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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 20 Jul 2019 at 01:45 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-07-19

Morishima SY, Yamashita H, O-Hara S, et al (2019)

Study on expelled but viable zooxanthellae from giant clams, with an emphasis on their potential as subsequent symbiont sources.

PloS one, 14(7):e0220141 pii:PONE-D-19-11506.

Unlike most bivalve shellfishes, giant clams (tridacnines) harbor symbiotic microalgae (zooxanthellae) in their fleshy bodies. Zooxanthellae are not maternally inherited by tridacnine offspring, hence, the larvae must acquire zooxanthellae from external sources, although such algal populations or sources in the environment are currently unknown. It is well known that giant clams expel fecal pellets that contain viable zooxanthellae cells, but whether these cells are infectious or just an expelled overpopulation from the giant clams has not been investigated. In this study, we observed the ultrastructural and photosynthetic competencies of zooxanthellae in the fecal pellets of Tridacna crocea and further tested the ability of these cells to infect T. squamosa juveniles. The ultrastructure of the zooxanthellae cells showed that the cells were intact and had not undergone digestion. Additionally, these zooxanthellae cells showed a maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) as high as those retained in the mantle of the giant clam. Under the assumption that feces might provide symbionts to the larvae of other giant clams, fecal pellets from Tridacna squamosa and T. crocea were given to artificially hatched 1-day-old T. squamosa larvae. On the 9th day, 15-34% of the larvae provided with the fecal pellets took up zooxanthellae in their stomach, and on the 14th day, zooxanthellae cells reached the larval margin, indicating the establishment of symbiosis. The rate reaching this stage was highest, ca. 5.3%, in the larvae given whole (nonhomogenized) pellets from T. crocea. The composition of zooxanthellae genera contained in the larvae were similar to those in the fecal pellets, although the abundance ratios were significantly different. This study is the first to demonstrate the potential of giant clam fecal pellets as symbiont vectors to giant clam larvae. These results also demonstrate the possibility that fecal pellets are a source of zooxanthellae in coral reefs.

RevDate: 2019-07-19

Liu X, Xie Z, Wang Y, et al (2019)

A Dual Role of Amino Acids from Sesbania rostrata Seed Exudates in the Chemotaxis Response of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 can induce nodule formation on the roots and the stems of its host legume, Sesbania rostrata. Plant exudates are essential in the dialogue between microbes and their host plant and, in particular, amino acids can play an important role in the chemotactic response of bacteria. Histidine, arginine, and aspartate, which are the three most abundant amino acids present in S. rostrata seed exudates, behave as chemoattractants toward A. caulinodans. A position-specific-iterated BLAST analysis of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) (chemoreceptors) in the genome of A. caulinodans was performed. Among the 43 MCP homologs, two MCPs harboring a dCache domain were selected as possible cognate amino acid MCPs. After analysis of relative gene expression levels and construction of a gene-deleted mutant strain, one of them, AZC_0821 designed as TlpH, was confirmed to be responsible for the chemotactic response to the three amino acids. In addition, it was found that these three amino acids can also influence chemotaxis of A. caulinodans independently of the chemosensory receptors, by being involved in the increase of the expression level of several che and fla genes involved in the chemotaxis pathway and flagella synthesis. Thus, the contribution of amino acids present in seed exudates is directly related to the role as chemoattractants and indirectly related to the role in the regulation of expression of key genes involved in chemotaxis and motility. This "dual role" is likely to influence the formation of biofilms by A. caulinodans and the host root colonization properties of this bacterium.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Hosseinzadeh S, Shams-Bakhsh M, Mann M, et al (2019)

Distribution and Variation of Bacterial Endosymbiont and "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" Titer in the Huanglongbing Insect Vector, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

Microbial ecology, 78(1):206-222.

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an economic insect pest in most citrus-growing regions and the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), one of at least three known bacteria associated with Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease). D. citri harbors bacterial endosymbionts, including Wolbachia pipientis (strain Wolbachia wDi), 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii,' and 'Candidatus Profftella armatura.' Many important functions of these bacteria can be inferred from their genome sequences, but their interactions with each other, CLas, and their D. citri host are poorly understood. In the present study, the titers of the endosymbionts in different tissues, in each sex, and in insects reared on healthy citrus (referred to as unexposed) and CLas-infected citrus (referred to as CLas-exposed) D. citri were investigated using real-time, quantitative PCR (qPCR) using two different quantitative approaches. Wolbachia and CLas were detected in all insect tissues. The titer of Wolbachia was higher in heads of CLas-exposed males as compared to unexposed males. In males and females, Wolbachia titer was highest in the Malpighian tubules. The highest titer of CLas was observed in the gut. Profftella and Carsonella titers were significantly reduced in the bacteriome of CLas-exposed males compared with that of unexposed males, but this effect was not observed in females. In ovaries of CLas-exposed females, the Profftella and Carsonella titers were increased as compared to non-exposed females. CLas appeared to influence the overall levels of the symbionts but did not drastically perturb the overall microbial community structure. In all the assessed tissues, CLas titer in males was significantly higher than that of females using absolute quantification. These data provide a better understanding of multi-trophic interactions regulating symbiont dynamics in the HLB pathosystem.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Villegas-Plazas M, Wos-Oxley ML, Sanchez JA, et al (2019)

Variations in Microbial Diversity and Metabolite Profiles of the Tropical Marine Sponge Xestospongia muta with Season and Depth.

Microbial ecology, 78(1):243-256.

Xestospongia muta is among the most emblematic sponge species inhabiting coral reefs of the Caribbean Sea. Besides being the largest sponge species growing in the Caribbean, it is also known to produce secondary metabolites. This study aimed to assess the effect of depth and season on the symbiotic bacterial dynamics and major metabolite profiles of specimens of X. muta thriving in a tropical marine biome (Portobelo Bay, Panamá), which allow us to determine whether variability patterns are similar to those reported for subtropical latitudes. The bacterial assemblages were characterized using Illumina deep-sequencing and metabolomic profiles using UHPLC-DAD-ELSD from five depths (ranging 9-28 m) across two seasons (spring and autumn). Diverse symbiotic communities, representing 24 phyla with a predominance of Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi, were found. Although several thousands of OTUs were determined, most of them belong to the rare biosphere and only 23 to a core community. There was a significant difference between the structure of the microbial communities in respect to season (autumn to spring), with a further significant difference between depths only in autumn. This was partially mirrored in the metabolome profile, where the overall metabolite composition did not differ between seasons, but a significant depth gradient was observed in autumn. At the phyla level, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Spirochaete showed a mild-moderate correlation with the metabolome profile. The metabolomic profiles were mainly characterized by known brominated polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work presents findings about the composition and dynamics of the microbial assemblages of X. muta expanding and confirming current knowledge about its remarkable diversity and geographic variability as observed in this tropical marine biome.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Dror H, Novak L, Evans JS, et al (2019)

Core and Dynamic Microbial Communities of Two Invasive Ascidians: Can Host-Symbiont Dynamics Plasticity Affect Invasion Capacity?.

Microbial ecology, 78(1):170-184.

Ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea) are considered to be prominent marine invaders, able to tolerate highly polluted environments and fluctuations in salinity and temperature. Here, we examined the seasonal and spatial dynamics of the microbial communities in the inner-tunic of two invasive ascidians, Styela plicata (Lesueur 1823) and Herdmania momus (Savigny 1816), in order to investigate the changes that occur in the microbiome of non-indigenous ascidians in different environments. Microbial communities were characterized using next-generation sequencing of partial (V4) 16S rRNA gene sequences. A clear differentiation between the ascidian-associated microbiome and bacterioplankton was observed, and two distinct sets of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), one core and the other dynamic, were recovered from both species. The relative abundance of the dynamic OTUs in H. momus was higher than in S. plicata, for which core OTU structure was maintained independently of location. Ten and seventeen core OTUs were identified in S. plicata and H. momus, respectively, including taxa with reported capabilities of carbon fixing, ammonia oxidization, denitrification, and heavy-metal processing. The ascidian-sourced dynamic OTUs clustered in response to site and season but significantly differed from the bacterioplankton community structure. These findings suggest that the associations between invasive ascidians and their symbionts may enhance host functionality while maintaining host adaptability to changing environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Renoz F, Pons I, Vanderpoorten A, et al (2019)

Evidence for Gut-Associated Serratia symbiotica in Wild Aphids and Ants Provides New Perspectives on the Evolution of Bacterial Mutualism in Insects.

Microbial ecology, 78(1):159-169.

Many insects engage in symbiotic associations with diverse assemblages of bacterial symbionts that can deeply impact on their ecology and evolution. The intraspecific variation of symbionts remains poorly assessed while phenotypic effects and transmission behaviors, which are key processes for the persistence and evolution of symbioses, may differ widely depending on the symbiont strains. Serratia symbiotica is one of the most frequent symbiont species in aphids and a valuable model to assess this intraspecific variation since it includes both facultative and obligate symbiotic strains. Despite evidence that some facultative S. symbiotica strains exhibit a free-living capacity, the presence of these strains in wild aphid populations, as well as in insects with which they maintain regular contact, has never been demonstrated. Here, we examined the prevalence, diversity, and tissue tropism of S. symbiotica in wild aphids and associated ants. We found a high occurrence of S. symbiotica infection in ant populations, especially when having tended infected aphid colonies. We also found that the S. symbiotica diversity includes strains found located within the gut of aphids and ants. In the latter, this tissue tropism was found restricted to the proventriculus. Altogether, these findings highlight the extraordinary diversity and versatility of an insect symbiont and suggest the existence of novel routes for symbiont acquisition in insects.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Stringlis IA, Zhang H, Pieterse CMJ, et al (2018)

Microbial small molecules - weapons of plant subversion.

Natural product reports, 35(5):410-433.

Covering: up to 2018 Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut. Numerous ingenious mechanisms have been described by which pathogenic and beneficial microbes in the plant microbiome communicate with their host, including the delivery of immune-suppressive effector proteins and the production of phytohormones, toxins and other bioactive molecules. Plants signal to their associated microbes via exudation of photosynthetically fixed carbon sources, quorum-sensing mimicry molecules and selective secondary metabolites such as strigolactones and flavonoids. Molecular communication thus forms an integral part of the establishment of both beneficial and pathogenic plant-microbe relations. Here, we review the current knowledge on microbe-derived small molecules that can act as signalling compounds to stimulate plant growth and health by beneficial microbes on the one hand, but also as weapons for plant invasion by pathogens on the other. As an exemplary case, we used comparative genomics to assess the small molecule biosynthetic capabilities of the Pseudomonas genus; a genus rich in both plant pathogenic and beneficial microbes. We highlight the biosynthetic potential of individual microbial genomes and the population at large, providing evidence for the hypothesis that the distinction between detrimental and beneficial microbes is increasingly fading. Knowledge on the biosynthesis and molecular activity of microbial small molecules will aid in the development of successful biological agents boosting crop resiliency in a sustainable manner and could also provide scientific routes to pathogen inhibition or eradication.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Telang A, Skinner J, Nemitz RZ, et al (2018)

Metagenome and Culture-Based Methods Reveal Candidate Bacterial Mutualists in the Southern House Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

Journal of medical entomology, 55(5):1170-1181.

Mosquitoes are intensely studied as vectors of disease-causing pathogens, but we know relatively less about microbes that naturally reside in mosquitoes. Profiling resident bacteria in mosquitoes can help identify bacterial groups that can be exploited as a strategy of controlling mosquito populations. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and traditional culture-based methods were used to identify bacterial assemblages in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in a tissue- and stage-specific design. In parallel, wild host Cx. quinquefasciatus was compared with our domestic strain. 16S rRNA genes survey finds that Cx. quinquefasciatus has taxonomically restricted bacterial communities, with 90% of its bacterial microbiota composed of eight distinctive bacterial groups: Nocardioidaceae (Actinomycetales), Microbacteriaceae (Actinomycetales), Flavobacteriaceae, Rhizobiales, Acetobacteraceae, Rickettsiaceae, Comamondaceae (Burkholderiales), and Enterobacteriaceae. Taking into account both metagenome- and culture-based methods, we suggest three bacterial groups, Acetobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae, as candidates for mutualists in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Members of these three bacterial families have been studied as mutualists, or even as symbionts, in other insect groups, so it is quite possible they play similar roles in mosquitoes.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Morita M, EW Schmidt (2018)

Parallel lives of symbionts and hosts: chemical mutualism in marine animals.

Natural product reports, 35(4):357-378.

Covering: up to 2018 Symbiotic microbes interact with animals, often by producing natural products (specialized metabolites; secondary metabolites) that exert a biological role. A major goal is to determine which microbes produce biologically important compounds, a deceptively challenging task that often rests on correlative results, rather than hypothesis testing. Here, we examine the challenges and successes from the perspective of marine animal-bacterial mutualisms. These animals have historically provided a useful model because of their technical accessibility. By comparing biological systems, we suggest a common framework for establishing chemical interactions between animals and microbes.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Bhat AH, Chaubey AK, V Půža (2019)

The first report of Xenorhabdus indica from Steinernema pakistanense: co-phylogenetic study suggests co-speciation between X. indica and its steinernematid nematodes.

Journal of helminthology, 93(1):81-90.

During a survey in agricultural fields of the sub-humid region of Meerut district, India, two strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, labelled CS31 and CS32, were isolated using the Galleria baiting technique. Based on morphological and morphometric studies, and molecular data, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema pakistanense, making this finding the first report of this species from India. For the first time, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the bacterial symbiont of S. pakistanense. Furthermore, a co-phylogenetic analysis of the bacteria from the monophyletic clade containing a symbiont of S. pakistanense, together with their nematode hosts, was conducted, to test the degree of nematode-bacteria co-speciation. Both isolates were also tested in a laboratory assay for pathogenicity against two major pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. The morphology of the Indian isolates corresponds mainly to the original description, with the only difference being the absence of a mucron in first-generation females and missing epiptygmata in the second generation. The sequences of bacterial recA and gyrB genes have shown that the symbiont of S. pakistanense is closely related to Xenorhabdus indica, which is associated with some other nematodes from the 'bicornutum' group. Co-phylogenetic analysis has shown a remarkable congruence between the nematode and bacterial phylogenies, suggesting that, in some lineages within the Steinernema / Xenorhabdus complex, the nematodes and bacteria have undergone co-speciation. In the virulence assay, both strains caused a 100% mortality of both tested insects after 48 h, even at the lowest doses of 25 infective juveniles per insect, suggesting that S. pakistanense could be considered for use in the biocontrol of these organisms in India.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Scherlach K, C Hertweck (2018)

Mediators of mutualistic microbe-microbe interactions.

Natural product reports, 35(4):303-308.

The co-existence of different microbial species in one habitat is prerequisite for many ecosystem processes. To facilitate co-habitation of ecological niches, intricate mechanisms have evolved that regulate the growth and the behaviour of microbes. A crucial aspect for the establishment and maintenance of a microbial population is the communication among species. Whereas intraspecies communication processes have been widely studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying interspecies interactions. Through the advance of modern analytical and sequencing technologies, we are now beginning to gain deeper insights into these complex processes. A key feature of microbe-microbe interaction is the secretion of chemical mediators to influence either the microbial partner or co-occurring higher organisms to shape the specific microenvironment. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding the role of natural products as regulators of microbial interaction in various ecological niches. Special attention is paid to mutualistic relationships with relevance for ecology and agriculture as well as medicine.

RevDate: 2019-07-18

Ingavle G, Shabrani N, Vaidya A, et al (2019)

Mimicking megakaryopoiesisin vitrousing biomaterials: Recent advances and future opportunities.

Acta biomaterialia pii:S1742-7061(19)30514-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Presently donor-derived platelets used in the clinic are associated with concerns about an adequate availability, expense, risk of bacterial contamination and complications due to immunological reaction. To prevail over our dependence on transfusion of platelets derived from donors, efforts are being made to generate platelets in vitro. Development of biomaterials that support or mimic bone marrow niche micro-environmental cues could improve the in vitro production of platelets from megakaryocytes (MKs) derived from various stem cell sources. In spite of significant advances in the production of MKsfromvariousstemcellsourcesusing 2D as well as 3D culture approaches in vitro andthedevelopmentofbiomaterials-based platelet systems, yield and quality of these platelets remains unsuitable for clinical use. Thus, in vitro production of clinically useful platelets on a large scale remains an unmet target to date. This review summarizes the most frequently used 2D and 3D approaches to generate MKs and platelets in vitro, emphasizing the importance of mimicking in vivo micro-environment. Further, this review proposes the use of interpenetrating network (IPN) biomaterial-based approach as a promising strategy for improving the generation of MK and platelets in sufficient numbers in vitro. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Thrombocytopenia is one of the major global health and socio-economic problems. Transfusion with donor-derived platelets (PLTs) is the only effective treatment for this condition. However, this approach is limited by factors like short shelf-life of PLTs, PLT activation, alloimmunization, risk of bacterial contamination, infection etc. In vitro generated MKs and PLTs derived from non-donor-dependent sources may help to overcome the platelet transfusion concerns. Here we have reviewed various 2D and 3D strategies used for in vitro generation of MKs and PLTs, with special emphasis on various biomaterial platforms and different physico/chemical cues being used for the purpose. We have also proposed a biomaterial-based approach of using interpenetrating network (IPN) for generating clinically relevant numbers of MKs and PLTs.

RevDate: 2019-07-18

Ali HRK, Hemeda NF, YF Abdelaliem (2019)

Symbiotic cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of the subterranean termite Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux and their role in cellulose digestion.

AMB Express, 9(1):111 pii:10.1186/s13568-019-0830-5.

The subterranean termite Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux is considered as an important pest that could cause severe damage to buildings, furniture, silos of grain and crops or any material containing cellulose. This species of termites is widespread in Egypt and Africa. The lower termite's ability to digest cellulose depends on the association of symbiotic organisms gut that digest cellulose (flagellates and bacteria). In this study, 33 different bacterial isolates were obtained from the gut of the termite P. hypostoma which were collected using cellulose traps. Strains were grown on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a sole source of carbon. Cellulolytic strains were isolated in two different cellulose medium (mineral salt medium containing carboxymethylcellulose as the sole carbon source and agar cellulose medium). Five isolates showed significant cellulolytic activity identified by a Congo red assay which gives clear zone. Based on biochemical tests and sequencing of 16s rRNA genes these isolates were identified as Paenibacillus lactis, Lysinibacillus macrolides, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Bacillus cereus, that deposited in GenBank with accession numbers MG991563, MG991564, MG991565, MG991566 and MG991567, respectively.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Hu H, da Costa RR, Pilgaard B, et al (2019)

Fungiculture in Termites Is Associated with a Mycolytic Gut Bacterial Community.

mSphere, 4(3): pii:4/3/e00165-19.

Termites forage on a range of substrates, and it has been suggested that diet shapes the composition and function of termite gut bacterial communities. Through comparative analyses of gut metagenomes in nine termite species with distinct diets, we characterize bacterial community compositions and use peptide-based functional annotation method to determine biomass-degrading enzymes and the bacterial taxa that encode them. We find that fungus-growing termite guts have relatively more fungal cell wall-degrading enzyme genes, while wood-feeding termite gut communities have relatively more plant cell wall-degrading enzyme genes. Interestingly, wood-feeding termite gut bacterial genes code for abundant chitinolytic enzymes, suggesting that fungal biomass within the decaying wood likely contributes to gut bacterial or termite host nutrition. Across diets, the dominant biomass-degrading enzymes are predominantly coded for by the most abundant bacterial taxa, suggesting tight links between diet and gut community composition, with the most marked difference being the communities coding for the mycolytic capacity of the fungus-growing termite gut.IMPORTANCE Understanding functional capacities of gut microbiomes is important to improve our understanding of symbiotic associations. Here, we use peptide-based functional annotation to show that the gut microbiomes of fungus-farming termites code for a wealth of enzymes that likely target the fungal diet the termites eat. Comparisons to other termites showed that fungus-growing termite guts have relatively more fungal cell wall-degrading enzyme genes, whereas wood-feeding termite gut communities have relatively more plant cell wall-degrading enzyme genes. Across termites with different diets, the dominant biomass-degrading enzymes are predominantly coded for by the most abundant bacterial taxa, suggesting tight links between diet and gut community compositions.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Morrin ST, Lane JA, Marotta M, et al (2019)

Bovine colostrum-driven modulation of intestinal epithelial cells for increased commensal colonisation.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 103(6):2745-2758.

Nutritional intake may influence the intestinal epithelial glycome and in turn the available attachment sites for bacteria. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bovine colostrum may influence the intestinal cell surface and in turn the attachment of commensal organisms. Human HT-29 intestinal cells were exposed to a bovine colostrum fraction (BCF) rich in free oligosaccharides. The adherence of several commensal bacteria, comprising mainly bifidobacteria, to the intestinal cells was significantly enhanced (up to 52-fold) for all strains tested which spanned species that are found across the human lifespan. Importantly, the changes to the HT-29 cell surface did not support enhanced adhesion of the enteric pathogens tested. The gene expression profile of the HT-29 cells following treatment with the BCF was evaluated by microarray analysis. Many so called "glyco-genes" (glycosyltransferases and genes involved in the complex biosynthetic pathways of glycans) were found to be differentially regulated suggesting modulation of the enzymatic addition of sugars to glycoconjugate proteins. The microarray data was further validated by means of real-time PCR. The current findings provide an insight into how commensal microorganisms colonise the human gut and highlight the potential of colostrum and milk components as functional ingredients that can potentially increase commensal numbers in individuals with lower counts of health-promoting bacteria.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Buysse M, O Duron (2018)

Multi-locus phylogenetics of the Midichloria endosymbionts reveals variable specificity of association with ticks.

Parasitology, 145(14):1969-1978.

Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii is a maternally inherited bacterium of ticks with a unique intra-mitochondrial lifestyle. Here, we investigate on the evolutionary history of these associations and the degree of Midichloria-tick specificity. While previous surveys used the 16S rRNA gene as an exclusive molecular marker, we rather developed a multi-locus typing method based on four more variable housekeeping genes (groEL, rpoB, dnaK and ftsZ) and on one flagellum gene (fliC) present in Midichloria genomes. Using this method, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses revealed the structuring of a wide Midichloria genetic diversity into three distinct lineages associated with ticks. Overall, two distinct evolutionary strategies are obvious depending on lineage: two Midichloria lineages are generalists with infections acquired through horizontal transfers between distantly related tick species but one other Midichloria lineage rather show a high specificity degree to the Ixodes tick genus. This pattern suggests a capacity of certain Midichloria strains to maintain infections in only limited range of related tick species. These different infection strategies of Midichloria highlight an unexpected variability in their dependency to their tick hosts. We further conjecture that this pattern is also likely to indicate variability in their effects on ticks.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Dimova T, Terzieva A, Djerov L, et al (2017)

Mother-to-newborn transmission of mycobacterial L-forms and Vδ2 T-cell response in placentobiome of BCG-vaccinated pregnant women.

Scientific reports, 7(1):17366.

The ability of bacteria to exist as a population of self-replicating forms with defective or entirely missing cell wall (L-forms) is an adaptive mechanism for their survival and reproduction under unfavorable conditions. Bacterial mother-to-fetus transfer is a universal phenomenon in the animal kingdom. However, data about vertical transfer of L bacterial forms are extremely scarce. Bacille Calmette-Guérin is an attenuated strain of M. bovis and the only licensed vaccine used for tuberculosis prevention. We already have shown that filterable L-forms of BCG exist freely in the vaccine and are able to reproduce and to form colonies. The present study was focused on the placental microbiome in the context of mother's BCG vaccination. Here we report an isolation of filterable mycobacterial L-form cultures from gestational tissues and blood of healthy newborns delivered by healthy BCG-vaccinated mothers after normal pregnancy. Of note, vertically transmitted mycobacterial L-forms as a part of placentobiome of the pregnant women didn't influence the number of resident pathogen-reactive Vδ2 cells. Placenta colonization with mycobacterial L-forms occurs by maternal blood-to-decidua transfer very early in gestation. Together, these data showed that BCG L-forms have the capacity to pass trans-placental barrier and that maternal BCG vaccination affects the placentobiome.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Hoe C, Adhikari B, Glandon D, et al (2019)

Using social network analysis to plan, promote and monitor intersectoral collaboration for health in rural India.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219786 pii:PONE-D-19-03430.

BACKGROUND: As population health and well-being are influenced by multiple factors that cut across sectoral boundaries, an intersectoral approach that acknowledges and leverages the multiple determinants, actors and sectors at play is increasingly seen as critical for achieving meaningful and lasting improvements. In this study, we utilize social network analysis (SNA) to characterize the intersectoral collaboration between the organizations working on maternal & child health (MCH) and water & sanitation (WASH) before and immediately after the implementation of HCL Foundation (HCLF)-funded HCL Samuday Project (2015-2017) in a rural block of Uttar Pradesh state, India. While SNA has been used to examine public health issues, few have used it monitor stakeholder relationships, intervene, improve and facilitate project implementation involving intersectoral partnerships, particularly in the context of a low-and middle-income countries.

METHOD: An organization-level SNA was conducted with 31 key informants from 24 organizations working on MCH and/or WASH in Kachhauna, Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected using face-to-face, semi-structured interviews between June and September 2017. Density, centrality and homophily were calculated to describe the network and a qualitative analysis was also conducted to identify the strengths and weaknesses of collaboration between organizations working on MCH and WASH.

RESULTS: Overall, our findings showed that the network of organizations working on MCH and WASH in Kachhauna grew in number since the implementation of Samuday. HCLF rapidly achieved centrality, thus positioning the organization to serve as a gatekeeper of information and enabling it to play a coordinator role within the network. Direct collaboration between other organizations working on MCH and WASH was low at both time points. Interviews with key informants indicated widespread interest in increasing interorganizational interactions and engagement throughout the network.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility and practical application of SNA for projects like Samuday that involve intersectoral collaboration. It also provides lessons about the use of SNA with organizations as the unit of analysis and in the context of rural India, including challenges, practical considerations, and limitations.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Martínez-Medina A, Fernández I, Pescador L, et al (2019)

Trichoderma harzianum triggers an early and transient burst of nitric oxide and the upregulation of PHYTOGB1 in tomato roots.

Plant signaling & behavior [Epub ahead of print].

We recently demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) accumulation and PHYTOGB1 transcriptional regulation are early components of the regulatory pathway that is activated in tomato roots during the onset of the mycorrhizal symbiosis between Rhizophagus irregularis and tomato roots. We further showed that the mycorrhizal interaction was associated with a specific NO-related signature, different from that triggered by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Here, we extend our investigation by exploring the NO- and PHYTOGB1-related root responses elicited by another root mutualistic endosymbiotic fungus: Trichoderma harzianum T-78. By using T-78 in vitro-grown cultures, we found that T-78 triggered an early and transient burst of NO in tomato roots during the first hours after the interaction. T-78 also elicited the early upregulation of PHYTOGB1, which was maintained during the analyzed timespan. By using glass-house bioassays, we found that in a well-established tomato-T-78 symbiosis, NO root levels were maintained at basal level while PHYTOGB1 expression remained upregulated. Our results demonstrate that the T-78 symbiosis is associated with a rapid and transient burst of NO in the host roots and the transcriptional activation of PHYTOGB1 from early stages of the interaction until the establishment of the symbiosis, most likely to control NO levels and favor the mutualistic symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Liu M, Soyano T, Yano K, et al (2019)

ERN1 and CYCLOPS coordinately activate NIN signaling to promote infection thread formation in Lotus japonicus.

Journal of plant research pii:10.1007/s10265-019-01122-w [Epub ahead of print].

Legumes engage in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, collectively called rhizobia, under nitrogen-limited conditions. In many legumes, the root invasion of rhizobia is mediated by infection threads (ITs), tubular invaginations of the host cell wall and plasma membrane, developed from infection foci of deformed root hairs. IT formation is regulated by a series of signal transduction in host root. Nodulation signals activate the host transcription factor (TF), CYCLOPS, which directly induces expression of two TF genes, ERF REQUIRED FOR NODULATION1 (ERN1) and NODULE INCEPTION (NIN), essential for IT development. Here, we explored the relationship among these three symbiotic TF genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus and examined how their interplay contributes to IT formation. qRT-PCR analysis showed that NIN expression induced by rhizobial infection was attenuated in ern1-1, and further declined in cyclops-3 ern1-1. ERN1 overexpression led to induction of NIN expression in cyclops-3 ern1-1 in the presence of rhizobia. Thus, in addition to CYCLOPS, ERN1 is able to increase the NIN expression level depending on infection. Furthermore, consistent with this transcriptional hierarchy, ectopic expression of ERN1 as well as NIN suppressed the IT-deficient cyclops-3 phenotype, but ERN1 failed to confer ITs in the nin-2 root. However, the ern1-1 symbiotic epidermal phenotype was not suppressed by the NIN ectopic expression. The cyclops-3 ern1-1 double mutant was less sensitive to rhizobial infection than the single mutants and defective in the symbiotic root hair response at earlier stages. This more severe phenotype of the double mutant suggests a role for ERN1 that independent of the CYCLOPS-mediated transcriptional regulation. We conclude that ERN1 is involved in regulating NIN expression in addition to CYCLOPS, and these TFs coordinately promote the symbiotic root hair response and IT development. Our data help to reveal the extensive role of ERN1 in root nodule symbiosis signaling.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Xie XG, Zhang FM, Yang T, et al (2019)

Endophytic Fungus Drives Nodulation and N2 Fixation Attributable to Specific Root Exudates.

mBio, 10(4): pii:mBio.00728-19.

Endophytic fungi play important roles in the modification of ecosystem productivity; however, the underlying mechanisms are only partly understood. A 2-year field plot experiment verified that the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambaris increased peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) yields and significantly increased nodulation and N2 fixation regardless of whether N fertilizers were added. Root exudates collected from P. liquidambaris-colonized plants significantly improved nodulation and N2 fixation. Rhizosphere stimulation experiments further showed that colonized root exudates had significantly decreased soil nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, with decreased abundance and diversity of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA). In contrast, the abundance and diversity of diazotrophs significantly increased, and most diazotrophs identified were peanut nodulation-related strains (Bradyrhizobium sp.). P. liquidambaris symbiosis increased the expression of phenolic and flavonoid synthesis-related genes, and the derived phenolics and flavonoids could effectively increase the chemotaxis, biofilm formation, and nodC gene expression (nodulation-related biological processes) of the Bradyrhizobium strain. Metabolic pattern analysis showed that phenolics and flavonoids are more likely to accumulate to higher levels in the rhizosphere soil of peanuts colonized with P. liquidambaris Finally, a synthetic root exudate experiment further confirmed the underlying mechanisms for the P. liquidambaris-induced improvement in nodulation and N2 fixation, i.e., that the specific root exudates derived from P. liquidambaris colonization decrease nitrate concentration and increase the population and biological activities of peanut nodulation-related Bradyrhizobium species, which beneficially enhance peanut-Bradyrhizobium interactions. Therefore, this study is the first to provide new insight into a positive relationship between an exotic endophytic fungus, crop nodulation, and N2 fixation increase.IMPORTANCE Endophytic fungi play an important role in balancing the ecosystem and boosting host growth; however, the underpinning mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we found that endophytic fungal colonization with P. liquidambaris significantly increased the productivity, nodulation, and N2 fixation of peanuts through the secretion of specific root exudates. We provide a reasonable mechanism explaining how P. liquidambaris promotes peanut nodulation and N2 fixation, whereby the specific root exudates produced by P. liquidambaris colonization decrease rhizosphere soil nitrate (NO3-) and increase the population and biological activities of peanut-nodulating-related Bradyrhizobium strains, which is beneficial to enhancing the peanut-Bradyrhizobium symbiotic interaction. Our study provides reliable empirical evidence to show the mechanism of how an exotic endophytic fungus drives an increase in nodulation and N2 fixation, which will be helpful in erecting a resource-efficient and sustainable agricultural system.

RevDate: 2019-07-17
CmpDate: 2019-07-17

Krafsur ES, I Maudlin (2018)

Tsetse fly evolution, genetics and the trypanosomiases - A review.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 64:185-206.

This reviews work published since 2007. Relative efforts devoted to the agents of African trypanosomiasis and their tsetse fly vectors are given by the numbers of PubMed accessions. In the last 10 years PubMed citations number 3457 for Trypanosoma brucei and 769 for Glossina. The development of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms afford much higher resolution of Glossina and Trypanosoma population structures than heretofore. Even greater resolution is offered by partial and whole genome sequencing. Reproduction in T. brucei sensu lato is principally clonal although genetic recombination in tsetse salivary glands has been demonstrated in T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense but not in T. b. gambiense. In the past decade most genetic attention was given to the chief human African trypanosomiasis vectors in subgenus Nemorhina e.g., Glossina f. fuscipes, G. p. palpalis, and G. p. gambiense. The chief interest in Nemorhina population genetics seemed to be finding vector populations sufficiently isolated to enable efficient and long-lasting suppression. To this end estimates were made of gene flow, derived from FST and its analogues, and Ne, the size of a hypothetical population equivalent to that under study. Genetic drift was greater, gene flow and Ne typically lesser in savannah inhabiting tsetse (subgenus Glossina) than in riverine forms (Nemorhina). Population stabilities were examined by sequential sampling and genotypic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in both groups and found to be stable. Gene frequencies estimated in sequential samplings differed by drift and allowed estimates of effective population numbers that were greater for Nemorhina spp than Glossina spp. Prospects are examined of genetic methods of vector control. The tsetse long generation time (c. 50 d) is a major contraindication to any suggested genetic method of tsetse population manipulation. Ecological and modelling research convincingly show that conventional methods of targeted insecticide applications and traps/targets can achieve cost-effective reduction in tsetse densities.

RevDate: 2019-07-17
CmpDate: 2019-07-17

Twyford AD (2017)

New insights into the population biology of endoparasitic Rafflesiaceae.

American journal of botany, 104(10):1433-1436.

Parasitic plants demonstrate a diversity of growth strategies, life histories, and developmental and physiological characteristics. Most research to date has focused on a narrow range of parasitic taxa, particularly in the Orobanchaceae, while the other independent origins of parasitism have largely gone unstudied. One type of parasite that has received relatively little attention are the endophytic parasites, which have a fascinating growth strategy where the parasite is embedded within the host tissue, with the flower the only externally visibly plant part. Endophytic growth makes it challenging to understand basic aspects of species biology, such as the size of a given parasite, the number of parasites per host, and the genetic diversity of populations. Recent studies by Barkman et al. (2017) and Pelser et al. (2017) have used microsatellite genotyping to investigate the population biology of endoparasitic Rafflesiaceae species in Asia. They show the potential for extensive parasite spread within a host vine and the strong partitioning of genetic diversity by host. These species are also shown to have an outcrossing mating system. However, these studies suggest different reproductive strategies, one supporting monoecy and one suggesting dioecy. Overall, these studies partly "lift the lid" on the cryptic biology of Rafflesia and the Rafflesiaceae and open the door for future comparative studies between endophytic and free-living parasitic plants.

RevDate: 2019-07-16

Sinnesael A, Leroux O, Janssens SB, et al (2019)

Is the bacterial leaf nodule symbiosis obligate for Psychotria umbellata? The development of a Burkholderia-free host plant.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219863 pii:PONE-D-19-07425.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The bacterial leaf nodule symbiosis is an interaction where bacteria are housed in specialised structures in the leaves of their plant host. In the Rubiaceae plant family, host plants interact with Burkholderia bacteria. This interaction might play a role in the host plant defence system. It is unique due to its high specificity; the vertical transmission of the endophyte to the next generation of the host plant; and its supposedly obligatory character. Although previous attempts have been made to investigate this obligatory character by developing Burkholderia-free plants, none have succeeded and nodulating plants were still produced. In order to investigate the obligatory character of this endosymbiosis, our aims were to develop Burkholderia-free Psychotria umbellata plants and to investigate the effect of the absence of the endophytes on the host in a controlled environment.

METHODS: The Burkholderia-free plants were obtained via embryo culture, a plant cultivation technique. In order to analyse the endophyte-free status, we screened the plants morphologically, microscopically and molecularly over a period of three years. To characterise the phenotype and growth of the in vitro aposymbiotic plants, we compared the growth of the Burkholderia-free plants to the nodulating plants under the same in vitro conditions.

KEY RESULTS: All the developed plants were Burkholderia-free and survived in a sterile in vitro environment. The growth analysis showed that plants without endophytes had a slower development.

CONCLUSIONS: Embryo culture is a cultivation technique with a high success rate for the development of Burkholderia-free plants of P. umbellata. The increased growth rate in vitro when the specific endophyte is present cannot be explained by possible benefits put forward in previous studies. This might indicate that the benefits of the endosymbiosis are not yet completely understood.

RevDate: 2019-07-16

Bonfante P (2019)

Algae and fungi move from the past to the future.

eLife, 8: pii:49448.

The ability of photosynthetic algae to enter the hyphae of a soil fungus could tell us more about the evolution of these species and their potential for applications in the production of biofuel.

RevDate: 2019-07-16

Du ZY, Zienkiewicz K, Vande Pol N, et al (2019)

Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium.

eLife, 8: pii:47815.

Mutualistic interactions between free-living algae and fungi are widespread in nature and are hypothesized to have facilitated the evolution of land plants and lichens. In all known algal-fungal mutualisms, including lichens, algal cells remain external to fungal cells. Here, we report on an algal-fungal interaction in which Nannochloropsis oceanica algal cells become internalized within the hyphae of the fungus Mortierella elongata. This apparent symbiosis begins with close physical contact and nutrient exchange, including carbon and nitrogen transfer between fungal and algal cells as demonstrated by isotope tracer experiments. This mutualism appears to be stable, as both partners remain physiologically active over months of co-cultivation, leading to the eventual internalization of photosynthetic algal cells, which persist to function, grow and divide within fungal hyphae. Nannochloropsis and Mortierella are biotechnologically important species for lipids and biofuel production, with available genomes and molecular tool kits. Based on the current observations, they provide unique opportunities for studying fungal-algal mutualisms including mechanisms leading to endosymbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-07-16
CmpDate: 2019-07-16

Duarte A, Cotter SC, De Gasperin O, et al (2017)

No evidence of a cleaning mutualism between burying beetles and their phoretic mites.

Scientific reports, 7(1):13838.

Burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) breed on small vertebrate carcasses, which they shave and smear with antimicrobial exudates. Producing antimicrobials imposes a fitness cost on burying beetles, which rises with the potency of the antimicrobial defence. Burying beetles also carry phoretic mites (Poecilochirus carabi complex), which breed alongside them on the carcass. Here we test the novel hypothesis that P. carabi mites assist burying beetles in clearing the carcass of bacteria as a side-effect of grazing on the carrion. We manipulated the bacterial environment on carcasses and measured the effect on the beetle in the presence and absence of mites. With next-generation sequencing, we investigated how mites influence the bacterial communities on the carcass. We show that mites: 1) cause beetles to reduce the antibacterial activity of their exudates but 2) there are no consistent fitness benefits of breeding alongside mites. We also find that mites increase bacterial diversity and richness on the carcass, but do not reduce bacterial abundance. The current evidence does not support a cleaning mutualism between burying beetles and P. carabi mites, but more work is needed to understand the functional significance and fitness consequences for the beetle of mite-associated changes to the bacterial community on the carcass.

RevDate: 2019-07-15

Chen H, Wang M, Zhang H, et al (2019)

An LRR-domain containing protein identified in Bathymodiolus platifrons serves as intracellular recognition receptor for the endosymbiotic methane-oxidation bacteria.

Fish & shellfish immunology pii:S1050-4648(19)30741-7 [Epub ahead of print].

As domain species in seep and vent ecosystem, Bathymodiolinae mussels has been regarded as a model organism in investigating deep sea chemosymbiosis. However, mechanisms underlying their symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria, especially how the host recognizes symbionts, have remained largely unsolved. In the present study, a modified pull-down assay was conducted using enriched symbiotic methane-oxidation bacteria as bait and gill proteins of Bathymodiolus platifrons as a target to isolate pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune recognition of symbionts. As a result, a total of 47 proteins including BpLRR-1 were identified from the pull-down assay. It was found that complete cDNA sequence of BpLRR-1 contained an open reading frame of 1479 bp and could encode a protein of 492 amino acid residues with no signal peptide or transmembrane region but eight LRR motif and two EFh motif. The binding patterns of BpLRR-1 against microbial associated molecular patterns were subsequently investigated by surface plasmon resonance analysis and LPS pull-down assay. Consequently, BpLRR-1 was found with high binding affinity with LPS and suggested as a key molecule in recognizing symbionts. Besides, transcripts of BpLRR-1 were found decreased significantly during symbiont depletion assay yet increased rigorously during symbionts or nonsymbiotic Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, further demonstrating its participation in the chemosynthetic symbiosis. Collectively, these results suggest that BpLRR-1 could serve as an intracellular recognition receptor for the endosymbionts, providing new hints for understanding the immune recognition in symbiosis of B. platifrons.

RevDate: 2019-07-15

Ntoukakis V, ML Gifford (2019)

Plant-microbe interactions: tipping the balance.

Journal of experimental botany pii:5532392 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-07-15

Tian H, Wang R, Li M, et al (2019)

Molecular signal communication during arbuscular mycorrhizal formation induces significant transcriptional reprogramming of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots.

Annals of botany pii:5532238 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis initiates with molecular signal communication (MSC) between AM fungi and the roots of the host plant. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the transcriptional profiles of wheat roots can be changed significantly by AM symbiotic signals, without direct contact.

METHODS: Non-mycorrhizal (NM) and MSC treatments involved burying filter membrane bags containing sterilized and un-sterilized inoculum of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, respectively. The bags physically separated roots and AM structures but allowed molecular signals to pass through. Extracted RNA from wheat roots was sequenced by high-throughput sequencing.

RESULTS: Shoot total nitrogen and phosphorus content of wheat plants was decreased by the MSC treatment. A total of 2,360 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 1,888 up-regulated DEGs and 472 down-regulated DEGs were found dominantly distributed on the 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B, 5B and 5D chromosomes. The expression of 59 and 121 genes was greatly up- and down-regulated, respectively. Only a portion of DEGs could be enriched into known terms during gene ontology analysis, and were mostly annotated to 'catalytic activity', 'protein metabolic process' and 'membrane' in the molecular function, biological process and cellular component ontology, respectively. More than 120 genes that may be involved in key processes during AM symbiosis development were regulated at the pre-physical contact stages.

CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptional profiles of wheat roots can be changed dramatically by MSC. Much of the information provided by our study is of great importance for understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of AM symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-07-14

Oliva G, Ángeles R, Rodríguez E, et al (2019)

Comparative evaluation of a biotrickling filter and a tubular photobioreactor for the continuous abatement of toluene.

Journal of hazardous materials, 380:120860 pii:S0304-3894(19)30813-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The negative effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on humans' health and the environment have boosted the enforcement of regulations, resulting in the need of effective and environmentally friendly off-gas treatment technologies. In this work, the synergism between microalgae and bacteria was investigated as a sustainable platform to enhance the biological degradation of toluene, herein selected as a model VOC. An innovative algal-bacterial tubular photobioreactor (TPBR) was systematically compared with a conventional biotrickling filter (BTF). The BTF supported average removal efficiencies close to those obtained in the TPBR (86 ± 9% and 88 ± 4%, respectively) at the highest inlet load (∼23 g m3 h-1) and lowest gas residence time (0.75 min). However, the BTF was more sensitive towards the accumulation of secondary metabolites. In this regard, photosynthetic O2 supplementation (resulting in dissolved oxygen concentrations of ∼7.3 mg O2 L-1) and CO2 consumption by microalgae (which reduced the impact of acidification) enhanced toluene abatement performance and process stability.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Balakrishnan B, Luckey D, V Taneja (2019)

Autoimmunity-Associated Gut Commensals Modulate Gut Permeability and Immunity in Humanized Mice.

Military medicine, 184(Suppl 1):529-536.

OBJECTIVE: Although the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown, recent studies have led to the concept that gut dysbiosis may be involved in onset. In this study, we aimed to determine if human gut commensals modulate the immune response and gut epithelial integrity in DQ8 mice.

METHODS: DQ8 mice were orally gavaged with RA-associated (Eggerthella lenta or Collinsella aerofaciens) and non-associated (Prevotella histicola or Bifidobacterium sp.) on alternate days for 1 week in naïve mice. Some mice were immunized with type II collagen and oral gavage continued for 6 weeks and followed for arthritis. Epithelial integrity was done by FITC-Dextran assay. In addition, cytokines were measured in sera by ELISA and various immune cells were quantified using flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Gut permeability was increased by the RA-associated bacteria and was sex and age-dependent. In vivo and in vitro observations showed that the RA-non-associated bacteria outgrow the RA-associated bacteria when gavaged or cultured together. Mice gavaged with the RA-non-associated bacteria produced lower levels of pro-inflammatory MCP-1 and MCP-3 and had lower numbers of Inflammatory monocytes CD11c+Ly6c+, when compared to controls. E. lenta treated naïve mice produce Th17 cytokines.

CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that gut commensals influence immune response in and away from the gut by changing the gut permeability and immunity. Dysbiosis helps the growth of RA-associated bacteria and reduces the beneficial bacteria.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Rathi S, Tak N, Bissa G, et al (2018)

Selection of Bradyrhizobium or Ensifer symbionts by the native Indian caesalpinioid legume Chamaecrista pumila depends on soil pH and other edaphic and climatic factors.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 94(11):.

Nodules of Chamaecrista pumila growing in several locations in India were sampled for anatomical studies and for characterization of their rhizobial microsymbionts. Regardless of their region of origin, the nodules were indeterminate with their bacteroids contained within symbiosomes which were surrounded by pectin. More than 150 strains were isolated from alkaline soils from the Thar Desert (Rajasthan), wet-acidic soils of Shillong (Meghalaya), and from trap experiments using soils from four other states with different agro-ecological regions. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on five housekeeping (rrs, recA, glnII, dnaK andatpD) and two symbiotic (nodA and nifH) genes was performed for selected strains. Chamaecrista pumila was shown to be nodulated by niche-specific diverse strains of either Ensifer or Bradyrhizobium in alkaline (Thar Desert) to neutral (Tamil Nadu) soils and only Bradyrhizobium strains in acidic (Shillong) soils. Concatenated core gene phylogenies showed four novel Ensifer-MLSA types and nine Bradyrhizobium-MLSA types. Genetically diverse Ensifer strains harbored similar sym genes which were novel. In contrast, significant symbiotic diversity was observed in the Bradyrhizobium strains. The C. pumila strains cross-nodulated Vigna radiata and some wild papilionoid and mimosoid legumes. It is suggested that soil pH and moisture level played important roles in structuring the C. pumila microsymbiont community.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Watanabe K, Suzuki H, Nishida T, et al (2018)

Identification of novel Legionella genes required for endosymbiosis in Paramecium based on comparative genome analysis with Holospora spp.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 94(11):.

The relationship between Legionella and protist hosts has a huge impact when considering the infectious risk in humans because it facilitates the long-term replication and survival of Legionella in the environment. The ciliate Paramecium is considered to be a protist host for Legionella in natural environments, but the details of their endosymbiosis are largely unknown. In this study, we determined candidate Legionella pneumophila genes that are likely to be involved in the establishment of endosymbiosis in Paramecium caudatum by comparing the genomes of Legionella spp. and Holospora spp. that are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria in Paramecium spp. Among the candidate genes, each single deletion mutant for five genes (lpg0492, lpg0522, lpg0523, lpg2141 and lpg2398) failed to establish endosymbiosis in P. caudatum despite showing intracellular growth in human macrophages. The mutants exhibited no characteristic changes in terms of their morphology, multiplication rate or capacity for modulating the phagosomes in which they were contained, but their resistance to lysozyme decreased significantly. This study provides insights into novel factors required by L. pneumophila for endosymbiosis in P. caudatum, and suggests that endosymbiotic organisms within conspecific hosts may have shared genes related to effective endosymbiosis establishment.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Shiu JH, Keshavmurthy S, Chiang PW, et al (2017)

Dynamics of coral-associated bacterial communities acclimated to temperature stress based on recent thermal history.

Scientific reports, 7(1):14933.

Seasonal variation in temperature fluctuations may provide corals and their algal symbionts varying abilities to acclimate to changing temperatures. We hypothesized that different temperature ranges between seasons may promote temperature-tolerance of corals, which would increase stability of a bacterial community following thermal stress. Acropora muricata coral colonies were collected in summer and winter (water temperatures were 23.4-30.2 and 12.1-23.1 °C, respectively) from the Penghu Archipelago in Taiwan, then exposed to 6 temperature treatments (10-33 °C). Changes in coral-associated bacteria were determined after 12, 24, and 48 h. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons and Illumina sequencing, bacterial communities differed between seasons and treatments altered the dominant bacteria. Cold stress caused slower shifts in the bacterial community in winter than in summer, whereas a more rapid shift occurred under heat stress in both seasons. Results supported our hypothesis that bacterial community composition of corals in winter are more stable in cold temperatures but changed rapidly in hot temperatures, with opposite results for the bacterial communities in summer. We infer that the thermal tolerance ranges of coral-associated bacteria, with a stable community composition, are associated with their short-term (3 mo) seawater thermal history. Therefore, seasonal acclimation may increase tolerance of coral-associated bacteria to temperature fluctuations.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Richards S, LE Rose (2019)

The evolutionary history of LysM-RLKs (LYKs/LYRs) in wild tomatoes.

BMC evolutionary biology, 19(1):141 pii:10.1186/s12862-019-1467-3.

BACKGROUND: The LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) are important to both plant defense and symbiosis. Previous studies described three clades of LysM-RLKs: LysM-I/LYKs (10+ exons per gene and containing conserved kinase residues), LysM-II/LYRs (1-5 exons per gene, lacking conserved kinase residues), and LysM-III (two exons per gene, with a kinase unlike other LysM-RLK kinases and restricted to legumes). LysM-II gene products are presumably not functional as conventional receptor kinases, but several are known to operate in complexes with other LysM-RLKs. One aim of our study was to take advantage of recently mapped wild tomato transcriptomes to evaluate the evolutionary history of LysM-RLKs within and between species. The second aim was to place these results into a broader phylogenetic context by integrating them into a sequence analysis of LysM-RLKs from other functionally well-characterized model plant species. Furthermore, we sought to assess whether the Group III LysM-RLKs were restricted to the legumes or found more broadly across Angiosperms.

RESULTS: Purifying selection was found to be the prevailing form of natural selection within species at LysM-RLKs. No signatures of balancing selection were found in species-wide samples of two wild tomato species. Most genes showed a greater extent of purifying selection in their intracellular domains, with the exception of SlLYK3 which showed strong purifying selection in both the extracellular and intracellular domains in wild tomato species. The phylogenetic analysis did not reveal a clustering of microbe/functional specificity to groups of closely related proteins. We also discovered new putative LysM-III genes in a range of Rosid species, including Eucalyptus grandis.

CONCLUSIONS: The LysM-III genes likely originated before the divergence of E. grandis from other Rosids via a fusion of a Group II LysM triplet and a kinase from another RLK family. SlLYK3 emerges as an especially interesting candidate for further study due to the high protein sequence conservation within species, its position in a clade of LysM-RLKs with distinct LysM domains, and its close evolutionary relationship with LYK3 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Stamou GP, Konstadinou S, Monokrousos N, et al (2017)

The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and essential oil on soil microbial community and N-related enzymes during the fungal early colonization phase.

AIMS microbiology, 3(4):938-959 pii:microbiol-03-04-938.

The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the essential oils are both agents of sustainable agriculture, and their independent effects on the community of free-living soil microbes have been explored. In a tomato pot experiment, conducted in a sandy loam mixture, we examined the independent and joint effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizophagous irregularis and the addition of Mentha spicata essential oil on the structure of the soil microbial community and the activity of soil enzymes involved in the N-cycle, during the pre-symbiosis phase. Plants were grown for 60 days and were inoculated with R. irregularis. Then pots were treated with essential oil (OIL) weekly for a period of a month. Two experimental series were run. The first targeted to examine the effect of inoculation on the microbial community structure by the phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFAs), and enzyme activity, and the second to examine the effects of inoculation and essential oil addition on the same variables, under the hypothesis that the joint effect of the two agents would be synergistic, resulting in higher microbial biomass compared to values recorded in singly treated pots. In the AMF pots, N-degrading enzyme activity was dominated by the activity of urease while in the non-inoculated ones by the activities of arylamidase and glutaminase. Higher microbial biomass was found in singly-treated pots (137 and 174% higher in AMF and OIL pots, respectively) compared with pots subjected to both treatments. In these latter pots, higher activity of asparaginase (202 and 162% higher compared to AMF and OIL pots, respectively) and glutaminase (288 and 233% higher compared to AMF and OIL pots, respectively) was found compared to singly-treated ones. Soil microbial biomasses and enzyme activity were negatively associated across all treatments. Moreover, different community composition was detected in pots only inoculated and pots treated only with oil. We concluded that the two treatments produced diverging than synergistic effects on the microbial community composition whereas their joint effect on the activity of asparaginase and glutaminase were synergistic.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Muñoz-Azcarate O, González AM, M Santalla (2017)

Natural rhizobial diversity helps to reveal genes and QTLs associated with biological nitrogen fixation in common bean.

AIMS microbiology, 3(3):435-466 pii:microbiol-03-03-435.

Common bean is one of the most important crops for human feed, and the most important legume for direct consumption by millions of people, especially in developing countries. It is a promiscuous host legume in terms of nodulation, able to associate with a broad and diverse range of rhizobia, although the competitiveness for nodulation and the nitrogen fixation capacity of most of these strains is generally low. As a result, common bean is very inefficient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen has to be supplied with chemical fertilizers. In the last years, symbiotic nitrogen fixation has received increasing attention as a sustainable alternative to nitrogen fertilizers, and also as a more economic and available one in poor countries. Therefore, optimization of nitrogen fixation of bean-rhizobia symbioses and selection of efficient rhizobial strains should be a priority, which begins with the study of the natural diversity of the symbioses and the rhizobial populations associated. Natural rhizobia biodiversity that nodulates common bean may be a source of adaptive alleles acting through phenotypic plasticity. Crosses between accessions differing for nitrogen fixation may combine alleles that never meet in nature. Another way to discover adaptive genes is to use association genetics to identify loci that common bean plants use for enhanced biological nitrogen fixation and, in consequence, for marker assisted selection for genetic improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this review, rhizobial biodiversity resources will be discussed, together with what is known about the loci that underlie such genetic variation, and the potential candidate genes that may influence the symbiosis' fitness benefits, thus achieving an optimal nitrogen fixation capacity in order to help reduce reliance on nitrogen fertilizers in common bean.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

da-Silva JR, Alexandre A, Brígido C, et al (2017)

Can stress response genes be used to improve the symbiotic performance of rhizobia?.

AIMS microbiology, 3(3):365-382 pii:microbiol-03-03-365.

Rhizobia are soil bacteria able to form symbioses with legumes and fix atmospheric nitrogen, converting it into a form that can be assimilated by the plant. The biological nitrogen fixation is a possible strategy to reduce the environmental pollution caused by the use of chemical N-fertilizers in agricultural fields. Successful colonization of the host root by free-living rhizobia requires that these bacteria are able to deal with adverse conditions in the soil, in addition to stresses that may occur in their endosymbiotic life inside the root nodules. Stress response genes, such as otsAB, groEL, clpB, rpoH play an important role in tolerance of free-living rhizobia to different environmental conditions and some of these genes have been shown to be involved in the symbiosis. This review will focus on stress response genes that have been reported to improve the symbiotic performance of rhizobia with their host plants. For example, chickpea plants inoculated with a Mesorhizobium strain modified with extra copies of the groEL gene showed a symbiotic effectiveness approximately 1.5 fold higher than plants inoculated with the wild-type strain. Despite these promising results, more studies are required to obtain highly efficient and tolerant rhizobia strains, suitable for different edaphoclimatic conditions, to be used as field inoculants.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Silva LR, Bento C, Gonçalves AC, et al (2017)

Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation.

AIMS microbiology, 3(2):267-278 pii:microbiol-03-02-267.

Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Amirikhah R, Etemadi N, Sabzalian MR, et al (2019)

Physiological consequences of gamma ray irradiation in tall fescue with elimination potential of Epichloë fungal endophyte.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 182:109412 pii:S0147-6513(19)30742-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Perennial plants and their associated microorganisms grow in the areas that may be contaminated with long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides. This will induce gamma stress response in plants and their accompanying microorganisms. The present work investigated the growth and physiological responses of Epichloe endophyte infected tall fescue to gamma radiation, as well as whether the endophyte could persist and infect the host plant once exposed to gamma radiation. Seeds of Iranian native genotype of 75B+ of tall fescue were exposed to different doses, including 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 krad of gamma ray from a 60Co source. Irradiated and unirradiated seeds were sown in pots and grown under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. The growth and physiological parameters associated with plant tolerance to oxidative stress of host plants, as well as endophytic infection frequency (% of plants infected) and intensity (mean number of endophytic hyphae per the field of view), were examined in 3 months-old seedlings. The results indicated that all gamma radiation doses (except 5.0 kr) significantly reduced the height and survival percentage of the host plant. Days to the emergence of seedling increased gradually as gamma doses rose. A dose-rate dependent induction was seen for photosynthetic pigments and proline content. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content grew with elevation of irradiation doses. Depending on the dose and time, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the host plant responded differently to gamma radiation. Gamma radiation altered the enzyme activities with sever decline in SOD and CAT activities. However, it had barely any effect on in APX and POD activities. The results also revealed that the persistence and intensity of endophyte were affected after gamma-ray irradiation. The initial percentage of tall fescue seeds infected with the endophyte was 91% in un-irradiated seeds. Presence of the viable endophyte started to decline significantly (23%) at 5.0 kr of gamma radiation. A dramatic reduction in the presence and intensity of endophyte occurred at 10.0 to 40.0 kr intensities. Gamma radiation × trait (GT)-biplot analysis indicated positive correlations between the endophyte symbiosis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, negative correlations were observed between the endophyte and MDA content in the host plant. Our results suggest that radiation stress (doses over 5.0 kr) caused reduction in the growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of the host plant that accompanied by a dramatic reduction in the persistence and intensity of endophyte fungi. Our findings have provided the basic information for future studies on the effect of gamma irradiation on the interaction between endophytic fungi and its host plant.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Ogura-Tsujita Y, Yamamoto K, Hirayama Y, et al (2019)

Fern gametophytes of Angiopteris lygodiifolia and Osmunda japonica harbor diverse Mucoromycotina fungi.

Journal of plant research pii:10.1007/s10265-019-01121-x [Epub ahead of print].

Mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and fungi is ubiquitous, and has been played key roles in plant terrestrialization and diversification. Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses with Glomeromycotina fungi have long been recognized as both ancient and widespread symbionts, recent studies showed that Mucoromycotina fungi were also ancestral symbionts and would thus be expected to co-exist with many land plants. To explore whether Mucoromycotina colonize fern gametophytes, we subjected fungal associations with gametophytes of two distantly related ferns, Angiopteris lygodiifolia (Marattiales) and Osmunda japonica (Osmundales), to molecular analysis. Direct PCR amplification from intracellular hyphal coils was also performed. We detected Mucoromycotina sequences in the gametophytes of A. lygodiifolia and O. japonica at rates of 41% (7/17) and 50% (49/98) of gametophytes, respectively, and assigned them to 10 operational taxonomic units of Endogonales lineages. In addition, we used AM fungal-specific primers and detected Glomeromycotina sequences in all individuals examined. The results suggest that Glomeromycotina and Mucoromycotina colonized fern gametophytes simultaneously. We found that Mucoromycotina were present in fern gametophytes of Marratiales and Osmundales, which implies that a variety of fern taxa have Mucoromycotina associations.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Pillonel T, Bertelli C, Aeby S, et al (2019)

Sequencing the Obligate Intracellular Rhabdochlamydia helvetica within Its Tick Host Ixodes ricinus to Investigate Their Symbiotic Relationship.

Genome biology and evolution, 11(4):1334-1344.

The Rhabdochlamydiaceae family is one of the most widely distributed within the phylum Chlamydiae, but most of its members remain uncultivable. Rhabdochlamydia 16S rRNA was recently reported in more than 2% of 8,534 pools of ticks from Switzerland. Shotgun metagenomics was performed on a pool of five female Ixodes ricinus ticks presenting a high concentration of chlamydial DNA, allowing the assembly of a high-quality draft genome. About 60% of sequence reads originated from a single bacterial population that was named "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia helvetica" whereas only few thousand reads mapped to the genome of "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii," a symbiont normally observed in all I. ricinus females. The 1.8 Mbp genome of R. helvetica is smaller than other Chlamydia-related bacteria. Comparative analyses with other chlamydial genomes identified transposases of the PD-(D/E)XK nuclease family that are unique to this new genome. These transposases show evidence of interphylum horizontal gene transfers between multiple arthropod endosymbionts, including Cardinium spp. (Bacteroidetes) and diverse proteobacteria such as Wolbachia, Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales), and Caedimonas varicaedens (Holosporales). Bacterial symbionts were previously suggested to provide B-vitamins to hematophagous hosts. However, incomplete metabolic capacities including for B-vitamin biosynthesis, high bacterial density and limited prevalence suggest that R. helvetica is parasitic rather than symbiotic to its host. The identification of novel Rhabdochlamydia strains in different hosts and their sequencing will help understanding if members of this genus have become highly specialized parasites with reduced genomes, like the Chlamydiaceae, or if they could be pathogenic to humans using ticks as a transmission vector.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Grisdale CJ, Smith DR, JM Archibald (2019)

Relative Mutation Rates in Nucleomorph-Bearing Algae.

Genome biology and evolution, 11(4):1045-1053.

Chlorarachniophyte and cryptophyte algae are unique among plastid-containing species in that they have a nucleomorph genome: a compact, highly reduced nuclear genome from a photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbiont. Despite their independent origins, the nucleomorph genomes of these two lineages have similar genomic architectures, but little is known about the evolutionary pressures impacting nucleomorph DNA, particularly how their rates of evolution compare to those of the neighboring genetic compartments (the mitochondrion, plastid, and nucleus). Here, we use synonymous substitution rates to estimate relative mutation rates in the four genomes of nucleomorph-bearing algae. We show that the relative mutation rates of the host versus endosymbiont nuclear genomes are similar in both chlorarachniophytes and cryptophytes, despite the fact that nucleomorph gene sequences are notoriously highly divergent. There is some evidence, however, for slightly elevated mutation rates in the nucleomorph DNA of chlorarachniophytes-a feature not observed in that of cryptophytes. For both lineages, relative mutation rates in the plastid appear to be lower than those in the nucleus and nucleomorph (and, in one case, the mitochondrion), which is consistent with studies of other plastid-bearing protists. Given the divergent nature of nucleomorph genes, our finding of relatively low evolutionary rates in these genomes suggests that for both lineages a burst of evolutionary change and/or decreased selection pressures likely occurred early in the integration of the secondary endosymbiont.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Takashima Y, Seto K, Degawa Y, et al (2018)

Prevalence and Intra-Family Phylogenetic Divergence of Burkholderiaceae-Related Endobacteria Associated with Species of Mortierella.

Microbes and environments, 33(4):417-427.

Endofungal bacteria are widespread within the phylum Mucoromycota, and these include Burkholderiaceae-related endobacteria (BRE). However, the prevalence of BRE in Mortierellomycotinan fungi and their phylogenetic divergence remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of BRE in diverse species of Mortierella. We surveyed 238 isolates of Mortierella spp. mainly obtained in Japan that were phylogenetically classified into 59 species. BRE were found in 53 isolates consisting of 22 species of Mortierella. Among them, 20 species of Mortierella were newly reported as the fungal hosts of BRE. BRE in a Glomeribacter-Mycoavidus clade in the family Burkholderiaceae were separated phylogenetically into three groups. These groups consisted of a group containing Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which is known to be associated with M. elongata, and two other newly distinguishable groups. Our results demonstrated that BRE were harbored by many species of Mortierella and those that associated with isolates of Mortierella spp. were more phylogenetically divergent than previously reported.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Evans JS, López-Legentil S, PM Erwin (2018)

Comparing Two Common DNA Extraction Kits for the Characterization of Symbiotic Microbial Communities from Ascidian Tissue.

Microbes and environments, 33(4):435-439.

Various DNA extraction methods are often used interchangeably for the characterization of microbial communities despite indications that different techniques produce disparate results. The microbiomes of two ascidian species were herein characterized using two common DNA extraction kits, the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen) and the PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit (Mo Bio Laboratories), followed by next-generation (Illumina) sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. Significant differences were detected in microbial community diversity and structure between ascidian species, but not between kits, suggesting similar recovery of biological variation and low technical variation between the two extraction methods for ascidian microbiome characterization.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

St Leger AJ, RR Caspi (2018)

Visions of Eye Commensals: The Known and the Unknown About How the Microbiome Affects Eye Disease.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 40(11):e1800046.

Until recently, the ocular surface is thought by many to be sterile and devoid of living microbes. It is now becoming clear that this may not be the case. Recent and sophisticated PCR analyses have shown that microbial DNA-based "signatures" are present within various ethnic, geographic, and contact lens wearing communities. Furthermore, using a mouse model of ocular surface disease, we have shown that the microbe, Corynebacterium mastitidis (C. mast), can stably colonize the ocular mucosa and that a causal relationship exists between ocular C. mast colonization and beneficial local immunity. While this constitutes proof-of-concept that a bona fide ocular microbiome that tunes immunity can exist at the ocular surface, there remain numerous unanswered questions to be addressed before microbiome-modulating therapies may be successfully developed. Here, the authors will briefly outline what is currently known about the local ocular microbiome as well as microbiomes associated with other sites, and how those sites may play a role in ocular surface immunity. Understanding how commensal microbes affect the ocular surface immune homeostasis has the potential revolutionize how we think about treating ocular surface disease.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Flechas SV, Acosta-González A, Escobar LA, et al (2019)

Microbiota and skin defense peptides may facilitate coexistence of two sympatric Andean frog species with a lethal pathogen.

The ISME journal, 13(2):361-373.

Management of hyper-virulent generalist pathogens is an emergent global challenge, yet for most disease systems we lack a basic understanding as to why some host species suffer mass mortalities, while others resist epizootics. We studied two sympatric species of frogs from the Colombian Andes, which coexist with the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), to understand why some species did not succumb to the infection. We found high Bd prevalence in juveniles for both species, yet infection intensities remained low. We also found that bacterial community composition and host defense peptides are specific to amphibian life stages. We detected abundant Bd-inhibitory skin bacteria across life stages and Bd-inhibitory defense peptides post-metamorphosis in both species. Bd-inhibitory bacteria were proportionally more abundant in adults of both species than in earlier developmental stages. We tested for activity of peptides against the skin microbiota and found that in general peptides did not negatively affect bacterial growth and in some instances facilitated growth. Our results suggest that symbiotic bacteria and antimicrobial peptides may be co-selected for, and that together they contribute to the ability of Andean amphibian species to coexist with the global pandemic lineage of Bd.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Cooper MB, Kazamia E, Helliwell KE, et al (2019)

Cross-exchange of B-vitamins underpins a mutualistic interaction between Ostreococcus tauri and Dinoroseobacter shibae.

The ISME journal, 13(2):334-345.

Ostreococcus tauri, a picoeukaryotic alga that contributes significantly to primary production in oligotrophic waters, has a highly streamlined genome, lacking the genetic capacity to grow without the vitamins thiamine (B1) and cobalamin (B12). Here we demonstrate that the B12 and B1 auxotrophy of O. tauri can be alleviated by co-culturing with a heterotrophic bacterial partner Dinoroseobacter shibae, a member of the Rhodobacteraceae family of alpha-proteobacteria, genera of which are frequently found associated with marine algae. D. shibae lacks the complete pathway to synthesise three other B-vitamins: niacin (B3), biotin (B7), and p-aminobenzoic acid (a precursor for folate, B9), and the alga is in turn able to satisfy the reciprocal vitamin requirements of its bacterial partner in a stable long-term co-culture. Bioinformatics searches of 197 representative marine bacteria with sequenced genomes identified just nine species that had a similar combination of traits (ability to make vitamin B12, but missing one or more genes for niacin and biotin biosynthesis enzymes), all of which were from the Rhodobacteraceae. Further analysis of 70 species from this family revealed the majority encoded the B12 pathway, but only half were able to make niacin, and fewer than 13% biotin. These characteristics may have either contributed to or resulted from the tendency of members of this lineage to adopt lifestyles in close association with algae. This study provides a nuanced view of bacterial-phytoplankton interactions, emphasising the complexity of the sources, sinks and dynamic cycling between marine microbes of these important organic micronutrients.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Yi M, Hendricks WQ, Kaste J, et al (2018)

Molecular identification and characterization of endophytes from uncultivated barley.

Mycologia, 110(3):453-472.

Epichloë species (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) are endophytic symbionts of many cool-season grasses. Many interactions between Epichloë and their host grasses contribute to plant growth promotion, protection from many pathogens and insect pests, and tolerance to drought stress. Resistance to insect herbivores by endophytes associated with Hordeum species has been previously shown to vary depending on the endophyte-grass-insect combination. We explored the genetic and chemotypic diversity of endophytes present in wild Hordeum species. We analyzed seeds of Hordeum bogdanii, H. brevisubulatum, and H. comosum obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), of which some have been reported as endophyte-infected. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific to Epichloë species, we were able to identify endophytes in seeds from 17 of the 56 Plant Introduction (PI) lines, of which only 9 lines yielded viable seed. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping, alkaloid biosynthesis, and mating type genes suggest that the endophytes of the infected PI lines separate into five taxa: Epichloë bromicola, Epichloë tembladerae, and three unnamed interspecific hybrid species. One PI line contained an endophyte that is considered a new taxonomic group, Epichloë sp. HboTG-3 (H. bogdanii Taxonomic Group 3). Phylogenetic analyses of the interspecific hybrid endophytes from H. bogdanii and H. brevisubulatum indicate that these taxa all have an E. bromicola allele but the second allele varies. We verified in planta alkaloid production from the five genotypes yielding viable seed. Morphological characteristics of the isolates from the viable Hordeum species were analyzed for their features in culture and in planta. In the latter, we observed epiphyllous growth and in some cases sporulation on leaves of infected plants.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Zhang W, Zhu B, Xu J, et al (2018)

Bacteroides fragilis Protects Against Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Rats by Modulating Intestinal Defenses.

Frontiers in immunology, 9:1040.

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is iatrogenic diarrhea characterized by disruption of the gut microbiota. Probiotics are routinely used to treat AAD in clinical practice; however, the effectiveness and mechanisms by which probiotics alleviate symptoms remain poorly understood. We previously isolated a non-toxic Bacteroides fragilis strain ZY-312, which has been verified to be beneficial in certain infection disorders. However, the precise role of this commensal bacterium in AAD is unknown. In this study, we successfully established an AAD rat model by exposing rats to appropriate antibiotics. These rats developed diarrhea symptoms and showed alterations in their intestinal microbiota, including overgrowth of some pathogenic bacteria. In addition, gastrointestinal barrier defects, indicated by compromised aquaporin expression, aberrant tight junction proteins, and decreased abundance of mucus-filled goblet cells, were also detected in ADD rats compared with control animals. Of note, oral treatment with B. fragilis strain ZY-312 ameliorated AAD-related diarrhea symptoms by increasing the abundance of specific commensal microbiota. Interestingly, we demonstrated that these changes were coincident with the restoration of intestinal barrier function and enterocyte regeneration in AAD rats. In summary, we identified a potential probiotic therapeutic strategy for AAD and identified the vital roles of B. fragilis strain ZY-312 in modulating the colonic bacterial community and participating in microbiota-mediated epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Leonard SP, Perutka J, Powell JE, et al (2018)

Genetic Engineering of Bee Gut Microbiome Bacteria with a Toolkit for Modular Assembly of Broad-Host-Range Plasmids.

ACS synthetic biology, 7(5):1279-1290.

Engineering the bacteria present in animal microbiomes promises to lead to breakthroughs in medicine and agriculture, but progress is hampered by a dearth of tools for genetically modifying the diverse species that comprise these communities. Here we present a toolkit of genetic parts for the modular construction of broad-host-range plasmids built around the RSF1010 replicon. Golden Gate assembly of parts in this toolkit can be used to rapidly test various antibiotic resistance markers, promoters, fluorescent reporters, and other coding sequences in newly isolated bacteria. We demonstrate the utility of this toolkit in multiple species of Proteobacteria that are native to the gut microbiomes of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (B ombus sp.). Expressing fluorescent proteins in Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Bartonella apis, and Serratia strains enables us to visualize how these bacteria colonize the bee gut. We also demonstrate CRISPRi repression in B. apis and use Cas9-facilitated knockout of an S. alvi adhesion gene to show that it is important for colonization of the gut. Beyond characterizing how the gut microbiome influences the health of these prominent pollinators, this bee microbiome toolkit (BTK) will be useful for engineering bacteria found in other natural microbial communities.

RevDate: 2019-07-11
CmpDate: 2019-07-11

Guizzo MG, Parizi LF, Nunes RD, et al (2017)

A Coxiella mutualist symbiont is essential to the development of Rhipicephalus microplus.

Scientific reports, 7(1):17554.

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite that causes important economic losses in livestock. Different species of ticks harbor a symbiont bacterium of the genus Coxiella. It was showed that a Coxiella endosymbiont from R. microplus (CERM) is a vertically transmitted mutualist symbiont, comprising 98% of the 16S rRNA sequences in both eggs and larvae. Sequencing of the bacterial genome revealed genes for biosynthetic pathways for several vitamins and key metabolic cofactors that may provide a nutritional complement to the tick host. The CERM was abundant in ovary and Malpighian tubule of fully engorged female. Tetracycline treatment of either the tick or the vertebrate host reduced levels of bacteria in progeny in 74% for eggs and 90% for larvae without major impact neither on the reproductive fitness of the adult female or on embryo development. However, CERM proved to be essential for the tick to reach the adult life stage, as under antibiotic treatment no tick was able to progress beyond the metanymph stage. Data presented here suggest that interference in the symbiotic CERM-R. microplus relationship may be useful to the development of alternative control methods, highlighting the interdependence between ticks and their endosymbionts.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Pérez-de-Luque A, Tille S, Johnson I, et al (2017)

The interactive effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria synergistically enhance host plant defences against pathogens.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16409.

Belowground interactions between plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can improve plant health via enhanced nutrient acquisition and priming of the plant immune system. Two wheat cultivars differing in their ability to form mycorrhiza were (co)inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. The cultivar with high mycorrhizal compatibility supported higher levels of rhizobacterial colonization than the low compatibility cultivar. Those levels were augmented by mycorrhizal infection. Conversely, rhizobacterial colonization of the low compatibility cultivar was reduced by mycorrhizal arbuscule formation. Single inoculations with R. irregularis or P. putida had differential growth effects on both cultivars. Furthermore, while both cultivars developed systemic priming of chitosan-induced callose after single inoculations with R. irregularis or P. putida, only the cultivar with high mycorrhizal compatibility showed a synergistic increase in callose responsiveness following co-inoculation with both microbes. Our results show that multilateral interactions between roots, mycorrhizal fungi and PGPR can have synergistic effects on growth and systemic priming of wheat.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Montesinos-Navarro A, Valiente-Banuet A, M Verdú (2019)

Plant facilitation through mycorrhizal symbiosis is stronger between distantly related plant species.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

•The tendency of closely related plant species to share natural enemies has been suggested to limit their co-occurrence and performance, but we lack a deep understanding on how mutualistic interactions such as the mycorrhizal symbiosis affect plant-plant interactions depending on the phylogenetic relatedness of the interacting plants. We hypothesize that the effect of the mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant-plant facilitative interactions depends on the phylogenetic distance between the nurse and facilitated plants. •A recently published meta-analysis compiled the strength of plant facilitative interactions in the presence or absence (or reduced abundance) of mycorrhizal fungi. We use phylogenetically informed Bayesian linear models to test whether the effect size is influenced by the phylogenetic distance between the plant species involved in each plant facilitative interaction. •Conspecific facilitative interactions are more strongly enhanced by mycorrhizal fungi than interactions between closely related species. In heterospecific interactions, the effect of the mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant facilitation increases with the phylogenetic distance between the nurse and facilitated plant species. •Our result showing that the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis on the facilitation interactions between plants depends on their phylogenetic relatedness provides new mechanisms to understand how facilitation is assembling ecological communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Marqués-Gálvez JE, Morte A, Navarro-Ródenas A, et al (2019)

Purification and characterization of Terfezia claveryi TcCAT-1, a desert truffle catalase upregulated in mycorrhizal symbiosis.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219300 pii:PONE-D-19-09584.

Terfezia claveryi Chatin is a mycorrhizal fungus that forms ectendomycorrhizal associations with plants of Helianthemum genus. Its appreciated edibility and drought resistance make this fungus a potential alternative crop in arid and semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region. In order to increase the knowledge about the biology of this fungus in terms of mycorrhiza formation and response to drought stress, a catalase from T. claveryi (TcCAT-1) has been purified to apparent homogeneity and biochemically characterized; in addition, the expression pattern of this enzyme during different stages of T. claveryi biological cycle and under drought stress conditions are reported. The results obtained, together with the phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling, indicate that TcCAT-1 is a homotetramer large subunit size monofunctional-heme catalase belonging to Clade 2. The highest expression of this enzyme occurs in mature mycorrhiza, revealing a possible role in mycorrhiza colonization, but it is not upregulated under drought stress. However, the H2O2 content of mycorrhizal plants submitted to drought stress is lower than in well watered treatments, suggesting that mycorrhization improves the plant's oxidative stress response, although not via TcCAT-1 upregulation.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Uroz S, Courty PE, P Oger (2019)

Plant Symbionts Are Engineers of the Plant-Associated Microbiome.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(19)30155-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Plants interact throughout their lives with environmental microorganisms. These interactions determine plant development, nutrition, and fitness in a dynamic and stressful environment, forming the basis for the holobiont concept in which plants and plant-associated microbes are not considered as independent entities but as a single evolutionary unit. A primary open question concerns whether holobiont structure is shaped by its microbial members or solely by the plant. Current knowledge of plant-microbe interactions argues that the establishment of symbiosis directly and indirectly conditions the plant-associated microbiome. We propose to define the impact of the symbiont on the plant microbiome as the 'symbiosis cascade effect', in which the symbionts and their plant host jointly shape the plant microbiome.

RevDate: 2019-07-10
CmpDate: 2019-07-10

Schuler H, Lopez JA, Doellman MM, et al (2019)

Target-Enriched Endosymbiont Sequencing (TEEseq): A New High-Throughput Sequencing Approach Applied to the Comprehensive Characterization of Endosymbionts.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1858:195-212.

Intracellular bacteria are ubiquitous in the insect world, with perhaps the best-studied example being the alphaproteobacterium, Wolbachia. Like most endosymbionts, Wolbachia cannot be cultivated outside of its host cells, hindering traditional microbial characterization techniques. Furthermore, multiple Wolbachia strains can be present within a single host, and certain strains can be present in densities below the detection limit of current methods. To date, Wolbachia has most commonly been studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger DNA sequencing by targeting specific genes in the bacterium's genome. PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of multiple Wolbachia strains requires analysis of individually cloned sequences, which is resource and labor intensive. To help mitigate these difficulties, we present a modified double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) approach to target and sequence in parallel multiple genes by adding restriction enzyme recognition sites to gene-specific PCR primers. Adopting this strategy allows us to uniquely tag and sequence amplicons from multiple hosts simultaneously on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Our approach represents an efficient and cost-effective method to characterize multiple target genes in population surveys.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Suzuki N (2019)

Glycan diversity in the course of vertebrate evolution.

Glycobiology pii:5506440 [Epub ahead of print].

Vertebrates are estimated to have arisen over 500 million years ago in the Cambrian Period. Species that survived the Big Five extinction events at a global scale underwent repeated adaptive radiations along with habitat expansions from the sea to the land and sky. The development of the endoskeleton and neural tube enabled more complex body shapes. At the same time, vertebrates became suitable for the invasion and proliferation of foreign organisms. Adaptive immune systems were acquired for responses to a wide variety of pathogens, and more sophisticated systems developed during the evolution of mammals and birds. Vertebrate glycans consist of common core structures and various elongated structures, such as Neu5Gc, Galα1-3Gal, Galα1-4Gal, and Galβ1-4Gal epitopes, depending on the species. During species diversification, complex glycan structures were generated, maintained, or lost. Whole genome sequencing has revealed that vertebrates harbor numerous and even redundant glycosyltransferase genes. The production of various glycan structures is controlled at the genetic level in a species-specific manner. Because cell surface glycans are often targets of bacterial and viral infections, glycan structural diversity is presumed to be protective against infections. However, the maintenance of apparently redundant glycosyltransferase genes and investment in species-specific glycan structures, even in higher vertebrates with highly developed immune systems, are not well-explained. This fact suggests that glycans play important roles in unknown biological processes.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Liu X, Xie Z, H Zhang (2019)

Inactivation of the phosphatase CheZ alters cell-surface properties of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 and symbiotic association with Sesbania rostrata.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Azorhizobium caulinodans can form root and stem nodules with the host plant Sesbania rostrata. The role of the CheZ phosphatase in the A. caulinodans chemotaxis pathway was previously explored using the non-chemotactic cheZ mutant strain (AC601). This mutant displayed stronger attachment to the root surface, enhancing early colonization but this did not result into increased nodulation efficiency. In this study, we further investigated the role of CheZ in the interaction between ORS571 and the roots of its host plant. By tracking long-term colonization dynamic of cheZ mutant marked with LacZ, we found a decrease of colonization of the cheZ mutant during this process. Furthermore, cheZ mutant could not spread on root surface freely and was gradually outcompeted by the wild type in original colonization sites. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that exp genes encoding exopolysaccharides synthesis, including oac3, were highly expressed in cheZ mutant. Construction of a strain carrying a deletion of both cheZ and oac3 resulted in a mutant strain defective in the colonization process to the same extent as found with the oac3 single mutant strain. This result suggested that the enhanced colonization of the cheZ mutant may be achieved through regulating the formation of EPS. This shows the importance of the chemotactic proteins in the interaction between rhizobia and host plant, and expands our understanding about the symbiosis interaction between rhizobium and host plant.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Viennois E, Chassaing B, Tahsin A, et al (2019)

Host-derived fecal microRNAs can indicate gut microbiota healthiness and ability to induce inflammation.

Theranostics, 9(15):4542-4557 pii:thnov09p4542.

Disruption of intestine-microbiota symbiosis can result in chronic gut inflammation. We hypothesize that assessing the initial inflammatory potential of the microbiota in patients is essential and that host-derived miRNAs, which can be found in feces, could fulfill this function. We investigated whether the gut microbiota composition impacts the fecal miRNA profile and thereby indicates its ability to influence intestinal inflammation. Methods: We used high-throughput qPCR to compare fecal miRNA profile between germ-free and conventional mice. Conventionalization of germfree mice by various colitogenic and non-colitogenic microbiotas (IL10-/- and TLR5-/- associated microbiota) was performed. Results: We identified 12 fecal miRNAs impacted by the presence of a microbiota. Conventionalization of germfree mice by various colitogenic and non-colitogenic microbiotas associated with the development of intestinal inflammation (IL10-/- and TLR5-/- associated microbiota) yielded distinctively altered fecal miRNA profiles compared to that of mice receiving a "healthy" microbiota. Correlation analysis revealed the existence of interactions between the 12 abovementioned miRNAs and specific microbiota members. Conclusion: These results showed that fecal miRNA profile can be differentially and specifically impacted by microbiota composition, and that miRNA could importantly serve as markers of the colitogenic potential of the microbiota. This is particularly relevant to assess individual state of the microbiota in patients with dysbiosis-related disorders, such as IBD and potentially determine their ability to respond to therapeutics.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Greenlon A, Chang PL, Damtew ZM, et al (2019)

Global-level population genomics reveals differential effects of geography and phylogeny on horizontal gene transfer in soil bacteria.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1900056116 [Epub ahead of print].

Although microorganisms are known to dominate Earth's biospheres and drive biogeochemical cycling, little is known about the geographic distributions of microbial populations or the environmental factors that pattern those distributions. We used a global-level hierarchical sampling scheme to comprehensively characterize the evolutionary relationships and distributional limitations of the nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts of the crop chickpea, generating 1,027 draft whole-genome sequences at the level of bacterial populations, including 14 high-quality PacBio genomes from a phylogenetically representative subset. We find that diverse Mesorhizobium taxa perform symbiosis with chickpea and have largely overlapping global distributions. However, sampled locations cluster based on the phylogenetic diversity of Mesorhizobium populations, and diversity clusters correspond to edaphic and environmental factors, primarily soil type and latitude. Despite long-standing evolutionary divergence and geographic isolation, the diverse taxa observed to nodulate chickpea share a set of integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) that encode the major functions of the symbiosis. This symbiosis ICE takes 2 forms in the bacterial chromosome-tripartite and monopartite-with tripartite ICEs confined to a broadly distributed superspecies clade. The pairwise evolutionary relatedness of these elements is controlled as much by geographic distance as by the evolutionary relatedness of the background genome. In contrast, diversity in the broader gene content of Mesorhizobium genomes follows a tight linear relationship with core genome phylogenetic distance, with little detectable effect of geography. These results illustrate how geography and demography can operate differentially on the evolution of bacterial genomes and offer useful insights for the development of improved technologies for sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Pederson ERA, Warshan D, U Rasmussen (2019)

Genome Sequencing of Pleurozium schreberi: The Assembled and Annotated Draft Genome of a Pleurocarpous Feather Moss.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:g3.119.400279 [Epub ahead of print].

The pleurocarpous feather moss Pleurozium schreberi is a ubiquitous moss species which plays a fundamental role in many terrestrial ecosystems, for instance within the boreal forest, the Earth's largest terrestrial biome, this species plays a significant role in driving ecosystem nitrogen and carbon inputs and fluxes. By hosting dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria, the moss-cyanobacteria symbiosis constitutes the main nitrogen input into the ecosystem and by the high productivity and the low decomposability of the moss litter, Pschreberi contributes significantly to build-up soil organic matter, and therefore long-term C sequestration. Knowledge on P. schreberi genome will facilitate the development of 'omics' and system's biology approaches to gain a more complete understanding of the physiology and ecological adaptation of the moss and the mechanisms underpinning the establishment of the symbiosis. Here we present the de novo assembly and annotation of P. schreberi genome that will help investigating these questions. The sequencing was performedsing the HiSeq X platform with Illumina paired-end and mate-pair libraries prepared with CTAB extracted DNA. In total, the assembled genome was approximately 318 Mb, while repetitive elements account for 28.42% of the genome and 15,992 protein-coding genes were predicted from the genome, of which 84.23% have been functionally annotated. We anticipate that the genomic data generated will constitute a significant resource to study ecological and evolutionary genomics of P. schreberi, and will be valuable for evo-devo investigations as well as our understanding of the evolution of land plants by providing the genome of a pleurocarpous moss.

RevDate: 2019-07-08

Apprill A (2019)

The Role of Symbioses in the Adaptation and Stress Responses of Marine Organisms.

Annual review of marine science [Epub ahead of print].

Ocean ecosystems are experiencing unprecedented rates of climate and anthropogenic change, which can often initiate stress in marine organisms. Symbioses, or associations between different organisms, are plentiful in the ocean and could play a significant role in facilitating organismal adaptations to stressful ocean conditions. This article reviews current knowledge about the role of symbiosis in marine organismal acclimation and adaptation. It discusses stress and adaptations in symbioses from coral reef ecosystems, which are among the most affected environments in the ocean, including the relationships between corals and microalgae, corals and bacteria, anemones and clownfish, and cleaner fish and client fish. Despite the importance of this subject, knowledge of how marine organisms adapt to stress is still limited, and there are vast opportunities for research and technological development in this area. Attention to this subject will enhance our understanding of the capacity of symbioses to alleviate organismal stress in the oceans. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 12 is January 3, 2020. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2019-07-08

Niehs SP, Dose B, Scherlach K, et al (2019)

Genome Mining Reveals Endopyrroles from a Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Line Triggered in Fungal-Bacterial Symbiosis.

ACS chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

The bacterial endosymbiont (Burkholderia rhizoxinica) of the rice seedling blight fungus (Rhizopus microsporus) harbors a large number of cryptic biosynthesis gene clusters. Genome mining and sequence similarity networks based on an encoded non-ribosomal peptide assembly line and the associated pyrrole-forming enzymes in the symbiont indicated that the encoded metabolites are unique among a large number of tentative pyrrole natural products in diverse and unrelated bacterial phyla. Comparative metabolic profiling using a mutant generated with an improved pheS Burkholderia counterselection marker, we found that the symbionts' biosynthetic pathway is mainly activated under salt stress, and exclusively in symbiosis with the fungal host. The cryptic metabolites were fully characterized as novel pyrrole-substituted depsipeptides (endopyrroles). A broader survey showed that endopyrrole production is a hallmark of geographically distant endofungal bacteria, which all produce the peptides exclusively in symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-07-08

de Oliveira ISR, Jesus EDC, Ribeiro TG, et al (2019)

Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. adapts to rhizobia populations with differential taxonomy and symbiotic effectiveness outside of its location of origin.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:5529449 [Epub ahead of print].

Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. is a legume native to the semi-arid region of Brazil, in the Northeast. Its successful adaptation to other locations, such as the Atlantic Forest in the Southeast region, may be related to its ability to establish symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, especially β-rhizobia of the genus Paraburkholderia. The objective of this work was to determine whether M. caesalpiniifolia adapted to bacterial symbionts in locals where it was introduced. Bacteria were recovered from nodules of M. caesapiniifolia and characterized at the genetic level by BOX-PCR, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA, recA, nifH, and nodC genes. Their symbiotic effectiveness was assessed under axenic conditions. M. caesalpiniifolia nodulated mainly with P. sabiae and a few strains of Rhizobium in the Southeast. On the other hand, the symbionts found in the Northeast were, predominantly, P. diazotrophica. Regardless of its origin, P. diazotrophica promoted a superior accumulation of plant biomass than other bacterial species. The results presented here demonstrate the ability of M. caesalpiniifolia to adapt to bacterial populations outside its location of origin, and indicate that, in this case, the symbiotic effectiveness was associated to the taxonomical classification of the strains.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Huo Y, Tong W, Wang J, et al (2019)

Rhizobium chutanense sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in China.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 69(7):2049-2056.

Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains (C5T and C16), isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Jiangxi Province, PR China, were characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomical approach. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and three concatenated housekeeping genes (recA-glnII-atpD) revealed that C5T and C16 were members of the genus Rhizobium, yet were distinct from known species. The case for strain C5T representing a novel species was supported by genomic results. Pairwise digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values were much lower than the proposed and generally accepted species boundaries. The genome-based phylogenetic tree reconstructed by using the up-to-date bacterial core gene set consisting of 92 genes showed that the strains formed a monophyletic branch, further supporting this result. The symbiotic genes of nodC and nifH were identified in both strains; each could nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max but not Leucaena leucocephala, Pisum sativum or Medicago sativa plants. Major cellular fatty acids of C5T were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c/C18 : 1 ω6c; 58.8 %), C18 : 1 ω7c 11-methyl (14.2 %) and C18 : 0 (8.1 %). The DNA G+C content of C5T was 61.4 mol%. Based on these genomic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose a novel species: Rhizobium chutanense sp. nov. The type strain is C5T (=CCTCC AB 2018143T=LMG 30777T).

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Schär S, Eastwood R, Arnaldi KG, et al (2018)

Ecological specialization is associated with genetic structure in the ant-associated butterfly family Lycaenidae.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 285(1886):.

The role of specialization in diversification can be explored along two geological axes in the butterfly family Lycaenidae. In addition to variation in host-plant specialization normally exhibited by butterflies, the caterpillars of most Lycaenidae have symbioses with ants ranging from no interactions through to obligate and specific associations, increasing niche dimensionality in ant-associated taxa. Based on mitochondrial sequences from 8282 specimens from 967 species and 249 genera, we show that the degree of ecological specialization of lycaenid species is positively correlated with genetic divergence, haplotype diversity and an increase in isolation by distance. Nucleotide substitution rate is higher in carnivorous than phytophagous lycaenids. The effects documented here for both micro- and macroevolutionary processes could result from increased spatial segregation as a consequence of reduced connectivity in specialists, niche-based divergence or a combination of both. They could also provide an explanation for the extraordinary diversity of the Lycaenidae and, more generally, for diversity in groups of organisms with similar multi-dimensional ecological specialization.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Ma LS, Pellegrin C, R Kahmann (2018)

Repeat-containing effectors of filamentous pathogens and symbionts.

Current opinion in microbiology, 46:123-130.

Pathogenic and symbiotic filamentous microbes secrete effectors which suppress host immune responses and promote a successful colonization. Pathogen effectors are engaged in the arms race with their hosts and because of this they are subject to intense evolutionary pressure. Effectors particularly prone to rapid evolution display repeat-containing domains which can easily expand or contract and accumulate point mutations without altering their original function. In this review we address the diversity of function in such repeat-containing effectors, focus on new findings and point out avenues for future work.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Murillo-Rincon AP, Klimovich A, Pemöller E, et al (2017)

Spontaneous body contractions are modulated by the microbiome of Hydra.

Scientific reports, 7(1):15937.

Spontaneous contractile activity, such as gut peristalsis, is ubiquitous in animals and is driven by pacemaker cells. In humans, disruption of the contraction pattern leads to gastrointestinal conditions, which are also associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Spontaneous contractile activity is also present in animals lacking gastrointestinal tract. Here we show that spontaneous body contractions in Hydra are modulated by symbiotic bacteria. Germ-free animals display strongly reduced and less regular contraction frequencies. These effects are partially restored by reconstituting the natural microbiota. Moreover, soluble molecule(s) produced by symbiotic bacteria may be involved in contraction frequency modulation. As the absence of bacteria does not impair the contractile ability itself, a microbial effect on the pacemakers seems plausible. Our findings indicate that the influence of bacteria on spontaneous contractile activity is present in the early-branching cnidarian hydra as well as in Bilateria, and thus suggest an evolutionary ancient origin of interaction between bacteria and metazoans, opening a window into investigating the roots of human motility disorders.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Freire AL, Ramos CL, RF Schwan (2017)

Effect of symbiotic interaction between a fructooligosaccharide and probiotic on the kinetic fermentation and chemical profile of maize blended rice beverages.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 100(Pt 1):698-707.

There is an important demand for the development of new non-dairy probiotic beverages in the functional food market. This work aimed to develop new fermented beverages from maize and rice. Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0743, Torulaspora delbrueckii CCMA 0235, and the commercial probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LACA 4, were used as a mixed starter culture. Two prebiotic concentrations, 20 and 50g/L fructooligosaccharide (FOS) were tested. The growth of L. acidophilus LACA 4 was favored by 50g/L FOS and after refrigerated storage at 4°C for 28days, its population remained above 107CFU/mL. Lactic and acetic acids were the main organic acids detected, at around 3.7 and 0.5g/L, respectively. Ethanol was present at <5g/L in non-alcoholic beverages. Fifty-five volatile compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, pyrazines and others, were detected. The sensorial analysis demonstrated that >50% of consumers liked slightly or liked extremely the beverages (scores from 6-9). Therefore, potential symbiotic cereal beverages were successfully obtained using a mix of lactic acid bacteria and yeast as a starter culture. This is an important step in the commercial production of alternative beverages from common food substrates for consumers.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Wang Y, White MM, JM Moncalvo (2019)

Diversification of the gut fungi (Harpellales) co-occurred with the origin of complete metamorphosis of their symbiotic insect hosts (lower Diptera).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(18)30171-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Smittium (Harpellales, Kickxellomycotina) includes fungal symbionts associated with the digestive tracts of immature aquatic stages of various Diptera, including Chironomidae, Culicidae, Dixidae, Simuliidae, Thaumaleidae, and Tipulidae. With 84 species and the largest collection of cultured strains, Smittium has served as a model to understand the biology of these enigmatic trichomycetes gut fungi, from aspects of biodiversity, evolution, genomics, immunology, and physiology. However, evolutionary histories between Smittium species and their hosts are still not firmly established. Robust phylogenies of both Smittium sensu lato (s.l.) and their lower Diptera hosts have been reconstructed separately, facilitating comparative evolutionary studies between the two. The divergence time of the Smittium s.l. clade was estimated for the first time and compared with the evolutionary history of the insect hosts. The insect gut fungi diversified around 272 Ma (204-342 Ma), which co-occurred with the origin of complete metamorphosis of the insect hosts, presumably between 280 Ma and 355 Ma (∼270 Ma for Diptera). A co-phylogenetic pattern was recovered for the insects and their symbiotic gut fungi using the statistical method ParaFit. Ancestral state reconstructions of the symbiotic relationship suggest that the ancestor of the Chironomidae may have contributed to the initiation of these insect-fungus symbiotic interactions. Further sampling and sequencing of Smittium and allies as well as their hosts are needed to uncover more patterns and interactions that may occur in this type of symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Fukudome M, Watanabe E, Osuki KI, et al (2019)

Ectopic or Over-Expression of Class 1 Phytoglobin Genes Confers Flooding Tolerance to the Root Nodules of Lotus japonicus by Scavenging Nitric Oxide.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 8(7): pii:antiox8070206.

Flooding limits biomass production in agriculture. Leguminous plants, important agricultural crops, use atmospheric dinitrogen gas as nitrogen nutrition by symbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobia, but this root-nodule symbiosis is sometimes broken down by flooding of the root system. In this study, we analyzed the effect of flooding on the symbiotic system of transgenic Lotus japonicus lines which overexpressed class 1 phytoglobin (Glb1) of L. japonicus (LjGlb1-1) or ectopically expressed that of Alnus firma (AfGlb1). In the roots of wild-type plants, flooding increased nitric oxide (NO) level and expression of senescence-related genes and decreased nitrogenase activity; in the roots of transgenic lines, these effects were absent or less pronounced. The decrease of chlorophyll content in leaves and the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in roots and leaves caused by flooding were also suppressed in these lines. These results suggest that increased levels of Glb1 help maintain nodule symbiosis under flooding by scavenging NO and controlling ROS.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Burghardt LT (2019)

Evolving together, evolving apart: Measuring the fitness of rhizobial bacteria in and out of symbiosis with leguminous plants.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Most plant-microbe interactions are facultative, with microbes experiencing temporally and spatially variable selection. How this variation affects microbial evolution is poorly understood. Given its tractability and ecological and agricultural importance, the legume-rhizobia nitrogen-fixing symbiosis is a powerful model for identifying traits and genes underlying bacterial fitness. New technologies allow high-throughput measurement of the relative fitness of bacterial mutants, strains, and species in mixed inocula in the host, rhizosphere, and soil environments. I consider how host genetic variation (GxG), other environmental factors (GxE), and host life-cycle variation may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation and adaptive trajectories of rhizobia-and potentially, other facultative symbionts. Lastly, I place these findings in the context of developing beneficial inoculants in a changing climate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

He C, Wang W, J Hou (2019)

Characterization of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungi and Improve the Performance of Liquorice Under Organic Residue Treatment.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1364.

Dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi is a diverse group of Ascomycetes fungi that colonize the plants roots, and may facilitate plant growth and fitness, however, their ecological roles need further clarification. This study aimed to evaluate the growth promoting effects of DSE fungi in a medicinal plant, liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), under additional organic residues. First, we isolated, identified and characterized, two DSE fungal species (Acrocalymma vagum and Paraboeremia putaminum) harboring inside the roots of liquorice growing in arid areas of China. Second, we examined the performance and rhizosphere soil parameters of liquorice plants inoculated with these fungi under additional sterilized organic residues and unsterilized organic residue (containing Trichoderma viride population) in a growth chamber. The results showed that two DSE strains could effectively colonize plant roots and formed a strain-dependent symbiosis with liquorice. DSE inoculation alone increased the plant biomass, and glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhizin content. It also improved the root system and N and P absorption by plants, consequently depleting these macronutrients in the soil. Residues alone increased soil organic matter, available phosphorus (P), and available nitrogen (N) content, and plant biomass, N, P, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhizin content. Mantel test and structural equation model (SEM) analysis demonstrated that DSE associated with residues significantly positively influenced soil organic matter, available P and available N, and plant biomass, glycyrrhizin, N, P, and root surface area. Variation in plant growth and glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhizin accumulation can be attributed to the effects of DSE inoculation. DSE associated with residues exhibited a general synergistic effect on the growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhizin of liquorice. We demonstrate for the first time, two DSE fungi in the liquorice roots that have potential use as promoter for the cultivation of medicinal plant.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Chen B, Yu K, Liang J, et al (2019)

Latitudinal Variation in the Molecular Diversity and Community Composition of Symbiodiniaceae in Coral From the South China Sea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1278.

Coral reefs are continuing to decline worldwide due to anthropogenic climate change. The study of the molecular diversity and biogeographical patterns of Symbiodiniaceae, is essential to understand the adaptive potential and resilience of coral-algal symbiosis. Next generation sequencing was used to analyze the Symbiodiniaceae rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 marker genes from 178 reef-building coral samples in eight coral habitats across approximately 13° of latitude in the South China Sea (SCS). A total of three Symbiodiniaceae genera, Cladocopium, Durusdinium, and Gerakladium, as well as 31 dominant Symbiodiniaceae types, were identified. Symbiodiniaceae richness, diversity, and community composition varied according to latitude; intermediate and low latitude coral reefs (IR and LR) have higher Symbiodiniaceae richness and diversity than high latitude coral habitats (HC and HR). A PERMANOVA analysis found significant differences in the Symbiodiniaceae community composition in the SCS (F = 14.75, R2 = 0.20, p = 0.001 < 0.01). The major dominant Symbiodiniaceae types were C1 in the HC and the HR, C1/Cspc/C50/C15 and D1 in the IR, and C3u and C15 in the LR. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the relative abundance of different Symbiodiniaceae types is affected by multiple environmental factors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Symbiodiniaceae type Cladocopium, which shared common ancestors, shows similar environmental adaptability. Based on these results, we suggest that coral host species played a relatively small role in the identity of the dominant Symbiodiniaceae type. Therefore, the biogeographical patterns of Symbiodiniaceae may be mainly affected by environmental factors. Our research provides a comprehensive overview of the biogeography of Symbiodiniaceae in the SCS, where coral communities and reefs are widely distributed across different latitude regions and have variable environmental conditions. Our data will provide support for further study of the regional diversification of Symbiodiniaceae and the ecological resilience of the coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbioses.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Wang X, Huo H, Luo Y, et al (2019)

Type III secretion systems impact Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 compatibility with Robinia pseudoacacia.

Tree physiology pii:5527797 [Epub ahead of print].

Rhizobia and legume plants are famous mutualistic symbiosis partners who provide nitrogen nutrition to natural environment. Rhizobial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver effectors that manipulate the metabolism of eukaryotic host cells. Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 (GS0123) contains two T3SS gene clusters, T3SS-I and T3SS-II. T3SS-I contains all the basal components for an integrated T3SS, and the expression of T3SS-I genes is up-regulated in the presence of flavonoids. In contrast, T3SS-II lacks the primary extracellular elements of T3SSs, and the expression of T3SS-II genes is down-regulated in the presence of flavonoids. Inoculation tests on Robinia pseudoacacia displayed considerable differences in gene expression patterns and levels among roots inoculated with GS0123 and T3SS-deficient mutant (GS0123ΔT1, GS0123ΔT2 or GS0123ΔS). Compared with the GS0123-inoculated plants, GS0123ΔT1-inoculated roots formed very few infection threads and effective nodules, while GS0123ΔT2-inoculated roots formed a little fewer infection threads and effective nodules with increased numbers of bacteroids enclosed in one symbiosome. Moreover, almost no infection threads or effective nodules were observed in GS0123ΔS-inoculated roots. In addition to evaluations of plant immunity signals, we observed that the coexistence of T3SS-I and T3SS-II promoted infection by suppressing host defense response in ROS defense response pathway. Future studies should focus on identifying rhizobial T3SS effectors and their host target proteins.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Vadakke-Madathil S, Limaye LS, Kale VP, et al (2019)

Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting Using Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2029:235-246.

Flow cytometry is a widely used laser-based technology for rapid analysis of the expression of cell surface antigens and intracellular molecules in various cell types including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Multiparametric analysis of individual cells within a short time frame makes this tool attractive and indispensable in the field of stem cell research. This is accomplished by harnessing the specific light scattering ability of the cell type, which determines its size and internal complexity. In addition, use of fluorescently conjugated antibodies allows the detection of a specific surface or intracellular antigen present at that particular stage. Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) is used to separate a subset of cells from a heterogeneous cell population based on fluorescent labeling. Here we describe the general principles of flow cytometry and detailed methods for the isolation of HSPCs using flow cytometry as a tool.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Plassard C, Becquer A, K Garcia (2019)

Phosphorus Transport in Mycorrhiza: How Far Are We?.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(19)30148-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Mycorrhizal fungi considerably improve plant nutrition and help them to cope with changing environments. Particularly, these fungi express proteins to transfer inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil to colonized roots through symbiotic interfaces. The mechanisms involved in Pi transfer from fungal to plant cells are still largely unknown. Here, we discuss the recent progress made on the description of these mechanisms and we propose the most promising hypotheses and alternative mechanisms for this process. Specifically, we present a phylogenetic survey of candidate Pi transporters of mycorrhizal fungi that might ensure Pi unload into the symbiotic interfaces. Gathering additional knowledge on mycorrhizal Pi transport will improve the Pi-useefficiency in agroecological systems and will guide towards addressing future research challenges.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

König L, Wentrup C, Schulz F, et al (2019)

Symbiont-Mediated Defense against Legionella pneumophila in Amoebae.

mBio, 10(3): pii:mBio.00333-19.

Legionella pneumophila is an important opportunistic pathogen for which environmental reservoirs are crucial for the infection of humans. In the environment, free-living amoebae represent key hosts providing nutrients and shelter for highly efficient intracellular proliferation of L. pneumophila, which eventually leads to lysis of the protist. However, the significance of other bacterial players for L. pneumophila ecology is poorly understood. In this study, we used a ubiquitous amoeba and bacterial endosymbiont to investigate the impact of this common association on L. pneumophila infection. We demonstrate that L. pneumophila proliferation was severely suppressed in Acanthamoeba castellanii harboring the chlamydial symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila The amoebae survived the infection and were able to resume growth. Different environmental amoeba isolates containing the symbiont were equally well protected as different L. pneumophila isolates were diminished, suggesting ecological relevance of this symbiont-mediated defense. Furthermore, protection was not mediated by impaired L. pneumophila uptake. Instead, we observed reduced virulence of L. pneumophila released from symbiont-containing amoebae. Pronounced gene expression changes in the presence of the symbiont indicate that interference with the transition to the transmissive phase impedes the L. pneumophila infection. Finally, our data show that the defensive response of amoebae harboring P. amoebophila leaves the amoebae with superior fitness reminiscent of immunological memory. Given that mutualistic associations between bacteria and amoebae are widely distributed, P. amoebophila and potentially other amoeba endosymbionts could be key in shaping environmental survival, abundance, and virulence of this important pathogen, thereby affecting the frequency of human infection.IMPORTANCE Bacterial pathogens are generally investigated in the context of disease. To prevent outbreaks, it is essential to understand their lifestyle and interactions with other microbes in their natural environment. Legionella pneumophila is an important human respiratory pathogen that survives and multiplies in biofilms or intracellularly within protists, such as amoebae. Importantly, transmission to humans occurs from these environmental sources. Legionella infection generally leads to rapid host cell lysis. It was therefore surprising to observe that amoebae, including fresh environmental isolates, were well protected during Legionella infection when the bacterial symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila was also present. Legionella was not prevented from invading amoebae but was impeded in its ability to develop fully virulent progeny and were ultimately cleared in the presence of the symbiont. This study highlights how ecology and virulence of an important human pathogen is affected by a defensive amoeba symbiont, with possibly major consequences for public health.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Dou J, Zeng J, Wu K, et al (2019)

Microbiosis in pathogenesis and intervention of atopic dermatitis.

International immunopharmacology, 69:263-269.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, non-contagious, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by relapsing eczematous lesions. Its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. The current evidence has emerged to show that skin and gut microbiome play critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Skin mircrobiome mainly refers to skin commensal organisms that promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens; while gut microbiome can modulate immunologic, metabolic and neuroendocrine functions. With the current knowledge of microbiome effects on the onset of the disease, there are evolving multifarious interventions targeting microbiome for the treatment of AD. In this report, we have reviewed the critical roles of microbiosis in the pathogenesis of AD, summarized potential mechanisms mediated by microbiosis and aimed to enlighten a theoretical basis for its therapeutic applications in the treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Vázquez-Medina R, Ledesma-Durán A, JL Aragón (2019)

Patchy spread patterns in three-species bistable systems with facultative mutualism.

Bio Systems, 177:24-33.

A three-species population system under a facultative mutualistic relationship of one of the species is studied. The considered interactions are as follows: facultative between the first species and the second species, obligatory mutualism between the second species and the first one, and the third species is a predator of the first species. For this purpose, we extend the model proposed by Morozov et al., originally used to describe obligatory mutualism, to consider obligatory and facultative mutualism and prove that under adequately selected parameters this system produces a spatial patchy spread of populations or continuous wave fronts. Since the analytical treatment of a three-species model is often prohibitive, we first analyze the interaction between two mutualist species without diffusion and without the presence of the predator. Some parameters are fixed in the bistable regime of the mutualistic species to further consider the influence of the third species. The remaining parameters are then selected to produce patchy patterns under different mortality rates. Finally, the equations of the final three-species system are numerically solved to test the influence of different initial conditions in the formation of patchy populations. It is confirmed that the velocity and the profile of a traveling front are independent on the initial conditions. Our approach opens the way to study more general biological situations.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Scolari F, Attardo GM, Aksoy E, et al (2018)

Symbiotic microbes affect the expression of male reproductive genes in Glossina m. morsitans.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):169.

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) display unique reproductive biology traits. Females reproduce through adenotrophic viviparity, nourishing the growing larva into their modified uterus until parturition. Males transfer their sperm and seminal fluid, produced by both testes and male accessory glands, in a spermatophore capsule transiently formed within the female reproductive tract upon mating. Both sexes are obligate blood feeders and have evolved tight relationships with endosymbionts, already shown to provide essential nutrients lacking in their diet. However, the partnership between tsetse and its symbionts has so far been investigated, at the molecular, genomic and metabolomics level, only in females, whereas the roles of microbiota in male reproduction are still unexplored.

RESULTS: Here we begin unravelling the impact of microbiota on Glossina m. morsitans (G. morsitans) male reproductive biology by generating transcriptomes from the reproductive tissues of males deprived of their endosymbionts (aposymbiotic) via maternal antibiotic treatment and dietary supplementation. We then compared the transcriptional profiles of genes expressed in the male reproductive tract of normal and these aposymbiotic flies. We showed that microbiota removal impacts several male reproductive genes by depressing the activity of genes in the male accessory glands (MAGs), including sequences encoding seminal fluid proteins, and increasing expression of genes in the testes. In the MAGs, in particular, the expression of genes related to mating, immunity and seminal fluid components' synthesis is reduced. In the testes, the absence of symbionts activates genes involved in the metabolic apparatus at the basis of male reproduction, including sperm production, motility and function.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings mirrored the complementary roles male accessory glands and testes play in supporting male reproduction and open new avenues for disentangling the interplay between male insects and endosymbionts. From an applied perspective, unravelling the metabolic and functional relationships between tsetse symbionts and male reproductive physiology will provide fundamental information useful to understanding the biology underlying improved male reproductive success in tsetse. This information is of particular importance in the context of tsetse population control via Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and its impact on trypanosomiasis transmission.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Ouedraogo GMS, Demirbas-Uzel G, Rayaisse JB, et al (2018)

Prevalence of trypanosomes, salivary gland hypertrophy virus and Wolbachia in wild populations of tsetse flies from West Africa.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):153.

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are vectors of African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause sleeping sickness (or human African trypanosomosis) in humans and nagana (or animal African trypanosomosis) in livestock. In addition to trypanosomes, four symbiotic bacteria Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Sodalis glossinidius, Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and one pathogen, the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), have been reported in different tsetse species. We evaluated the prevalence and coinfection dynamics between Wolbachia, trypanosomes, and SGHV in four tsetse species (Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G. tachinoides, G. morsitans submorsitans, and G. medicorum) that were collected between 2008 and 2015 from 46 geographical locations in West Africa, i.e. Burkina Faso, Mali, Ghana, Guinea, and Senegal.

RESULTS: The results indicated an overall low prevalence of SGHV and Wolbachia and a high prevalence of trypanosomes in the sampled wild tsetse populations. The prevalence of all three infections varied among tsetse species and sample origin. The highest trypanosome prevalence was found in Glossina tachinoides (61.1%) from Ghana and in Glossina palpalis gambiensis (43.7%) from Senegal. The trypanosome prevalence in the four species from Burkina Faso was lower, i.e. 39.6% in Glossina medicorum, 18.08%; in Glossina morsitans submorsitans, 16.8%; in Glossina tachinoides and 10.5% in Glossina palpalis gambiensis. The trypanosome prevalence in Glossina palpalis gambiensis was lowest in Mali (6.9%) and Guinea (2.2%). The prevalence of SGHV and Wolbachia was very low irrespective of location or tsetse species with an average of 1.7% for SGHV and 1.0% for Wolbachia. In some cases, mixed infections with different trypanosome species were detected. The highest prevalence of coinfection was Trypanosoma vivax and other Trypanosoma species (9.5%) followed by coinfection of T. congolense with other trypanosomes (7.5%). The prevalence of coinfection of T. vivax and T. congolense was (1.0%) and no mixed infection of trypanosomes, SGHV and Wolbachia was detected.

CONCLUSION: The results indicated a high rate of trypanosome infection in tsetse wild populations in West African countries but lower infection rate of both Wolbachia and SGHV. Double or triple mixed trypanosome infections were found. In addition, mixed trypanosome and SGHV infections existed however no mixed infections of trypanosome and/or SGHV with Wolbachia were found.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Schneider DI, Parker AG, Abd-Alla AM, et al (2018)

High-sensitivity detection of cryptic Wolbachia in the African tsetse fly (Glossina spp.).

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):140.

BACKGROUND: In African tsetse flies Glossina, spp. detection of bacterial symbionts such as Wolbachia is challenging since their prevalence and distribution are patchy, and natural symbiont titers can range at levels far below detection limit of standard molecular techniques. Reliable estimation of symbiont infection frequency, especially with regard to interrelations between symbionts and their potential impact on host biology, is of pivotal interest in the context of future applications for the control and eradication of Glossina-vectored African trypanosomosis. The presence or absence of symbionts is routinely screened with endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which has numerous advantages, but reaches its limits, when detecting infections at natural low titer. To not only determine presence of native tsetse symbionts but also to localize them to specific host tissues, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be applied. However, classic FISH assays may not detect low-titer infections due to limitations in sensitivity.

RESULTS: We have compared classic endpoint PCR with high-sensitivity blot-PCR. We demonstrate that the latter technique allows for clear detection of low-titer Wolbachia in the morsitans and palpalis groups while classic endpoint PCR does not. In order to localize Wolbachia in situ in high and low-titer Glossina species, we applied high-end Stellaris® rRNA-FISH. We show that with this high sensitivity method, even low amounts of Wolbachia can be traced in specific tissues. Furthermore, we highlight that more tissues and organs than previously recorded are infested with Wolbachia in subspecies of the morsitans and palpalis groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that overall symbiont infection frequencies as well as the presence in specific host tissues may be underestimated when using low-sensitivity methods. To better understand the complex interrelation of tsetse flies and their native symbionts plus the pathogenic trypanosomes, it is important to consider application of a broader range of high-sensitivity detection tools.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Channumsin M, Ciosi M, Masiga D, et al (2018)

Sodalis glossinidius presence in wild tsetse is only associated with presence of trypanosomes in complex interactions with other tsetse-specific factors.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):163.

BACKGROUND: Susceptibility of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) to trypanosomes of both humans and animals has been associated with the presence of the endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. However, intrinsic biological characteristics of the flies and environmental factors can influence the presence of both S. glossinidius and the parasites. It thus remains unclear whether it is the S. glossinidius or other attributes of the flies that explains the apparent association. The objective of this study was to test whether the presence of Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei are related to the presence of S. glossinidius in tsetse flies when other factors are accounted for: geographic location, species of Glossina, sex or age of the host flies.

RESULTS: Flies (n = 1090) were trapped from four sites in the Shimba Hills and Nguruman regions in Kenya. Sex and species of tsetse (G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes) were determined based on external morphological characters and age was estimated by a wing fray score method. The presence of trypanosomes and S. glossinidius was detected using PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 1 and the haemolysin gene, respectively. Sequencing was used to confirm species identification. Generalised Linear Models (GLMs) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were applied to investigate multivariable associations. The overall prevalence of trypanosomes was 42.1%, but GLMs revealed complex patterns of associations: the presence of S. glossinidius was associated with trypanosome presence but only in interactions with other factors and only in some species of trypanosomes. The strongest association was found for T. congolense, and no association was found for T. vivax. The MCA also suggested only a weak association between the presence of trypanosomes and S. glossinidius. Trypanosome-positive status showed strong associations with sex and age while S. glossinidius-positive status showed a strong association with geographic location and species of fly.

CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that previous conclusions about the presence of endosymbionts increasing probability of trypanosome presence in tsetse flies may have been confounded by other factors, such as community composition of the tsetse flies and the specific trypanosomes found in different regions.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Geiger A, Malele I, Abd-Alla AM, et al (2018)

Blood feeding tsetse flies as hosts and vectors of mammals-pre-adapted African Trypanosoma: current and expected research directions.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):162.

Research on the zoo-anthropophilic blood feeding tsetse flies' biology conducted, by different teams, in laboratory settings and at the level of the ecosystems- where also co-perpetuate African Trypanosoma- has allowed to unveil and characterize key features of tsetse flies' bacterial symbionts on which rely both (a) the perpetuation of the tsetse fly populations and (b) the completion of the developmental program of the African Trypanosoma. Transcriptomic analyses have already provided much information on tsetse fly genes as well as on genes of the fly symbiotic partners Sodalis glossinidius and Wigglesworthia, which account for the successful onset or not of the African Trypanosoma developmental program. In parallel, identification of the non- symbiotic bacterial communities hosted in the tsetse fly gut has recently been initiated: are briefly introduced those bacteria genera and species common to tsetse flies collected from distinct ecosystems, that could be further studied as potential biologicals preventing the onset of the African Trypanosoma developmental program. Finally, future work will need to concentrate on how to render tsetse flies refractory, and the best means to disseminate them in the field in order to establish an overall refractory fly population.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Kariithi HM, Meki IK, Schneider DI, et al (2018)

Enhancing vector refractoriness to trypanosome infection: achievements, challenges and perspectives.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):179.

With the absence of effective prophylactic vaccines and drugs against African trypanosomosis, control of this group of zoonotic neglected tropical diseases depends the control of the tsetse fly vector. When applied in an area-wide insect pest management approach, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is effective in eliminating single tsetse species from isolated populations. The need to enhance the effectiveness of SIT led to the concept of investigating tsetse-trypanosome interactions by a consortium of researchers in a five-year (2013-2018) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) organized by the Joint Division of FAO/IAEA. The goal of this CRP was to elucidate tsetse-symbiome-pathogen molecular interactions to improve SIT and SIT-compatible interventions for trypanosomoses control by enhancing vector refractoriness. This would allow extension of SIT into areas with potential disease transmission. This paper highlights the CRP's major achievements and discusses the science-based perspectives for successful mitigation or eradication of African trypanosomosis.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

De Vooght L, Van Keer S, J Van Den Abbeele (2018)

Towards improving tsetse fly paratransgenesis: stable colonization of Glossina morsitans morsitans with genetically modified Sodalis.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):165.

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) refractory to trypanosome infection are currently being explored as potential tools to contribute in the control of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. One approach to disrupt trypanosome transmission by the tsetse fly vector involves the use of paratransgenesis, a technique that aims to reduce vector competence of disease vectors via genetic modification of their microbiota. An important prerequisite for developing paratransgenic tsetse flies is the stable repopulation of tsetse flies and their progeny with its genetically modified Sodalis symbiont without interfering with host fitness.

RESULTS: In this study, we assessed by qPCR analysis the ability of a chromosomally GFP-tagged Sodalis (recSodalis) strain to efficiently colonize various tsetse tissues and its transmission to the next generation of offspring using different introduction approaches. When introduced in the adult stage of the fly via thoracic microinjection, recSodalis is maintained at high densities for at least 21 days. However, no vertical transmission to the offspring was observed. Oral administration of recSodalis did not lead to the colonization of either adult flies or their offspring. Finally, introduction of recSodalis via microinjection of third-instar larvae resulted in stably colonized adult tsetse flies. Moreover, the subsequent generations of offspring were also efficiently colonized with recSodalis. We show that proper colonization of the female reproductive tissues by recSodalis is an important determinant for vertical transmission.

CONCLUSIONS: Intralarval microinjection of recSodalis proves to be essential to achieve optimal colonization of flies with genetically modified Sodalis and its subsequent dissemination into the following generations of progeny. This study provides the proof-of-concept that Sodalis can be used to drive expression of exogenous transgenes in Glossina morsitans morsitans colonies representing a valuable contribution to the development of a paratransgenic tsetse fly based control strategy.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Demirbas-Uzel G, De Vooght L, Parker AG, et al (2018)

Combining paratransgenesis with SIT: impact of ionizing radiation on the DNA copy number of Sodalis glossinidius in tsetse flies.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):160.

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the cyclical vectors of the causative agents of African Trypanosomosis, which has been identified as a neglected tropical disease in both humans and animals in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has shown to be a powerful method to manage tsetse fly populations when used in the frame of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) program. To date, the release of sterile males to manage tsetse fly populations has only been implemented in areas to reduce transmission of animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT). The implementation of the SIT in areas with Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) would require additional measures to eliminate the potential risk associated with the release of sterile males that require blood meals to survive and hence, might contribute to disease transmission. Paratransgenesis offers the potential to develop tsetse flies that are refractory to trypanosome infection by modifying their associated bacteria (Sodalis glossinidius) here after referred to as Sodalis. Here we assessed the feasibility of combining the paratransgenesis approach with SIT by analyzing the impact of ionizing radiation on the copy number of Sodalis and the vectorial capacity of sterilized tsetse males.

RESULTS: Adult Glossina morsitans morsitans that emerged from puparia irradiated on day 22 post larviposition did not show a significant decline in Sodalis copy number as compared with non-irradiated flies. Conversely, the Sodalis copy number was significantly reduced in adults that emerged from puparia irradiated on day 29 post larviposition and in adults irradiated on day 7 post emergence. Moreover, irradiating 22-day old puparia reduced the copy number of Wolbachia and Wigglesworthia in emerged adults as compared with non-irradiated controls, but the radiation treatment had no significant impact on the vectorial competence of the flies.

CONCLUSION: Although the radiation treatment significantly reduced the copy number of some tsetse fly symbionts, the copy number of Sodalis recovered with time in flies irradiated as 22-day old puparia. This recovery offers the opportunity to combine a paratransgenesis approach - using modified Sodalis to produce males refractory to trypanosome infection - with the release of sterile males to minimize the risk of disease transmission, especially in HAT endemic areas. Moreover, irradiation did not increase the vector competence of the flies for trypanosomes.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Griffith BC, Weiss BL, Aksoy E, et al (2018)

Analysis of the gut-specific microbiome from field-captured tsetse flies, and its potential relevance to host trypanosome vector competence.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):146.

BACKGROUND: The tsetse fly (Glossina sp.) midgut is colonized by maternally transmitted and environmentally acquired bacteria. Additionally, the midgut serves as a niche in which pathogenic African trypanosomes reside within infected flies. Tsetse's bacterial microbiota impacts many aspects of the fly's physiology. However, little is known about the structure of tsetse's midgut-associated bacterial communities as they relate to geographically distinct fly habitats in east Africa and their contributions to parasite infection outcomes. We utilized culture dependent and independent methods to characterize the taxonomic structure and density of bacterial communities that reside within the midgut of tsetse flies collected at geographically distinct locations in Kenya and Uganda.

RESULTS: Using culture dependent methods, we isolated 34 strains of bacteria from four different tsetse species (G. pallidipes, G. brevipalpis, G. fuscipes and G. fuscipleuris) captured at three distinct locations in Kenya. To increase the depth of this study, we deep sequenced midguts from individual uninfected and trypanosome infected G. pallidipes captured at two distinct locations in Kenya and one in Uganda. We found that tsetse's obligate endosymbiont, Wigglesworthia, was the most abundant bacterium present in the midgut of G. pallidipes, and the density of this bacterium remained largely consistent regardless of whether or not its tsetse host was infected with trypanosomes. These fly populations also housed the commensal symbiont Sodalis, which was found at significantly higher densities in trypanosome infected compared to uninfected flies. Finally, midguts of field-captured G. pallidipes were colonized with distinct, low density communities of environmentally acquired microbes that differed in taxonomic structure depending on parasite infection status and the geographic location from which the flies were collected.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study will enhance our understanding of the tripartite relationship between tsetse, its microbiota and trypanosome vector competence. This information may be useful for developing novel disease control strategies or enhancing the efficacy of those already in use.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Kame-Ngasse GI, Njiokou F, Melachio-Tanekou TT, et al (2018)

Prevalence of symbionts and trypanosome infections in tsetse flies of two villages of the "Faro and Déo" division of the Adamawa region of Cameroon.

BMC microbiology, 18(Suppl 1):159.

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are vectors of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. In spite of many decades of chemotherapy and vector control, the disease has not been eradicated. Other methods like the transformation of tsetse fly symbionts to render the fly refractory to trypanosome infection are being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between trypanosome infections and the presence of symbionts in these tsetse species. Tsetse flies were trapped in two villages of the "Faro and Déo" Division of the Adamawa region of Cameroon. In the field, tsetse fly species were identified and their infection by trypanosomes was checked by microscopy. In the laboratory, DNA was extracted from their midguts and the presence of symbionts (Sodalis glossinidius and Wolbachia sp.) and trypanosomes was checked by PCR. Symbionts/trypanosomes association tests were performed.

RESULTS: Three tsetse fly species including Glossina tachinoides (90.1%), Glossina morsitans submorsitans (9.4%) and Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (0.5%) were caught. In all the population we obtained an occurrence rate of 37.2% for Sodalis glossinidius and 67.6% for Wolbachia irrespective to tsetse flies species. S. glossinidius and Wolbachia sp. occurrence rates were respectively 37 and 68% for G. tachinoides and 28.6 and 59.5% for G. m. submorsitans. Between Golde Bourle and Mayo Dagoum significant differences were observed in the prevalence of symbionts. Prevalence of trypanosomes were 34.8% for Glossina tachinoides and 40.5% for Glossina morsitans submorsitans. In G. tachinoides, the trypanosome infection rates were 11, 2.6 and 13.7%, respectively, for T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type and T. congolense savannah type. In G. m. submorsitans, these infection rates were 16.7, 9.5 and, 2.4% respectively, for T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type and T. congolense savannah type.

CONCLUSIONS: The rate of tsetse fly infection by trypanosomes was low compared to those obtained in HAT foci of south Cameroon, and this rate was not statistically linked to the rate of symbiont occurrence. This study allowed to show for the first time the presence of Wolbachia sp. in the tsetse fly sub-species Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina tachinoides.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Levy A, Conway JM, Dangl JL, et al (2018)

Elucidating Bacterial Gene Functions in the Plant Microbiome.

Cell host & microbe, 24(4):475-485.

There is a growing appreciation for the important roles microorganisms play in association with plants. Microorganisms are drawn to distinct plant surfaces by the nutrient-rich microenvironment, and in turn some of these colonizing microbes provide mutualistic benefits to their host. The development of plant probiotics to increase crop yield and provide plant resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses, while minimizing chemical inputs, would benefit from a deeper mechanistic understanding of plant-microbe interaction. Technological advances in molecular biology and high-throughput -omics provide stepping stones to the elucidation of critical microbiome gene functions that aid in improving plant performance. Here, we review -omics-based approaches that are propelling forward the current understanding of plant-associated bacterial gene functions, and describe how these technologies have helped unravel key bacterial genes and pathways that mediate pathogenic, beneficial, and commensal host interactions.

RevDate: 2019-07-05
CmpDate: 2019-07-05

Ponomarova O, Gabrielli N, Sévin DC, et al (2017)

Yeast Creates a Niche for Symbiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria through Nitrogen Overflow.

Cell systems, 5(4):345-357.e6.

Many microorganisms live in communities and depend on metabolites secreted by fellow community members for survival. Yet our knowledge of interspecies metabolic dependencies is limited to few communities with small number of exchanged metabolites, and even less is known about cellular regulation facilitating metabolic exchange. Here we show how yeast enables growth of lactic acid bacteria through endogenous, multi-component, cross-feeding in a readily established community. In nitrogen-rich environments, Saccharomyces cerevisiae adjusts its metabolism by secreting a pool of metabolites, especially amino acids, and thereby enables survival of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis. Quantity of the available nitrogen sources and the status of nitrogen catabolite repression pathways jointly modulate this niche creation. We demonstrate how nitrogen overflow by yeast benefits L. plantarum in grape juice, and contributes to emergence of mutualism with L. lactis in a medium with lactose. Our results illustrate how metabolic decisions of an individual species can benefit others.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Harman GE, Doni F, Khadka RB, et al (2019)

Endophytic strains of Trichoderma increase plants' photosynthetic capability.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The world faces two enormous challenges that can be met, at least in part and at low cost, by making certain changes in agricultural practices. There is need to produce enough food and fiber for a growing population in the face of adverse climatic trends, and to remove greenhouse gases to avert the worst consequences of global climate change. Improving photosynthetic efficiency of crop plants can help meet both challenges. Fortuitously, when crop plants' roots are colonized by certain root-endophytic fungi in the genus Trichoderma, this induces up-regulation of genes and pigments that improve the plants' photosynthesis. Plants under physiological or environmental stress suffer losses in their photosynthetic capability through damage to photosystems and other cellular processes caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). But certain Trichoderma strains activate biochemical pathways that reduce ROS to less harmful molecules. This and other mechanisms described here make plants more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. The net effect of these fungi's residence in plants is to induce greater shoot and root growth, increasing crop yields, which will raise future food production. Further, if photosynthesis rates are increased, more CO2 will be extracted from the atmosphere, and enhanced plant root growth means that more sequestered C will be transferred to roots and stored in the soil. Reductions in global greenhouse-gas levels can be accelerated by giving incentives for climate-friendly carbon farming and carbon cap-and-trade programs that reward practices transferring carbon from the atmosphere into the soil, also enhancing soil fertility and agricultural production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Leeks A, Santos MD, SA West (2019)

Transmission, relatedness, and the evolution of cooperative symbionts.

Journal of evolutionary biology [Epub ahead of print].

Cooperative interactions between species, termed mutualisms, play a key role in shaping natural ecosystems, economically-important agricultural systems, and in influencing human health. Across different mutualisms there is significant variation in the benefit that hosts receive from their symbionts. Empirical data suggests that transmission mode can help explain this variation: vertical transmission, where symbionts infect their host's offspring, leads to symbionts that provide greater benefits to their hosts than horizontal transmission, where symbionts leave their host and infect other hosts in the population. However, two different theoretical explanations have been given for this pattern: firstly, vertical transmission aligns the fitness interests of hosts and their symbionts; secondly, vertical transmission leads to increased relatedness between symbionts sharing a host, favouring cooperation between symbionts. We used a combination of analytical models and dynamic simulations to tease these factors apart, in order to compare their separate influences and see how they interact. We found that relatedness between symbionts sharing a host, rather than transmission mode per se, was the most important factor driving symbiont cooperation. Transmission mode mattered mainly because it determined relatedness. We also found evolutionary branching throughout much of our simulation, suggesting that a combination of transmission mode and multiplicity of infections could lead to the stable coexistence of different symbiont strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Sørensen MES, Lowe CD, Minter EJA, et al (2019)

The role of exploitation in the establishment of mutualistic microbial symbioses.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:5528313 [Epub ahead of print].

Evolutionary theory suggests that the conditions required for the establishment of mutualistic symbioses through mutualism alone are highly restrictive, often requiring the evolution of complex stabilising mechanisms. Exploitation, whereby initially the host benefits at the expense of its symbiotic partner and mutual benefits evolve subsequently through trade-offs, offers an arguably simpler route to the establishment of mutualistic symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the theoretical and experimental evidence supporting a role for host exploitation in the establishment and evolution of mutualistic microbial symbioses, including data from both extant and experimentally evolved symbioses. We conclude that exploitation rather than mutualism may often explain the origin of mutualistic microbial symbioses.

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Kavadi S (2019)

John B Grant and public health in India.

Indian journal of medical ethics, 4(2):123-128.

From 1939 to 1945, John Black Grant a Rockefeller Foundation officer and former Professor of Public Health at the Peking Union Medical College served as the Director of the All Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Calcutta. Grant's India tenure is important for his efforts to ameliorate the condition of public health in India. Much has been written about Grant's contribution to transforming public health in China but his work in India has not received sufficient attention. This article acquaints readers with some of his more noteworthy ideas and endeavours to remodel the colonial public health and medical system. His views on Indian public health may also be viewed as a critique of the colonial health system.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Wen ZL, DC Chen (2019)

[Clinical significance of intestinal micro-ecological symbiosis disruption in critically ill patients].

Zhonghua yi xue za zhi, 99(25):1921-1924.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Xu XR, Li NN, Bao XY, et al (2019)

Patterns of host cell inheritance in the bacterial symbiosis of whiteflies.

Insect science [Epub ahead of print].

Whiteflies possess bacterial symbionts Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidium that are housed in specialized cells called bacteriocytes and are faithfully transmitted via the ovary to insect offspring. In one whitefly species studied previously, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, transmission is mediated by somatic inheritance of bacteriocytes, with a single bacteriocyte transferred to each oocyte and persisting through embryogenesis to the next generation. Here, we investigate the mode of bacteriocyte transmission in two whitefly species, B. tabaci MED, the sister species of MEAM1, and the phylogenetically-distant species Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Microsatellite analysis supported by microscopical studies demonstrates that B. tabaci MED bacteriocytes are genetically different from other somatic cells and persist through embryogenesis, as for MEAM1, but T. vaporariorum bacteriocytes are genetically identical to other somatic cells of the insect, likely mediated by the degradation of maternal bacteriocytes in the embryo. These two alternative modes of transmission provide a first demonstration among insect symbioses that the cellular processes underlying vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts can diversify among related host species associated with a single lineage of symbiotic bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
21454 NE 143rd Street
Woodinville, WA 98077

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )