernourishment, maternal undernourishment in-utero (small head circumference and short sitting height) imposes risk for LBW.

RevDate: 2021-02-21

Onat B, Rosales-Solano H, Ferrier L, et al (2021)

Identification of the metabolites regulated in soybean-Rhizobia symbiosis through solid phase microextraction coupled with LC-MS.

Journal of chromatography. A, 1641:461934 pii:S0021-9673(21)00058-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Legumes provide one of the uniquely nutrient-rich food sources to the population and are one of the primary field crops that play significant roles in agricultural sustainability. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is necessary for the high yield of leguminous crops, i.e. soybean. Nodulation of soybean by Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a complex process that is essential for cultivation of these legumes and external stress factors, such as draught and soil acidity, that influence the nodulation and crop yield. Alterations in the nodule metabolites are known to identify the type of stress that mitigates nodulation and lowers crop yield. Current techniques aimed at understanding the metabolic activities in the symbiont, such as in the case of metabolic regulations in varying nodule growth phases, rely on exhaustive techniques based on the removal of nodules or other plant tissue. Aiming to capture a more in-depth, accurate profile of this system without quenching the metabolic activity in the nodules, or removing the nodules, a workflow was prepared for the metabolite sampling through in vivo solid phase microextraction in thin film format (TF-SPME). This technique was followed by LC-QTOF-MS instrumental analysis with subsequent metabolite annotation and reference standard validation. Our approach is unique in terms of eliminating the effects that arise due to analyte partition coefficients. We show that the symbiont undergoes metabolic regulations throughout the cultivation period, displaying the efficacy of TF-SPME as a non-exhaustive sampling method that can be used as a tool to investigate the metabolic alterations in nodules. These alterations would potentially fingerprint the environmental effects on soybean yield.

RevDate: 2021-02-21

Li J, Chen B, Zhang X, et al (2021)

Arsenic transformation and volatilization by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis under axenic conditions.

Journal of hazardous materials, 413:125390 pii:S0304-3894(21)00353-8 [Epub ahead of print].

It is well known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance plant arsenic (As) resistance by influencing As uptake, translocation, and speciation; however, As transformation and volatilization by an entire plant inoculated with AM fungus remains uninvestigated. In the present study, AM symbiosis of Rhizophagus irregularis with unbroken Medicago sativa was successfully established in vitro. Afterwards, five concentrations of arsenate were applied to the culture media. The results showed that AM inoculation could methylate inorganic As into dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), dimethylarsine (DMAsH), and trimethylarsine (TMAs), which were detected in the plants, media, or air. Volatile As, accounting for a small proportion of total organic As, appeared under high arsenate exposure, accompanied by remarkable upregulation of root RiMT-11, an arsenite methyltransferase gene in R. irregularis. In addition, AM colonization significantly increased arsenite percentages in plant tissues and external media. Regardless of As species, AM inoculation tended to release the transformed As into the environment rather than transfer them to plant tissues. Our present study, for the first time, comprehensively verified As methylation, volatilization, and reduction by AM fungus associated with the entire plant under absolute axenic conditions and gained a deeper insight into As metabolism in AM symbionts.

RevDate: 2021-02-21

Goto R, Takano T, Eernisse DJ, et al (2021)

Snails riding mantis shrimps: Ectoparasites evolved from ancestors living as commensals on the host's burrow wall.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(21)00055-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The molluscan class Gastropoda includes over 5,000 parasitic species whose evolutionary origins remain poorly understood. Marine snails of the genus Caledoniella (Caledoniellidae) are obligate parasites that live on the abdominal surface of the gonodactylid mantis shrimps. They have highly modified morphological characteristics specialized to the ectoparasitic lifestyle that make it difficult to infer their close relatives, thereby posing a question about their current systematic position in the superfamily Vanikoroidea. In the present study, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using three nuclear and three mitochondrial gene sequences to unveil the phylogenetic position of these enigmatic snails. The resulting trees recovered Caledoniella in the superfamily Truncatelloidea and within a subclade of commensal species that live on the burrow wall of marine benthic invertebrates. More specifically, Caledoniella formed the sister clade to a commensal snail species living in mantis-shrimp burrows and they collectively were sister to Sigaretornus planus (formerly in the family Tornidae or Vitrinellidae), a commensal living in echiuran burrows. This topology suggests that the species of Caledoniella achieved their ectoparasitic mode of life through the following evolutionary pathway: (1) invasion into the burrows of benthic invertebrates, (2) specialization to mantis shrimps, and (3) colonization of the host body surface from the host burrow wall with the evolution of the parasitic nature. The final step is likely to have been accompanied by the acquisition of a sucker on the metapodium, the loss of the radula and operculum, and the formation of monogamous pair bonds. The present molecular phylogeny also suggested parallel evolution of planispiral shells in a subclade of Truncatelloidea and enabled us to newly redefine the families Caledoniellidae, Elachisinidae, Teinostomatidae, Tornidae and Vitrinellidae.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )